Salmon Hatcheries in Alaska – Plans,Permits, and Policies to Protect Wild Stocks                   Steve McGee           A...
Start of the Hatchery Program in                                   Alaska                                                 ...
Policies, Statutes and Regulations   1971 FRED Division statute   1974 PNP hatchery permitting statute   1976 regional pla...
1976 Alaska Salmon Plan
Salmon Planning Regions
Regional Comprehensive Salmon Plans  Southeast Phase I – 1981; Northern SE Phase II – 1982;  Southern Southeast Phase II –...
Wild Stock Protection        MechanismsRigorous hatchery permitting processLocate hatcheries away from significant wildsto...
Hatcheries in Alaska                                          Number of Hatcheries in Alaska         50         45        ...
30 Hatcheries Currently in Operation   15 PNP-owned and operated   11 State-owned – PNP-operated   2 State-owned and opera...
Production Percentage by         Species                    Socke ye (5%)                Chino ok (1%)                Coho...
Locations ofHatcheriesin Alaska
0           500                 1000                                         1500                                         ...
Adults (thousands)       0           10000                   20000                           30000                        ...
Harvest of Alaskan Wild and                                  Enhanced Salmon                              Proportion of En...
Common Property Chums (SE) and                                      Pinks (PWS)                            Proportion of E...
Common Property vs Hatchery                             Harvest                              Composition of Commercial Sal...
Percentages of Wild and Hatchery Produced                  Salmon Harvested in Alaska100% 90% 80% 70%                     ...
Alaska Hatchery Produced Pink Salmon - Common Property                               Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harves...
Alaska Hatchery Produced Chum Salmon - Common Property                                  Contributions vs Cost Recovery Har...
Alaska Hatchery Produced Coho Salmon - Common Property                                 Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harv...
Alaska Hatchery Produced Chinook Salmon - Common Property                                 Contributions vs Cost Recovery H...
Alaska Hatchery Produced Sockeye Salmon - Common Property                         Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest  ...
Value of Alaska’s Hatcheries                         Value of Enhancem ent-Generated Com m ercial Com m on                ...
Other Funding Sources for PNP                    Hatcheries                             Value of Enhancem ent-Related ADCE...
The End
Hatcheries in Alaska
Hatcheries in Alaska
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Hatcheries in Alaska

  1. 1. Salmon Hatcheries in Alaska – Plans,Permits, and Policies to Protect Wild Stocks Steve McGee Alaska Dept of Fish and Game
  2. 2. Start of the Hatchery Program in Alaska Comme rcia l Sa lmon H a rve st 250 200MILLIONS OF FISH S ta rt o f 150 H a tc he ry P ro g ra m (1 9 7 1 ) 100 50 0 1878 1883 1888 1893 1898 1903 1908 1913 1918 1923 1928 1933 1938 1943 1948 1953 1958 1963 1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 YEAR Enhanced Wild
  3. 3. Policies, Statutes and Regulations 1971 FRED Division statute 1974 PNP hatchery permitting statute 1976 regional planning statute 1978 BoF hatchery mgt policy 1981 fish transport regulations 1985 PNP regulations 1985 genetics policy 1988 pathology policy 1992 wild and enhanced stock statute 1994 sockeye salmon culture policy 2000 BoF sustainable salmon policy
  4. 4. 1976 Alaska Salmon Plan
  5. 5. Salmon Planning Regions
  6. 6. Regional Comprehensive Salmon Plans Southeast Phase I – 1981; Northern SE Phase II – 1982; Southern Southeast Phase II – 1983; Southeast Phase III – 2004 Cook Inlet – 1982 Prince William Sound Phase I – 1983; Phase II – 1986; Phase III- 1994 Kodiak Phase I – 1984; Phase II – 1987; Phase II Revised – 1992 Yakutat – 1984 Bristol Bay – 1989 Sikusuilaq/Kotzebue Sound – 1992 Alaska Peninsula/Aleutian Islands/Area M – 1993 Chignik – 1993 Norton Sound – 1996 Yukon River - 1998
  7. 7. Wild Stock Protection MechanismsRigorous hatchery permitting processLocate hatcheries away from significant wildstocksUse local brood sourcesPermit hatcheries at lower initial capacitiesWild stocks always given priority in fisheriesRequire tagging/marking of hatchery fishRequire special studies on wild/hatcheryinteractions
  8. 8. Hatcheries in Alaska Number of Hatcheries in Alaska 50 45 40 35 PNPNumber 30 25 State 20 Federal 15 10 5 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Year 4 non-operating PNP hatcheries not included
  9. 9. 30 Hatcheries Currently in Operation 15 PNP-owned and operated 11 State-owned – PNP-operated 2 State-owned and operated 2 Federal/Tribal 21 Hatcheries have closed: 11 State; 9 PNP; 1 Federal
  10. 10. Production Percentage by Species Socke ye (5%) Chino ok (1%) Coho (2%) Chum (35%) Pink (57%)
  11. 11. Locations ofHatcheriesin Alaska
  12. 12. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500197519771979198119831985198719891991199319951997199920012003 Alaska Hatchery Production Eggs Release
  13. 13. Adults (thousands) 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 800001975 900001977197919811983198519871989199119931995 Hatchery Returns1997199920012003 Return
  14. 14. Harvest of Alaskan Wild and Enhanced Salmon Proportion of Enhanced Salmon in the Common-Property Commercial Harvest 250,000 200,000Thousands of fish Enhanced 150,000 Wild 100,000 50,000 0 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
  15. 15. Common Property Chums (SE) and Pinks (PWS) Proportion of Enhanced Chum Salmon in the SE Common-Property Harvest 14,000 12,000 Enhanced 10,000T h o u sa n d s o f fish W ild 8,000 6,000 Proportion of Enhanced Pink Salmon in the PWS Common-Property Harvest 4,000 40,000 2,000 35,000 Enhanced 30,000 T h o u s a n d s o f f is h 0 Wild 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 Enhanced 10 yr. average = 71% 5,000 0 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 Year Enhanced 10 yr. Average = 83%
  16. 16. Common Property vs Hatchery Harvest Composition of Commercial Salmon Harvest 250,000Thousands of Fish 200,000 Hatchery Cost Recovery 150,000 Hatchery Common 100,000 Property Wild 50,000 0 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 00 03 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 Y e ar 2003 hatchery contribution = 42%
  17. 17. Percentages of Wild and Hatchery Produced Salmon Harvested in Alaska100% 90% 80% 70% % W ild 60% % Enhanced % Cost Recovery 50% 40% 30%20%10% 0% 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 00 03 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20
  18. 18. Alaska Hatchery Produced Pink Salmon - Common Property Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest 40,000,000 35,000,000 30,000,000 25,000,000Pink 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 76 78 80 19 82 19 19 84 86 19 88 19 19 90 19 92 PinkCPC 19 94 19 96 19 98 Year 19 00 19 02 20 20 PinkCPC PinkCR
  19. 19. Alaska Hatchery Produced Chum Salmon - Common Property Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000Chum 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 76 78 80 19 82 19 19 84 86 19 88 19 19 90 19 92 ChumCPC 19 94 19 96 19 98 Year 19 00 19 02 20 20 ChumCPC ChumCR
  20. 20. Alaska Hatchery Produced Coho Salmon - Common Property Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000Coho 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 76 78 80 19 82 19 19 84 86 19 88 19 19 90 19 92 CohoCPC 19 94 19 96 19 98 Year 19 00 19 02 20 20 CohoCPC CohoCR
  21. 21. Alaska Hatchery Produced Chinook Salmon - Common Property Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000Chinook 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 76 78 19 19 80 82 19 19 84 86 19 19 88 90 19 19 92 19 94 6 ChinookCPC 19 19 9 8 Year 1 99 00 02 20 20 ChinookCPC ChinookCR
  22. 22. Alaska Hatchery Produced Sockeye Salmon - Common Property Contributions vs Cost Recovery Harvest 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000Sockeye 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 76 78 80 19 82 19 84 19 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 SockeyeCPC 19 94 19 96 19 98 Year 19 00 19 02 20 20 SockeyeCPC SockeyeCR
  23. 23. Value of Alaska’s Hatcheries Value of Enhancem ent-Generated Com m ercial Com m on Property and Cost Recovery Harvest 70.0 60.0$- in millions 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 88 90 92 84 86 94 96 98 00 02 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 Commercial Cost Recovery 84-03 Commercial Harvest = $808 M 84-03 Cost Recovery Harvest = $259 M
  24. 24. Other Funding Sources for PNP Hatcheries Value of Enhancem ent-Related ADCED Loans and Enhancem ent Tax 14$- in millions 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Loans Enhancement Tax 84-03 Loans - $93 million 84-03 Enhancement Tax - $99 million
  25. 25. The End

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