This presentation discusses the real world issue of Human Sex Trafficking in combination with the sexualization and exploitation of women in the book Sold written by Patricia McCormick. First we will discuss some of the facts about human trafficking, then discuss the summary and reviews of the book Sold. After that we will define objectification theory and how it relates to or is portrayed within scenes from the book. In conclusion we will discuss how this book raises awareness about the harsh realities of human trafficking, and what organizations are fighting against it.
Human Trafficking victims are usually comprised of- sex slaves, domestic servants, or factory workers. Human Trafficking is a crime against humanity. It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transfering, harbouring or receiving a person through a use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), assists states in their efforts to implement the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (Trafficking in Persons Protocol).Click:According to the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking…An estimated 2.5 million people are in forced labour (including sexual exploitation) at any given time as a result of trafficking1 1 min.The Victims The majority of trafficking victims are between 18 and 24 years of age5 An estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked each year6 95% of victims experienced physical or sexual violence during trafficking (based on data from selected European countries)7 43% of victims are used for forced commercial sexual exploitation, of whom 98 percent are women and girls 8 32% of victims are used for forced economic exploitation, of whom 56 percent are women and girls9 Estimated global annual profits made from the exploitation of all trafficked forced labor are US$ 31.6 billion1 Many trafficking victims have at least middle-level education10 It all begins with first women being sexually objectified and the consequences are that women self-objectify and an enslavment or “colonization of the mind” ensues. This is the world of our modern day society where a woman does not have to be physically …
Sold was published in 2006 under Young Adult Fiction genre for ages 12-14 and up. The book is written in several beautiful clear prose and free verse poems from, Lakshmi’s first-person perspective, as present tense vignettes. "This hard-hitting novel told in spare free verse poems exposes the plight of a 13-year-old Nepali girl sold into sexual slavery. McCormickreveals Lakshmi’s gradual awakening to the harshness of the world around her. Even in their poverty-stricken rural home, Lakshmi finds pleasure in the beauty of the Himalayan mountains, the sight of Krishna, her betrothed, and the cucumbers and baby goat she lovingly tends. After a monsoon wipes out their crops, her profligate stepfather sells Lakshmi to a glamorous stranger she is to call 'auntie' bound for the city.Lakshmi is to take a job as a maid to support her family. Glad to be able to help, Lakshmi journeys to India and arrives at “Happiness House” full of hope.But she soon learns the unthinkable truth: she has been sold into prostitution. Lakshmi’s life becomes a nightmare from which she cannot escape. Still, she recalls and lives by her mother’s words— Simply to endure is to triumph—and gradually, she forms friendships with the other girls that enable her to survive in this terrifying new world. Then the day comes when she must make a decision—will she risk everything for a chance to reclaim her life? this powerful novel renders a world that is as unimaginable as it is real, and a girl who not only survives, but triumphs. Readers will admire Lakshmi's grit and intelligence, and be grateful for a ray of hope for this memorable heroine at book's end.
Objectification is an attitude that regards a person as a commodity or as an object for use, with little or no regard for a person’s personality or sentience. >…to re-examine and define how women are viewed and treated as subordinate to men through the psychoanalytic and physical, often sexual, control of women’s bodies. Sexual objectification also known as Sexualizationrefers to the practice of regarding or treating another person merely as an instrument (object) towards one's sexual pleasure, and a sex object is a person who is regarded simply as an object of sexual gratification or who is sexually attractive. A woman is sexually objectified when she is made into or treated as an object to be used, manipulated, controlled, and recognized through her physical properties (Calogero 5). In essence, an individual loses their identity, and is recognized solely by the physical characteristics of their body.Sexual objectification can occur as a social construct among individuals.>Primarily, self objectification theory describes how women and girls are influenced and come to view themselves as a result of expected social and gender roles. Research indicates not all women are influenced equally, due to the anatomical, hormonal, and genetic differences of the female body; however, women’s bodies are often objectified and evaluated more frequently. Females learn that their physical appearance is important to themselves and society. As a result, females consider their physical appearance often, expecting that others will also.In the following slides we will discuss examples of objectification in Sold.
In the novel, girls and women are viewed as commodities that are only worth their economical or sexual value. In the first few pages of the book Lakshmi recognizes that her “step-father looks at [her] the same way he looks at the cucumbers [she is] growing in front of [their] hut” and he states, “You had better get a good price for them” (McCormick 1-2). Later she listens to men discuss the difference between fathering a son and marrying off a daughter, which reinforces the idea that women share equal status with animals:A son will always be a son, they say. But a girl is like a goat. Good as long as she gives you milk and butter. But not worth crying over when it’s time to make a stew (McCormick 8).Lakshmi is sold by her stepfather then later by Auntie for about the same cost of a “water buffalo” which equates her worth as equal to an animals(McCormick 75). She identifies with the animals that are prodded and pushed in the streets because she is likewise hurried along by her Uncle Husband’s fist in her back (McCormick 89).
Initially Lakshmi has a positive self-image claiming that she is strong from working in the hills, and does well in her small school. However, throughout her experience in sexual slavery Lakshmi begins to view herself sexually and through the eyes of others, specifically men. This changes her view of herself, in a sense she loses her own ability to see her true identity because she is no longer a person but a sexual object of others. In a passage she states, “I see my face reflected in a silver glass on the wall. Another Lakshmi looks back at me. She has black-rimmed tiger eyes, a mouth red as a pomegranate, and flowing hair like the tiny gold-pants woman in the TV…. I smile at this new Lakshmi. And she smiles back. Uncertainly” (McCormick 100). Self-objectification is linked to some cases of depression, anorexia, bolemia, and suicide.
In order to combatsexualization or the objectification of others the distorted and violent view of human sexuality must be addressed. Healthy sexuality is shared pleasure where both people are equally respected and no one is put down or made to feel guilty or like an object without feelings or an identity. Such a relationship she could have had with Krishna (her betrothed) (arranged marriage), or one of the other two boys she associates with in the novel. On a personal level, Lakshmi delves into learning English and Hindu among other skills to escape the realities of her situation, and maintains a quiet positive self-identity throughout the novel.
http://www.nominetwork.orghttp://www.catwinternational.orgGlobal Initiative to Fight Human Traffickinghttps://www.freetheslaves.net/SSLPage.aspx>http://www.endhumantrafficking.org>http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/voices-for-human-rights/human-rights-abuses/human-trafficking-awareness.html>http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2011/February/awareness-and-education-are-key-to-beating-human-trafficking.html>http://www.humantrafficking.org/combat_trafficking/prevention>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/slaves/etc/stats.html
Sexualization andExploitation of Womenin SoldMikayla Williamson
Human Trafficking 21st century modern slavery• Between 18 and 24 years of age• 1.2 million children• 95% experience physical or sexual violence• 43% are sex slaves, of whom 98% are women and girls• $31.6 billion annual global profits of human trafficking
Responses to SoldI would say that this This was an amazing bookbook was very that really does a great jobdetailed for my age of shedding light on angroup but i think I’m ongoing tragedy that muchpretty mature to of the world largelyunderstand that it’s ignores. Lakshmi wasnot a joke. This really one of thosecould really be characters that stays withhappening to girls. I you long after you’vepersonally loved the stopped reading. Soldbook” makes the reader think and maybe even want to-Tiffany help.Connors, 7th grade -Mikayla Williamson, English Major, Westminser College
Objectification Theory• Barbara L. Fredrickson and Tomi-Ann Roberts (1997) part of a larger post-modern feminist movement.• Sexual-objectification• Self-objectification
Objectification in Soldp. 1-2 Step-father objectifiesherp. 8 A girl is like a goatp. 53 “no hips” and as “plainas porridge,” womanobjectified by step-fatherp. 75 Sold for price of a waterbuffalop. 89 is prodded like ananimal
Self-Objectification in Soldp. 53 “my legs are sturdy,” 61 pride in being educatedp. Given impractical clothes for workingp. 100 complete her “city-girl” lookP. 122 ONE OF THEMp. 178 AM I PRETTY?p. 192 “face that looks back is that of a corpse”p. 227 ANY MAN, EVERY MAN
Combating Sexualizatio n• Two positive male figures are young boys who wish to educate, befriend, and see Lakshmi as a person• Learns to read and speak some English and Hindu• p. 200, 263 she knows her identity and worth throughout novel, maintains hope to endure
Awareness and Action• • Patricia McCormick book Reduce poverty and the demand for sexual guide for teachers with services sources• • Nomi Network give Educate and .org equal rights to women• Coalition Against • Trafficking in Women As consumers, do not (catwinternational.org) buy any products that• UNGIFT .org slavery are tied with• Free the Slaves .net
Paper ResourcesBordo, Susan. Feminism, Foucault and the Politics of the Body. From Up Against Foucault,ed. Carol Ramazanoglu, 1993. Reprinted by permission of Routledge, London UK and theauthor.Rachel M., Calogero and etl. Self-objectification in women: Causes, Consequences, andCounteractions. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2011. Web.Lee, J. (2003). Menarche and the (hetero) sexualization of the female body. In R. Weitz(Ed.), The politics of female bodies: Sexuality, appearance, and behavior (pp. 82-99). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Price, Janet, Margrit Shildrick, et al, ed. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader. UnitedKingdom, US (New York City), Canada: Edinburgh University Press, Routledge, 1999.Print.McCormick, Patricia. Sold. 1st. New York: Hyperion Paperbacks, 2006. 263. Print.Rachel M., Calogero and etl. Self-objectification in women: Causes, Consequences, andCounteractions. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2011. Web.Smolak, Linda, and Sarah K. Murnen. “The Sexualization of Girls and Women as a PrimaryAntecedent of Self-Objectification.” Self-objectification in women: Causes, Consequences,and Counteractions. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2011.Web.Wolk, Steven. "Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility With YoungAdult Literature." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy . 52.8 (2009): 664-673.