By: Miguel Cardenas<br />Struggle & Survival Part: 1<br />
Opehancancough<br />Born in 1554-1646.<br />Was a tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United States and its leader from sometime after 1618 until his death in 1646.<br />His name meant "He whose Soul is White" in the Algonquian language.<br />Algonquian Indians were the ones who had the land first.<br />The tale of Pocahontas took place in his land.<br />Opechnanceriouch tried to keep the more important English leaders distracted some miles upriver from the settlement while others attacked James Fort.<br />Violent action by the Powhatans quickly escalated into full scale warfare between 1609 & 1614.<br />Recognizing Openchancancough’s importance to the Indians courage & persistence, Jamestown officials placed a bounty on his head. <br />The English came close to killing him in 1623; & the war continued until 1625 with both sides coming to a realization that the annihilation of their enemies was impossible.<br />After peace was agreed in 1632, a decade of tenuous coexistence were in between the Powhatans & the English.<br />The Virginia colony developed so rapidly that the Indians territorial & cultural foundations were quickly & irrevocably eroded.<br />Opechancanough’s death ended a talented & tempestuous career of leadership that spanned four eventful decades. <br />
Diego Vasicuio<br />Born in 1580-1670.<br />He was a Peruvian Indian.<br />He was a Male<br />Lived near Arequipa in southern Peru in town called Salamanca.<br />Diego’s parents & grandparents had entrusted him with the stone image of the god Sorimana, & they had taught him to recite the proper prayers & perform the specific ceremonies of his cult.<br />He was the chief priest in charge of the ‘God’ idol "Sorimana".<br />He also served time in the silver mines of Castrovireyna, it was called "Mita" Labor.<br />At 90 he was on trial for Heresy. This is because his father and he kept alive the idol, and that was against Spanish Religious laws. <br />In his father’s time population of Indians was 16 million strong. At his time they fell to only 600,000. <br />
Thomas Peters<br />Born in 1738 – 1792.<br />Historians portray the American Revolution as an epic struggle for independence.<br />In 1760 Peters was kidnapped by African Slave traders & moved to the coast. <br />He never adapted well to slavery.<br />He made a new family after being sold 3 times & now is in North Carolina.<br />The refugee ex-slaves found that they were segregated in impoverished villages, deprived of the rights normally extended to British subjects, forced to work on road construction in return for the promised provisions.<br />Peters lived for 54 years – During 32 of them he struggled incessantly for personal survival & for some larger degree of freedom beyond physical existence.<br />He never learned how to write his name.<br />
Francisco Baquero<br />Born in 1748-1810. <br />He was born in Buenos Aires.<br />He was a Male.<br />He was a dark skinned “Mestizo”.<br />He was hardworking & frugal, he remained a journey man, often working on day-to-day basis, for nearly a decade until he had acquired his own tools & opened a shop.<br />His strategy was to identify potential allies among the white master & forge an affective alliance that would prevent racial discrimination.<br />He was a ‘Master of the shoe guild’ starting at 12 years old.<br />Later on in life he became an organizer. <br />He was one of the first non-whites to speak up. <br />His record was clean, and he was not an immigrant.<br />
Catarinade Monte Sinay<br />Born in 1680-1758.<br />She was a Female<br />She was Portuguese.<br />Was born in Captaincy of Bahia (A shipping harbor in Brazil).<br />Her father was a top sugar planter.<br />She was a nun and entrepreneur.<br />She went against archbishop rule and did certain things to benefit the villagers without his permission. <br />On her death bed she begged the archbishop for forgiveness.<br />
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