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Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
Video Surveillance Report
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Video Surveillance Report

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This report gives the brief detail about the types of cameras used for video surveillance and its applications.

This report gives the brief detail about the types of cameras used for video surveillance and its applications.

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  • 1. Video Surveillance By Mihika Shah 09BIT059DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Ahmedabad 382481 1
  • 2. Video Surveillance Seminar Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology By Mihika Shah 09BIT059 Guided By Prof. Purvi KansaraDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Ahmedabad 382481 2
  • 3. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the Seminar entitled “Video Surveillance” submitted by Mihika Shah(09BIT059) , towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor ofTechnology in Information Technology of Nirma University is the record of work carried out byhim/her under my supervision and guidance. In my opinion, the submitted work has reached a levelrequired for being accepted for examination.Prof. Purvi Kansara Prof.D.J.PatelAssistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Science & Engg.,Department of Computer Science & Engg., Institute of Technology,Institute of Technology, Nirma University,Nirma University, AhmedabadAhmedabadProf. Vipul ChudasamaAssistant Professor,Department of Computer Science & Engg.,Institute of Technology,Nirma University,Ahmedabad. 3
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Prof. Purvi Kansara, Assistant Professor inDepartment of computer science and engineering for her valuable time and guidance thatmade the seminar project work a success. Thanking all my friends and all those who hadhelped me in carrying out this work. I am also indebted to the library resources centre andinterest services that enabled us to ponder over the subject of Video Surveillance. 4
  • 5. ABSTRACTMost existing surveillance systems require human interaction where security guards watch themonitor wall and manually trigger alarms when they detect security violations. Due to the lack ofattention of the operator, the possibility of missing alarms is high, even for well-trained securitypersonnel. These issues lead to the need for an automated video surveillance system, an artificialintelligent system, which is designed to automatically detects, tracks, and records securityviolations in a monitored scene. In this seminar, I have discussed the automation of surveillancethrough CCTV cameras and IP cameras. The architecture of the cameras and their advantages anddisadvantages are also discussed. Video surveillance is having vast number of applications. I havespecifically focused on farm surveillance. 5
  • 6. CONTENTSCertificateAcknowledgementAbstractChapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………….. 7 1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 7Chapter 2 Video surveillance automation ………………………………………… 8 2.1 Manual Surveillance …………………………………………… 8Chapter 3 Types of Camera ……………………………………………………….. 9 3.1 Analog Camera ……………………………………………………… 9 3.1.1 Architecture of analog camera …………………………… 9 3.1.2 Types of analog camera ………………………………….. 10 3.1.3 Advantages of analog camera ……………………………. 10 3.1.4 Disadvantages of analog camera …………………………. 11 3.2 IP Camera ……………………………………………………………. 11 3.2.1 Architecture of IP camera ………………………………… 11 3.2.2 Advantages of IP camera …………………………………. 13 3.2.3 Disadvantages of IP camera ………………………………. 13Chapter 4 Applications of Video Surveillance …………………………………………. 14 4.1 Farm Surveillance ……………………………………………………. 14ConclusionReferences 6
  • 7. Chapter 11.1 IntroductionIn this world of 21st century, new technologies and new tools are coming up for living our life veryeasily. But it comes up with some dangerous risks. Security has become a major aspect in eachand every field. The best method by which you can make your system away from threats is videosurveillance. It is playing a major role in the area of security. The word ‘surveillance’ means tomonitor the activities of an individual or a group or to observe a specific area. It is having numberof applications like banks, hotels, hospitals, farms, industries, traffic points etc. The first videosurveillance system was installed by Siemens A.G at Test Stand VII to observe the launching ofrockets. And later on, it was used for observing public area. 7
  • 8. Chapter 22.1 Video Surveillance Automation 2.1.1 Manual Surveillance Before video surveillance came into existence, operators were hired to monitor the system to protect it from threats. But the manual surveillance was having some disadvantages as follows: • It is very impractical. • It is very costly because we need to pay the operators. • It makes problem because of the lack of attention of the operators. • It needs the awareness for the situation To solve the above problems, video surveillance came into existence. It has benefits over manual surveillance: • Computer catches the video and monitors the activities. • More channels can be used by buying more servers and licenses. Once we have bought it, then it can be used afterwards without paying to anybody. • It is cheaper than manual surveillance. 8
  • 9. Chapter 3Types of Cameras There are two types of cameras which are used for video surveillance: 1. Analog Camera 2. IP camera 3.1 Analog Camera An analog video camera transmits signals via coaxial cable to a single central location for monitoring, recording, and video analysis. While the recent trend is a push towards IP network cameras, CCTV cameras are still widely used, and offer a cost-effective answer to many common surveillance scenarios. CCTV technology has been around since the 1940s, and became a major player in the security industry around 1970. The two main categories of CCTV cameras are fixed cameras and pan/tilt/zoom models which can rotate horizontally and vertically to cover more area. 3.1.1 Architecture of Analog Camera Figure 3.1 – architecture of analog camera The basic components of the analog camera are as follows: 1. Camera Cameras are the starting point for most CCTV systems. There are designed for monitoring very specific locations, to day/night cameras, and powerful PTZ domes for patrolling large areas. 9
  • 10. 2. Monitor Operators view footage from a central location on a monitor higher lines of resolution for better picture quality. Monitors can be dedicated (meaning they display video from a single camera), or call-up (meaning operators can access multiple cameras at the same time).3. Cables Coaxial cable is required for transmitting video footage from the cameras. This is one of the drawbacks of analog CCTV, as the cable can be expensive and difficult to install, especially for larger camera networks, and those where cameras must be positioned in difficult locations.4. Digital Video Recorder (DVR) DVRs convert the analog footage to digital, which helps to extend storage capacity, makes it much easier to search archived footage, and also allows users to stream video over a network for remote viewing from multiple locations.3.1.2 Types of Analog Camera Basically there are two types of analog camera: 1. Fixed Camera Fixed analog cameras point in a single direction, which makes them perfect for monitoring very specific areas of interest. Theyre also preferred for applications where its beneficial to install cameras in clearly visible locations. For this reason, fixed cameras are quite effective for capturing footage of suspicious activity. The direction of the camera is set during installation. 2. PTZ Camera PTZ cameras are ideal for wide-area surveillance. They give operators the ability to remotely control pan, tilt, and zoom functions to follow activity and to zoom in for detailed monitoring. This is an area where analog CCTV cameras fall behind their IP camera counterparts. With IP cameras, the pan/tilt/zoom functions are controlled manually or automatically and delivered over a single network cable, while analog cameras require additional wiring to perform similar functionality.3.1.3 Advantages of Analog Camera • Lower initial cost - In most cases, analog cameras cost less up front than IP network cameras. • Wide-spread compatibility - Mixing and matching camera models and surveillance equipment form different manufacturers is easy with an analog CCTV setup. • Lower initial cost - Analog cameras tend to handle low-light situations better than IP cameras on average, though IP camera technology is improving in this regard.3.1.4 Disadvantages of Analog Camera 10
  • 11. • Expensive cabling - For large-scale surveillance applications, analog cameras require complicated cabling schemes that can be quite expensive and also challenging to install. • Limited features - Many of the advanced features now available with IP cameras (for instance: megapixel resolution, digital zoom, and video analytics), arent available in analog CCTV models. 3.2 IP Camera Figure 3.2- IP CameraAn IP camera captures and sends video footage over an IP network, allowing users to view,record, store, and manage their video surveillance images either locally or remotely over thenetwork infrastructure. The camera can be placed wherever theres an IP network connection.It has its own IP address and unlike a webcam, doesnt require a connection to a PC in order tooperate. Along with streaming video footage, network cameras can include a number ofadditional functionalities, such as pan/tilt/zoom operation, motion detection, audiosurveillance, integration with alarms and other security systems, automated alerts, intelligentvideo analytics, and much more. Many IP cameras can also send multiple streams of video,using different compression technologies for live viewing and archiving. IP cameras offerflexible installation, ease of use, higher-quality images, stability, and scalability as newcameras can be added to the network at any time.3.2.1 Architecture of IP Camera 11
  • 12. Figure 3.3 – Architecture of an IP CameraThe basic components of IP camera are as follows:1. IP Camera IP camera is the front part of the system. It is used to capture the images of an area. It is available with different quality levels.2. Network Video Software (NVR) NVR is the software that provides the tools for monitoring and analyzing surveillance footage, as well as recording. More advanced NVR software platforms offer simultaneous viewing of multiple cameras, and multiple recording modes (including continuous, scheduled, and triggered recording). Other features may include the ability to handle large image files with high frame rates, fast search capabilities, pan/tilt/zoom control, audio support, and remote access via web browser as well as cell phones and other handheld devices. Some software programs also support intelligent surveillance using sophisticated video analytics such as facial recognition and advanced motion detection.3. Power over Ethernet Power over Ethernet ( PoE) is a technology that allows LAN-enabled devices, such as network cameras and IP telephones, to be powered over an IP network infrastructure using standard Ethernet cabling. IP-based surveillance system featuring PoE cameras, each individual camera transmits data and receives power via a single Ethernet cable, eliminating the need for complicated and expensive cabling because the system operates along an existing network. Power over Ethernet allows for flexible camera installation as cameras can be placed in areas where power outlets arent readily available. Power is supplied directly from the data ports that the cameras and other network devices are connected to.4. Image Sensor 12
  • 13. When light passes through a camera lens, it goes to the image sensor and activates the pixels on the sensor. Each pixel registers the amount of light it sees, and this creates the image your camera records. Two types of image sensors are used: (i) CCD Technology Charge-coupled devices, or CCD image sensors, have been used in cameras for more than 30 years. They specialize in low-light situations to create images that are less noisy, as their sensors are more sensitive to light than CMOS sensors. CCD sensors are more expensive and complex than other sensors, and can use up to 100 times the power a CMOS sensor would use. (ii) CMOS Technology Complementary metal-oxide semiconductors, CMOS sensors have a faster readout which allows them to produce high-resolution images. CMOS sensors are smaller, easier to integrate into cameras, and use less power than their CCD counterparts. 5. Monitor It is placed at a central location to view footage. It can be viewed from single camera or multiple cameras.3.2.2 Advantages of IP Camera • Flexibility: It can be moved anywhere in the IP network • It has high resolution of the captured images • Encryption and authentication : Transmission of data is done through encryption • Remote access : Cameras can be viewed from any computer anywhere in the world • PoE : Cameras can operate without additional power. PoE protocol is used to feed them through internet cable3.2.3 Disadvantages of IP Camera • Initial price of the camera is high. • Lack of standards : Various IP camera can encode the video differently. • Technical barrier : Installation of IP camera, router requires a technician who knows CCTV technology • System becomes open to hackers via internet. 13
  • 14. Chapter 4Applications of Video Surveillance • Airports • Railway Station • Military • Retails • Government • Home and residential • Industrial • Entertainment • Healthcare4.1 Farm SurveillanceThere are many countries in the world that depend on agriculture for its livelihood. FarmingIndeed has been a core component of the society that cannot be neglected. A technologicaladvancement has its impact on the industry as well. There are several ways to decrease manpowerand increase productivity using innovative automated machinery. Security is incredibly importantfor farms and other agricultural environments. Video surveillance can help ensure farmoperations run smoothly, making certain that consumers receive a safe quality product in the end,while protecting animals, equipment and facilities from harm and misuse.There are several video cameras that are placed in remote areas where approach of thieves andother trespassers would have been hard to detect. Video cameras also allow the productivity ofthe employee to be tracked and ensure that all of them perform their task with high efficiency.Each of the underperforming people will be questioned and will be under constant check. 14
  • 15. ConclusionAs now the security has become the major aspect of every application, the best way in which we canincorporate this feature is through video surveillance. Many cameras with advanced features areavailable in market today. The footages which are stored can be later used for analysis or in the case ofcrime. IP cameras are now days very much in use at the places like traffic point, malls, railwaystations, airports, hotels etc. 15
  • 16. References1. http://www.videosurveillance.com/cctv-technology/intro-to-cctv.asp2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveillance3. Stephen Russo, Director of Security and Privacy Technology, IBM Corporation : Digital Video Surveillance.4. http://homeowner.hubpages.com/hub/Video-surveillance-cameras-for-farms-and- agriculture5. http://www.videosurveillance.com/farms.asp6. http://www.farmcameras.com/ 16

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