Surveillance• The word ‘surveillance’ means to observe a specific areaor to monitor the activities of individual or a group.• It is very useful to the government to maintain socialcontrol, monitor and recognize threats, and investigatecriminal activity.
History• The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG atTest Stand VII to observe the launching of rockets. Andlater on, it was used for observing public area.• During 1990, digital multiplexing allowed more thanone camera to record at once which has increased theuse of CCTV.• It was commonly used in Banks to record the evidenceof criminal activity.
Manual Surveillance• Impractical•Very costly• Lack of attention• needs situational awareness
Video Surveillance Automation• Have computers catch the video• More channels can be used by buying more servers andlicenses.• Cheaper than the manual surveillance• People still have to deal with alarms
Analog CCTV Camera Architecture
Components of Analog CCTV Cameras1. Camera - starting point of the CCTV systems - night vision technology based cameras are used for low light conditions.2. Monitor - Operators view footage from central location on the monitor. - dedicated monitor : display video from a single camera - call up monitor : access multiple cameras at the same video
( Contd…)3. Cable - coaxial cable : for transmitting video footage from cameras - expensive and difficult to install4. DVR ( Digital Video Recorder ) - Convert the analog footage to digital which extends the storage capacity - makes it easy to search archived footage - allows users to stream video over a network for remote viewing from multiple locations.
Types of CCTV Camera1. Fixed Cameras - points in a single direction - monitors specific area of interest - mostly installed in clearly visible areas - effective in capturing footage of suspicious activity - direction of camera is set during installation
2. PTZ Cameras ( Pan Tilt Zoom Cameras ) - ideal for wide-area surveillance - gives the ability to remotely control pan, tilt, and zoom functions to follow activity and to zoom in for detailed monitoring - an area where analog CCTV cameras fall behind their IP camera counterparts.
Advantages of analog CCTVLower initial cost - In most cases, analog cameras costless up front than IP network cameras.-Analog cameras tend to handle low-light situationsbetter than IP cameras on averageWide-spread compatibility - Mixing and matchingcamera models and surveillance equipment fromdifferent manufacturers is easy with an analog CCTVsetup.
Disadvantages of analog CCTVExpensive cabling - For large-scale surveillanceapplications, analog cameras require complicatedcabling schemes that can be quite expensive and alsochallenging to install.Limited features - Many of the advanced features nowavailable with IP cameras (for instance: megapixelresolution, digital zoom, and video analytics), arentavailable in analog CCTV models.
IP BASED CAMERA
IP CAMERA ARCHITECTURE
(Contd…)1. IP Camera - Front part of the system - Available with different levels of image quality.2. Network Video Recorder ( NVR ) - a very crucial component of IP system - responsible for video monitoring, event management and storage - various compression techniques are used to optimize the storage like MPEG-4
(Contd…)3. Power over Ethernet ( PoE ) - With PoE, data transmissions from the camera and power to the camera are all relayed through a single Ethernet cable - allows the installation of a camera in such area where power outlets are not available4. Image sensor (i) CCD ( Charge Coupled Device ) : - specially used for low light situation as they are very sensitive - more expensive than others - consumes 100 times more power than CMOS sensor
(Contd…) (ii) CMOS (Complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) - produces high resolution images - uses less power than CCD5. Monitor - placed at central location to view a footage - can be used to view the footage from single camera or multiple cameras
ADVANTAGES OF IP CAMERA• Flexibility: It can be moved anywhere in the IP network• high resolution of the captured images•Encryption and authentication : transmission of data isdone through encryption• Remote access : cameras can be viewed from anycomputer anywhere in the world• PoE : Cameras can operate without additional power. PoEprotocol is used to feed them through internet cable
DISADVANTAGES OF IP CAMERA• Higher initial price for the camera• Lack of standards : various IP camera can encode thevideo differently• Technical barrier : Installation of IP camera, routerrequires a technician who knows CCTV technology• System becomes open to hackers via internet.
How to configure IP Camera???Ethernet cable is inserted in Charger is plugged in thethe camera D- 6670 camera
Antenna is plugged in as it is awireless camera To install the software, play the CD of the camera. The screen will be displayed as above
Then it will ask for the IP address, subnet mask, default router.And for the wireless camera, SSID, encoding key are to be set.
Application of Video Surveillance• Airports• Railway Station• Military• Retails• Government• Home and residential• Industrial• Entertainment• Healthcare
Farm SurveillanceVideo surveillance can help ensure farm operations runsmoothly, making certain that consumers receive a safequality product in the end, while protecting animals,equipment and facilities from harm and misuse. COBRA 90 Day and Night Camera
BENEFITS OF FARM SURVEILLANCE• Monitor for intruders• Protect for water supply• Prevent break-ins• Prevent theft• Monitor daily operation• Employee monitoring• Remote playback and monitoring
References1. http://www.videosurveillance.com/cctv- technology/intro-to-cctv.asp2. http://www.wikipedia.com/surveillance3. Stephen Russo, Director of Security and Privacy Technology, IBM Corporation : Digital Video Surveillance4. http://homeowner.hubpages.com/hub/Video- surveillance-cameras-for-farms-and-agriculture5. http://www.videosurveillance.com/farms.asp