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Organisation Development
 

Organisation Development

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Organisation Development, an methodology who help companies to bring togheter managers and employees.

Organisation Development, an methodology who help companies to bring togheter managers and employees.

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Organisation Development Organisation Development Presentation Transcript

  • ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT The New Approach to change
  • What is OD
    • A series of planned processes by which human resources are identified, utilized, and developed in ways that strengthen organizational effectiveness by increasing problem-solving capabilities and planning
    OD IMPLIES:
    • planning
    • identification and use of human resources
    • strengthening of organizational effectiveness
  • How does OD affect top management?
    • It is long-range in perspective
    • Requests support from the top managers, because they control resources and rewards
    • Expands their ideas, beliefs, and behavior
  • How does OD affect employees?
    • diagnosing problems
    • considering solutions
    • selecting a solution
    • identifying change objectives
    • implementing planned change
    • evaluating results
    • OD brings
    • MANAGERS
    • and
    • EMPLOYEES together
    holding them all responsible for the success and failure of a change effort.
  • Key terms in OD
    • CHANGE = a departure from the status quo
    • Alpha change – constant progress
    • Beta change – variable progress
    • Gamma change – variable progress combined with a radical change = transformational change
    • CHANGE AGENT = the person responsible for beginning and maintaining a change effort
    • CLIENT = organization, group, individual whose interests the change agent primarily servers
    • CULTURE = basic assumption and beliefs shared by the members of an organization
    • INTERVENTION = a change effort
    • ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ( different from OD ) = any effort to improve an organization
    • SPONSOR = one who underwrites, legitimizes and champions a change effort or OD intervention
    • STAKEHOLDER = one who has an interest in an OD intervention
    • SUBSYSTEM = part of a system (e.g. work units, department, divisions, activities, processes, structures)
    • SYSTEM = inputs, transformation processes, outputs
    Key terms in OD
  • Philosophical Influence on the OD: Schools of Management Thought
    • THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL
    • Assumptions
    • Work is inherently distasteful to most people
    • What workers do is less important than what they earn for doing it
    • Policies
    • The manager’s basic task is to supervise and closely control subordinates.
    • The manager must break down tasks into simple, repetitive, easily-learned operations.
    • THE HUMAN RESOURCES SCHOOL
    • Assumptions
    • Work is not inherently distasteful. People want to contribute to meaningful goals which they have helped establish.
    • Most people can exercise far more creative, responsible self-direction and self-control than their present jobs demand.
    • Policies
    • The manager’s basic task is to coach and to make use of “untapped” human resources.
    • The manager must create an environment in which all members may contribute to the limits of their abilities.
    • THE HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL
    • Assumptions
    • People want to feel useful and important.
    • People desire to belong and to be recognized as individuals.
    • Policies
    • The manager’s basic task is to make each worker feel useful and important.
    • The manager should keep subordinates informed and listen to their objections to the manager’s plans.
    • THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL
    • The manager must establish work routines and procedures and enforce these firmly and fairly.
    • Expectations
    • People can tolerate work if the pay is decent ant the boss is fair.
    • If tasks are simple enough and people are closely controlled, they will produce up to standards.
    • THE HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL
    • The manager should allow subordinates to exercise some self-directions and self-control on routine matters.
    • Expectations
    • Sharing information with subordinates and involving them in routing decisions will satisfy their basic needs to belong and feel important.
    • Satisfying these needs will improve morale and reduce resistance to formal authority; subordinates will “willingly cooperate”.
    • THE HUMAN RESOURCES SCHOOL
    • The manager must encourage full participation on important matters, continually broadening subordinate self-direction and control.
    • Expectations
    • Expanding subordinate influence, self-direction, and self-control will lead to direct improvements in operating efficiency.
    • Work satisfaction may improve as a “by-product” of subordinates’ making full use of their resources.
    Source: Miles, R.E.(1975), Theories of Management: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Development , New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 35.
  • Methodological Influences to OD
    • Laboratory training
    • Survey Research and Feedback – Rensis Likert
    Likert’s Four Types of Organizations
    • System 1: Exploitive - Authoritarian
    • Dogmatic leadership
    • Manipulative use of rewards
    • Top-down communication
    • System 2: Benevolent - Authoritative
    • Parental approach of management
    • System 3: Consultative
    • Management listens to employees, but reserves the right to male decisions
    • Some reliance on intrinsic rewards; most rewards are based on extrinsic (money rewards)
    • System 4: Participative
    • Leadership based in influence
    • Intrinsic rewards predominate
    • Two-way communication
  • Newer contributions to the development of OD
    • TQM = Total Quality Management
    • drives attention on the creative human potential and on people’s ability to improve their work
    • BPR = Business Process Reengineering
    • brings interest to the radical organizational change and restructuring
  • Human Relations Fields 1. HR Development
    • Training
    • Education
    • Development
    Common Goal: to bring about “the possibility of performance improvement and/of personal growth” 2. HR Management
    • Recruitment
    • Selection
    • Placement
    • Compensation
    • Benefits
    • Appraisal
    • HR information systems
    Common Goal: to increase organizational productivity by using the talents of its current employee 3. HR Environment
    • Organization Development
    • Job redesigning
    Common Goal: to improve the work environment through planned, long-term, and group-oriented change in organizational structures or interpersonal relations
  • The Human Relations Wheel (McLagan, 1989) HR Development represents the integrated use of: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE INDIVIDUAL, GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
  • Knowledge Requirements for OD specialists
    • Organization Development
    • HR planning
    • Training and development
    • Employment and personnel practices
    • Compensation and benefits
    • Personnel research
    • Collective bargaining
    • HR information system
    • Health and safety
  • OD can only intervene in situations of:
    • Need for change felt at the top of the management
    • Problems in the work environment
    • Managers committed to long-term improvement
    • Managers and employees are all willing to listen to the OD’s key assumptions formulated by internal or external consultants
    • Trust and cooperation
    • Top managers are willing to provide all necessary resources for expertise
  • Alternatives to OD
    • THE LEGALISTIC APPROACH – intervenes when there are differences between the legal standards and the organization’s practices
    • THE DIALECTIC APPROACH – public debate between two persons or groups analyzing the same problem from two different perspectives
    • THE LEADERSHIP CHANGE APPROACH – the temporary change of the leader
    • 4. THE PERSUASIVE APPROACH – convincing people that change is needed
    • 5. THE COERCITIVE APPROACH – imposing change by force; it is generally counterproductive and it is considered as a last alternative
  • BRAS OV Str. Zizinului bl. 9, ap. 3 Tel: 0742 060716 [email_address] SIBIU Str. Some s ului nr.7 Tel: 0723 774455 office @analytics.ro www.analytics.ro | www.teamevent.ro