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Structures
 

Structures

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Unit about Structures used for 2º of ESO (Spain)

Unit about Structures used for 2º of ESO (Spain)

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    Structures Structures Presentation Transcript

    • What do they have in common?
    • What do they have in common?
    • What do they have in common?
    • StructuresTechnology DepartmentI.E.S. El Batán, Mieres2007-2013
    • Structures● Aims:✔ Classify the different types of structures.✔ Recognize the structural elements than theothers.✔ Distinguish the different structural forces,specially compression, tension and bending.✔ Be able to understand the design of simplestructures, attending the forces involved onthem.
    • Whats a structure?● The structure is the partof an object (a building,a device or a car) whichkeeps the other partsjoined and in theirpositions.
    • Where are the structures?● Practically everyobject has a structure.● Some of them, asbridges or towers, aresimply a structure.
    • Hidden structures● Sometimes, as inbuildings or cars, thestructure is hidden byother elements, but itcan be observedduring theconstruction.
    • Types of Structures● Massive:➢ Great amount of mass: rocks, stones, concrete,reinforced concrete or earth.● Casing or Shell:➢ An outer box made of rigid material supports allthe other parts.● Framework:➢ Made with rigid linear elements joined by theirends.
    • Massive Structures● They can use archs tomake the openings.● Examples:− Great China Wall− Egyptian Pyramids− Cathedrals− Dams (Reser-voirs)− Sea ports, har-bours
    • Archs● The Romans usedstone archtechnology to buildlong bridges andhigh aqueducts.● Theyre widely usedin massivestructures.
    • Casing Structures● Casing is used inmany small objects:as toys, electronicdevices, TV, laptops,mobile phones, etc.● Plastic materials arevery suitable tomake this kind ofthings.
    • Frameworks● Rigid elements can bemade from wood, iron,steel or other metals, orusing cement, concreteor reinforced concrete.● The triangle is oftenused to make themstronger.
    • Why the triangle?● If the elements arerigid, even if thejoints are articulated,the triangle keeps itsshape.● Otherwise, square isnot a rigid shape.
    • ● Structural elements are subjected to forces,from the other elements and from the load.● There are six fundamental efforts. They are:➢ Tension➢ Compression➢ Bending (Flexure)● We will study some of them.Forces➢Shear➢Torsion➢Buckling
    • Tension & Compression● Two opposite forcesare exerted on theends of a workpiece.● If they are pulling, wesay tension.● If they are pushing,compression
    • Flexure, Bending● If an horizontal beam supports a load, itssubjected to flexure or bending.
    • Torsion● The element is twisted between both ends, one ofthem clockwise and another counter-clockwise.● The bar is said to be in a state of torsion or to betwisted.
    • Shear● Shear attempts to move adjacent sections ofan element in opposite directions.
    • Beams● Beams are used to cross an opening, suchas the distance between two walls. They aremade from different ‘sections’ or shapes.
    • Modern Bridges● Modern bridges use towers and cables tokeep the deck in its place.
    • ● Watch the video about the Tacoma Narrows Bridge(1940), and try to explain what they have seen. Lookfor information in the Internet about it.● Study the structure of an asturian horreo.● Design & construct a 15 cm height structure withpaper and cardboard which can support a load of 1kg.Activities
    • Analysing a structure● What forces areinvolved in eachelement of thisswing structure?111122345
    • Analysing a structure● 1: Compression● 2: Tension● 3: Bending● 4: Bending & torsion● 5: Shear111122345
    • Credits● Made with OpenOffice.org.● Operating System: Linux Knoppix & Ubuntu.● All of them are GPL License Software.Miguel Sáenz de Santa MaríaLicensed under Creative Commons License