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G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
G Rodriguez  Tank Calibration
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G Rodriguez Tank Calibration

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  • 1. Tank Calibration Pierre Auger Observatory Gonzalo Rodriguez Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Astroparticle group for the Pierre Auger Collaboration 1 Trasgo Project
  • 2. Pierre Auger Observatory research goals • Energy Spectrum of UHECR (E > 1018 eV) -> Shape of the spectrum in the region of the GZK feature • Arrival Direction Distribution -> Search for departure from isotropy - point sources • Mass Composition: nuclei, photons, neutrinos, etc. 2
  • 3. Pierre Auger Observatory research goals • Energy Spectrum of UHECR (E > 1018 eV) -> Shape of the spectrum in the region of the GZK feature • Arrival Direction Distribution -> Search for departure from isotropy - point sources • Mass Composition: nuclei, photons, neutrinos, etc. • And also... Why we are here? When we are going to disappear? 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Not only muons hit the tank!!!! 9
  • 10. Event reconstruction: S(1000m) Example Event (48°, E~70 EeV) Reconstruction procedure: χ²-method to fit angles (θ,φ) Likelihood method to fit a NKG-type function Fitting parameters core S(1000m) S(1000m) Slope β fixed 4 10 1000m
  • 11. Fluorescence Reconstruction Electromagnetic energy - Fluorescence energy almost MC independent. SD tank EFD = finv x Eem 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. VEM: Vertical Equivalent Muon The Cherenkov light is measured in units of the signal produced by a: Vertical and Central Through-going Muon. 16
  • 17. VEM: Vertical Equivalent Muon The Cherenkov light is measured in units of the signal produced by a: Vertical and Central Through-going Muon. We use: Atmospheric muons passing through the detector at a rate of 2500Hz 1 minute ~ 150000 events 17
  • 18. Tipical FADC traces 150000 triggers 18
  • 19. Tipical FADC traces 150000 triggers Pulse height - IpeakVEM 19
  • 20. Tipical FADC traces 150000 triggers Pulse height - IpeakVEM Charge = Sum FADC(i) - QpeakVEM 20
  • 21. Charge histograms and their relation to a VEM trigger threshold 0.2IpeakVEM For the sum of the 3 PMTs QpeakVEM = 1.09 VEM Individual PMTs QpeakVEM = 1.03 VEM 21
  • 22. From simulations we can understand the charge histrograms structure Particles Flux Charge histograms 22
  • 23. From simulations we can understand the charge histrograms structure Particles Flux Charge histograms 23
  • 24. The calibration is done in 3 main steps: - The high voltage of each PMT is adjust to have approximately the same QpeakVEM in each PMT. - Each PMT has a single rate spectrum. Then we adjust the trigger thershold to have a single a rate of 100Hz at IpeakVEM = 150 ch. - This choice sets up each of the PMT to have approximately 50ch / IpeakVEM. - Continually perform a local calibration to determine the IpeakVEM in channels to adjust the electronic-level trigger. - Determine the value of QpeakVEM to high accuracy using charge histograms. 24
  • 25. The calibration is done in 3 main steps: - The high voltage of each PMT is adjust to have approximately the same QpeakVEM in each PMT. - Each PMT has a single rate spectrum. Then we adjust the trigger thershold to have a single a rate of 100Hz at IpeakVEM = 150 ch. - This choice sets up each of the PMT to have approximately 50ch / IpeakVEM. - Continually perform a local calibration to determine the IpeakVEM in channels to adjust the electronic-level trigger. - Determine the value of QpeakVEM to high accuracy using charge histograms. 25
  • 26. The calibration is done in 3 main steps: - The high voltage of each PMT is adjust to have approximately the same QpeakVEM in each PMT. - Each PMT has a single rate spectrum. Then we adjust the trigger thershold to have a single a rate of 100Hz at IpeakVEM = 150 ch. - This choice sets up each of the PMT to have approximately 50ch / IpeakVEM. - Continually perform a local calibration to determine the IpeakVEM in channels to adjust the electronic-level trigger. - Determine the value of QpeakVEM to high accuracy using charge histograms. 26
  • 27. The calibration is done in 3 main steps: - The high voltage of each PMT is adjust to have approximately the same QpeakVEM in each PMT. - Each PMT has a single rate spectrum. Then we adjust the trigger thershold to have a single a rate of 100Hz at IpeakVEM = 150 ch. - This choice sets up each of the PMT to have approximately 50ch / IpeakVEM. - Continually perform a local calibration to determine the IpeakVEM in channels to adjust the electronic-level trigger. - Determine the value of QpeakVEM to high accuracy using charge histograms. 27
  • 28. The calibration is done in 3 main steps: - The high voltage of each PMT is adjust to have approximately the same QpeakVEM in each PMT. - Each PMT has a single rate spectrum. Then we adjust the trigger thershold to have a single a rate of 100Hz at IpeakVEM = 150 ch. - This choice sets up each of the PMT to have approximately 50ch / IpeakVEM. - Continually perform a local calibration to determine the IpeakVEM in channels to adjust the electronic-level trigger. - Determine the value of QpeakVEM to high accuracy using charge histograms. 28
  • 29. Information about Calibration that comes with each event Baseline Histogram 29
  • 30. Information about Calibration that comes with each event Pulse Height Histogram 30
  • 31. Information about Calibration that comes with each event Shape Histogram 31
  • 32. Information about Calibration that comes with each event Charge individual PMT Histogram 32
  • 33. Information about Calibration that comes with each event Charge sum of 3 PMTs Histogram 33
  • 34. Signal [VEM peak] 34
  • 35. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): The analysis of inclined events is very important because: - Increase the statistics,  ∈ (600,800), 30% more events. - Enlarge sky map: allows the study of clustering and anisotropy in an extended region of the sky. - EM component is absorbed in the atmosphere. Inclined showers are sensitive to the muonic component. - We can study composition, because the total number of muons depends on the energy and primary particle type. - Neutrino events may interact deep in the atmosphere. 35
  • 36. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): The analysis of inclined events is very important because: - Increase the statistics,  ∈ (600,800), 30% more events. - Enlarge sky map: allows the study of clustering and anisotropy in an extended region of the sky. - EM component is absorbed in the atmosphere. Inclined showers are sensitive to the muonic component. - We can study composition, because the total number of muons depends on the energy and primary particle type. - Neutrino events may interact deep in the atmosphere. 36
  • 37. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): The analysis of inclined events is very important because: - Increase the statistics,  ∈ (600,800), 30% more events. - Enlarge sky map: allows the study of clustering and anisotropy in an extended region of the sky. - EM component is absorbed in the atmosphere. Inclined showers are sensitive to the muonic component. - We can study composition, because the total number of muons depends on the energy and primary particle type. - Neutrino events may interact deep in the atmosphere. 37
  • 38. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): The analysis of inclined events is very important because: - Increase the statistics,  ∈ (600,800), 30% more events. - Enlarge sky map: allows the study of clustering and anisotropy in an extended region of the sky. - EM component is absorbed in the atmosphere. Inclined showers are sensitive to the muonic component. - We can study composition, because the total number of muons depends on the energy and primary particle type. - Neutrino events may interact deep in the atmosphere. 38
  • 39. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): The analysis of inclined events is very important because: - Increase the statistics,  ∈ (600,800), 30% more events. - Enlarge sky map: allows the study of clustering and anisotropy in an extended region of the sky. - EM component is absorbed in the atmosphere. Inclined showers are sensitive to the muonic component. - We can study composition, because the total number of muons depends on the energy and primary particle type. - Neutrino events may interact deep in the atmosphere. 39
  • 40. 0 Inclined Showers( >60 ): - Inclined showers are all about muons! - Understand the tank response to inclined muons is crucial. - Up to now there is not specific measurements for inclined and individuals muons with high statistics. - We only have simulations! Which have some unknown parameters. 40
  • 41. Muon Flux and Muon rate in a Pierre Auger Tank 70 deg. -> 1 Hz 80 deg. -> 0.04 Hz 41 85 deg. -> 0.001 Hz
  • 42. Inclined Showers TODO LIST: - Charge histograms as a function of the zenit angle - Direct light (PMT balance) - Signal versus Track length - Measured the muon flux - Muon decay - Start Time variance - Check the simulations 42

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