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    Portafolio de ingles Portafolio de ingles Document Transcript

    • 1 UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA ESTATAL DEL CARCHI NAME: MIGUEL ÁNGEL YUGCHA LEVEL: FOURTH ING. IVÁN FUERTES TULCÁN 10/07/2013
    • 2 CONTENT PERSONAL INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 3 DOSSIER TASKS TULCÁN SAFETY.............................................................................................. 6 MY LIFE IN UNIVERSITY .................................................................................. 7 PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS...................................................................... 8 LETTER OF SUGGESTION............................................................................. 10 DESCRIPTION OF MY FAMILY....................................................................... 11 ALBERT EINSTEIN.......................................................................................... 12 LETTER OF EMPLOYMENT............................................................................ 13 POLLUTION OF RIVERS................................................................................. 14 DESCRIPTION OF THE PLACES I LIKE......................................................... 15 LETTER............................................................................................................ 18 THE MOST POPULAR SPORTS IN MY LOCAL AREA................................... 19 EXPOSITIONS TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT .......................................................................... 21 WONDERS OF ECUADOR.............................................................................. 22 PERSONAL RESOURCES SUN SAFETY FOR KIDS................................................................................. 30 SUN-PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ...................................................................... 32 SUNSCREEN................................................................................................... 34 SHADE / UV INDEX......................................................................................... 37 SUNGLASSES................................................................................................. 38 CURRICULUM ................................................................................................. 39 PERSONNEL ................................................................................................... 40 COMMUNICATION .......................................................................................... 40 VITAMIN D ....................................................................................................... 41 TIPS TO AVOID BEING A FRIEND OF VICTIM OF CRIME............................ 44 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................... 45
    • 3 PERSONAL INTRODUCTION My name is Miguel Angel Yugcha, I'm in sixth semester of business administration and marketing and fourth level of English for me, this race has taught me many things in which I can better in everyday life ie has helped me improve as manage my time well has also taught me skills I did not know and has given me the guideline to implement it. It also helped me find my abilities methodological support to create ideas, it helps my learning with the sole purpose of successfully completing my degree, since all knowledge acquired in my life in college will be implemented when we as professionals .
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    • 6 TULCÁN SAFETY The National Police will launch from today, in the words of the principal in charge of the Police Command Carchi Number 10, Colonel William Montero, a comprehensive plan to improve the safety of the population. This is part of the Strategic Plan for the Modernization and Transformation Integrated Police for the XXI Century, however, the province will begin from this day, with the resources we have, as Montero said. The plan is designed for the medium and long term, to the extent that is planned for the period ranging from 2004 to 2014. To this was added the sectional agency support, in addition to the various institutions of justice, such as the Supreme Court and the Attorney General. Over time, this scheme will be extended to rural Tulcán Canton and the other counties in the province. Each town has its own realities and we must act on this, to find a solution.
    • 7 MY LIFE IN UNIVERSITY Introduction: My name is MiguelAngel sixth semester course in business administration and marketing, and the fourth level of English at the State University Carchi. Development My college life has been quite an experience, and I'm here to meet all my goals and objectives that I have raised As far as I attend classes Monday through Friday from 8:00 am until 7:00 pm because right now I am doing internships in college and my schedule would be as follows Monday from 8:00 am until 13:00 pm done internships and from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm receive research materials operations and production management. Tuesday from 8:00 am until 13:00 pm done internships and from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm the receipt of materials database fundamentals and market research Wednesday from 8:00 am until 13:00 pm done internships and from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm receive research materials operations and business address. Thursday from 8:00 am to 13:00 pm done internships and from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm the receipt of materials production management and market research. Friday from 8:00 am to 13:00 pm done internships and from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm I get the basic subjects and database business address. And finally I have English on Saturday at 2:00 in the afternoon, up to 7:00 pm Conclusions Being in the state polytechnic university Carchi privilege because every day I'm gaining knowledge and preparation with which to face the future as a trained professional to take on new challenges.
    • 8 PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS Introduction Adolescence, time of life where they can feel strong emotions torments and frequent clashes between the young and the adults. It is important to note that each individual develops at a different pace. In addition to the rapid physical, emotional changes are large that although positive, can sometimes be confusing and uncomfortable for adults and for the fellow. To build a new way of being in the world ... teens should leave their homes. The group of friends is most important at this time of life, and is the place where they will build their new subjectivity. Parents become less essential. Young people spend much time on the phone, in front of the computer, listening to music or away from home, what irks parents and produces conflicts. The conflicts and arguments, even frequent, have nothing to do with the personality of the parents or with them. Not that we do not appreciate or do not want more, but is related to the need of adolescents to become independent and build their own lives. Development While striving to be more independent, they try new ways, but if faced with difficulties, often angry, be cranky and lose confidence in himself which leads to the following problems. Emotional problems: What teenager has not felt so sad that she cried and wanted to get away from everything and everyone, thinking that life is not worth living. These feelings can lead to depression which can hide under excess food, sleep problems and excessive worries about their physical appearance. These disorders can also be expressed in the form of fear or panic attacks. Behavior problems: For one thing teens want their parents to be clear and precise limits supply them but when this is done, they feel that they take away freedom and not allow you to make your own decisions. Disagreements occur and often lose control parents not knowing what is happening to their children, or where they are. Therefore, it is important for parents to ask and know where their children are, who they are and where they go. And the children inform their elders. School problems: Many times teenagers refuse to go to school thus expressing a difficulty in separating from parents. This can be expressed in the form of "headaches" or "stomach".
    • 9 Other problems may be the difficulty of integrating the peer group or conflicts with a student, may be being harassed by a colleague. All these situations can make go to the school to become lonely and frightening experience. Conclusions The age of adolescence is the most problematic of all stages of life, but in turn is the most comfortable. Unfortunately, the teenager today has different problems that leads to several teenagers to follow directions you should not even make any kind of way such as drugs or a severe depression.
    • 10 LETTER OF SUGGESTION Dear friend I'm really sorry to hear you problem, but I think I can help you The first thing you need to do your family is your brother aware of your problem, the need to abandon the habit of drinking so you can regain your health. Having recognized the problem must start the detoxification process and provide the necessary tools to not fall back into the addition. I really hope my advice helps. Write and let me know what happens. Love, Miguel
    • 11 DESCRIPTION OF MY FAMILY Development My family consists of four members including me. My mother, my sister, my niece and myself. My mother's name is Mariana, she is a little chubby, of medium height, his face is round has long dark hair, her skin is clear, your eyes are brown, is very loving and very responsible. My sister's name is Silvia, she is tall, regular completion, your face is oval, his eyes are brown, she has long dark hair, she is very serious. My niece is called Joselyne, she is small, chubby, his face is round has a very fine nose his eyes are light brown, she has curly hair and clear, she is very playful, sociable, sympathetic. My mother is more affectionate than my sister My sister is more serious than my mother My niece is more playful than my sister My mother is more responsible than my sister Conclusion My family is the coolest
    • 12 ALBERT EINSTEIN (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) Introduction Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. He is the most famous physicist by the achievements in this area. Development Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. At the age of eight, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left Germany seven years later. Einstein had early speech difficulties. Achievements He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory. Family He married MilevaMaric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey. Commentary I think, Albert Einstein is the most important physicist of our age, because, he made a lot of contributions to the science. Making us understand, things that we didn´t know that exist.
    • 13 LETTER OF EMPLOYMENT Dear Mr. Gabriel Segarra Le writing to request the position of sales management as advertised in the newspaper of day Saturday 16 of 2013. I am a thirty years old, I'm an engineer International Sales and Marketing currently need work. I have six years of experience as director of sales, I am an honest and hardworking. I am friendly and I like meeting new people and I feel these are the right qualities for the job. I am available for an interview at any time. Thanks for your consideration. I look forward to hearing from you. Yourssincerely, `|zâxÄ ˙ÇzxÄ lâzv{t Miguel Ángel Yugcha
    • 14 POLLUTION OF RIVERS Water is essential for life, because without it simply could not survive any living being. Society itself uses huge amounts of water for daily life, this shows the importance that water has for life itself. Problems Most rivers are contaminated by chemicals and microorganisms from industrial waste and sewage. There is lots of plastic pollution to take forever to decompose. All these pollutants are human responsibility. These materials act impairing the water quality so that render it useless for many applications that are performed today. Solution The only way to prevent pollution in rivers is to exercise strict control over industrial discharges, with penalties commensurate with the damage, and even the closure of the same. The use of agrochemicals pollutes rivers greatly, so it is urgent replacement of outdated methods of fertilization and pest control noxious poisons, by the practice of organic farming and healthy for all. It is important to educate people to stop dumping waste anywhere, since many ends up in the waterways. It is also good to use plants like papyrus reeds or purify water from rivers, streams and lakes. Avoid adjacent destroy flora, as it protects the rivers of different pollutants.
    • 15 DESCRIPTION OF THE PLACES I LIKE In Tulcán there are some places where we can go shopping for example if we want to buy shoes to the mall in North Garden, in this place there are clothes. Another place where we can buy clothes of different models, quality and price, is the People's Mall. If we find other product we can go to Bay shopping center, shopping center AKI, a MACRO Stores, The Fair of the bed among others. Popular Mall The mall is located in Sucre and Panama streets corner facing the credit union Tulcán Here you can find everything related to footwear, casual and sports clothing with very affordable prices for people who will buy their products besides featuring a wide variety of products which we are of good quality and various designs for taste of all people. People who come to the popular shopping center are middle class and low as prices are not as high as the surrounding shops. Snail Mall The mall is located in the Bolívar streets Here you can find everything about clothes and accessories and cellular technology, we can find what they are stuffed animals, letter, posters, etc.. People who visit this place are middle to upper class as prices of their products are high Cafeteria Bocattos The cafe is located on Bolívar streets against the parquet Isidro Ayora
    • 16 Here you can find everything about pizza, appetizers, desserts, ice cream, coffee, espresso, etc. And has a wide range of products and flavors People who visit this place are middle and upper class as the prices of the products are very expensive. Chifa Pack Choy The Chinese restaurant is located on pack choy Sucre and Pichincha street corner diagonal to the church The Cathedral This place offers typical Chinese food which includes what is special rice, noodles, exotic dishes and a lot of drinks to accompany the food and also offers desserts and ice cream. chifa pack choy is very popular for people of Ecuador and Colombia. The prices are very reasonable which are accessible to all North Garden Mall This place is not very big but we can find some local businesses that include local high quality clothing, and shoes that I really like it. There is also a beauty salon, Internet center, a place where you can practice taekwondo and much more.
    • 17 Mall Bahía Here you can find cleaning products and household decorations, toys, and much more related to the bazaar. AKI Mall. - This place bigger than others, we can find consumer products (food), there are goods for household cleaning. There is also a place where there is an ice cream shop and a bank. Fair bed If we are looking for home furnishings this is a good place, this store offers high quality furniture and also very cute.
    • 18 LETTER Dear Lina Hi! How are you? What are you doing next Sunday? I`ve decided to have a party in the house ofmy aunt for my cousin's birthday. I`d love you to come There`ll be lost to eat and drink. I`ve decided to give the party a Chinese theme So there will be variety of Chinese dishes to choose from. My mom is organizing the menu and my aunt has promised to take care of the decorations. You need special clothes as a kimono or some oriental dress. I guess you`ll come by bus. Just give me call from the station when you arrive. Try to be here before 6:30. The party starts at 7:30 and i expect it to finish late can spend the night. I just hope you can make it. It´s been ages since we last saw each other. Pleases let me know as soon as possible Love Miguel
    • 19 THE MOST POPULAR SPORTS IN MY LOCAL AREA. Cycling In the city of Tulcán the sport that is considered within it is cycling. Cycling is considered the sport flag of the city and the province, as most winners of the Tour of Ecuador and other major players in international tests such as the Tour of Colombia are in this city. The biggest winner of the Tour of Ecuador, is Pedro Rodriguez with five titles to his credit. In this city made international competitions such as the International Classical Tulcán, which meets every year to several professional cycling teams from different countries. Tulcán has a velodrome approved by the UCI, in which national and international competitions take place regularly, also has a professional BMX track for testing local and national, and is one of the few cities in the country that have teams amateur professional cycling. Another sport that is football practice because the city has a stadium. Tulcán Olympic Stadium. It is located on avenue Rafael Arellano and Olympic street. It can accommodate 8,000 spectators. The stadium plays an important role in the local football clubs as local tulcaneños make this sports scene. Also, this stadium is home to various sporting events provincial and local levels.
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    • 21 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT Technology is of great importance throughout the world for its advances have made that all of society benefits from it, as we are in an age where every day there is a different breakthrough that makes a great contribution to the development of the same, just as it was a breakthrough in the yesterday, today has no relevance to humanity, everything goes into the past that is why man has made sure that every day has something new to teach the world. Technological advances have made man's work easier thanks to the development of machines that cover much of the work that previously only the operator could perform. Every day technology seizes more smoothly in the world, known to us daily new projects for the benefit of mankind.
    • 22 WONDERS OF ECUADOR El Angel Ecological Reserve, Ecuador Carchi El Angel Ecological Reserve is located in the canton Mirror, Carchi province, and north of the Ecuadorian highlands. It houses a huge biological and ecological diversity, represented by species of flora and fauna, water resources, cultural, unique and representative ecosystems of the area. The moor of El Angel is covered by frailejones, is endemic in the area, which covers 85% of the area. These plants grow on the trunks of up to 6m in height and form a forest. Its flowers are like sunflowers and their leaves are hairy to protect the plant from cold weather and hard. The reserve is home to many species of animals including highlights, rainbow trout, and the marsupial frog. In the book you can see the presence of a large number of lakes, streams, ditches and streams. Among the main ones are born in the reserve are The Angel, Ass, and Big.
    • 23 Cuicocha lagoon The Cuicocha lagoon is inside the Cotacachi volcano crater that was triggered by a volcanic eruption thousands of years ago, which is why, no banks. It's a wonderful lagoon at the foot of Cotacachi volcano, considered mythological ecological pond in the middle of this lake appear three domes of volcanic rock that form two islands covered with vegetation separated by the "channel of dreams". It is located within the Cotacachi-Cayapas. It is located 14 km from Otavalo and 12 kilometers southwest of Cotacachi. It is a deep volcanic crater 4 km long by 3 km wide and about 200 m. deep. The weather, as determined by the topography, wet periodically vain to cold temperate high Andean tropical and temperate rainy to dry periodically. Regarding the fauna at the site can see species such as the guinea pig mountain that gives its name to the lake the brocket, the wild rabbit, armadillo, the Andean fox, the Chucurí and lots of birds as pigeons, doves, hummingbirds, sparrows, blackbirds, owls and ducks.
    • 24 Ingapirca Inca Ruins Ingapirca archaeological site is the most important and significant of Ecuador. Archaeologists have determined that your foundation took place in the late fifteenth century and it is thought that the Canaris, a small tribe who populated the southern Andes of Ecuador, were the original inhabitants of the site until the arrival of the Inca Empire. In these ruins you can appreciate the skill of the Inca and Canari in stone work and extensive knowledge about solar patterns. Roam around is like stepping into a complex network of stone structures surrounding the large circular solar temple. The ruins are located between the hills of the Andes of southern Ecuador, about 90 kilometers north of the city of Cuenca and 3230 meters above sea level on a predominantly agricultural area with a rich indigenous history.
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    • 30 SUN SAFETY FOR KIDS Sun-protective Hats and Clothing Heads up! Wearing a sun-protective hat is a simple and effective strategy for reducing ultraviolet radiation to the face, head and neck. If children could become accustomed to wearing a hat when outdoors at school it should increase the likelihood that they will routinely wear one for non-school outdoor activities as well. But, the fear of ridicule from one’s peers can certainly be a strong deterrent. Without a school policy to encourage, require, or reward, students for wearing a sun-protective hat, it is somewhat unlikely that children will allow themselves to benefit from using this practical and inexpensive cancer- prevention device. History of Hats in Schools Most schools have, or had, a policy to prohibit children from wearing a hat at school. Concerns about hats being used as a sign of gang identification are most frequently cited as the reason behind such policy. After learning that some California schools would not even allow a hat to be worn by a child with a strong genetic susceptibility to skin cancer and a doctor’s note, Mrs. Karen Graham took action. Following the death of her son at an early age from melanoma, Mrs. Graham initiated legislation that resulted in an amendment to the California Education Code as follows: Each school site shall allow for outdoor use during the school day, articles of sun-protective clothing, including, but not limited to, hats. (2) Each school site may set a policy related to the type of sun-protective clothing, including, but not limited to, hats, that pupils will be allowed to use outdoors pursuant to paragraph (1). Specific clothing and hats determined by the school district or school site to be gang-related or inappropriate apparel may be prohibited by the dress code policy. Communication Gap Many California parents and students remain unaware that children now have the right to wear a hat outdoors at school. Although some schools and districts have amended their policy or dress code to remove the prohibition against hats, few have taken the important additional step of encouraging sun-protective hats and clothing. In effect, there is room for improvement in most schools. Promoting Hats and Long Clothing By implementing policies and incentives aimed at encouraging the use of sun- protective hats and clothing, schools have the no-cost opportunity to reduce the risk of skin cancer among the students and staff.
    • 31 Many schools already sell articles of attire, such as T-shirts. Why not encourage sun safety by adding sun-protective items? A hat sporting the school name or mascot could not only promote school pride but also bring in additional revenue. What Type of Hat Shall be Allowed? While California law gives students the right to wear a hat outdoors at school, schools retain the discretion to determine the type of hat. Whatever policy the school adopts, the goal should be the wearing of a hat by most or all students and personnel. PoliceOptions: • Students may procure/wear any hat or visor that provides reasonable sun protection. • Hats meeting certain design criteria (as defined by the school or district) are allowed. • Certain types of hat (definition supplied) are not allowed. • Only specific hat(s), that the school or district provides for sale or to be ordered, are allowed. Primary School Young children will likely wear whatever that is recommended. Primary schools could provide a helpful service by educating parents about the features to look for in a sun-protective hat and/or offering proper hats for sale or to be ordered. Policy might be implemented to more strongly encourage, or possibly require, hat-wearing for outdoor activities at this level. As these children proceed into secondary school, they might be less likely to object to hats. Secondary School Teenagers are notoriously fashion conscious. For any success with a campaign to encourage hat-wearing in secondary school it might be necessary to allow students considerable flexibility in their choice of a hat. Although baseball caps are not ideal, one school of thought among sun safety advocates is that “Any hat is better than no hat.” For students who object to a hat that disturbs their coiffure, a large clip-on visor could be a satisfactory compromise. Most school or physical education uniforms are not particularly stylish but they are worn because it’s the rule. If only one or a limited number of hats is allowed (equalizing the fashion disadvantage to every student), and if effective incentives are provided for wearing the hat, reasonable success might be achievable. However, there is a significant risk of total failure with this approach. The chance of success might be improved if students are invited to participate in determining what type of hat(s), or what specific hat(s), will or will not be allowed. Securing the cooperation of school leaders, trend-setters, and
    • 32 teachers in wearing and promoting the hats might help to establish their acceptability. It may also be advisable to develop a strategy for discouraging and punishing harassment of a child who does wear a hat or long clothing. Clothing California has granted its school children the right to wear long clothing for outdoor activities while at school. Schools can now help to prevent skin cancer by promoting long clothing. Primary School Parents of young children should be asked to provide a long sleeved garment for their child to bring to school and slip on (unless already wearing long sleeves) before outdoor activities. This could be called a “play shirt.” To prevent overheating on a warm day, it should be lightweight and loose fitting. Schools may re-think their dress policy about shorts in light of the increased exposure to UV radiation that they permit. It might be a hard sell to students and parents alike, but loose fitting, lightweight long pants or dresses can be just as cool and comfortable during warm weather. Secondary School The traditional physical education uniform consists of a T-shirt and short shorts. To promote sun safety, schools could re-configure the P.E. uniform to incorporate longer sleeves and shorts, and a sun-protective hat, for the benefit of all students. Rather than merely recommending sweatshirts and sweatpants, choose cover-up clothing that is lightweight and loose fitting to prevent overheating. Lives can be saved With numerous research studies clearly linking childhood sun damage to the later development of skin cancer, a passive allowance of hats and long clothing is not sufficient. With virtually no impact on the budget, schools can actively encourage sun-safe behavior so that fewer of today’s children will have to face the morbidity or mortality of melanoma as adults. SUN-PROTECTIVE CLOTHING California Education Code A sun-protective clothing policy should address two important goals: 1. Encouraging students and personnel to cover up when outdoors 2. Specifying the type of sun-protective clothing that is, or is not, allowed
    • 33 Why can't Everyone Just Use Sunscreen? It is very fortunate that sunscreen products are available for use as a second line of defense. However, sunscreens sometimes fail, usually attributable to user error, which can result in unintentional sun damage. Bycontrast, clothingis: • Cost effective. A garment costs about the same as one or two bottles of sunscreen, but lasts much longer • On average, a more effective UV blocker. Less prone to “missed spots” or “under application” • Dependable. Doesn’t wash off, rub off, dissipate, penetrate, or expire • Notmessy. Spillproof • Not an irritant. Doesn’t cause eye irritation or acne • Quicker to apply. Covers large areas in a hurry The "Play Shirt" When the children in an elementary class prepare to go outside for physical activity, the time savings and tidiness that clothing affords will prove to be a great advantage over total reliance on sunscreen. The parents of young children should be asked to provide a “play shirt,” with long sleeves and a collar that can be kept in the child’s backpack or stashed at school. To avoid the time and mess of applying sunscreen to the neck, shoulders, upper back, and arms, children can simply slip on their play shirt, right over whatever they are already wearing, before going outdoors. (It would not need to be buttoned down the front when worn over a tee shirt.) Children can remove the play shirt when they return indoors. If the shirt is lightweight and well ventilated, it should not cause overheating. However, during extremely warm weather, sunscreen could be used instead. By wearing a hat and covering the arms and legs with clothing, sunscreen need only be applied to the lower face, neck, and backs of the hands. What a great savings in both time and cost! Legs As outlined above, compared to sunscreen, long pants and skirts would reduce cost, time, and messiness in protecting the leg skin from UV damage. Physical Education Without a sun-protective clothing policy, a dispute might arise between teacher and student if a child should independently choose to wear long clothing, as opposed to the standard uniform, for a physical education class in California. The California Ed. Code states: “Each school site may set a policy related to the type of sun-protective clothing, including, but not limited to, hats, that pupils will be allowed to use outdoors...”
    • 34 To help in the prevention of skin cancer, and to prevent student-teacher misunderstanding, here are some steps secondary schools can take: • Review the current physical education uniform for its sun protection capacity • Re-define the P.E. uniform to incorporate items that cover more skin • Consider adding hats (such as legionnaire-style caps) to the uniform • Recommend that uniform items be made of fabric that has a UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor) of at least 15 • Define allowed alternatives to the standard P.E. uniform for students who choose to cover more skin than the amount covered by the standard uniform • Communicate your clothing and hats policy to students, parents, and teachers • Develop strategies to actively encourage students to cover up and wear a hat for all outdoor activities including, but not limited to, physical education class SUNSCREEN To complement more reliable methods of reducing skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (such as sun avoidance, clothing, and hats) sunscreen can be very useful. However, limitations to the effectiveness of sunscreen include the following common user errors: • Failuretoapplyenough • Unevenapplication / mis sed spots • Failureto re-apply Because some amount of UV radiation might pass by the sunscreen, unintentional sunburn can occur. Think of these products as a back-up to other, more effective, and sun safety strategies. UVA UVB The sun emits a broad spectrum of radiation that includes harmless visible light as well as ultraviolet radiation. The bands of wavelengths that damage human skin are categorized as UVA and UVB. UVB rays are the main cause of the skin turning red, or exhibiting sunburn. They can fracture the DNA in skin cells, resulting in mutations. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are the main cause of wrinkling, and discoloration. They cause the formation of damaging atoms called free radicals, and can inhibit the immune system from doing its job to prevent cancer. It is important to protect the skin from both UVA and UVB. Broad Spectrum Sunscreen If, and only if a sunscreen effectively filters out UVA rays as well as UVB rays (which is highly desirable) it may be labeled "Broad Spectrum." When shopping for sunscreen, always look for a product labeled "Broad Spectrum SPF" rather
    • 35 than simply "SPF." Certain antioxidants can augment the broad spectrum protection. Look for a mention of antioxidants on the product label but unfortunately there is not yet any rating system to help you compare antioxidant effectiveness between products. Dosage Probably the greatest drawback with sunscreen is that most people do not apply a sufficient dose. The SPF number is determined by the manufacturer using a “standard” application amount (required by the FDA) of 2 milligrams of product per square centimeter of skin. For the average adult in a bathing suit this would be a little more than one ounce, or approximately a shot glass full. (That’s one quarter of the typical 4 oz. sunscreen bottle.) When a person applies less than the “standard” amount, only a fraction of the labeled SPF will be achieved. Studies have shown that the average person applies less than half the “standard” amount of sunscreen, which results in an SPF of only about one third of that labeled on the bottle. Sprays on sunscreens are particularly subject to under dosing. By contrast, if more than the “standard” amount is applied, the SPF achieved will exceed that labeled on the bottle. UV causes some sunscreen ingredients to gradually deteriorate on the skin’s surface in response to sun exposure. Sunscreen can also dissipate due to sweating, rubbing, and penetration into the skin. To maintain maximum effect, sunscreen should be re-applied every two hours. A single application before coming to school cannot be expected to adequately protect a child for afternoon physical education. These products must be applied liberally and, as with paint, two coats are better than one. Thus, Sun Safety for Kids coined the phrase: “Put on a lot. And don’t miss a spot!” A History of Prohibition Because sunscreens are regulated by the FDA as over the counter drugs, many California schools either refrained from encouraging their use or prohibited them under a “zero tolerance for drugs” policy. To overcome this hurdle, in 2002 the California state government amended the Education Code as follows: (1) Each school site shall allow pupils the use of sunscreen during the school day without a physician's note or prescription. (2) Each school site may set a policy related to the use of sunscreen by pupils during the school day. (3) For purposes of this subdivision, sunscreen is not an over-the-counter medication. (4) Nothing in this subdivision requires school personnel to assist pupils in applying sunscreen.
    • 36 Using sunscreen at school Schools should actively encourage sunscreen use as a supplement to other sun safety strategies such as hats, long clothing, sun avoidance, etc. Parents should be asked to ensure that their child has a sufficient supply for use at school. Reminders from the teacher, as well as announcements, posters, etc. will help to increase compliance. Adopt a plan to accommodate children who forget or run out of sunscreen. Product can be sold in the student store and a supply can be stocked in the nurse’s office. If funding allows, a large pump bottle can be supplied in primary school classrooms, and in the gym at secondary schools. (A P.E. uniform with longer sleeves and pants will lessen the amount of sunscreen necessary.) Although teachers in Australia commonly assist young children in applying their sunscreen when necessary, American teachers tend to be fearful of touching a student. Nonetheless primary teachers can be a tremendous help by demonstrating application technique on themselves and by providing appropriate supervision and reminders, focusing most closely on students who have the most lightly pigmented skin. Risk reduction When it’s suggested that U.S. schools could follow the Australian example of providing a supply of sunscreen in classrooms, administrators commonly raise an unfounded concern that some child might be allergic. Fortunately, allergic reaction to sunscreen is very uncommon and, if one does occur, it is generally a minor reversible skin rash. This is in sharp contrast to the potentially serious type of allergy that can occur in reaction to certain foods, such as shellfish or peanuts. Any concerns about possible misuse or allergy to sunscreen should be on a par with those regarding other skin products already found at school, such as the hand soap supplied in the restroom. A simple and appropriate risk reduction strategy would be to inform parents of the availability of sunscreen at the school. If the parent objects to the school’s sunscreen, they should be advised to counsel their child not to use it. Summary Due to UV, the outdoors during daylight is akin to a radiation chamber. To help protect children from sustaining damage on the playground, schools can and should strongly promote the use of sunscreen as a supplement to other sun protection methods.
    • 37 SHADE / UV INDEX “We can’t afford shade structures, so the subject of sun safety will not be considered,” declared one school administrator. Although shade structures may indeed require acquisition funding there are numerous steps a school can take to reduce children’s exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation with little or no financial impact. Avoid Unintentional Sun Exposure Begin with a survey of your school site(s) to identify existing areas that are shaded. Children should not be required to spend time in direct midday sunlight if a shade alternative is at hand. For example, sometimes children are ushered into the middle of a field for a prolonged period of time during a disaster drill, or are required to sit at a lunch table that is not shaded. Establish procedures to shift activity and congregation into shaded or indoor areas when feasible. When there is no reasonable alternative, compensate by encouraging or providing other sun-protective items, such as hats, long clothing, umbrellas, and sunscreen. Track the UV Index The level of ultraviolet radiation striking your school varies with the altitude, season, time of day, and weather conditions. Levels are greater from March to November and from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. during daylight saving time. These are the periods when sun safety should be most strongly promoted. The Ultraviolet Index is calculated daily to forecast the strength of ultraviolet radiation across the nation. You can determine the UV Index for your area by logging on to the EPA website at www.epa.gov/sunwise. Click on “UV Index Forecast,” and search by entering your zip code. Kickoff your sun safety program each year during the first week of March, on the first day of spring, or during Wellness Week with announcements, reminders, instruction, etc. Between March and November (or year-round in high UV areas) heighten awareness by tracking and communicating the UV Index to the school community, accompanied by appropriate warnings and sun safety tips when the level is high. Shade Trees Trees can not only provide shade for outdoor activities, they can also help to keep school buildings cooler, reducing air conditioning costs. Look for sites on the campus that could benefit from tree shade. Mr. Frank McDonough, horticulturist at the Los Angeles Arboretum, has provided his recommendations for the best shade trees for use on Southern California campuses. See his list on our trees.
    • 38 Through their "Campus Forestry" program, Tree People (a California nonprofit) assists schools to design and develop a tree-planting program involving the participation of students, staff, and parents. Visit their website at http://www.treepeople.org/ Scheduling of Outdoor Activities There usually aren’t sufficient resources for making substantial changes, but try to take advantage of lower UV levels before 10:00 a.m. and after 4:00 p.m. by prioritizing outdoor activities during those periods. Between 10 and 4, which is of course most of the school day, don’t discourage outdoor physical activity but, particularly during the high UV season, strongly promote sun safety measures to “Block the sun; Not the fun.” In areas of the country where winters are cold, there is usually a gymnasium, even at elementary schools, to provide children with a protected environment for physical activity. During sunny weather, capitalize on a gym’s capacity to protect against UV radiation as well. Architecture The area adjacent to a building can sometimes be a good source of shade. Locate and encourage the utilization of such existing areas. Any plans for new construction or remodeling should include shade provision as an important and desirable feature. Factors such as height, positioning of the building(s) on the lot, overhangs, and breezeways can significantly increase shade availability. Shade Structures The lunch area and the young children’s play equipment are two sites commonly found on school campuses where shade is highly desirable. In some cases, a shade structure might be the best solution. Over the lunch area, a steel roofed structure might be the best choice due to the added rain-protective feature. For play equipment and large or irregular shaped areas, a UV-blocking fabric cover would be a logical choice. Of course it wouldn’t be possible or even desirable, to shade the entire school campus. However, reasonable efforts can be made to increase the shade options currently available to the students and staff. When shade structures are desired, check for available grant, state, or local resources, and partner with parent groups to organize a fundraising drive. SUNGLASSES There is evidence to indicate that protecting the eyes from ultraviolet radiation may prevent the development of cataracts. The recent amendments to the California Education Code do not specifically include sunglasses, yet they are an important component of personal sun safety.
    • 39 You’ll put your Eye out, kid! Many schools discourage or do not allow students to wear sunglasses. Administrators have voiced a variety of negative opinions, such as “they might break,” “they might cause an injury,” “kids will lose them.” Yet, many children with vision impairment routinely wear their corrective lenses on the playground so it is difficult to fully justify these reservations. With a health benefit attributable to wearing sunglasses, is it in children’s best interest to prohibit them? Nurture Informed Decision-Making Parents and students can make their own informed decision after weighing the potential benefit against the cost and possible danger associated with wearing sunglasses. Develop a plan to inform parents and students that sunglasses are allowed and, while disclaiming liability, provide tips on sunglasses safety. For example, the lenses should provide 100% protection against UVA and UVB, and a sports band will help to hold them onto the head. CURRICULUM Classroom instruction is a very important component of a school sun safety program. A single intervention, such as a one-time school assembly, can be impressive but for maximum effectiveness children should receive age- appropriate sun safety instruction at every grade level. Fortunately, excellent educational materials already exist which have been designed for use by classroom teachers in existing school programs. Primary School Young children will benefit from learning how the sun’s invisible UV rays can damage the skin. They can be taught the basic skills for personal sun safety, and can be motivated to protect against overexposure. Secondary School Teenage students will learn about skin cancer, what causes it, and how it can be prevented. The glamour of sun tanning can be debunked by demonstrating the very ugly effects of chronic overexposure. School Policy Reinforcement Classroom sun safety education can include a review of the school’s sun safety policies and recommendations. Discussion might center on whether the students could do a better job of protecting themselves. Resources fortunately, excellent instructional materials already exist, designed specifically for use by classroom teachers. Check our [link: Resources - Curriculum page] for a list and description of available products.
    • 40 Ideas for Secondary School Projects Involving Sun Safety One of the best ways to learn a subject is to teach it. Here are a few ideas for projects that could be undertaken by secondary school students with the objective of teaching or promoting sun safety to others: PERSONNEL Those who supervise outdoor activities, teach physical education, or provide grounds keeping services exemplify school employees who spend a significant portion of their time working outdoors. Risk Reduction In California, an employee injury that arises out of and in the course of employment is generally compensable through the workers' compensation system. With respect to skin cancer, California [Labor Code Section 3212.11] specifies that if a lifeguard develops skin cancer during the course of employment it will be considered work-related. Compared to a lifeguard, who might not develop skin cancer until sometime after leaving the job, it is more likely that a school employee will develop skin cancer while still employed in outdoor work. Schools might wish to consider whether this poses a risk management issue. Good Policy All school personnel should be aware of the dangers associated with overexposure to ultraviolet radiation and be well acquainted with methods of sun protection. The Director of Nursing Services might conduct in-service training, issue periodic reminders and sun safety tips, and of course serve as a model of sun-safe behavior. While there may be a financial constraint against requiring (as opposed to encouraging) that students wear a hat when outdoors, it might be reasonable to require, or at least strongly encourage, that personnel take certain sun precautions, such as wearing a hat. By demonstrating their personal concern for sun safety, for example by putting on a hat, long clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen before going outdoors, staff members can play an important role in conveying the school’s serious commitment to sun safety for the students. COMMUNICATION Breaking News! Some school districts have already responded to the California law pertaining to sun protection. Unfortunately, some of these same districts have neglected to
    • 41 effectively communicate or encourage the implementation of their new policy to the school community. UV radiation is a significant health hazard that is encountered at school, at school-sponsored activities, and elsewhere. We hope that schools will not only adopt a comprehensive sun safety policy but also go the distance to ensure that the policy is effectively disseminated to parents, students, and personnel. Parents Provide parents with background information that outlines why sun safety is so important in the fight against skin cancer. Explain the details of the school’s policy and urge parents to partner with the school to encourage student sun- safe behavior both at school and at home. Remind parents to “walk the walk” themselves. Convey messages in multiple media, such as letters, E-mail, the school website, and parent-teacher meetings. Ensure that when parents search for details pertaining to the school’s sun safety policy, such as what type of hat is allowed, it will be relatively easy to find. Students Sun safety policy and recommendations should be reviewed at the beginning of each school year and again during the first week of March. This might be combined with sun safety instruction and, in elementary school, a screening of The Sun Show. Keep sun safety on students’ radar through announcements and reminders tied to the UV index, sun safety tips, posters, items for sale (school hat, sunscreen, play shirt, etc.), and of course seeing teachers who model sun-safe behavior. Send students off for spring and summer vacation with the reminder to: “Stay sun-safe!” Teachers Teachers might need to be informed of certain policies directly affecting them as employees, as well as others pertaining to the student body which they could help to enforce. Pre-service and in-service training should include a policy review along with general sun safety education. In order to increase their level of motivation and willingness to model sun-safe behavior, help teachers understand the stakes. They must know that they and their students can reduce the risk of dying from skin cancer through the practice of sun safety. Ask teachers to devote extra attention to children whose skin cancer risk is higher due to light skin color. VITAMIN D The one health benefit that sunlight has on human skin is the production of vitamin D. unfortunately, the ultraviolet rays that stimulate vitamin D production (UVB rays) are the same ones that cause sunburn and skin cancer. There isn't very much vitamin D in the typical American's diet. Some is present in oily fish (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and sardines) milk, and fortified cereal or
    • 42 orange juice, but dietary sources alone are usually not sufficient for a healthy blood level without the addition of substantial sun exposure or a vitamin supplement. Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, and osteoporosis in adults. An increased risk of other ills, such as cancer of the colon, breast, or prostate, as well as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes might be linked to vitamin D deficiency. More research is needed before all of these associations can be considered certain but in the meantime it seems reasonable for everyone to take prudent measures to maintain an adequate blood level of vitamin D. During summer months, particularly in the southern latitudes, some individuals acquire enough sun exposure to achieve an adequate vitamin D level. However, while sun exposure is an effective source of vitamin D, it can simultaneously increase the risk of skin cancer. When sunscreen is applied to the skin, it not only reduces sun damage, but unfortunately it also blocks vitamin D production. Darkly pigmented skin, advanced age, and low UV index (e.g., winter months in northern latitudes) are some of the factors that decrease the amount of vitamin D produced by the skin in response to sun exposure. Because of the dual impact of the sun's UV rays (skin cancer induction and vitamin D production) those with the lightest skin pigment are at the highest risk of sun damage resulting in skin cancer, while people with darker skin pigment are at lower risk of skin cancer but higher risk for vitamin D deficiency. Some authorities recommend routine limited or "sensible" sun exposure for vitamin D. However, too many variables affect the amount of exposure time needed (e.g., season, time of day, weather conditions, skin color, age) making it impossible to give a simple recommendation such as "[X] minutes of sun per day" that would be assured to provide sufficient vitamin D for all people. This introduces the risk that people will unintentionally over-expose (fall asleep while sunning) and increase their risk of skin cancer in the process. Sun Safety for Kids agrees with the American Academy of Dermatology which "does not recommend getting vitamin D from sun exposure (natural) or indoor tanning (artificial) because ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and tanning beds can lead to the development of skin cancer1.” The amount of Vitamin D in food or in a supplement is commonly listed in International Units (IU). Evidence is still emerging to determine the ideal safe and effective amount of vitamin D that average healthy people should ingest. At present, the National Institutes of Health2 recommends an intake of 600 IU per day for Americans 1 to 70 years of age. Some experts recommend a higher intake, in the range of 1,000 - 2,000 IU/day but the NIH warns that intakes in excess of 4,000 IU/day might lead to vitamin D toxicity. The NIH also discourages intentional sun exposure as a source of vitamin D, saying "it is prudent to limit exposure of skin to sunlight." Because vitamin D is fat soluble, vitamin D supplements are most effective if taken with food.
    • 43 The directors of Sun Safety for Kids believe that optimum health will be achieved if people practice careful sun protection year round and compensate by ingesting a sufficient daily amount of vitamin D. Blood Test A simple blood test called "25-hydroxy vitamin D" measures circulating vitamin D and provides a fair assessment of the body's vitamin D status. The NIH recommends that the level should be 21 ng/ml or higher, but some experts suggest that blood levels in the range of 30 to 50 ng/ml are preferred. There is no evidence that levels above 50 provide any added benefit and vitamin D toxicity becomes a concern with higher levels. Levels tend to fluctuate with the seasons (lower in winter/higher in summer) due to incidental sun exposure. A doctor might order the blood test to help in determining the amount of vitamin D supplementation that will provide optimum vitamin D status year round. LINKS: • http://www.sunsafetyforkids.org • http://www.aad.org/media-resources/stats-and-facts/prevention-and- care/vitamin-d/vitamin-d • http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-QuickFacts/ • http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm258416.htm.
    • 44 TIPS TO AVOID BEING A FRIEND OF VICTIM OF CRIME Dear Friend, I'm glad you're traveling to another country to learn new knowledge and customs, but beware of falling victim to the delinquency. The first thing to do is spend time in appropriate places with bright lighting, preferably who are monitored by the authorities. Should also lead to a minimal amount of cash just to cover the costs of the day. Must stay in low profile, not wearing flashy clothes, jewelry shows and you should not show your money in public. I really hope my tips help. Write me soon I want to know how you did on the trip. With love, Miguel
    • 45 CONCLUSIONS I can say that the English language is already very important today per today if we want to be up-to-date we should get ready and I believe that this level has reached important achievements inside what is English. All this is a benefit for us because it allows an understanding easy of the topics outlined during our professional life. The development of this portfolio also represents an interesting contribution to the English language.