Plant ID 2010


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  • Distinguishers of spruce: white spruce—smaller cones, smells like cat urine. Black spruce-- small cones, found in wet areas like bogs, has small hairs on twigs (use a hand lens and check near the end of the twig). Blue spruce—long cones
  • Fraxinus americana (white ash) tends to have clearly stalked leaflets with whitened undersides. The leaflets of F. pennsylvanica (green ash) have short stalks and those of F. nigra are sessile (they have no stalk), and both lack a conspicuously whitened undersurface. On well developed branches of Fraxinus americana the leaf scars are often concave along the upper edge and the buds originate well within the curved portion of the leaf scar. The leaf scars of Green and Black ash are not concave along the upper edge or only slightly so. Fraxinus americana tends to occur primarily in upland forests, often with Acer saccharum . F. nigra is most often restricted to clearly wet sites. F. pennsylvanica is by far the commonest species of Ash in the southern two thirds of the state and often thrives in disturbed, young woods, both upland and lowland, and in old fields and other disturbed, open sites. The autumn leaf color of healthy F. americana trees often has a rich purplish tone or a distinctive reddish brown color, compared to the mostly yellow autumn leaves of F. nigra and F. pennsylvanica .
  • Ulmus rubra is similar to Ulmus americana . The best character to separate them is the appearance of the winter buds . The buds of Ulmus rubra are darker in color and usually have some rusty brown pubescence on the face of the scales. Buds of U. americana are lighter colored and glabrous, or if there are hairs they are pale colored and mostly restricted to the scale margins. The leaves are similar between the two species, but U. rubra leaves tend to be rougher on the upper surface and at least some leaves are strongly folded upward along the midvein. The fruit lacks the marginal cilia of the fruits of U. americana .
  • Alternate leaves found on cornus alternifoliaa
  • Red oak has pointed lobe tips, but shallow sinuses (less than half way to main vein)
  • Plant ID 2010

    1. 1. Plant ID 2010
    2. 2. <ul><li>Red pine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needles  long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle brushes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bark  red plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cones are 2-3 inches </li></ul></ul>Image credit: deanna_ on Flickr Image credit: odalaigh on Flickr
    3. 3. <ul><li>Blue spruce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boxy </li></ul></ul></ul>Image: PD-gov
    4. 4. <ul><li>White spruce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not pointy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boxy </li></ul></ul></ul>Image credit: esagor on Flickr Image credit: dmcdevit on wikimedia commons
    5. 5. <ul><li>Blue spruce cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 in – 4.5 in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White spruce cones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in - 2.5 in </li></ul></ul>Image: PD-gov
    6. 6. <ul><li>Honey locust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow in fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed pods  straps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have thorns </li></ul></ul>Image credit: prettywar-stl on Flickr Image credit: Khaz on Flickr
    7. 7. <ul><li>Crabapple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves toothed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crabapples </li></ul></ul>Image credit: daryl_mitchell on Flickr Image credit: jbphototon on Flickr Image credit: Jim Frazier on Flickr
    8. 8. <ul><li>Bell’s Honeysuckle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers or fruit found in pairs on leaf axil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest edges </li></ul></ul>Image credit: M. Acker
    9. 9. Image credit: M. Acker Fruit pairs at leaf axils
    10. 10. <ul><li>Black Cherry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, rusty brown hairs underside of leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bark  burnt potato chips </li></ul></ul>Image credit: esagor on Flickr
    11. 11. Rust brown hairs on black cherry leaf Image credit: M. Acker
    12. 12. <ul><li>Green Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound, opposite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7-9 Leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downy stalks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winged fruit 1-3 in long </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Roger Smith on Flickr Image: PD-gov
    13. 13. Image credit: Nate Krinke (thanks Nate!) White down on leaflet stalks
    14. 14. White down on leaflet stalks Image credit: M. Acker
    15. 15. <ul><li>Mulberry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 strong veins at the leaf base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves are shiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulberry fruits </li></ul></ul>Image: PD-old
    16. 16. Image credits: M. Acker 3 strong veins meet at the base of mulberry leaves
    17. 17. <ul><li>Elm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves are distinctly asymmetrical at base </li></ul></ul>Image credit: withrow on Flickr
    18. 18. <ul><li>Red Osier Dogwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves that are held by “strings” when split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark red stems </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Colin Purrington on Flickr
    19. 19. <ul><li>Eastern Cottonwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangle shape leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cottony seeds </li></ul></ul>Image credit: crossley on Flickr
    20. 20. <ul><li>Box Elder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits are “V” shape helicopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxy stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive plant </li></ul></ul>Image: PD-old
    21. 21. Image credit: M. Acker
    22. 22. <ul><li>Black-cap Raspberry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raspberry fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets are white underneath </li></ul></ul>Image credit: birdfreak on Flickr Image: PD-old
    23. 23. <ul><li>Virginia Creeper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit  red on blue stems </li></ul></ul>Image credit: bill barber on Flickr
    24. 24. Image credit: mechy411 on Flickr Virginia creeper blue berries on red stems… the berries are toxic.
    25. 25. Virginia creeper turns red in the fall. Image credit: la fattina on Flickr
    26. 26. <ul><li>Buckthorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark berries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorns found at end of twigs between two buds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>invasive </li></ul></ul>Image credit: M. Acker
    27. 27. Image: PD-gov Leaf veins follow edge of leaf
    28. 28. <ul><li>Wild grape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grape bunches </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Rosenzweig on wikipedia commons
    29. 29. Image credit: M. Acker
    30. 30. <ul><li>Black Walnut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 23 leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spherical fruit </li></ul></ul>Image location: wikipedia PD-personal
    31. 31. <ul><li>Willow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves  long and skinny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow branches </li></ul></ul>Image: PD-gov
    32. 32. Image credit: M. Acker The narrow leaves of a willow
    33. 33. <ul><li>Silver Maple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep, “U” shaped sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointy tipped lobes on leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many teeth on leaves </li></ul></ul>Image credits: fabelfroh on flickr
    34. 34. <ul><li>Prickly Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus smell </li></ul></ul>Image credit: M. Acker
    35. 35. Image credit: M. Acker Compound leaf of prickly ash
    36. 36. Image credit: M. Acker Thorns on leaves and stem of prickly ash
    37. 37. <ul><li>Black oak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep u-shaped sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed lobe tips </li></ul></ul>Image credit: benimoto on flickr
    38. 38. Image: PD-gov
    39. 39. <ul><li>Basswood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large heart-shaped leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique hanging fruit </li></ul></ul>Image: Bambo on Flickr Image: Virens on Flickr
    40. 40. <ul><li>Lilac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite or whorled leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart shaped leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers grouped on panicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four petal flowers that make a tube shape at base </li></ul></ul>Image: Virens on Flickr Image: Eva the Weaver on Flickr Image: Dvortygirl on Flickr
    41. 41. <ul><li>Wild Parsnip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosette leaves found near ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow bunches of flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo-toxin creates rash </li></ul></ul>Image: Roberto Verzo on Flickr
    42. 42. <ul><li>Stinging Nettle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, herbaceous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stinging hairs cover plant leaves and stems </li></ul></ul>Image: Uwe H. Friese on wikimedia commons Image: Frank Vincentz on wikimedia commons Image: PD on wikimedia commons
    43. 43. <ul><li>Canada goldenrod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall herbaceous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ feathery” yellow flower bunches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often seen on roadsides </li></ul></ul>Image: Metrix X on Flickr Image: jerryoldenettel on Flickr