11.1-11.2 Gregor Mendel &Punnett Squares Pages 262 - 266 PD -old
Goal 1 Describe how Mendel Studied inheritance in peas
<ul><li>Austrian Monk 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Taught High School </li></ul><ul><li>Managed monastery gardens </li></ul>
<ul><li>Pea plant observations </li></ul><ul><li>True-breeding plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self  pollination = offspring ...
<ul><li>Cross pollination used to study inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall plant x short plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Goal 2 Summarize Mendel’s conclusions about inheritance
<ul><li>Results of Mendel’s experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross pollination of true breeding parents (P) </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Mendel’s 1 st  conclusions about inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheritance determined by factors passed from o...
Goal 3 Explain the principle of dominance
<ul><li>He tried again with  F1 generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross pollination of F1 offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Creative commons Image credit: Madprime
<ul><li>Principle of dominance states:  </li></ul><ul><li>some alleles are dominant and others are recessive </li></ul><ul...
Goal 4 Describe what happens to alleles during segregation in meiosis
<ul><li>Alleles separate during meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles segregate into  one allele per gamete </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Example on the board… </li></ul>
Goal 5 Use  Punnett Squares  to:  determine  genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a cross to   Predict outcomes
<ul><li>Phenotype = the expressed physical trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be seen (brown hair) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Recessive phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype MUST be homozygous recessive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotyp...
<ul><li>Genotypes are used to create Punnett Squares and compare possible combinations of gametes </li></ul><ul><li>Parent...
B b b B Parent 1 :  homozygous dominant Parent 2 :  homozygous recessive Bb Bb Bb Bb
B b B b Parent 1 :  heterozygous Parent 2 :  heterozygous bb Bb BB Bb
B b B b Genotypic ratio of offspring  1BB : 2Bb : 1bb  Phenotypic ratio of offspring  3 brown hair : 1 blond hair (75% cha...
? ? ? ? Parent 1 :  heterozygous  (Bb) Parent 2 :  homozygous recessive (??) ?? ?? ?? ??
B b b b Parent 1 :  heterozygous  (Bb) Parent 2 :  homozygous recessive ( bb ) bb Bb Bb bb
B b b b bb Bb Bb bb Genotypic ratio of offspring  ??  :  ?? Phenotypic ratio of offspring  ??   :  ??
B b b b bb Bb Bb bb Genotypic ratio of offspring  2Bb  :  2bb Phenotypic ratio of offspring  2 brown hair   :  2 blond hai...
<ul><li>Thanks to the following people who have generously shared images on Flickr creative commons: </li></ul><ul><li>Une...
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Gregor Mendel & Punnett Squares

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Gregor Mendel & Punnett Squares

  1. 1. 11.1-11.2 Gregor Mendel &Punnett Squares Pages 262 - 266 PD -old
  2. 2. Goal 1 Describe how Mendel Studied inheritance in peas
  3. 3. <ul><li>Austrian Monk 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Taught High School </li></ul><ul><li>Managed monastery gardens </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pea plant observations </li></ul><ul><li>True-breeding plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self pollination = offspring identical to parents </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cross pollination used to study inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall plant x short plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green seeds x yellow seeds </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Goal 2 Summarize Mendel’s conclusions about inheritance
  7. 7. <ul><li>Results of Mendel’s experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross pollination of true breeding parents (P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring (F1) only show one trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No “blending” of traits </li></ul></ul>Tall plant x short plant = all tall plants P P F1
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mendel’s 1 st conclusions about inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheritance determined by factors passed from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each trait determined by one gene that occurs in two different forms ( alleles ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait of height located on one gene as either short or tall alleles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Goal 3 Explain the principle of dominance
  10. 10. <ul><li>He tried again with F1 generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross pollination of F1 offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ F2 offspring show one trait ¼ F2 show “hidden” trait </li></ul></ul>F1 x F1 = F2 Tall plant x Tall plant = 3/4 tall plants ¼ short plants
  11. 11. Creative commons Image credit: Madprime
  12. 12. <ul><li>Principle of dominance states: </li></ul><ul><li>some alleles are dominant and others are recessive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If dominant allele present, it will be expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive alleles only expressed if NO dominant allele present </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Goal 4 Describe what happens to alleles during segregation in meiosis
  14. 14. <ul><li>Alleles separate during meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles segregate into one allele per gamete </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of gametes can be produced </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles pair up randomly when gametes unite during fertilization </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Example on the board… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Goal 5 Use Punnett Squares to: determine genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a cross to Predict outcomes
  17. 17. <ul><li>Phenotype = the expressed physical trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be seen (brown hair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on genotype </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genotype = the alleles of a genetic code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic code (one maternal, one paternal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homozygous = alleles are the same (BB or bb) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterozygous = alleles are different (Bb) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Recessive phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype MUST be homozygous recessive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype bb expresses phenotype blond hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype may be homozygous dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BB expresses brown hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype may be heterozygous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bb also expresses brown hair </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Genotypes are used to create Punnett Squares and compare possible combinations of gametes </li></ul><ul><li>Parent 1 gamete possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Parent 2 gamete possibilities </li></ul>Possible Combination Possible Combination Possible Combination Possible Combination
  20. 20. B b b B Parent 1 : homozygous dominant Parent 2 : homozygous recessive Bb Bb Bb Bb
  21. 21. B b B b Parent 1 : heterozygous Parent 2 : heterozygous bb Bb BB Bb
  22. 22. B b B b Genotypic ratio of offspring 1BB : 2Bb : 1bb Phenotypic ratio of offspring 3 brown hair : 1 blond hair (75% chance) (25% chance) bb Blond hair Bb Brown hair BB Brown hair Bb Brown hair
  23. 23. ? ? ? ? Parent 1 : heterozygous (Bb) Parent 2 : homozygous recessive (??) ?? ?? ?? ??
  24. 24. B b b b Parent 1 : heterozygous (Bb) Parent 2 : homozygous recessive ( bb ) bb Bb Bb bb
  25. 25. B b b b bb Bb Bb bb Genotypic ratio of offspring ?? : ?? Phenotypic ratio of offspring ?? : ??
  26. 26. B b b b bb Bb Bb bb Genotypic ratio of offspring 2Bb : 2bb Phenotypic ratio of offspring 2 brown hair : 2 blond hair (50% chance) (50% chance)
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thanks to the following people who have generously shared images on Flickr creative commons: </li></ul><ul><li>Unertlkm… pea plant </li></ul><ul><li>Z e n… butterfly and pea bloom </li></ul>
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