6.1 Lecture

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6.1 Lecture

  1. 1. 6.1 Solutions & Other Mixtures Pages 186 – 191
  2. 2. Goal 1 Distinguish between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures
  3. 3. <ul><li>Heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT the same throughout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of pure substances varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily separated (settling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit salad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Homogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAME throughout (uniform) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of pure substances same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Goal 2 Know the properties of various types of heterogeneous mixtures
  6. 6. <ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large visible particles (> 1000nm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opaque / “murky” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settle out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OJ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muddy pond water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Colloid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small particles (1-100 nm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less often Opaque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tricky = Appear homogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT settle out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marshmallows </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Immiscible liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious interface / separations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pour off less / more dense layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water and oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Emulsions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evenly spread-out mixture of immiscible liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious interface / separations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tricky! = small particles so appears uniform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayonnaise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cream </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Goal 3 Know the properties of various types of homogeneous mixtures
  11. 11. <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solute = small amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent = large amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even distribution / dissolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metal alloys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Universal solvent = WATER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolves more than any other liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will dissolve + or – charged substances </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Miscible liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form single, uniform layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distillation (own boiling point) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinegar (acetic acid + water) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubbing alcohol (isopropanol + water) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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