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# 4.1 Lecture 2008

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• ### 4.1 Lecture 2008

1. 1. Chapter 4.1 Compounds & Molecules Pages 108 - 114
2. 2. Goal 1 Distinguish between compounds and mixtures
3. 3. <ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure substance = own properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically bonded elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical formula = constant ratios </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. <ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of >1 pure substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties of each remain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratios of each vary </li></ul></ul>
5. 5. Goal 2 Recall how to read a chemical formula
6. 6. <ul><li>Capital letter = element </li></ul><ul><li>SUBscript = number of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Front number = number of molecules / moles </li></ul>
7. 7. <ul><li>How many molecules? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many H atoms? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many O atoms? ___ </li></ul>H 2 O
8. 8. <ul><li>How many molecules? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many H atoms total? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many O atoms total? ___ </li></ul>5 H 2 O
9. 9. <ul><li>How many molecules? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many C atoms? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many H atoms? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many O atoms? ___ </li></ul>C 6 H 12 O 6
10. 10. <ul><li>How many molecules? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many C atoms total? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many H atoms total? ___ </li></ul><ul><li>How many O atoms total? ___ </li></ul>3 C 6 H 12 O 6
11. 11. Goal 3 Understand chemical structure models
12. 12. <ul><li>Ball and stick model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be 3-D or 2-D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balls = atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticks = bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not show relative atom size </li></ul></ul>
13. 15. <ul><li>Structural formula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-D (usually) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-hand of ball and stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only chemical symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond length not shown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond angles approximate </li></ul></ul>
14. 17. <ul><li>Space filling model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere = atom and electron shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond length and angles difficult to see </li></ul></ul>
15. 20. Goal 4 Understand the effects chemical structure has on properties of compounds
16. 21. <ul><li>Network structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements bound continuously (net) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRONG solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High melting and boiling points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon dioxide (quartz) </li></ul></ul></ul>
17. 23. <ul><li>Bonded ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of + and – charges (magnets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRONG solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High melting and boiling points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium chloride (salt) </li></ul></ul></ul>
18. 25. <ul><li>Molecular compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules attracted to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WEAKEST bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid = most attractive forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid = attractive forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas = least attractive forces </li></ul></ul></ul>