3 1 Lecture

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  • 3 1 Lecture

    1. 1. 3.1 Atomic Structure Pages 70 - 76
    2. 2. Goal 1 Explain the historical progression of the atomic theory
    3. 3. <ul><li>400 BC Democritus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Happy philosopher” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry pioneer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milky way </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Democritus’ atomic theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real properties => perceived properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointy atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hooks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Round </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slip </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>1808 John Dalton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked at college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widely accepted </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Dalton’s Atomic theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every element is made of tiny, unique particles called atoms that cannot be subdivided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element are exactly alike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>1903 JJ Thomson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor at Cambridge University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are made up of smaller particles </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>“plum pudding” of + and – charged particles scattered in jelly-like substance </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>1911 Ernest Rutherford </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor in England Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used alpha ray scattering and gold foil </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Rutherford’s atomic model: Mini solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbiting electrons </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>1913 Niels Bohr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copenhagen University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rutherford </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bohr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Einstein </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Bohr’s Atomic Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus of heavy particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons orbit on set paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each path has its own energy level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons must gain or lose energy to switch paths </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Modern Atomic Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus of protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons behave like waves on a vibrating string </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot determine exact location of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons found in orbitals of energy levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons are outermost electrons </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. Goal 2 Explain the charge, mass, and location of each part of the atom according to the modern model
    15. 18. <ul><li>Proton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge +1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass 1.67 x 10 -27 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Neutron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass 1.67 x 10 -27 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>Electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge -1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass 9.11 x 10 -31 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location Orbitals around nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>s orbital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds max 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st energy level (lowest) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><li>p orbital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dumbbell shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 dimensional orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each dumbbell holds max 2 electrons (6 total) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd energy level </li></ul></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><li>d orbital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 possible orbitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 max electrons in each orbital (10 total) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd energy level </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><li>f orbital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 possible orbitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 max electrons in each orbital (14 total) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th energy level (highest) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><li>Valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in bonding with other atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># can be found on your periodic table </li></ul></ul>6 2 4 carbon 12.011 C 35 2 8 18 7 bromine 79.904 Br
    23. 26. <ul><li>Image credits: </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet updated… </li></ul>

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