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3 1 Lecture 3 1 Lecture Presentation Transcript

  • 3.1 Atomic Structure Pages 70 - 76
  • Goal 1 Explain the historical progression of the atomic theory
    • 400 BC Democritus
      • Greek
      • “ Happy philosopher”
      • Geometry pioneer
      • Astronomy
        • Milky way
    • Democritus’ atomic theory
      • Real properties => perceived properties
      • Solid objects
        • Pointy atoms
        • Hooks
      • Liquid substances
        • Round
        • Slip
    • 1808 John Dalton
      • England
      • Worked at college
      • Scientific research
        • Numerical data
        • Widely accepted
    • Dalton’s Atomic theory
      • Every element is made of tiny, unique particles called atoms that cannot be subdivided
      • Atoms of the same element are exactly alike
      • Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules
  •  
    • 1903 JJ Thomson
      • England
      • Professor at Cambridge University
      • Discovered electron
      • Atoms are made up of smaller particles
    • “plum pudding” of + and – charged particles scattered in jelly-like substance
    • 1911 Ernest Rutherford
      • New Zealand
      • Professor in England Universities
      • Used alpha ray scattering and gold foil
    • Rutherford’s atomic model: Mini solar system
      • Dense nuclei
      • Orbiting electrons
    • 1913 Niels Bohr
      • Denmark
      • Copenhagen University
      • Worked with
        • Rutherford
        • Bohr
        • Planck
        • Einstein
    • Bohr’s Atomic Model
      • Nucleus of heavy particles
      • Electrons orbit on set paths
      • Each path has its own energy level
      • Electrons must gain or lose energy to switch paths
  •  
    • Modern Atomic Model
      • Nucleus of protons and neutrons
      • Electrons behave like waves on a vibrating string
      • Cannot determine exact location of electrons
      • Electrons found in orbitals of energy levels
      • Valence electrons are outermost electrons
  •  
  • Goal 2 Explain the charge, mass, and location of each part of the atom according to the modern model
    • Proton
      • Charge +1
      • Mass 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
      • Location nucleus
    • Neutron
      • Charge 0
      • Mass 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
      • Location nucleus
    • Electron
      • Charge -1
      • Mass 9.11 x 10 -31 kg
      • Location Orbitals around nucleus
    • s orbital
      • Sphere shape
      • Surrounds nucleus
      • Holds max 2 electrons
      • 1 st energy level (lowest)
    • p orbital
      • Dumbbell shape
      • 3 dimensional orientation
      • Each dumbbell holds max 2 electrons (6 total)
      • 2 nd energy level
    • d orbital
      • 5 possible orbitals
      • 2 max electrons in each orbital (10 total)
      • 3 rd energy level
    • f orbital
      • 7 possible orbitals
      • Complex shape
      • 2 max electrons in each orbital (14 total)
      • 4 th energy level (highest)
    • Valence electrons
      • Outermost electrons
      • Important in bonding with other atoms
      • # can be found on your periodic table
    6 2 4 carbon 12.011 C 35 2 8 18 7 bromine 79.904 Br