2.2 Properties of Water Pages 40 - 43
Goal 1: Explain the polarity of water molecules
<ul><li>Polar molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A molecule with slightly charged “poles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One end i...
<ul><li>Oxygen end  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many protons has stronger hold on electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Ne...
<ul><li>Polarity results in Hydrogen bonds forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Van der Waals force </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Hydrogen bonding between water molecules </li></ul>Image credit: Qwerter, Michal Manas on Wikipedia commons http:/...
Image credit: placbo on Flickr <ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction between SAME molecules </li></ul></ul><ul...
Image credit: Mr. Greenjeans on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gaylon/298648625/
<ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction between different molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants use adhesi...
Image credit: ShutterSparks on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/shuttersparks/1413258875/
Image credit: Luc Viatour on wikipedia commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dew_on_a_Equisetum_fluviatile_Luc_Viatou...
<ul><li>Capillary action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ev...
Goal 2: Distinguish between a solution and a suspension
Solution <ul><li>Solute = substance that dissolves </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent = substance in which solute dissolves </li></...
<ul><li>Solution characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds separate </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No dissolving / separation of compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settling occur...
Goal 3: Explain acidic and basic solutions
<ul><li>Hydrogen Ions and hydroxide ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecule will separate to form ions </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Hydrogen (H + ) ions are associated with acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize acids by the “ H ” found in the com...
<ul><li>Hydroxide ions (OH - ) are associated with bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize some bases by the “ OH ” found in...
<ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release hydrogen ions H +  in solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of H +...
<ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces OH -  in solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less H +  ions than pure water <...
Concentration of H +  ions changes by  powers of 10 pH =1 has 10x more than pH = 2 pH = 1 has 100x more than pH = 3 More  ...
<ul><li>Buffers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak acid or base  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralizes strong acids or bases </li...
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2-2 Water P H

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  • 2-2 Water P H

    1. 1. 2.2 Properties of Water Pages 40 - 43
    2. 2. Goal 1: Explain the polarity of water molecules
    3. 3. <ul><li>Polar molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A molecule with slightly charged “poles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One end is slightly positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other end slightly negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to uneven distribution of electrons </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Oxygen end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many protons has stronger hold on electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ naked” protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Positive charge </li></ul></ul>Image: PD on wikipedia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:H2O_(water_molecule).jpg
    5. 5. <ul><li>Polarity results in Hydrogen bonds forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Van der Waals force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between hydrogen and a negative atom </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Hydrogen bonding between water molecules </li></ul>Image credit: Qwerter, Michal Manas on Wikipedia commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:3D_model_hydrogen_bonds_in_water.jpg
    7. 7. Image credit: placbo on Flickr <ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction between SAME molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. water & water </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Image credit: Mr. Greenjeans on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gaylon/298648625/
    9. 9. <ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction between different molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants use adhesion and capillary action in Xylem for water transport </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Image credit: ShutterSparks on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/shuttersparks/1413258875/
    11. 11. Image credit: Luc Viatour on wikipedia commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dew_on_a_Equisetum_fluviatile_Luc_Viatour.jpg <ul><li>An excellent example of cohesion and adhesion </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Capillary action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(evaporation) </li></ul></ul>Image credits: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/PlantBio_p033.shtml
    13. 13. Goal 2: Distinguish between a solution and a suspension
    14. 14. Solution <ul><li>Solute = substance that dissolves </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent = substance in which solute dissolves </li></ul>Image credit: Chris 73 on wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg
    15. 15. <ul><li>Solution characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solute does NOT settle out </li></ul></ul>Image credit: hundrednorth on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/100n30th/4821481/
    16. 16. <ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No dissolving / separation of compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settling occurs </li></ul></ul>Image credit: consumatron on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/consumatron/2514611795/
    17. 17. Goal 3: Explain acidic and basic solutions
    18. 18. <ul><li>Hydrogen Ions and hydroxide ions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecule will separate to form ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH scale measures H+ ion presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy equation on pg 42 to see why a water molecule forms one of each ion. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Hydrogen (H + ) ions are associated with acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize acids by the “ H ” found in the compound (often found at beginning or end of chemical formula) </li></ul></ul>H 2 SO 4 H NO 3 H 3 PO 4 H Cl
    20. 20. <ul><li>Hydroxide ions (OH - ) are associated with bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize some bases by the “ OH ” found in the compound (other bases steal a “H + ” from water and leave behind an “OH - ” group) </li></ul></ul>K OH Ba( OH ) 2 Na OH Ca( OH ) 2
    21. 21. <ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release hydrogen ions H + in solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of H + is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH 0 – 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acidic </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Lou FCD on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/loufcd/2870399185/
    22. 22. <ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces OH - in solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less H + ions than pure water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH 7- 14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Lou FCD on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/loufcd/2870399185/
    23. 23. Concentration of H + ions changes by powers of 10 pH =1 has 10x more than pH = 2 pH = 1 has 100x more than pH = 3 More  Less 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    24. 24. <ul><li>Buffers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak acid or base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralizes strong acids or bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents sudden changes in pH </li></ul></ul>
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