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2-1 The Nature Of Matter
 

2-1 The Nature Of Matter

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2-1 The Nature Of Matter 2-1 The Nature Of Matter Presentation Transcript

  • 2-1 The Nature of Matter Pages 34 – 39 (2 Goals)
  • Goal 1 Review basic chemistry concepts
    • Atoms
      • Basic unit of matter
      • Made up of 3 subatomic particles
      • Atoms have a net neutral charge
      • Proton
        • Large particle
        • + charge
      • Neutron
        • Large particle
        • No charge
      • Electron
        • Small particle
        • - charge
    • Element
      • Specific # of protons
      • Unique properties
    • Reading Periodic table
      • Atomic #  number of protons or electrons
      • Mass number  total number of protons + neutrons
      • Right column  number of electrons, bottom number indicates valence electrons
    6 2 4 carbon 12 C 35 2 8 18 7 bromine 80 Br
    • Isotopes
      • Same number of protons
      • Different number of neutrons
      • Chemical properties remain same
      • Mass number changes
      • Mass changes
    • Example
      • One atom of “Carbon”
        • 6 protons
        • 6 neutrons
        • Atomic mass ~ 12
      • One isotope of “Carbon – 14”
        • 6 protons
        • 8 neutrons !!!
        • Atomic mass ~ 14
    • How many neutrons are in the following isotopes?
      • Nitrogen -15
      • Sulfur – 35
      • Calcium – 45
      • Iodine - 131
    • Radioactive isotopes
      • Nuclei fall apart
      • Unstable
    • Radioactive tracers
      • Short-lived
      • Medicine
        • Tumor location
        • Treatment
        • Drug path
  • PD-gov NIH
  • Goal 2 Review covalent and ionic bonding and compounds
    • Compound
      • Two or more different elements chemically combined
      • O 2 H 2
      • H 2 O HNO 3 CO 2
      • C 6 H 12 O 6
    • Covalent bonding
      • Forms covalent compounds
      • Molecules
      • Share electrons
      • Memorize the following molecules and their chemical formulas:
        • Water H 2 O
        • Ammonia NH 3
        • Methane CH 4
        • Carbon dioxide CO 2
    • Ionic bonding
      • Forms ionic compounds
      • Transfer of electrons
      • + and – charges attract each other
      • Memorize the following ions and their chemical formulas:
        • Sodium chloride NaCl
        • Potassium chloride KCl
        • Calcium carbonate CaCO 3
        • Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4