2-1 The Nature Of Matter

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  • 2-1 The Nature Of Matter

    1. 1. 2-1 The Nature of Matter Pages 34 – 39 (2 Goals)
    2. 2. Goal 1 Review basic chemistry concepts
    3. 3. <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic unit of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of 3 subatomic particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms have a net neutral charge </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Proton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large particle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large particle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small particle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- charge </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific # of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique properties </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Reading Periodic table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic #  number of protons or electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number  total number of protons + neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right column  number of electrons, bottom number indicates valence electrons </li></ul></ul>6 2 4 carbon 12 C 35 2 8 18 7 bromine 80 Br
    7. 7. <ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical properties remain same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass changes </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One atom of “Carbon” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic mass ~ 12 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One isotope of “Carbon – 14” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 neutrons !!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic mass ~ 14 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>How many neutrons are in the following isotopes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen -15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur – 35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium – 45 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine - 131 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Radioactive isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclei fall apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radioactive tracers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tumor location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug path </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. PD-gov NIH
    12. 12. Goal 2 Review covalent and ionic bonding and compounds
    13. 13. <ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more different elements chemically combined </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><ul><li>O 2 H 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O HNO 3 CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Covalent bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms covalent compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share electrons </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Memorize the following molecules and their chemical formulas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia NH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane CH 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Ionic bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms ionic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ and – charges attract each other </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Memorize the following ions and their chemical formulas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium chloride NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium chloride KCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 </li></ul></ul></ul>

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