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15.2 Lecture

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Transcript

  • 1. 15.2 Seawater Pages 392 - 398
  • 2. Goal 1 Discuss the chemical and physical properties of seawater
  • 3.
    • Gases
      • Oxygen
      • Nitrogen
      • Carbon dioxide
  • 4.
    • Nutrients
      • Nitrates
      • Phosphates
      • Silicates
  • 5.
    • Salts (see table 15-1 page 392)
      • Salinity 35 ppt = 3.5%
      • Salt ions
        • Chloride
        • Sodium
        • Sulfate
        • Magnesium
        • Calcium
  • 6.
    • Salinity Variation (figure 15-10 page 393)
      • High salinity (up to 37 ppt)
        • Evaporation
        • Hot
        • Low precipitation
  • 7.
      • Low salinity (down to 32 ppt)
        • Low Evaporation
        • High precipitation
        • Freshwater influx
          • Glacier melt
          • River mouth
  • 8.
    • Sources of Salts
      • Volcanic gases
      • Weathered Rocks & Minerals
  • 9.
    • Removal of salts
      • Precipitate (become solid) in dry areas
      • Sea Spray deposited inland
      • Marine organisms
  • 10.
    • Physical Properties
      • More dense than freshwater
      • Freshwater = 1.00 g /mL
      • Seawater = 1.02 g/mL to 1.03 g/mL
      • Freezing point = -2° C
  • 11.
    • Light absorption (see figure 15-14 page 396)
      • Seawater absorbs light
      • RYO (Long wavelengths) 50 m
      • Green to 100 m
      • Photosynthesis ??
  • 12. Goal 2 Explain ocean layering
  • 13.
    • See page 397
    • Warm water = less dense = floats
    • Cold water = more dense = sinks
  • 14.
    • Temperature decrease with depth
    • Surface layer (top layer)
      • ~ 100 m depth
      • Nonexistent at poles
      • Warm
      • Temperature varies
      • Equator
  • 15.
    • Thermocline (middle layer)
      • Depth location varies
      • Nonexistent at poles
      • Temperature rapidly decreases
  • 16.
    • Bottom layer (bottom layer)
      • Depth varies
      • Very cold <4° C
      • Near freezing temps
  • 17. Goal 3 Explain deep water masses
  • 18.
    • Deep water mass formation
      • Polar areas
        • Cold Salty water = very dense
        • Salts do not freeze out of water
        • Sinks
        • Migrates toward equator
  • 19.
      • Movement of salty water to poles
        • Cools
        • More salty = more dense
        • Sinks
  • 20.
    • Three major water masses
      • Antarctic Bottom Water
        • Antarctic winter
        • Freezing, salt concentration
        • Coldest
        • densest
  • 21.
    • Three major water masses
      • North Atlantic Deepwater
        • Greenland
        • Freezing, salt concentration
        • 2 nd Coldest
        • 2 nd Densest
  • 22.
    • Three major water masses
      • Antarctic Intermediate Water
        • Antarctic winter
        • Temperature decrease
        • 3 rd Coldest
        • 3 rd Densest
  • 23.
    • Atlantic ocean
      • Affected by all 3 deep water masses
    • Pacific Ocean
      • Affected by only 2
      • Which one does not ???
  • 24.
      • THE
      • END