0 . Д . К а р п ’ юк
8 ,9. through
S p ort
In fo r
la b o
a fo o t
P a r
ta r y ’s
which takes me several hours. Som etim es
I have to sit up to w rite a com position ,
prepare a rep ort, or learn a poem . A u
tum n and sprin g holidays are v ery short.
In w inter I have on ly tw o weeks fre e of
school. Sum m er is the only tim e when I
can forget about school. But it is im p os
sible to do so. Little by little I sta rt to un
derstand that school plays a v e ry im por
tant pa rt in the life o f every person , and
knowledge gained at school is the key to
the fu tu re success or failure.
School years may certa in ly be fa irly hap
py. H owever, there are a lot o f problem s
even tod ay con nected w ith school life and
the form ation o f a personality. People
think d ifferen tly about this tim e o f their
life experience. In my opin ion optim ism
or pessim ism in the attitude to school
years is equally w rong. Sch ool is the place
where alm ost ev ery th in g happens with a
person for the first tim e. S ch ool years are
the tim e o f great expectations and great
em otions. N ot all em otions are always
pleasant. School is the first tru e exp eri
ence o f the real life. A t school a person
makes his first friend s, meets his first
love, and con fron ts the first betrayal.
Here at school the person reads the first
book and w rites the first com position .
He acquires basic knowledge o f physics,
m athem atics, literature, h istory, b iol
ogy, etc. But here at school the person
not only accum ulates know ledge, school
helps the pupils to get on in life and b e
com e successfu l.
In a way it is a kind o f society in m in i
ature. School society is a m odel o f real
society w ith its advantages and disa d
vantages. School lessons are not given
b y teachers only. The harsh rea lity of
everyday school life teaches pupils a lot
o f lessons w hich w ill be u seful in their
M y plans are to develop m y a b ilities,
s a tis fy my cu rio s ity , and re a lis e m y self
as an in d iv id u a l, to esta b lish fo r m y
s e lf a set o f co n v ictio n s and b e lie fs, to
a cq u ire kn ow led ge that w ill enables me
to con tin u e m edu ca tion b e fo re I sta rt
w ork in g.
Som e people think that school years are
the happiest in their life. A s for me, I ca n
not say w hether it is right or w rong. I am
still too young. I am 14 years old, and it is
d ifficu lt fo r me to say whether my fu tu re
w ill be m ore happy than my past. M ore
over, school takes so much tim e that I
hardly have tim e fo r anyth ing else. I have
classes in the first h a lf o f the day and in
the even ing I have to do my homework.
try, Earth Science, Forestry, Genetics,
G eology, M athem atics, Physics, Zoology.
A r ts is h um anistic disciplin e: studies in
tended to provide general knowledge and
in tellectual skills (rather than occu p a
tional or professional skills).
A qu iz is a short test, w ritten or oral,
usu ally less form al than an exam .
E du ca tion encom passes both the teach
in g and learn ing o f knowledge, proper
con du ct, and techn ical com petency. It
thus focu ses on the cultivation o f skills,
trades or profession s, as w ell as mental,
m oral & aesthetic developm ent.
A sch ool u n iform is cloth in g o f d is tin c
tive design w orn by pupils at school as
a means o f identification,
ex. 1 (b)
1. W h en does you r sch o o l year begin ?
2. W h a t form are you in?
3. W h a t is you fav ou rite su b ject te a ch
4. W h o is the H eadm aster o f your
5. W hen are you goin g to take you r fin a l
6. W h a t m arks are there in you r report
ca rd ?
7. Have you done you r best in g ettin g the
C ertifica te o f B asic S econ d a ry E duca
8. W h a t questions were discu ssed at your
p a ren t-tea ch er m eetin g?
9. W h a t subjects do h um an ities include?
10. W h a t cou rses in scien ces and arts do
11. A re you ready fo r tom orrow ’s quiz?
12. W h a t edu cation did you get last year?
13. Do pupils at you r school wear a sch ool
u n iform ?
1. core subjects
2. sem esters
3. an optional course
4. The M in istry o f Education and Science
o f U kraine
ex. 1 (a)
A s ch o o l yea r is the period o f tim e each
year when the school is open and people
F orm is a body o f students w ho are taught
A su b ject tea ch er is a person w hose o ccu
pation is teach in g som e subject.
A H ead m aster is a presid in g officer,
leader o f a school.
A V ice P rin cip a l or Head o f School is the ti
tle o f the ch ie f adm in istrator o f an elemen
ta ry school, m iddle school, o r high school
in som e E n glish-speakin g cou ntries, in
clu din g the U nited States and A u stralia.
A fin a l exa m /e x a m in a tion (or final)
is a test given to students at the end o f
a cou rse o f study or trainin g.
To tak e an exa m is to undertake the ex
ams. I f you do well then you w ill pass
you r exam s.
A m ark is a num ber o r letter in dicating
quality (especially o f a student’s per
A re p o rt ca rd is a measure o f a student’s
perform ance. In m ost places, the rep ort
card is issued b y the school to the student
o r the student’s parents tw ice or fou r
tim es yearly. A typica l rep ort card uses a
gra d in g scale to determ ine the qu ality o f
a student’s school w ork. A docum ent, on
cardboard or plain paper, stating which
grades a student earned, at the end o f a
term o f regu la r period.
The C ertifica te o f B asic S econ d a ry Edu
ca tion is the name o f a school leaving
A pa ren t-tea ch er m eetin g is a m eeting
o f parents w ith a teacher o r teachers who
work in a form where their child or ch il
H um anities are cou rses w hich include
the arts, classics, philosophy, foreig n
languages, lin g u istics, literature, ph i
losophy, public speaking and h istory etc.,
but not the sciences.
S cien ce is the b od y o f related courses
concerned w ith knowledge o f the physical
and biologica l w orld and w ith the p roc
esses o f d iscov erin g and valid atin g this
know ledge. A stronom y, A stroph ysics,
Biology, B iochem istry, Botany, Chem is
up dialogu es, do a lot o f exercises, but
best o f all I like d ifferen t tests, I am fond
o f gram m ar. But 1 am p oor at chem istry.
I always fa il to learn form ulas and term s
properly. I like my class, everybod y is so
frien d ly easy to get along w ith. I am on
good term s w ith my class mates and we
o ften spend ou r free tim e together.
I think that the m ost im portan t role of
school is g iv in g knowledge. I can say
that my school gives such knowledge,
and th a t’s w hy I’ m happy at school. Most
o f my teachers have a lot o f tea ch in g ex
perience; they understand v ery well the
d ifficu lties o f the learn ing process. They
help us to learn all subjects well. They
also gu ide us and advise us on all aspects
o f ou r stu dy and life. They share their
knowledge and experience w ith us, and
we respond w ith love.
School is not only a place o f education; it
is a place where we develop ou r relation
ships, in creasin g tolerance and respect
to each other. A t school we can enjoy d if
ferent a ctivities and dem onstrate ou r in
dividu al talents.
I like my school v ery much because I
have spent the best years o f m y short life
there. But in spite o f it I dislike the whole
system o f education.
You see, it is alm ost im possible to enter a
U niversity w ithout helping o f the tutors
because the knowledge we get at school is
not enough for it.
W h a t concerns my school the pupils are
not free in their choice o f the su b jects. And
they are forced to study the subjects they
are not interested in and it takes them too
much tim e to learn the subjects unneces
sary fo r th eir fu tu re life. They could spend
this tim e w orkin g on the subjects which
w ill be needed for their fu tu re profession.
I think to o m any pupils study in every
class. M ost o f them sit fa r from the black
b oard. A n d som etim es they can ’ t see
what is w ritten on it. It causes diseases
con nected w ith eyesight. B esides, our
teachers ca n ’t pay attention to everybody
at th eir lessons. It would be b etter to have
from 10 to 15 pupils in the each class.
In spite o f all these d ifficu lties I like my
school and I w ill always look back at my
school years as the happiest in m y life.
5. final test and final exam
6. cu rrent perform ance
1. is... divided
3. are in troduced..., aren’ t
4. is... made
5. has been im proved
6. should... do
My S ch ool
My school is (not) v ery new and modem
and (but) it is v ery con form able and all
the pupils like it v ery much, it is really
home fo r everyone, who studies there.
It has three (four, five, tw o) floors. The
classroom s are ligh t and high. There are
classroom s fo r practically all the sub
jects — E nglish, H istory, Physics, M ath
em atics, C hem istry, Geography, Literature^ etc. There is a com puter class in our
school, where pupils stu dy com puting,
one o f the m ost im portan t subjects nowa
days. Our school has a gym nasium and a
sports grou nd . M any pupils are fond o f
sport and they have a good op p ortu n ity
to go in fo r d iffe re n t sports there.
Our school has got a library. It is on the
grou n d floor. There are a lot o f in terest
in g new and old books in it. But ou r li
b ra ry has no reading-room .
There is a school hall in our school, too.
M eetings, con feren ces, con certs and all
the celebrations take place there. W e o r
ganize con certs, parties and we celebrate
ou r holidays. Pupils o f our school sing
songs and dance m odern and folk dances
and p erform som e plays there. The last
bell is organ ized at our school in a proper
way. It is a v ery rem arkable day in the
life o f all the pupils. The pupils o f the
first form and the pupils o f the eleventh
one are preparin g for this day w ith great
pleasure. The teach ers’ room is on the sec
ond floor. There are tables and ch a irs for
teachers, a TV set and a telephone there.
It is a com forta b le and cosy room and the
teachers like to spend their fre e tim e in it.
My fav ou rite subjects are R ussian and
English. I also like literature. I am good
at these subjects and usu ally get good
marks in them . I work hard at E nglish
lessons: read and translate tex ts, make
ex. 2 (a)
frien d ly
ou tgoin g
w ell-w ishing
con tex tu a l
a n gry
in d ifferen t
in qu isitive
fu n -lov in g
ex. 2 (c)
co n tex tu a l
a ffa b le ['aefabl]
u nkind, hard-hearted
uncom m unicative
scru pu lous [ ’skrurpjulss]
da rin g
bully [ ’ bull]
im pertinent [im'paUinsnt]
in d ifferen t
jealous [ ’ djeb s]
tou ch y ['tAtfl]
com m unicative, sociable
dig n ified
frien d ly
con siderate, attentive
th ou gh tfu l
ta ctfu l
calm [ka:m], quiet
m ercifu l
forb earin g
con textu a l
obedient [o'bi:d 3nt]
brigh t, g ifte d [giftid]
industrious, hard-w orking
ju st, fa ir
in consisten t
double-faced [ dAblfcist]
cu nn ing, sly
self-w illed, w illfu l
servile [ ’sa:vail]
coarse ['ko:s], rude
cow ard ['kausd]
slow -coach ['koutj]
e x .3
2. in d ifferen t
3. am bitious
1. Irina asks not to criticize her. She
knows all her drawbacks.
2. Oles said that he helped his friends when
they faced either difficulties or hardships.
3. M yroslav says that Steve is v e ry toler
ant because he usually accepts his frien d s’
ideas even i f he doesn ’ t agree w ith them.
4. Tam ara said that she was v e ry gener
ous to the kids.
5. Tom advises not to argue w ith Ken. He
is very obstinate.
6. Oksana asked to talk to m y m other as
she cou ld give me sound advice.
it easily. I like to keep up to date and have
an in terest in fash ion. I am a leader —
I w asn’t born to follow the others like a
sheep. Big cities represent fo r me places
w here you have the space to act. I look for
sta b ility and an u ncom plicated relation
ship. I don’ t trust sentim entality and I
d on ’t allow m yself to be led by unrealisable dream s.
ex. 2 c.
1. b, с
1. Steve asked Dan i f he liked rap music.
2. Clare w ondered what clothes A n n liked
3. R on was in terested where Carol had
learned to dance.
4. K jersten asked Susan where he could
find in form ation about youth culture.
5. K im w ondered i f I often went to the
6. W illia m wanted to know i f Bill had
ever had problem s w ith his friends
7. Laryssa asked Kate what her attitude
tow ards g ra ffiti art was.
8. Inna w ondered i f the teenagers faced
the same problem s everyw here.
G rou p A
1. D o you think teenagers today should
show m ore respect fo r adults? (teachers,
2. D o you think that w ea rin g u niform s to
school is a good idea?
3. W h a t type o f punishm ent did you r pa r
ents use when you were a teenager?
4. H ow do you feel about sw earing? Does
it m atter i f teenagers som etim es use bad
5. W h a t do you think parents can do to
help teenagers avoid depression?
6. Do you have a good relationship with
you r parents? W h y or why not?
7. D o you th in k it ’s a g ood idea to give
teen agers a lot o f freedom ? (example:
com e home when you like) How much
A b o u t M yself
A . I w ant to escape from my present life
to seek adventure in another country. For
me the sea is a sym bol o f freedom , but it
also gives me a sense o f secu rity — a sense
that there is som ething that never ch ang
es. H owever, although I w ant to escape, I
am also dependent on other people. I need
ray frien d s. I am d ifficu lt to live w ith, but
at the same tim e I am tender. I have a lot
to o ffer, but also I dem and to o much from
B. I am a serious person and like to base
my life on definite ideas and values. A t
the same tim e I am am bitious and the
m ountains represent a challenge for me;
I have a stron g desire to do well and sucf ceed. I like the ou tdoor life and hate w ast
in g tim e. I exp ect som ethin g fan ta stic —
I am not satisfied w ith som ethin g that is
C. I am an im aginative and creative per
son. The hills stim ulate m y im agination
and som etim es lead me to daydream in g
instead o f con centratin g on the m atter in
hand. I am an a ffection a te person and en
jo y the com pany o f a lot o f people around
me. I am sentim ental and rom antic, but I
can tru st others to o much or to look for
som ethin g w hich isn ’ t there.
D. I do n ot lik e to be a lon e, b ut p refer
the com p a n y o f o th e r peop le — espe. c ia lly th ose w ho are s im ila r to m y self. I
[ feel p r o te cte d in sm all g ro u p s and look
' fo r p eop le who sh are the sam e ideas as
' me. R o o fs rep resen t som ew h ere to hide
f away from th e p roblem s and d if f i c u l
ties o f th e w orld . I am a g o o d and fa ith I' fu l frie n d — som eon e th a t peop le can
tru s t.
E. I am a person who is always lookin g
for action, I w ant th in gs to happen — but
som etim es I w ant an easy solution when
there isn ’ t one. I look fo r ord er and logic
in every th in g, even in love. I don’ t have
much im agination, but I am v e ry prac
tical and have skills that other people
F. I feel the need to achieve stron g results
and w ill spend any am ount o f m oney to
achieve m y desired ob jectives. I am fa s
cinated by destiny, but I d on ’ t give in to
1 . 1 asked her what her name was.
2 . 1 asked her how old she was.
3 . 1 asked her what her hobby was.
4. I asked her what she liked doin g in her
5 . 1 asked her i f she liked sw im m ing.
6. 1 asked her what her plans for future
7. I asked her what she thou ght about
teenagers who dye their h air blue, green,
or another cra zy colour.
8. I asked her what she th ou ght about
rock vid eos.
9. I asked her i f she thought fash ion had
changed or a ffected her life.
ex. 4 (b)
4. extra ord in a ry
5. colou rs
7. m achinery
9. to attract
12. pigta ils
1. to give attractiveness
freedom should parents give to their
8. W h a t is the m ost im portan t th in g a
parent can do fo r a teenager?
9. W h y do you think some teenagers do
good th in gs and others (in the same fa m
ily often) do bad things?
10. W h at are the advantages o f bein g a
ch ild, a teenager and an adult? W h at are
11. Should teenagers w ork? W h y or why
12. A t what age should teenagers be al
lowed to smoke?
13. A t w hat age should teenagers be al
lowed to drin k ?
14. A t what age should teenagers be al
lowed to drive?
15. A t what age should teenagers be al
lowed to get m arried?
16. A t what age should teenagers be al
lowed to vote?
17. D o you know any g ood role m odels for
teenagers? Do you know any teenagers
w ho don’t act like other teens? W h y do
you think they act differen tly?
18. Can teens ch ange the w orld? I f yes,
how? I f not, w hy not?
19. W h a t do you think are the greatest
problem s fa cin g the teenagers o f today?
20. H ow do m edia a ffe c t the th in kin g
patterns o f the teenagers o f tod ay? Do
you think that advertisin g plays an im
portant role in how teenagers think?
21. A s a teenager, w hat do you think you
can con tribu te to society?
22. If you were a parent and your teenage
ch ild did som ethin g w rong, how would
you disciplin e h im /h er?
1. W h a t is you r nam e?
2. How old are you?
3. W h a t is you r hobby?
4. W h a t do you like d oin g in you r free
5. Do you like sw im m ing?
6. W h a t are you r plans for fu tu re?
7. W h a t do you think about teenagers
w ho dye their h air blue, green , or another
cra zy colou r?
8. W h a t do you think about rock videos?
9. Do you think fash ion changed or a f
fected you r life?
A n n s a id t h a t sh e h a d n e v e r t h o u g h t
sh e c o u ld
p a in t on s o m e b o d y ’ s
fa c e .
A n n suggested fin ish in g a star above her
A n n asked is she had made that on her
A n n asked i f Jane was g oin g to p a rtici
pate in the show.
Jane said that that was the m ost d ifficu lt
dan ce she had ever had.
A n n said that boys did n ’ t like classic
dance so he did an am azing job.
She asked her w hat was w rong.
Olena said that they had never trained to
dance break together.
A n n said that it radiated w arm th; the col
ours o f autum n were terrific.
O len a s a id th a t th e y h ad t o h u r r y
1. is also associated
3. m ust be done
4. is known
5. to get
7. was im provised
8 . began
P roblem s o f the youth
The adults always say that the you ng are
not what they were. These w ords are r e
peated from generation to generation. To
som e extent they are true, because every
new generation grow s up quicker, enjoys
m ore freedom . It is better educated and
benefits from the results o f the tech n o
logical progress o f the tim e.
Y oun g people o f tod a y do not d irectly ac
cep t the standards o f th eir parents who
b elieve that they are righ t because they
are older. The adults d on ’t w ant their
values to be questioned. The you ng on
the other hand can not accept the v a l
ues o f their “ fathers” . A ll these d iffe r
ences generate a generation gap when the
you n g and adult do not understand one
another. A s a rule the adults, dissatisfied
w ith their ow n lives, teach the you ng how
to live. U nfortunately, the adults apply
old standards to the new way o f life. This
burden is v ery heavy. They think that the
w orld is g oin g dow n h ill. The m ajority
o f the you ng people do n ot w ant to live
in the past. They have th eir ow n ideals.
They w ant to make th eir ow n m istakes
rather than to listen to the w arnings o f
the adults and repeat the m istakes o f the
older generation. They w ant to overcom e
th eir ow n d ifficu lties w ithout lookin g
back. H owever, the life o f the you ng is
frequ en tly determ ined by the adults.
The existence o f sub-cultu re which is
specific fo r every generation is a form
o f protest o f the you n g people against
the values o f the adults. Thus, in form a l
grou ps such as H ippies, R ock ers, Bikers,
Skinheads, P u nks, G oth s, A cid House
appeared as a kind o f protest again st the
values and lifestyles o f the older people.
Traditionally, you n g people were look
in g at th eir elders fo r gu idan ce. Today
the situation is differe n t. Som etim es the
you n g people share in form a tion and ex
perience w ith th eir parents. I think that
it is not bad, esp ecia lly when the adults
really tr y to understand w hat is goin g
on in the lives o f th eir ch ildren . M oreo
ver, you n g people grow up so q uickly that
th ey alm ost d o not have tim e to enjoy
th eir ch ildh ood.
Супер ГДЗ. 9
this is not absolutely correct. They only
th in g m any you n g people are interested
in is n avigatin g through the net and
ch eck in g th eir e-m ail b oxes. A n d it is a
great problem o f the present and fu tu re.
In general all the problem s o f the youth
are linked w ith the present rather then
w ith the past or future.
Y outh P roblem s
Youth is the tim e when a person is try in g
to find his place in the world. A n d du rin g
this search he or she com es across d if
ferent problem s w hich are as im portan t
as those o f the adults. The youth o f the
tw enty first cen tu ry face alm ost the same
the problem s which were acute to their
parents when th ey were young.
One o f the m ost im portan t problem o f
the youth is a generation gap. Every
generation is unique in its experience. It
has its ow n ideals and a system o f values
con cern in g every aspect o f hum an life.
A du lts always com plain that the young
are not what th ey were. These w ords are
repeated from generation to generation.
U ndoubtedly it is correct. In fa c t today
the you n g are b etter educated. They grow
up m ore quickly. They derive jo y from
more freedom . A t present the you ng do
not blin dly accept the ideals o f th eir pa r
ents. For them every th in g that the adults
bear in m ind is past history. The young
know w hat th ey want. They prefer to
make their ow n m istakes rather than to
listen to the w arnings o f the adults. The
you ng want to live their own life. They
w ant to overcom e their ow n d ifficu lties
w ithout tu rn in g back.
It is known fa r and wide that the clash
o f tastes and values between generations
o ccu rs in the m ain in h igh ly developed
cou ntries. O ccasionally it was sharp, es
pecially in the 1960s and ‘ 70s in W estern
Europe and the U SA.
I think that the on ly way to solve this
in soluble problem both the you n g and
adults should be tolerant and patient. D e
spite ou r generation differen ces there are
no clashes o f values in ou r fa m ily and my
parents are my best frien d s. They always
help me, con sole me, and try to help me to
solve m y problem s.
A n oth er problem that you ng people face
tod ay con cerns th eir relationship with
their friend s. A s fa r as frien d sh ip is
con cerned, I th in k that a person can and
should have a lot o f friend s. H e/she can
be on good term s w ith the classm ates.
But at the same tim e there can be only
tw o or th ree real friend s. I believe that
real friends w ill never betray each other.
They w ill always understand and help
each other. I agree that tolerance is the
pledge o f friend ship . It is w ond erful i f a
school friend w ill rem ain you r frien d for
the rest o f you r life . But in this case e v e
ryth in g depends on the person.
The problem o f love is v ery im portan t for
you n g people. Today they fa ll in love when
they reach the age o f R om eo and Juliet.
Rom anticism and idealism v ery often ac
com pany the love o f the young. They can
love deeply and passionately, they believe
that th eir love w ill last forever. U n for
tunately, o ften their hearts are broken.
Y oung people are not always ready to
have stable relations. In m any cases they
are to o you n g and in experien ced to begin
a fa m ily life . They have to continue their
education, while fa m ily obligations w ill
fo rce them to make money. A t the same
tim e w ithout good education it is not easy
to find a g ood job.
Com m unication has always been an im
portant pa rt o f you ng people’s lives. T o
day they can ch oose between traditional
and new ways o f com m unication. T rad i
tion a lly the you n g m eet a fter classes with
their school frien d s, make parties, g o to
the m ovies o r d is co clubs to have fu n ,
relax and acquire new frien d s. But if
the you ng people do not like n oisy clubs
and other places o f entertainm ent, they
can find frien d s w ithout leavin g their
homes — the Internet gives such an o p
portu nity. A lth ou gh this international
W eb W id e W eb is intended fo r gettin g
knowledge, on ly few users em ploy it in
this way. O thers use d ifferen t com puter
program m es to chat w ith th eir frien d s
fro m all over the globe. They can sit fo r
tw enty fo u r hours sta rin g at the m on i
tors. Such you n g people do not eat, sleep,
w ork o r learn properly. Their parents
think that they are d oin g noth ing, but
1. has got
2. look for
5. are sittin g
6. is w earing
9. are spending
10. are fooling around
1. K a tia asked what Ja n e was going to do
the following day.
2. Semen wanted to know i f C hristina had
made the costume by herself.
3. Vasyl wondered i f Oleh had decorated
the school assembly hall for the party.
4. V ic to ria was interested where M aria
had learned to dance so well.
5. Jam es asked Helen i f she was going to
p articipate in the show.
6. L a ry s a wanted to know who had w r it
ten that in vitatio n card.
1. to achieve your aim
2. better the real world does
3. you are responsible
4. show up
7. you can
D ear Kathleen,
M y name is M a ria Petro va and I ’m 14. I
am from K h a rk iv, U k rain e.
I am a pupil of 9*'' form and I am studying
at a specialized school. I w ant to commu
nicate w ith people from d ifferent coun
tries. I am looking for a friend to com
municate, to rest... A nd to develop my
English . I can help you to develop your
R ussian and U k ra in ia n . I like the E n g
lish language and want to improve it.
I th in k I am a good-humoured, v e ry re
sponsible, hard-working and emotional
person. I like cre ativ ity and appreciate
this tra it in others. I don’t like to lie and
I feel when others do. I t r y not to be late
and I hate when others don’t come on
time. I prefer to associate w ith clever and
polite people. It is v e ry annoying when
somebody whom I tru st turns out to be
unreliable. B u t I t r y to treat other people
so as I want them to treat me.
A s for my interests I am fond of psychol
ogy in the sphere of dealing w ith people
and the questions of how to form your
thoughts in the most favourable way. I
adore travelling, seeing other people,
th eir traditions, customs, to get ac
quainted w ith th eir culture, going sight
seeing. Besides I like different kinds of
music, I like music w ith rhythm you can
I am ta ll — 170 cm. I ’m slim. I have a
round face, straight nose, big brown eyes
and sm all lips. M y h a ir is short because
last week I was in the hairdressing saloon
where I ’ve got a new hair-do. G enerally I
like it. M y nature colour of h a ir is light
brown. M y h a ir is straight and thick, but
when I was a little g irl I had cu rly hair.
I like to be different and occasionally to
change something in my appearance.
I am often told that I look like m y gran
ny. B u t it seems to me that I look like my
mum a bit.
Generally I can’t say that I am beauti
fu l but I also don’t consider that I am
ugly. Maybe I am pretty for somebody
and plain, ord in ary for others. Everyone
thinks in his own way.
Perhaps th a t’s all I can tell you about
m yself. Now you have some notion about
Can you tell the same about yourself?
W rite me about your life, your interests
W rite about what you like doing and why.
Describe your appearance and your per
Looking forward to hearing from you.
Be st regards,
Lessons 9 -1 0
1. Ju n e 15, 1994
2. her father, mum, brother and A un t
3. H igh School
4. a couple of certificates
5. a few close friends
6. in Florida
being, resu lting from human-induced
damage to the physical environm ent,
o riginating in or borne in urban areas.
• Inadequate household w ater and sani
tation and indoor a ir pollution.
■ Am bient a ir pollution, inadequate
waste management and pollution of r iv
ers, lakes and coastal areas.
• Ecological disruption and resource de
pletion in a c ity ’s hinterland, and em is
sions of acid precursors and greenhouse
• A ctiv itie s outside a c ity ’s boundaries,
but which w ill affect people livin g in the
The ecological situation is p articu larly
unfavorable in large cities. B ig cities face
the environm ental catastrophe. In Lo n
don, for example, the dust concentration
(d aily average) in a ir exceeds the perm is
sible level by 60 % , in P a ris — 80 % . The
situation in Moscow is even worse in some
aspects. The carried out research showed
that up to 12 m illion tons of harm ful sub
stances are discharged into a ir annually.
Hundreds of in d u strial enterprises pol
Ecological problems are also v e ry acute
in our city. Fo r example, a ir pollution
is caused by increasing number of cars,
heavy traffic causes a lot of a ir pollution,
too. E v e r y car exhausts tons of CO^ into
the air. H a v in g more buses would im
prove public transport in cities and there
would be fewer cars in the streets. I think
people should go on foot more often or use
The ecological situation in the region is
influenced by a powerful in d u strial and
m ilita ry complex, which includes the de
fense, m etallurgic, machine-building en
terprises and so on. The necessity to em
ploy all the inhabitants of the city leads
to building new factories that produce
not only consumer goods, but wastes and
smog as well. Chemicals from factories
contam inate atmosphere. Governments
can solve this problem by passing laws
to stop factories from polluting a ir and
water. It also should force factories to put
Lessons 1 -2
People are concerned about litte r or noise
where they live, or lack of trees or grass
and pollution in its many forms (water
pollution, a ir pollution, nuclear pollu
tion), about changing clim ate around
the world, the destruction of w ild life and
countryside beauty, shortage of n atural
resources and the growth of population,
1. simply what is around us
2. the area around our home or our
3. the whole world-all the cities, country
side, forests, seas and the a ir we breathe
4. all livin g and non-living things that
occur on E a rth or some region thereof
5. the b uilt environm ent, which com
prises the areas and components that are
strongly influenced by man
6. litte r or noise where we live or lack of
trees or grass
1. the natural environm ent
2. to refer to
4 . concern
6. w ild life
8. natural resources
2. w ild life
3 . shortage
5. refer to
6. n atural resources
8. the natural environment
Environm ental problems are of a great
concern nowadays. More and more scien
tists warn about the threat of a global ec
ological catastrophe as a result of man’s
economic activity. Medics note w ith
alarm the growing number of diseases
caused by a ir and w ater pollution.
Urban environm ental problems are
threats to present or fu tu re human w ell
S c y th ia n tulips
Sq u irrels
B ird s: ostriches, emus, swans, cranes
5 . research
6. to occupy
ex. 7 (b)
Sentence 1 contains defining clause.
Sentence 2 contains non-defining clause,
filters on chimneys. I f they did these, our
cities would be healthier places to live in.
The people are also w orried about the
rivers around our city. Several plants
contam inate water. A s a result the eco
logical balance in the rive r upsets. Po llu
tion of w ater creates a problem of water
deficit. In fact, over h alf of the people in
the world have to live w ith w ater short
ages everyday. There are solutions to
th is problem. W e can save the water from
our baths and use it for the garden. This
would help to keep m any litters of water
especially in the summer. Governments
could stop w ater companies from w asting
w ater supplies because of leaking pipes.
M an y cities have successfully saved wa
te r by repairing pipes.
Furtherm ore, we can see much litter
in the cities. A s a resu lt of it ind u strial
centers today look more like garbage
dumps. W e mustn’t drop litte r because it
looks and smells horrible. I f the authori
ties put bin on every street corner, peo
ple wouldn’t drop litte r so much. W e also
should t r y not to buy pre-packaged food.
The packaging creates a lot of rubbish.
People can go w alking and admire the
beautiful nature around.
W h ile cycling you can feel the w arm th of
the blowing wind.
W h e n people are having a rest in the N a
tional Parks they can go horse ridin g and
People can go fishing and discover a pic
turesque view around.
People can go clim bing to woody h ill
sides and to and enjoy breathtaking land
People can wander through woods and en
joy w ild life watching.
A ctiv itie s
M a ry
P a tric k
W a lk in g
A ir trip
W ild life
The London E y e isn’t just one of London’s
top to u rist attractions, i t ’s an extraor
d in a ry piece of engineering design and
Since opening in M arch 2000 The London
E y e has become an iconic landm ark and
a symbol of modern B rita in . The London
E y e is the U K ’s most popular paid for v is
itor attraction, visited by over 3.5 m illion
people a year.
A breathtaking feat of design and engi
neering, passengers in the London E y e ’s
capsules can see up to 40 kilometres in all
The London E ye is the vision of David
M arks and J u l ia Barfield, a husband and
w ife architect team. The wheel design
was used as a metaphor for the end of the
20th century, and tim e tu rn in g into the
new m illennium .
Back in 2000, the London E y e was known
as the M illen n iu m W h eel. A t th at time,
B ritis h A irw a y s was the m ain sponsor,
and up u n til November 2005 they were
joint shareholders w ith M arks Barfield
A rchitects and The Tussauds Group.
B ritis h A irw a y s also privately funded
the London E y e project from the early
stages of conception.
Today, the London E ye is operated by the
London E ye Company Lim ited, a M erlin
Entertainm ents Group Company.
The London E y e has won over 75 awards
for national and international tourism ,
outstanding architectural q u ality and
engineering achievement since opening
in M arch 2000.
Constructing the London E y e was a mas
sive challenge. I t ’s the tallest cantilevered observation wheel in the world, r is
ing high above the London skyline at 135
metres. It was a piece of daring innova
tion and revolutionary design which com
bined the best of B ritis h design, architec
ture and engineering w ith an exceptional
team of experts.
The London E ye passenger capsules in
corporate an en tirely new design form
for an observation wheel. Instead of be
ing suspended under the wheel they tu rn
w ith in circ u la r m ounting rings fixed to
the outside of the m ain rim . The result
is a stunning 360 degree panoram ic view
from the top of the wheel.
The London eye has 32 capsules, rep
resenting the 32 boroughs of London.
Capsules have 360 degree view s, a h eat
in g and cooling system and bench seat
A n y visito r to the London E y e can’t help
but be amazed by the incredible six back
stay cables holding the wheel in place.
A nd then, when you look up you see the
wheel cables stretching across the rim
and the wheel. The wheel cables include
16 rim rotation cables, and 64 spoke ca
bles, which are sim ila r to bicycle spokes,
holding the rim tigh t to the central spin
The Carpathians are shared by seven
Central and E astern European Countries
(Czech Republic, H ungary, Poland, R o
mania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slo vakia
and Ukraine), four of which have recently
joined the European Union.
The C arp athians are one of the la rg
est m ountain chains in Europe, w ith a
unique ecosystem and an exceptionally
high biological d iversity. The region pro-
Intensive hunting, trapping, searching
for w olf dens to k ill the pups, and p artic
u la rly the use of poison, reduced wolves
to a low level up u ntil the late sixties.
B y 1967, the w o lf population had declined
to about 1,500 and only the remoteness of
the mountains and the increasing number
of deer and wild boar saved the wolf from
even fu rth e r decline.
Due to the fact th at other species, such as
brown bears, w ild boar, and birds of prey,
also suffered from poisoning, the use of
poison was forbidden in 1991.
U n til then, the w olf population had con
tinued to increase slowly and, according
to official numbers, reached about 3,100
individuals in 1996. T his represents
about 30 % of all European wolves west
B ro w n B e a r
Few anim als have captured the im agina
tion like brown bears. They can stand on
two legs, have eyes in the front of their
heads, w alk on the soles of their feet, pick
things up w ith th eir ‘fingers’, eat what we
eat and nurse th eir young as we do.
Brow n bears can grow to a huge size,
males up to 350kg, females to 200kg. The
biggest brown bear was caught in Rom a
nia — 480kg.
T h eir diet varies w ith the season, from
grass and shoots in the spring to ber
ries and apples in the summer, nuts and
plums in the fa ll and all year round they
eat roots, insects, mammals and reptiles,
and, of course, honey.
Be ars leave scratch m arks on trees. The
marks can be easily recognised by three
to five parallel scratches in the bark from
the nails of the paw.
They have good hearing, an excellent
sense of smell and can live for up to 30
years. The males are so litary anim als, so
cialisin g only during the m ating season.
The Carpathians are home to about 8,000
brown bears in Slovakia, Poland, the
U k rain e and Rom ania, the second larg
est population in Europe.
B ears are considered of high p rio rity in
conservation. Given th eir dependence on
large natural areas, they are im portant
management indicators for a number of
other w ild life species.
vides a livelihood and n atural resources
for up to 18 m illio n people. These moun
ta in s also serve as a haven for a consid
erable number of endangered species
such as the brown bear, w olf, lynx, and
raptors. W it h close to 4,000 p a rtly en
dangered plant species, the C arpathians
account for 30 per cent of the European
The M ountains form so called buffer
zones and corridors that favour tran s
boundary dispersal of plants, m igration
of birds and anim als and also genetic di
v e rsity conservation throughout Europe.
Forest ecosystems of the Carpathians
play especial role for biodiversity conser
vation, contribute into the nature protec
tion and w ater resources regulation and
provide resources for tim ber ind ustry in
In the last centuries more exhaustive use
of n atural resources va stly weakened
abilities of the biodiversity to self-reno
vation everywhere. D estructive process
es of biodiversity loss affected the C ar
pathian region too. H eavy and expanded
ag rarian industry, fo restry and hunting
practices distorted ecological balance
in the region and threaten biological d i
versity, firs tly unique and endangered
species. In the same tim e U k ra in ia n C ar
pathians are only area in Europe where
v irg in forests and unique flora and fauna
in the C arp ath ian M ountains
W o lf
A lthough approxim ately five m illion
people live in and around the Rom anian
Carpathians, wolves, along w ith bears
and lynxes, have one of their European
strongholds in this m ountain range.
They are distributed almost continuously
over the Carpathian M ountains and their
population densities are v e ry high com
pared to other parts in Europe.
A fte r W o rld W a r II , wolves were present
in all forested parts of Rom ania and
numbered over 4,000 anim als. However,
excessive livestock depredation occurred
and as a result in 1955, the government
launched a campaign to control w olf
is the only titled “ lake” — the rest are
“ meres” or “ waters” .
The rocks form ing the Lake D is tric t
provide a dram atic record of nearly 500
m illion years. C olliding continents, deep
oceans, tropical seas, and kilometre-thick
ice sheets helped shape the landscape we
There have been people in the Lake D is
tr ic t since the end of the last ice age.
There are traces of prehistoric and medi
eval field systems, archaeological monu
ments such as stone circles, Rom an roads
and forts and the rem ains of the m ining,
gunpowder and wood-processing indus
The red squirrel is s till found here, and
there are woodlands rich in A tla n tic
mosses, ferns and lichen. Lakes, tarns
and rivers are nationally im portant for
th e ir range of habitats and species such
as char, crayfish and shelly. On the fells
ravens and birds of prey are a relatively
The lakes and tarn s give the Lake D is
tr ic t a q u ality of scenery and recreational
resource found nowhere else in England.
The semi-natural woodlands add texture,
colour and va rie ty to the landscape and
also provide a home for native anim als
and plants. The high ra in fa ll in the core
of the National P a rk favours woodlands
rich in A tla n tic mosses and liverw orts,
ferns and lichen.
The presence of wood pasture, pollards
and old coppice woodland form p art of
the rich cu ltu ral heritage of the National
P a rk .
The Lake D is tric t is unique in England
for its abundant and varied freshw ater
habitats. K e y habitats include mires,
limestone pavement, upland heath, screes
and artic-alpine communities, lakeshore
wetlands, estuary, coastal heath and
The Lake D is tric t’s rocks provide a dra
matic record of nearly 500 m illion years,
w ith evidence of colliding continents,
deep oceans, tropical seas, and kilometrethick ice sheets. The area has the largest
and deepest lakes and highest peaks in
England. Its rock sequence contributes to
our understanding of past climates.
Lyn x are like most cats: they have te rrific
eyesight, especially at night, and better
hearing than humans.
T hat’s w hy it ’s so d ifficu lt to spot them;
they are most active in the early morning
and late at night — when they can see,
but we can’t.
The Eu rasian lynx in the Carpathians
norm ally live above 1000 m, resting on
c liffs and rocks, out of human reach,
but watching and curious all the tim e. In
w intertim e, they may follow th eir prey
down to lower altitudes where there is
B u t they never attack people or other large
carnivores such as bears or wolves. Bears
and wolves sometimes steal th eir k ill, so
the lynx has adapted by hiding leftovers
beneath rocks, leaves or branches.
Lyn x feed o ff hares, birds, wildcats,
chamois, deer, boar and sometimes stray
dogs, but not livestock like the other ca r
nivores. So th ey’re not a nuisance to peo
The lynx population in the Carpathians is
officially estimated to be about 2,500 —
the densest in Europe,
4. speed lim it
5. sailin g boats
7. motor boats
10. w alking
11. outdoor a c tivity
13. plant life
15. a strong beach
16. a natural area
19. fish life
The Lake D is tric t National P a rk has
m any special qualities unique to the area.
There are over fourteen lakes and tarns
although officially Bassenthwaite Lake
The on ly good news from the storm was
th a t the ecological catastrophe could
have been much worse. The m a jo rity of
the n au tical dam age took place in the
K e rch S t r a it, where, despite the storm
a le rt, there w ere n early 150 ships. B e
sides the Volgoneft-139, the d ry cargo
bulk c a rr ie r Volnogorsk sank w ith
its cargo of about 2,600 tons of sul
ph ur near K erch port, w h ile the K o
ve l freig h ter, also c a rr y in g sulphur,
crashed in to the sunken Volnogorsk
and slid beneath the waves. The G eor
gian vessel Khach-izm ail also sank.
A n o th e r sulphur c a rrie r, the N a k h ic h
evan, wrecked. G roundings included
the U k ra in ia n d r y cargo vessel V ir a Voloshyna, beached near K apsel Bay, and
the T u rk is h Z iy a Kos and a Georgian
ship c a rr y in g about 800 tons of m etal,
both of w hich ran aground close to the
p o rt of Novorossiysk. Com pleting the
scene, the D ik a barge, loaded w ith 4,149
tons o f fuel oil, was beached on a sand
b a r at Tuzla, along w ith the D em etra
barge, w hich was c a rr y in g 3,757 tons
of fu el (Kom m ersan t, Novem ber 12). In
all, about 10 ships sank or ran aground
and 20 sailors rem ain m issing.
B la c k Sea neighbours w ere quick to as
sist, w ith the R o m a n ia n N a v y ’s Con
stan ta M a ritim e R escue C entre d ire c
tor, A d ria n A lex e, responding to a
request from R u s sia n naval authorities
fo r the 100-ton cap acity G ig an t flo a t
in g crane to assist com m ercial vessels
sunk in the storm (Rom pres, Novem ber
The finger pointing has already started.
Krasn o dar governor Alexander Tkachev,
said, “ Some 30,000 birds have died and
it ’s not possible to count how many fish.
The damage is so great that i t ’s hard to
assess. It can be equated w ith an eco
logical catastrophe” (In terfax , November
13). The damages caused by the wrecked
ships have been estim ated at up to $163
m illion. Russian and U k ra in ia n tugs
have hauled the stern of the Volgoneft139 into Kavkaz, where an additional 933
tons of fuel oil were pumped out (In te r
1. to end up
Three quarters of this ends up in land
W e take a look at a ch arity project that
3. urban area
M ore and more have moved to Delhi as
th e ir forests have been cut down for u r
4. to move
M ore and more have moved to Delhi as
th e ir forests have been cut down for u r
5. cut down
M ore and more have moved to D elhi as
th e ir forests have been cut down for u r
6. ch a rity project
W e take a look at a ch a rity project that
1. Pa st in d u strial activities
2. waste and rubbish
3. m ajor concern
4. a lack of care over in d u strial and waste
5. stop destroying the world and work
hard to protect it
On November 11, 2007 a powerful storm
arose in the north-eastern B lack Sea. B y
the end of it, R ussia and U k rain e faced
serious environm ental damage from an
o il spill and a p otentially acrimonious
A cco rdin g to U k ra in e ’s Em ergency
Situatio n s M in is try , a fte r the storm
four ships had foundered, another six
had ru n aground, and two tankers were
damaged in the n arrow K e rch S tra it, at
the entrance to the Sea of A zo v between
R u s sia and U k ra in e . One of the damaged
ships was the Volgoneft-139, which was
c a rr y in g more th an 4,000 tons of fuel
oil. Sm ashed by 67 mph w inds and 16foot waves, the ship sp lit in two, sp illing
more than h a lf its cargo (U k r a in s ’ke R a
dio, Novem ber 13).
kovych said th at the government is now
studying the possibility of lim itin g tan k
er passages through the Kerch S tra it and
is consulting w ith m aritim e specialists.
They are p articu la rly interested in T u r
key’s experience w ith the Bosporus and
Dardanelles channels. I f there is any
good news for Moscow, its prime oil ex
port fa c ility at Novorossiysk is south of
the straits and K y iv curren tly does not
plan to claim compensation from Russia
for ecological damage (Rosbalt, Novem
ber 12). The damage from last week’s
storm, however, seems destined shortly
to move from the environm ental to the
1. ...the illegal dumping of rubbish or
bulky items on the land not licensed to
2. ...significant amounts of money to
3. Dumping household, in du strial and
commercial waste illegally...
4. ...waste disposal sites and recycling
centres where people can safely and le
g a lly dispose of unwanted items.
5. ...it may contain broken glass, asbes
tos, toxic chemicals or other hazardous
6. ...they w ill take necessary measures,
The P la c e where I L iv e
O ur planet is in trouble! A lm ost every day
we seem to hear of yet another problem
affecting the environm ent — and what a
lis t of problems! — pollution, acid rain,
global warm ing, the destruction of ra in
forests and other w ild habitats, the de
cline and extinction of thousands of spe
cies of anim als and plants... and so on.
Nowadays, most of us know th at these
threats exist and that humans have
caused them. M an y of us are v e ry worried
about the fu tu re of our planet and unless
we can find a w ay of solving the problems
we have made then the environm ent w ill
suffer even more.
It all sounds so depressing — but we cer
ta in ly mustn’t despair! E v e r y one, w hat
ever age we are, can do something to help
fax-Ukraine, November 15). W h ile clean
up crews are already attacking the oil
d riftin g onto beaches, the authorities are
nervously aw aiting possible additional
pollution from sulphur granules (ItarTass, November 15).
A Russian-U krainian intergovernm en
tal committee began meeting on Novem
ber 15 in Kerch to discuss the progress
operations. Deputy Transport M in ister
B o ris Korol heads the R ussian delegation,
w hile participating U k rain ia n s include
officials from the Emergencies M in istry ,
M in is try of N a tu ra l Resources, and the
Foreign M in is try . Deputy M in is te r of
Transport and Communications V la d im ir
Korniyenko heads the U k ra in ia n team
(Itar-Tass, November 15).
The catastrophe has already wreaked
havoc on the Sea of A zo v’s commercial
fish stocks, including gobies and Azov
anchovies, while W orld W ild life Fund of
ficials rem ain concerned about the fate of
dolphins located around the K erch S tra it;
two dead dolphins have already washed
The incident has caused additional f r ic
tion between R u s sia and U k ra in e , as
the K erch s tra it passage rem ains poorly
delineated 16 years a fte r the collapse of
the U S S R . U k ra in e insists on d ivid in g
the Sea of A zo v and the K erch S t r a it
along the conventional So v ie t Union
border th at passed through two m id
points o f the coast of the K erch S t r a it
and the Taganrog B ay, w h ile R u s sia in
sists on an equal d elim itation of the sea
The ultim ate diplomatic wrangle may
occur fu rth e r to the south, however, as
Turkey has insisted for years that unre
stricted tanker traffic through the T urk
ish Stra its is an environm ental hazard.
In 2006 more than 36,000 vessels tra n
sited the T u rk ish Stra its , w ith tankers
ca rryin g over 140 m illion tons of oil un
der treaty rights guaranteed by the 1936
Montreaux Convention, despite constant
T urkish w arnings that such, constant
passages, working out to a tanker every
15 minutes, were a prelude to disaster.
U k ra in ia n P rim e M in is te r V ik to r Yanu
8) I f you spot pollution, such as oil on the
beach, report it to the local council. I f
you suspect a stream is polluted, report
it to the local En viron m ental H ealth O f
9) I f you use chlorine-based bleach or
detergents containing phosphates, you
are contributing to w ater pollution. T ry
to buy “ environm entally-friendly” prod
10) Don’t buy aerosols co n tain in g C FCs.
A c tu a lly , i t ’s not a good idea to buy any
aerosols. E ve n “ ozone fr ie n d ly ” aero
sols m ay contain h a rm fu l chem icals
and spray cans are d iff ic u lt to dispose
of — they cannot be recycled. Pump-actio n sprays are a much b etter a lte rn a
1. w ild life
3. environm ent
4 . reduce
8. farm land
1. T his wonderful w aterfall is always ad
m ired by holidaymakers.
2. The beauty of the U k ra in ia n Carpathi
ans was discovered by Dick last summer.
3. A n article about the th riv in g w ild life
of the U K w ill be w ritten by the journ al
4 . The environm ental problems are being
discussed by the pupils now.
5. The physical properties of soil have
been influenced by the development of in
dustry in this area.
6. T heir habitats are being lost by more
and more anim als from year to year.
slow down and reverse some of the dam
age. W e cannot leave the problem-solv
in g en tirely to the experts — we all have
a responsibility for our environm ent. W e
must learn to live in a sustainable w ay i.e.
learn to use our n atural resources which
include air, freshwater, forests, w ild life,
farm land and seas w ithout damaging
them. A s populations expand and life
styles change, we must keep the W orld in
good condition so th at fu ture generations
w ill have the same natural resources that
Here are just a few ideas how to protect
our environm ent and some ideas how to
help you to do something about them.
1) So rt out your rubbish. Organic m atter
e.g. potato peelings, left over food, tea
leaves etc. can be transferred straight to
a compost heap in the garden and used as
a good, n atural fe rtilise r fo r the plants.
A lu m in iu m cans, glass bottles and news
papers etc. can be taken to bottle and can
banks and wastepaper skips. Fin d out
where they are by asking your local coun
c il or library.
2) Use recycled paper to help save trees.
Everyo n e in B r it a in uses about 6 trees
w orth o f paper eve ry year. Chlorine
bleach is u su ally used to make newspa
pers and th is pollutes rive rs . Its better
to use unbleached, recycled paper when
ever you can.
3) Take your old clothes to ch a rity shops.
Some are sold, others are returned to tex
tile m ills for recycling.
4) T r y to avoid buying plastic. I t ’s hard
to recycle. One w ay to cut down on plastic
is to refuse to use ca rrie r bags offered by
supermarkets and use strong, long la st
ing shopping bags instead, or re-use plas
tic bags over and over again, u n til they
w ear out.
5) Don’t buy over-packed goods. M any
things we buy have unnecessary amounts
of plastic and paper around them.
6) Use less energy by sw itching off lights
when rooms are not in use, not w asting
hot water, not overheating rooms and not
boiling more w ater than necessary when
m aking a cup of tea!
7) Use a bicycle or w alk instead of using a
car fo r short trips.
п таш ка
к ів і
sea lion морсь
ки й лев
elephant ка н
D ear Editor!
I am w ritin g to you to express my opinion
about endangered A fric a n elephants.
I have found out that the A fric a n ele
phant is considered a threatened species.
In 1970, biologists estimated that there
were 1.5 m illion A fric a n elephants in
the w ild. B y the 1990’s, that number had
dropped by 67 % , leaving a w ild popula
tion of only 500,000 elephants.
The elephant’s n atural range has also d i
m inished markedly. W hereas elephants
once ranged throughout much of A f
rica, they are now mostly confined to
parks and preserves south of the Sahara
Desert. O nly about 20 % of th eir range
is under some form of protection. Even
w ith in protected areas, elephants often
fa ll victim to poachers and other pres
sures from man.
Elephant population and range v a r y natu
ra lly w ith fluctuation of the food and w a
ter supply, but the influence of the mod
ern world is accelerating the elephant’s
The reasons of the dram atic decline in the
A fric a n elephant population and range
are the following:
The Iv o ry Trade
• In spite of the 1989 C IT E S (Conven
tion on In te rn a tio n a l T rade in E n d a n
gered Species) ban on iv o ry collection,
ille g a l h u n tin g of elephants fo r th e ir
tusks has continued unabated in parts
of A fr ic a .
• The resumption of trade in elephant
iv o ry by several countries, including
South A fric a , Ja p a n and China, has in
creased the threat to elephants.
• Poaching is on the increase in Kenya
due to the illeg al harvesting of ivory.
F arm in g
• D estruction of natural savanna vegeta
tion due to bush clearing and plowing is
the most significant cause of elephant
• Disturbance from slash-and-burn cul
tivation in tropical forests leads to lower
elephant population densities.
• Conflict over resources and access to
land increases between elephants and hu
mans as settlements develop around per
manent w ater sources.
• “ Patchwork” development — where
farm s are distributed as “ islands” —
fragm ents elephant habitat.
Dom estic Livesto ck
• Large numbers of grazing cattle and
other livestock compete w ith elephants
for water and vegetation.
• H eavy grazing by livestock depletes
Logging and the Bushm eat m arket
• Logging affects elephants directly,
through habitat loss, and indirectly,
through the disturbing influence of for
• ging roads and farm land penetrating
into once inaccessible areas have made
the elephant more vulnerable to poaching
for the bushmeat trade.
Lessons 6 -8
ex. 1 (b)
1. a species whose population is so
sm all th a t it is in danger of becom ing
ex tin ct
2. protection to these species (forbidding
hunting, banning th eir habitats develop
ment, etc.) to prevent this
3. an indicator of the likelihood of that
endangered species continuing to sur
4. assessing the conversation status of a
• Though consuming elephant meat is
considered “ taboo” in many parts of its
range, it is v e ry popular in much of Cen
tra l and W e st A fric a .
I would like to suggest publishing such
articles in your newspaper to change at
titudes towards nature and help people
im agine w ild life and humans livin g in
Yours fa ith fu lly,
8 . spend
5. human beings
6. anim als
7. carbon dioxide
8. carbon dioxide
3 .h ad
7. we are going to put
8. comes out
9. w ill be
10. have learnt
12. should be congratulated
13. th in k
14. should be given
4. D an says he has w atched a T V p ro
gram m e about the G reenpeace, a g lo
b al c a m p a ig n in g o rg a n iz a tio n th a t
acts to change a ttitu d e s and b eh av
io u rs , to p ro te c t and co n serve the
e n v iro n m e n t and to prom ote peace in
the w orld.
5. K im says that people should take care
6. M iss Johnson points out that almost
three-quarters of the land in England is
used for food production.
2. were talked about
4. H ave you ever heard
5. is being planned
6. has already been published
1. M r Brow n says th at m ajor geographi
cal features of K en t are determined by a
series of ridges and valleys ru nning eastwest across the country.
2. K e lly turned attention that there was a
new expensive property over there.
3. Steve pointed out that many anim als
and birds suffered because of the man’s
11. w ait
1 2 .save up
School E n viro n m e n tal Project
Pro ject Description
To establish an environm ental project
w ith in the grounds of H am School which
w ill be led by the ch ildren and the p a r
ents of the school. It w ill incorporate a
sm all pond, grow ing and m ain tainin g
plants, recording w ild life and recycling
w aste which w ill encourage practical
H ow w ill the project a ffect your
The whole school w ill benefit from the en
vironm ental education and may be able
to use some of the key ideas generated in
Various departments can get involved,
for example the a rt department can de
sign inform ation posters and the science
department can use statistics generated
The work can contribute to various extra
c u rricu la r activities, such as the Duke of
H ow w ill your project affect your local
com m unity?
The local comm unity should be notified
through word of mouth or newsletters
about the success of the environm ental
projects. This w ill aim to inspire local
people to contribute to helping improve
Other schools in the area should also be
informed of such environm ental projects,
so they too can implement some of these
W h a t are the long-term im plications of
you r project?
Educating the youth of today is one of the
best ways to address the environm ental
problems we face. This education should
be passed on to future generations and
should hopefully result in changes to our
conservation work and increase children
and adults’ knowledge of the en viro n
You could turn your school into an ecoschool. This could include developing
some of the following ideas:
• A school garden growing organic vege
tables — these could even be used in your
Home Economics lessons .
• A school composting site th at could be
used to help your school garden flour
• A school energy su rvey could be ca r
ried out. This could then be followed by
some key implementations such as energy
efficient ligh t bulbs and signs educating
people to switch lights off.
■ A w ild life area in your school grounds
could be started including a pond and
a va rie ty of vegetation to encourage a
wide d iversity of species.
• A sculpture made of old packaging and
products could be made.
• W ate r from your school roof could be
collected and used to w ater your school
• Recycling facilities for paper and cans
should be available to all students and
• A n Environm ent Committee (Ecogroup) could be set up in your school to
help implement and m onitor some of the
ideas described above.
7. natural resources
8. the environm ent
1. a cell phone
2. a configuration
3. a display
4. to communicate
5. to develop
6. to own
8. a device
A re They Expensive Toys?
I much prefer a phone th a t is simple to
use, ju st to text and make and receive
calls. I f I want to take pictures, I w ill
use a proper camera, better pictures, i f
I w an t the Internet, I w ill use computer.
The more rubbish on a phone, the more
lik e ly it w ill go wrong. I find that simple
designs are easier to live w ith. M y phone
has text messaging and a fa ir ly ru d i
m entary camera, w hich I use m ainly to
store photos of things th at mean a lot to
me, rather than take pictures w ith. In
my experience, devices w ith lots of gadg
ets and functions have an in itia l novelty
value, but a fte r a w hile in everyday use,
most of these extra functions are never
The most im p o rtan t advantage of cell
phones is that you can use them almost
everyw here w ithout cables or electricity.
B y using mobile phones, you can commu
nicate w ith everyone whenever you want
and wherever you are.
A lso, when somebody wants to reach you,
he can get in touch w ith you by touching
a few buttons. You can c a rry a mobile
phone w ith you don’t miss im portant
calls. I f you are lost, you can call for d i
Beside this, among advantages is safety,
i f there is an urgent situation, such as an
accident, you can call the police or ambu
lance — and i f the phone has a camera,
you can take pictures of the accident or
a meeting w ith someone, you certain ly
need a mobile phone.
In add ition, you can c a r r y a cell phone
easily. F u rth e rm o re , cell phones are not
on ly used fo r com m unication, but they
can also be used fo r ta k in g pictures, lis
tening to music, p laying games, getting
onto the in tern et, and so on. Recently,
the most common w ay of com m unica
tion in the world has been the S M S . Cell
phones include th is system ; in th is way
you can comm unicate w ith someone for
cheaper than a norm al call. M ost mobile
phones have a calcu lato r and a phone
On the other hand, using a cell phone has
some disadvantages. For example, it is a
v e ry expensive way of communication.
Moreover, radiation from cell phones
is not good for humans’ health. It espe
c ia lly has bad effects on children and old
people. Fu rtherm o re, i f you have a fu ll
system working car, your A B S system or
some electrical equipment in your car can
be blocked by cell phone signals.
The cell phone has pushed people apart
from each other, e.g. instead of going to
see the parents just call them and one
does not need to go and see them so just
to find out how are you is not enough.
One of the disadvantages is having to an
swer inconvenient phone calls, i.e. from
you boss. People can get a hold of you
anytim e anywhere. People can find you if
they need to. A n d th is is loss of privacy.
B u t you don’t have to answer the phone.
T h a t’s what caller ID is for! Other disad
vantages are: flat battery, signals that
m ay affect some stereo, annoying due to
rin g in g of the phone in public, accidents
such as using mobile phones in cars while
12. technological advances
ex. 3 (a)
The customer said the he had a huge prob
lem. A friend had placed a screen saver
on his computer, but every tim e he moved
his mouse it disappeared.
Tech support asked if he could see the
“ O K ” button displayed in the bottom left
of the screen.
The customer was surprised how tech
support could see his screen from there.
A d viso r said the he had Spyw are on his
machine which was causing the problem.
The customer was surprised and asked if
the could see him getting dressed through
M odern W orld: V ir t u a l R e a lity
or R e a l Com m unication?
Computers, video games, and the Internet
have become entrenched features of our
d a ily lives. Computers are in houses, in
offices, in shops and at schools. Is it good
or bad? Do they make our life easier?
Some people th in k th at computer is bad
and they don’t need it. They can’t use it
and they don’t want to learn. B u t without
computers m any things wouldn’t exist,
like so popular credit cards.
Computers have a good side. They help
w rite m any documents v e ry fast. They
help correct m istakes in texts, in other
languages to. Computer printers make
possibility to prin t something. W e can
spend free tim e playing computer games.
Computer games are v e ry popular and
they are on m any shops.
Computer use has reached beyond work
and is now a m ajor source of fu n and en
tertainm ent for m any people. For most
people, computer use and video game play
is integrated into th eir lives in a balanced
healthy manner. For others, tim e spent
on the computer or video game is out of
balance, and has displaced work, school,
friends, and even fam ily.
W h a t is computer and video game addic
W h e n tim e spent on the computer, p lay
in g video games or c ru isin g the In tern et
reaches a point that it harm s a ch ild ’s or
a d u lt’s fa m ily and social relationships.
B a sica lly , I use my phone as a tool for
needing to ask a question of someone
when I am out — like, “ Can I get you
something from the store?” and the
things like that.
B u t then I get pesky phone calls from
someone I m ight not want to talk to every
now and then. I just let it go to the voice
m ail and I can always say that I didn’t get
reception or hear my phone ring. Another
good thing is when I lost somebody in the
crowd and we call each other to find each
To sum up, c e ll phones not o n ly have
ad van ta g e s, b u t th e y also have d is
ad van tag es. M o b ile phones m ake ou r
life easier, but on the o th er hand, th e y
m ay cause some seriou s h ealth p ro b
Tech support asked i f the customer was
sure he had used the rig h t password.
The customer answered the he was sure.
He said the he had seen his colleague had
Tech support asked i f the custom er
could te ll him w hat the password had
The customer answered five stars.
1. type click
I told him , “ M ake sure we have enough
prizes for all the competitions” .
I asked him “ B u y a few postcards to w rite
invitations for our school guests” .
I also told him: “ F in ish the decorating of
the school assembly h all by next F rid a y ” ,
To: sergeykirik@ ram bler.ru
Subject: Project: “ L ife in the Fu tu re ”
D ear Sergey,
Ju s t a quick note to tell you about a
project we’re working now together w ith
I prepared a plan for the presentation.
I am sending you th is plan to agree
a ll the points I ’d lik e to include in our
Could we also v is it the local lib ra ry to
gether to find the extra m aterial for the
project? Can you tell me the possible time
which is convenient to you?
Hope to see you as soon as possible.
B est regards,
or d isru p ts school or work life , th a t per
son m ay be caught in a cycle of addic
tion. L ik e other addictions, the compu
te r or video game has replaced friends
and fa m ily as the source of a person’s
em otional life . In creasin g ly, to feel
good, the addicted person spends more
tim e playing video games or searching
the In te rn e t. Tim e aw ay from the com
puter or game causes moodiness or w ith
W hen a person spends up to ten hours a
day or more rearran g in g or sending files,
playing games, surfing the net, visitin g
chat rooms, instant messaging, and read
ing e-mails, th at easily can reach up to
seventy to eighty hours a week on-line
w ith the computer. M ajo r social, school
or work disruptions w ill result.
So, computers have good and bad sides.
B u t can anybody im agine word without
computers? I can’t im agine that. I can’t
life without computer. I do m any things
M y opinion about computer is positive. I
think computers make life easier in every
ex. 1 (a)
The M ost M iracu lo u s Pro d u ct E v e r C re
ated: Photoshop B e a u ty Sp ray
Photoshop the w orld’s most w idely used
photo retouching softw are, has caused
a m assive shake-up in the cosmetic, fit
ness and plastic su rgery industries a f
ter launching its newest product, P h o
toshop in a Can. Insiders claim th is new
form of sprayable Photoshop w ill e lim i
nate the need for cosmetics, h a ir stylin g
products, fitness centres and elective
cosmetic surgery . A n a lys ts predict the
product w ill cause the beauty in d u stry
to collapse and thousands of jobs w ill
be cut. H a ir salons and gyms across the
world w ill shut down. The C ity of B e v
e rly H ills , C A has called in the National
G uard to assist w ith the a n g ry swarm s
of protesting plastic surgeons and per
sonal fitness train ers. Photoshop in a
C an promises effortless beauty and per
fection w ith one push of a button. Now,
even the most homely in d ivid u al can
achieve the illusion of impossible beauty
and unattainable perfection so w idely
pumped out by today’s m edia. T ru ly a
m iracle in a can.
when he studied at a local flying school?
5. W h e n did he volunteer to become a cos
6. W h a t group was he selected to?
7. W h en was an official announcement of
Gag arin as pilot made?
1. M rs Lowey asked what M arie and
P ie rre Curie had discovered.
2. M r Phels asked what M ark knew about
A lfre d Nobel.
3. Steve asked i f jack is interested in sci
4. Carol asked what the achievements of
modern science and technology -йгеге.
5. Jam es said that he had never though
about the innovations
6. M a ry asked where Ja c k could apply his
knowledge of Physics.
1. was shown
2. was designed
5. are delighted
7. has changed
11. is designed
1.W henandw herew asYuriyGagarinborn?
2. W h a t education did he get?
3. W h en did he become interested in a ir
c ra ft?
4. W h a t talent and abilities did he display
ex. 2 (b) с
l . i n 1972 by U N E S C O
2. U nited Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cu ltu ral Organisation.
3. natural sites, and a wide va rie ty of cul
tu ra l sites such as landscapes, towns, h is
toric monuments and modern buildings.
4. places of international importance.
6. the Tower of London, the city of Bath,
Stonehenge or Scottish castles.
7. Kyiv-Pecherska L a v ra and St. Sophia’s
Cathedral in K yiv, the historic centre of
L v iv and the beech forest of the C arp ath i
1. A regim ental museum
3. To revolt
4. To revolve
5. Refurbishm ent
1. inform al
2 . short
W e are having a wonderful journey here
in Bath! Bath is a c ity in the So uth W est
of England. Its population is of about
80,000. It is situated 159 km west of Lon
don. Designated as a W o rld Heritage Site
by U N E S C O .
B ath has a v a rie ty of theatres, museums,
and other cu ltu ral and sporting venues.
The city has two universities and several
schools and colleges.
The weather is fantastic! W a rm and dry.
The sites are wonderful! You should see
them! W e are impressed by all of them.
Going to vis it the Rom an baths and Ther
mae Bath Spa tomorrow . The m ain spa
has two n atural therm al baths, a rooftop
pool and an indoor pool, a large steam
room elegantly glass-partitioned into
four circ u la r zones.
W e are sending you some great photos to
Best regards to all our relatives.
See you in a week!
G alyna & Ir a
e x .3
1. K yiv, the capital of U k rain e
2. modern and medieval, the traditional
3. a W o rld Heritage Site
4. hundreds of ghosts
5. its international festivals and unusual
6. w ith arts, sports and attractions
1. W h a t is its population?
2. W h y has Edinburgh been listed as a
W orld Heritage Site?
3. W h a t is Scotland’s most visited attrac
4. W h a t famous ghosts does a c ity have?
5. W h a t festivals are held every summer
b) isn ’t
1. travellin g
2. visitin g
5. sm iling
1. ru nning
4. m aking
I ’m coming only for one day tomorrow at
8 a. m.
Thanks for the programme you have sent
A s I am coming only for one day I ’d like
to go on a w alkin g tour to The R o yal M ile
because it is probably Edin bu rgh’s old
est street. A s fa r as I know it connects
Edinburgh Castle w ith the Palace of Holyrood House and I heard that visitors
w ill find a lot to explore on either side of
this historic road.
A lin a
1. C liff foot
2. To flee back
4. To announce
5. Fro m fa r and wide
6. To ballot
8. To rip up
9. To be recognised for
10. To stick out of
ex. 6 (a)
F in n ’s w ife said, “ F in n isn’t at home” .
She asked him , “ Please, be quiet and don’t
wake up the baby!”
1. going to the museum
2. seeing the G ia n t’s Causeway in N o rth
3. going sightseeing around E d in
ever, to a traveller the people of Northern
Ireland are friendly and warm towards
visitors. You get the feeling that the peo
ple know the allegiances of each other, but
to a traveller it can be hard to ascertain.
The Iris h — Be they kings, or poets, or
farm ers, they’re a people of great worth,
they keep company w ith the angels, and
bring a bit of heaven here to earth. Lepre
chauns, castles, good luck and laughter.
Lullabies, dreams and love ever after. Po
ems and songs w ith pipes and drum s. A
thousand welcomes when anyone comes...
T hat’s the Iris h for you!”
Traditional food is alive and w ell in
N orthern Ireland. Most traditional dish
es have th eir roots in potatoes and bread,
and farm in g fam ilies used to eat at least
one U ls te r F r y a day.
Nowadays that pleasure is saved for the
weekend, maybe indulging in a sausage
soda or a bacon bap on a week day. How
ever, no v is it to Northern Ireland would
be complete without experiencing an U l
ster F ry !
The U ls te r F r y is distinguished by its
griddle breads — soda bread and potato
farls, fried until crisp and golden. Some
times it comes w ith another uniquely
Northern Iris h speciality, vegetable
roll — slices of peppery minced beef, fla
voured w ith fresh leek, carrot and onion.
Bacon, sausages, an egg, a tomato and
maybe some mushrooms complete the pic
ture — not to mention lashings of tea and
Some local specialities included:
Champ — a delicious comfort food dish
of potatoes mashed w ith lots of butter,
warm m ilk and chopped spring onions or,
as we call them, scallions. W e also love
our spuds fried, roast, baked and simply
boiled in th eir “ jackets” to be peeled cer
emoniously at the table.
Ir is h Stew — a hearty casserole tra
ditio nally made w ith meat, potatoes,
carrots and onions. The U ls te r v a r i
ety is made w ith steak pieces instead of
lamb — cooked to a peppery slush and
often served w ith thick slices of buttered
D ulse — a salty, seaweed snack, o rig inal
ly harvested by fishermen to supplement
4. w aitin g for a guide for some minutes.
5. beginning of our excursion.
6. adm iring the view of B elfa st Castle,
M y H olidays in N orth ern Ire la n d
Now we are here in Northern Ireland! It
is summer and we are going to stay here
for 10 days.
W e decided not to stay in a permanent
place in a sm all hotel but rented a car and
The weather is fickle and unpredictable
but the ra in keeps the land a magical em
erald green and, when the w ind blows the
clouds away to sea, the sky like the moun
tains is blue. The a ir is clean — and so
sweet th at you w ill want to open the car
windows to let the breezes in.
Because N orthern Irelan d is only 5,500
square miles in area — about the size of
Yorkshire or Connecticut — you can see
most of the m ain attractions in a week
without clocking up more than 500 miles.
Two m ajor cities, the capital B e lfa st and
Londonderry were just w aiting to be ex
F irs t was B elfast. T his beautiful V ic to ri
an city had stacks of things to do, too —
we checked out where great ships like the
Titanic had been built, m arvelled at the
arch ite ctu ra lly im pressive C ity H a ll and
Queen’s U n iversity, we immersed our
selves in B e lfa st’s sparkling c ity life w ith
hip boutiques and sm art stores.
Then comes county Londonderry. M as
sive 17th-century city w alls and ‘singing
pubs’ are famous features of D erry/Lon
donderry, on the R iv e r Foyle. The Tower
c ity ’s turbulent history, while the F ifth
Pro vin ce celebrated Iris h Celtic culture.
A t the Foyle V alley R a ilw a y Centre we
focused on the region’s form er narrowgauge network. The w ild Sp errin M oun
tains lie south of Lim avady, near which
is the beautiful Roe Valley C ountry Park ,
where we visited U ls te r’s first hydroelec
tric power station, the Power House. A t
Draperstown to the east, the U ls te r P la n
tation Centre told us the story of a notori
ous aspect of Iris h history.
M ost people v isitin g have heard of the
v a ry in g allegiances of its people. How
A rd g lass potted h errin g — not to be
confused w ith roll mops, this dish was
created in the days when herrings were
plentiful. Each fa m ily has its own secret
variation , but often they are wrapped
around onion, bay leaf and all-spice w ith
a 50:50 m ixture of m alt vin egar and wa
ter, topped w ith breadcrumbs and baked.
T ra d itio n a l b u tch er’s sausages — the
fine-textured sausage ty p ic a l in N o rth
ern Irelan d is v e ry d istin ct from conti
nental styles, and each butcher has his
own unique fa m ily recipe, u su ally made
w ith n atu ral casings and hand-linked.
B eef sausages seem p e cu liar to the north
of Irelan d , although they are also found
Pasties — this com forting m ixture of
sausage meat, onions, mashed potato is
shaped like a burger, and always spiced
w ith loads and loads of black pepper. You
can order them plain, battered (the chip
shop favourite) or coated w ith golden
Bo x ty — predominately found in County
Ferm anagh, B o xty is a weighty, starchy
potato cake made w ith 50:50 m ix of cooked
mashed potatoes and grated, strained,
raw potato. The most common va rie ty
is boiled boxty, also known as hurley, a
large round loaf which is boiled whole
for several hours, allowed to rest and
then sliced and fried, often w ith bacon.
B u tte rm ilk — a by-product of churning
butter on the farm , butterm ilk is re
sponsible for the distin ctive flavour and
texture of Northern Ir is h breads — soda
farls, potato bread, pancakes and wheat
These were great summer holidays, the
best we have ever had!
th eir income when fishing was slack.
Found at markets, and in some bars, it is
also used in Robert D itty ’s sesame seed
and dulse oatcakes, and in the Causeway
Cheese Company’s cheese, and it can add
a v e ry pleasant saline edge to a loaf of
Lough Neagh eel — trad itio n ally eaten
at H allow e’en and served fried in chunks
w ith a white onion sauce, also often
smoked and served as a starter.
Potato bread fa rl — a dense, earthy flat
bread, made w ith potatoes, flour, and
b u tterm ilk and cooked on a griddle. This
bread is the heart of every U ls te r F r y and
a must-buy foodie souvenir.
Sod a bread fa rl — first baked in 19th cen
tu ry Ireland when local peasants added
baking soda to help the dough rise. The
result is thick, chunky soft bread w ith
flu ffy consistency that is best served
fried as p art of the U ls te r F ry , or toasted
w ith a big dollop of butter. They are also
the base for popular Pa d d y’s Pizzas.
W h e ate n bread — a healthy brown bread
made w ith whole wheat flour and delicious
toasted w ith melted cheese or buttered
and served w ith a big bowl of steaming
Yellow m an — a crunchy golden confec
tionery often confused w ith honeycomb,
but sim ila r in texture, sold at fa irs and
Vegetable ro ll — w ell a c tu a lly its thick
slices of a fa tty meat from the trim
m ings of brisket and rib w ith seasoning
of fresh vegetables, u su a lly celery, leek,
carro t and onion. It was trad itio n a lly
p art of an U ls te r F r y but now more often
served at lunch or d inn er w ith mashed
potato or champ, and mashed swede or
tu rnip .
S te a k & Guinness pies — Steak & G u in
ness pie is the pub grub of choice in most
parts of U lster. The meat is cooked first,
and then a pie dish is lined w ith p u ff
pastry, filled w ith the beef and then
topped w ith the pastry. It d iffers from
the U K pastry-topped pie, in that the
p a s try is both on top and underneath,
the meat. Butchers sell a wide range of
pies w ith fillin g s such as mince and on
ion or chicken and ham.
built. The bridge has two towers, which
are connected w ith th eir own bridge. To
day the bridge is only opened i f v e ry large
ships are to enter into the upper pool of
the Thames or i f special events are to
be celebrated. It is possible to get a tour
w ith in the towers where the orig inal V ic
torian engine rooms can be seen.
Tower of London
Tower of London is London’s and maybe
United Kingdom ’s most famous castle.
The reason being it ’s bloody h isto ry and
the fact th at it is the best su rv iv in g me
dieval castle. Tower of London was the
execution place of 8 people among others
H e n ry V I I I ’s second w ife, A nne Boleyn
and H e n ry V I I I ’s fifth w ife Catherine
Howard. Tower was also a prison and
the prisoners were brought to the Tower
by boat through T ra ito r’s Gate. The con
struction of the Tower was begun in 1078
by W illia m the Conqueror, and was grad
u a lly enlarged. Since 1660 the Crown
Jew els have been on display in the Tower
of London. I f you go there you should def
in ite ly see the 317-carat Second S t a r of
A fric a diamond. Tower is also famous for
the Yeoman W ard ers or Beefeaters, which
are guardians for the Tower of London.
They are dressed in colourful uniform s,
D ear L e ila and Trent,
Thanks again for having us last 2 weeks.
W e always have such a wonderful time
w ith you. W e ’re s till ta lk in g about what
fun we had last weekend. I t ’s always great
to see you all, and in v itin g us to stay over
made the fu n last that much longer. W e
enjoyed everything , from dinner to break
fa st and everyth ing in between! A n d all
the food was delicious of course. You two
are tr u ly im pressive cooks! W e are still
ta lk in g about that delicious shrim p, and
the cake looked like something out of a
magazine. I can’t w ait to tr y m aking that
risotto m yself but I th in k it w ill need that
Je n n a touch.
W e so appreciate the hospitality. A n ytim e
you are out our way, please don’t hesitate
to stop in and stay awhile!
Thank you again fo r your hospitality.
Je n n a and Helen
1. to m arvel
2. to amaze
3. to fight
4. to construct, to erect
5. astonishing, fantastic, incredible,
m arvellous, m iraculous, unbelievable,
6. e x traterrestrial
B ig Ben
B ig Ben is one of the most famous land
marks in the world. The clock tower situ
ated on the banks of the riv e r Thames
epitomises the culture and arch itectu ral
style of London and has tolled out the
hours before the news on B B C radio since
1923. O fficia lly B ig Ben is only the name
of the biggest of the five bells in the clock
tower also known as S t Stephen’s Tower.
The 13.8 ton bell was cast at W hitechap el
B e ll Foundry in 1858 and is said to have
been pulled to the site by 16 horses. I t was
installed in 1859, but did not s ta rt rin g
ing un til 1862 because of a crack.
W h a t is most im pressive about the clock
is its size. The tower itself is 96.3m/316ft
high. There are 4 clock faces, which have
a diam eter of 7.5 m each. The minute
hands are made of copper and are 4.3 m
W h e n either the House of Commons or the
House of Lords is sittin g after dark the
A yrto n L ig h t at the top of S t. Stephen’s
tower is lit. The A yrto n ligh t was named
afte r Thomas A yrto n who was the first
Commisioner of W orks who installed a
lamp in the tower soon after it was built.
Tower Bridg e
Tower Brid g e speaks for itself. It is one of
the most rem arkable landm arks in Lon
don. It was completed as late as 1894 and
is in fact one of the youngest road bridges
in London. It is b u ilt in a posh V icto rian
style and the engineering was widely cel
ebrated especially at the tim e when it was
3. travellin g
5. adm iring
6. visitin g
1. Scotland (Glasgow)
2. port. Capital of C ulture (Liverpool)
3. G reat B rita in , London E ye, B ig Ben,
T ra fa lg a r Square (London)
4. (Bath )
5. the south, famous for a d rive (B rig h t
6. Scotland (Edinburgh)
D u rh am Castle and C athedral
B r ie f Description
D u r h a m C a s tle and C a th e d r a l, seated
h ig h on a p e n in su la o verlo o k in g the
R iv e r W e a r, have been the f ir s t sight
to g re e t v is ito rs to th is h is to ric c ity
fo r hundreds of ye ars and w ere jo in tly
d esignated a U N E S C O W o rld H e r it
age S ite in 1986. C o n stru ctio n on the
castle began in 1072, ju s t a f te r the
N o rm a n Conquest, under the orders
of W il li a m the Conqueror, and it is a
ty p ic a l exam ple of a m otte and b a ile y
fo r tific a tio n . It was in i t i a ll y used to
co n tro l the reb ellio u s Sax ons who pop
u lated n o rth e rn E n g la n d . Fro m the
11“ c e n tu ry onw ards it was used as the
seat of pow er of the P r in c e B ish o p s ap
pointed b y the B r it is h C ro w n to ru le
the P a la tin a te of D u rh a m , the rem ote
area of n o rth e rn E n g la n d vu ln e ra b le
to a tta c k fro m the Sco ts. In 1837, the
la st P r in c e B ish o p , B ish o p V an M ild
e rt, helped found the U n iv e r s i ty o f
D u r h a m and donated the castle as its
f ir s t home. It s t ill houses students of
U n iv e r s ity C o l le g e , the oldest of the
14 u n iv e r s ity colleges, who liv e in the
keep and dine in the wood-panelled
G re a t H a ll, c o n ta in in g p o rtra its of
the P r in c e B ish o p s. A cro ss the lawned
area, know n as P a la c e G ree n , stands
the C a th e d r a l C h u rch o f C h r is t an d
B le s s e d M a r y t h e V ir g in , the best ex
ample of N orm an -style a rc h ite c tu re
In E n g la n d . It was b u ilt between 1093
and 1274, o r ig in a lly to house the re l
ics o f S t C u th b e rt, the N o rth u m b ria n
e va n g e list who died in A D 687. A ls o
in te rre d in the c a th e d ra l is the V ene r
able B ed e, who died in A D 735. B e d e ’s
Work, “ T h e E c c l e s i a s t ic a l H i s t o r y o f
th e E n g lis h P e o p l e " is considered to
be the f i r s t ever h is to ry of E n g la n d .
The c a th e d ra l’s nave is one of the most
com plete exam ples o f R om anesque a r
c h ite c tu re in E u ro p e. A t a i m (2 0 0 ft)
long and 22m (7 2 ft) h ig h, it fea tu res
tw o rows of huge c y lin d r ic a l and com
pound p illa rs su p p o rtin g rounded
arch es. The tw in W e s t T o w ers o ve r
look the R iv e r W e a r and P r e b e n d s
B r id g e , w hich b ears an in s c rip tio n of
a poem by W a lte r S c o tt in p ra ise of the
castle and c a th e d ra l. T h ere are view s
of the cobbled stre e ts of D u rh am and
the su rro u n d in g c o u n trys id e fro m the
C e n tr a l T ow er.
for education and
Jo u rn a lis ts often
intrude on people’s
private lives: they
and prin t untrue
or half-true sto
ries about them.
People can see eve
ry th in g w ith their
own eyes on TV.
It is good to listen
to the radio in the
car, or in the open
air, or when you do
vide us w ith extra
1. The mass media
2. Newspapers, radio, T V
3. A tabloid
4. T V reporters
8. a th rillin g sight
1. W h a t mass media inform us on what is
going on in the world?
2. W h a t kind of news is most news?
3. W h y do people say that journalists are
given too much freedom?
4. W h a t is the m ain source of news?
5. W h e re do people usually listen to the
1. Speaker 4
2. Speaker 3
3. Speaker 1
4. Speaker 2
The M ass M edia
Inform us of what
is going on in this
M ost news seems
to be bad news.
Program m es and
Good news doesn’t
M ain advantage
of Internet is that
news appears on
the screen as soon
as things happen
in real life.
E x 2 p l4 1
Su m m a ry of the text “ M ass
M edia in M y L ife ” .
The mass media play an im portant part
in our lives. Newspapers, radio and es
pecially T V inform us of what is going
on in the world and influence and shape
our views. It is true th at bad news usu
a lly make headlines. Jo u rn a lists often
intrude on people’s private lives; they fol
low celebrities and p rin t sensational sto
ries about them.
The m ain source of news is TV. People
like T V news because they can see every
thing w ith th eir own eyes.
S t ill m any people prefer the radio. It
is good to listen to it in the car, or open
air, or when you do something about the
Newspapers do not react to events as
quickly as TV, but they provide us with
different types and so much variety. Talk
shows and music programmes w ith disc
jockeys are very popular.
Television plays an im portant role in our
society, not only as an entertainer and
inform ant, but also because of the grip
it has on many people. Television chan
nels easily go into people’s home taking
in th eir tim e and life.
The number of registered and re-regis
tered mass-media in U k rain e, most of
all in print, is grow ing dynam ically. The
elim ination of state monopoly on in fo r
mation, which was the m ain goal at the
beginning of the 1990-s, has been suc
Considerable progress has been made
in in tegratin g our country into the
world’s inform ation field. The U k ra in
ian government has been w orking w ith
experts from the European Council as
w ell as other international institutions
to ensure the freedom of speech and ac
t iv ity of mass media in U k rain e. Such
cooperation is fr u itfu l for both parties,
as our Governm ent has the opportunity
to use the extensive European experi
ence in this sphere w hile the European
com m unity can objectively research the
situation w ith the freedom of speech in
U k rain e.
The Pa rlia m e n t of U k ra in e , the V erkhov
na R ada, is actively w orking on leg isla
tion in the inform ation field, ta k in g
steps towards b rin g ing it into accord
w ith the requirem ents of intern atio nal
law. Fo r instance, work has begun on the
Info rm atio n code of U k rain e; a d ra ft of
the new version of the Law of U k ra in e
“ On In form ation” has been prepared
w ith in its fram ework. The work contin
ues on the d ra ft of the Law of U k rain e
“ On M ass M edia” and other laws in this
M ass communicated media saturate the
industrialized world. The television in
the liv in g room, the newspaper on the
doorstep, the radio in the car, the compu
ter at work, and the fliers in the mailbox
are ju st a few of the media channels daily
delivering advertisements, news, opin
ion, music, and other forms of mass com
extra detail, comment and background
The Internet has recently become an
other im portant source of inform ation.
Its m ain advantage is th at news appears
on the screen as soon as things happen in
M y A ttitu d e to M ass M edia
In the last decades the society has expe
rienced a radical change due to the mass
media appearance diverse.
Some of the used systems of communica
tion are press, radio, television, the In
ternet... A t the moment thanks to these
means, we enjoy good communication
w ith people of other countries and also a
great fa c ility to obtain data on many sub
M edia is the most powerful tool of com
munication. It helps promoting the right
things on rig h t time. It gives a real expo
sure to the mass audience about what is
right or wrong. The role of mass media
in the life of the present society is d iffi
cult to overestimate. E ve n though media
is linked w ith spreading fake news like a
fire, but on the safe side, it helps a lot to
inform us about the realities as well. In
this or th at form mass media come into
M edia has played an im portant role in or
der to focus on the social issues in almost
every era. It is the fact that in most of the
eras, media were not being given free and
fa ir chances to explore the issues of so
ciety more openly than it is being given
now; but we can’t deny th is fact that the
issues were always raised in order to pro
vide justice to the people. To understand
the meaning of mass media for the people
it is necessary to consider th e ir every as
Newspapers are u su ally issued daily.
Weekly, or at other reg ular tim es. News
papers come out to provide th eir read
ers w ith fresh news. Today people have
e chance to have fu ll inform ation about
^ lit ic a l, economic and cu ltu ral events in
their own country and abroad.
Radio appeared earlier then TV. Radio
bas not lost its im portance w ith the ap
pearances of T V and the Internet. Today
Öiere are a lot of radio stations of many
In fo rm a
T a lk / ch a t show
in g /breakfast
M akeover show
R e a lity T V
W ild life
The m edia have enormous im portance
to conflict resolution because they are
the p rim a ry — and frequ ently on ly —
source of info rm ation reg arding con
flicts. I f a situation doesn’t make the
news, it sim ply does not exist for most
W ith o u t the m edia, most people would
know little of events beyond th e ir im m e
d iate neighbourhood. The fu r th e r one
goes outside of one’s circle of friends
and fa m ily , the more tim e-consum ing
and expensive it becomes to get in fo r
m ation. V e ry few, i f any in d ivid u als
have the resources to stay independent
ly inform ed o f world events. W it h the
news, however, a ll one has to do is tu rn
on a televisio n or tu rn to the In tern et.
E v e n when it is biased or lim ited , it is
a pictu re of w hat is happening around
A nother im portant benefit of a function
ing mass news media is that inform ation
can be relayed quickly in times of crisis.
Tornado and hurricane announcement
can give large populations advance w arn
ing and allow them to take precautions
and move out of harm ’s way. In a country
suffering war, a radio broadcast outlin
ing where the latest fighting is can alert
people to areas to avoid. In quieter times,
the media can publish other useful an
nouncements, from traffic reports to how
to avoid getting H IV . It is a stabilizing
and c iv iliz in g force.
ex. 3 (a)
1.the B B C a n d lB A
2. the government
6. of a very high standard
ex. 4 (b)
In fo rm a
3. was moderated
4. were stumped
11. were often addressed
1. It is a ta lk show.
2. It has been created by Oprah W in fre ;
in te restin g and stim ulatin g . I never
im agined th a t such an educational pro
gram m e can be v e r y enjoyable. I get
a chance to enjoy the kaleidoscope of
sights, sounds and colours of the world
and its d ifferen t peoples, all in the com
fo rt of m y own home.
In addition to that, th is programme is
of v e ry high q u ality and it is produced
by a team of experts, all are authorities
in th e ir own field of interest. The photo
graphic footage is extremely breath-taking and inspiring. Besides, the narration
is v e ry accurate, inform ative, v iv id and
descriptive. Thus, I have never felt rest
less, distracted or bored w atching this
The N ational Geographic is my favourite
programme as it has helped me to “ grow”
and “ m ature” . I have watched it since
I was a seven-year-old innocent child.
Now, I am more sensitive and aware of
the world and M other E a rth . I learn to be
more appreciative of M other E a rth and its
beauty and wonders. I am more concern
about the preservation and conservation
of the world not only now but also for pos
terity. In short, the N ational Geographic
has converted me into a more responsible
citizen o f the world and a caretaker of
M other E a rth .
It is a touching and heart-warm ing T V
programme and I w ill no t hesitate to rec
ommend it to others so that they too have
a chance to savour am azing moments and
appreciate and care for the one and only
world we live in.
4. w ith
3. Oprah W in fr e y is starrin g in the
4. A home of the show is the United
5. The show has been on for 23 years.
6. It started on September 8, 1986.
M y Fa v o u rite T V Program m e
The televisio n (T V ) is a p a r t and a p a r
cel of m any households. Therefore,
w atch in g television is a c u ltu re of to
d a y ’s modern society. It is a fa v o u r
it e past-time of m any people, cu ttin g
across the c u ltu re , creed, gender and
age. I m ust adm it th a t I too enjoy “ s it
tin g glued” to the T V as mum often la
ments. Sin ce I w atch T V whole day long,
I don’t blame mum. However, whenever
I w atch m y fa vo u rite T V program m e
she doesn’t com plain. In fa ct, she often
^sits together to w atch it, the “ N a tio n a l
G eographic” .
The “ N ational Geographic” is a wellknown documentary programme, focus
ing m ain ly on the ever-changing world
on M other E a rth and on nature and peo
pies and creatures that colour it w ith
Ju s t the press of a switch and a button and
“ H ey Presto!” , the whole world is brought
before me, for me to savour its beauty and
wonders. Personally, I am often awed and
amazed w ith them.
I like this programme because it is very
educational. It is a “ window to the world” .
B y w atching it, I can “ travel” , “ explore”
and “ discover” the four corners of the
world. I have trekked up the highest peak
and conquered M t. Everest. I have dived
down the deepest trenches. I have walked
through the wilderness and been amongst
the w ild beasts, big and sm all. Thus, this
programme has helped to expand m y ho
rizon and improve my knowledge and ex
perience. I can proudly say I am no more a
“ frog in the w ell” .
I also enjoy w atch ing the “ National
Geographic” because it is en tertain in g ,
2. was telecasted
3. were back
9. was televised
4. turned out
6. was satirized
7. was devoted
A r t Pro fes
a jo urn alist
a lib rarian
a shop as
a h a ir
an a rtis t
1. make a decision
3. future career
4. is best suited for
5. the necessary qualities
6. fit for a certain position
1. a mechanic
2. a nurse
3. a law yer
4. an accountant
5. a shop assistant
6. a firefighter
7. an explorer
8. a jo urn alist
3. shop assistants
4. a nurse
5. an accountant
6. a mechanic
W o rk in g
w ith M a
a d river
W o rk in g
w ith People
7. a law yer
8. an explorer
M y m other is a receptionist. She works
fo r O L E C C O R P. She receives callers at
establishm ent, determ ines n ature of
business, and directs callers to desti
nation by p erform ing the follow ing du
She obtains c aller’s name and arrang
es for appointment w ith person called
upon, she directs caller to destination
and records name, tim e of call, nature
of business, and person called upon. She
types memos, correspondence, reports,
and other documents and issues v is ito r’s
pass when required. She makes future
appointments and answer inquiries. She
collects and distributes m ail and mes
sages and performs va rie ty of clerical
She likes her job because it is interesting
and exciting and she meets a lot of people
during a day.
M y father is a Personal Computer N e t
work Technician. He works for O LE C
C O R P. too. He in stalls, configures, and
troubleshoots computer networks and
associated assemblies by perform ing the
follow ing duties. He perform s network
troubleshooting to isolate and diagnose
common network problems, upgrades
network hardw are and softw are compo
nents as required, in stalls, upgrades,
and configures network prin ting , d i
recto ry stru ctu res, righ ts, security,
and softw are on file servers, provides
users w ith network technical support.
He responds to the needs and questions
of users concerning th eir access of re
sources on the network and establishes
network users, user environm ent, d irec
tories, and se cu rity for networks being
He enjoys his work. It is v e ry creative and
Lessons 3 -4
1. to approach
2. highest grow th careers
3. to exceed
4. to require
5. a retirem ent
6. to be in demand
7. a vacancy
9. to be technically inclined
3. analyze can
4. dance can
1. repairing cars Should
2. should get a high qualification
3. change your job should
4. should develop your professional skills
1. has to a uniform
2. have to good w ith numbers
3. has to good at spelling
4. have to heavy things
1. d m ight be a singer in future
2. f might be a manager or an accountant
3. e m ight be a florist or a gardener
4. a m ight be a law yer
5. b m ight be a farm er
6. с m ight be a painter or in terior de
Jo b s in the world
2. w ill be able to
3. can, could or may
4. ought to and should
1. M agazines w ith quizzes and surveys
2. Special tests can find out
3. Those who like to work w ith machines
4. Those who like to work w ith people can
5. you must be helpful, caring, calm , pa
tient, friendly, cheerful and outgoing.
8. you m ight be a scientist or an inven
7. must have good education ü rs t of all.
You have to tr y developing... and
can to communicate
2. can cook
Accountant, IT employee.
Roughneck, Surgeon, Doc
tor, Anesthesiologist, P re s i
P s ych iatrist,
Executive Officer, Lawyer,
Computer and inform ation
systems manager. A irlin e ,
P ilo t, V eterin arian , E le c tri
cal Engineer, Softw are E n
gineer, Pharm aceutical Sales
p re sti
Firefighter, Scientist, Doc
tor, Nurse, teacher. In vest
B an k in g
Business A n a lyst, Computer
and related fishing workers.
A ir c r a ft pilots and flight
engineers. Logging work
ers, Stru c tu ra l iron and steel
workers. Refuse and recy
clable m aterial collectors.
Farm ers and ranchers.
R eal estate agent/broker.
Stock broker. Banker, A c
countant, E n tertain er
Teacher, N ursing A ssistant,
Fin a n cial Planner, Massage
Therapist Physical Thera
py A ssistan t, P a s try Chef,
Nurses, also called registered nurses or
R N s, take care of sick and injured people.
They give people medicine. They treat
wounds. A n d they give emotional support
to patients and th eir fam ilies.
Nurses ask patients about th e ir sym p
toms and keep detailed records. They
watch for signs that people are sick.
Then, nurses help doctors exam ine and
Some nurses help to give tests to find
out why people are sick. Some also do lab
work to get test results.
Nurses also teach people how to take care
of themselves and th eir fam ilies. Some
nurses teach people about diet and exer
cise and how to follow doctors’ in s tru c
tions. Some nurses run clinics and im m u
Nurses can focus on treating one type
of patient, such as babies or children.
They can also focus on one type of prob
lem. Some focus on helping doctors dur
ing surgery, for example. Others work in
emergency rooms or intensive care units.
M an y nurses work in doctors’ offices.
They help w ith medical tests, give medi
cines, and dress wounds. Some also do lab
and office work.
Home health nurses go to people’s homes
to help them. Flig h t nurses fly in helicop
ters to get to sick people in emergencies.
Some nurses have special tra in in g and
can do more advanced work. Nurse prac
titioners can prescribe medicine. Nurse
midwives can help women give birth.
Helping sick people and dealing w ith
medical emergencies can be stressful.
Nurses in hospitals often have to help
m any patients at once.
M a n y nurses spend a lot of tim e w a lk
ing and standing. Nurses also need to
be ca re fu l in order to stay safe. Nurses
care for people who have diseases that
they can catch too. A nd nurses can get
h u rt w h ile helping to move patients.
N urses also need to guard ag ain st ra
diatio n from x-rays and chem icals in
Because patients need 24-hour care, hos
p ital nurses often work nights, weekends,
and holidays. Office nurses are more lik e
ly to work reg ular hours. M any nurses
work part time.
Nurses must graduate from a nursing
program . It takes about 2 years of college
to finish an associate degree in nursing.
It takes about 4 years to finish a bach
elor’s degree in nursing. A nd a nursing
diploma program usually takes about 3
Deciding what kind of tra in in g to get is
im portant. Some career paths are open
only to nurses who have a bachelor’s de
N u rsin g
classes and hands-on learning w ith ex
perienced nurses in hospitals and other
places. T his is called clin ical train in g.
Nurses study anatomy, chem istry, n u tri
tion, psychology, and nursing theory.
A fte r graduating, nurses need to pass a
test to get a nursing license. They have to
take classes every few years to keep their
sk ills current.
Nurses need to be caring and kind. They
also need to be good at recognizing prob
lems and remembering details.
Nurses need to work well w ith doctors
and patients. M an y nurses also supervise
assistants and other workers.
Nurses can become head nurses or direc
tors of nursing. Some nurses move into
the business side of health care. Some get
jobs in big health care firm s planning,
m arketing, and m aking sure people get
To get ready for this job, students can
take biology and other science classes.
They also can become good at reading a n d
E le c tric a l power-line in s ta ll
ers and repairers. Roofers,
D rive r/sales workers and
truck drivers, Miscellaneous
ag ricu ltu ral workers_________
Teachers like to see children learn. B u t
sometimes teaching lots of students can
be stressful. Teachers also have to deal
w ith children who misbehave.
M an y teachers work more than 40 hours
a week. Most go on vacation during the
summer. Sometimes, they teach in sum
mer school. Some take another job. Some
go to college to learn more about teaching.
A ll teachers in public schools must have
a teaching certificate, which is a license
to teach. Some teachers are licensed to
teach preschool through grade 3. Others
are licensed to teach grades 1 through 6
or 8. Some are licensed to teach middle
school or high school. Some have a license
to teach a special subject.
You must have a college degree to be a
teacher, unless you are teaching a job
sk ill like how to fix cars. You must take
classes in education and practice teaching
w ith the help of an experienced teacher.
To be a teacher, you must pass tests in
reading, w ritin g , and other subjects. And
you have to keep learning. In some States,
you have to get a m aster’s degree. You also
need computer train in g in some States.
Teachers must be able to ta lk to children
and be good leaders. The students must
tru st them. Teachers must be able to
make students want to learn. They also
should be organized, dependable, patient,
w ritin g . M ath skills are also im portant
for adding doses of medicine and taking
Teachers teach children to read, w rite, do
math, and much more. They use games,
videos, computers, and other tools to
teach children different subjects.
Teachers show students skills. They also
explain inform ation. Teachers plan th eir
lessons before they teach. P lan n in g takes
a lot of time.
Teachers tr y to make th eir lessons easy
to understand. They teach things in d if
ferent ways so that different students can
. learn in the way that is easiest for them.
Teachers m ight use a chalkboard, a pro
jector, or a computer. They make posters
or worksheets before class starts. Teach
ers plan the schedule for the day. Most
teachers have to teach what the principal
' Teachers also assign homework and class
■ projects. They often have students work
together to do projects. W h e n students
are not doing as well as they should,
teachers help them.
A fte r class, teachers grade papers and
projects. They also make tests. They w rite
- ’ students’ report cards. A n d they meet
w ith parents to tr y to help th eir children
t do better in school. Teachers sometimes
« go to workshops to learn how to teach bet■ ter. Some teachers also help w ith sports
or other after-school activities.
' *Most kindergarten and e l e m e n t a r y school
teachers teach several subjects to one
c la s s of children. In some schools, two
: or more teachers work as a team. Other
"teachers teach one special subject, such
as art, music, reading, or gym.
iio s t middle school and high school teach
ers focus on one subject. They m ight teach
E n g l i s h , science, or h i s t o r y , for example.
S o m e teach students how to do a job. H igh
^ h o o l teachers spend more time explain
ing a subject and less tim e w ith activities
Teachers work w ith students of many d if
ferent cultures. Some students were born
in the United States, and some were not.
■teachers learn about different cultures
*0 th at they can help students better.
• How m any hours would you like to
• W h a t motivates you?
• W h a t are your sa lary expectations?
• W h a t do you find are the most d ifficult
decisions to make?
■ Do you prefer to work independently or
on a team ?
• W h a t type of work environm ent do you
• How do you evaluate success?
• W h a t interests you about this job?
• W h y do you w ant this job?
• W h a t applicable attributes / experi
ence do you have?
• A re you overqualified for th is job?
• W h a t can you do for this company?
1. have to
3. has to
5. have to
6. have to
8. have to
1. L id l is one of the largest discount food
retailers in Europe.
2. It sells good q u ality products at the
lowest price possible.
3. The L id l team ensures that the lowest
costs are m aintained and that the benefit
is passed onto L id l’s customers.
4. They operate in Germ any, France, Ita
ly, Spain, Belgium , and Portugal.
5. They are looking for determined high
ly motivated managers.
6. A t present they want to employ an E x
7. The new employee w ill need to report
d ire ctly to the Regional Director.
8. Yes, he should be educated to degree
1. ...be a pilot.
2. He m ight be a businessman.
3. She might be an opera singer.
4. He m ight be a politician.
5. She might be a lawyer.
6. He m ight be a chef.
7. She might be a gardener,
• W h y should the company hire you?
• W h y are you the best person for the
• W h a t do you know about this compa
• W h y do you want to work there?
• W h a t challenges are you looking for in
• W h a t can you contribute to th is com
• A re you w illin g to travel?
• W h a t are you looking for in your future
job? W h a t is im portant to you?
• W h a t are your goals for the next five
years / ten years?
■ How do you plan to achieve those
• W h a t are your sa lary requirements —
both short-term and long-term?
Texts for Additional Reading and Discussion.
Text 1. An A fot Mrs В
e x .3
2. take into consideration
4. was determined to convince
5. fought back tears
6. m isfits.
1. M rs В announced that the pupils had
to create a newspaper around the culture
they were studying.
2. They wrote the names of three friends
they wanted in th eir group.
3. The next day K a rin a found herself in
the other group.
4. She felt tears because she did not want
to be in that group.
5. She felt herself enjoying the company of
these three misfits. She grew sincerely interestedinlearningsom ethingaboutthem .
6. She learned that who we are is more im
portant than what we are or seem to be.
3. ...wanted to be a fashion designer.
4. ...people that no one cared enough about
to tr y to understand except M rs B.
I f you are unsatisfied w ith your own ap
pearance, this is not the reason to think
that you are an outsider. Beauty can
sometimes show its hideous face, for it is
not ve ry common. One can learn a simple
fact, th at appearances are deceitful.
People’s eyes are attracted to beauty
and i t ’s quite n atu ral. W e look at flow
ers, landscapes, pieces of a rt, and g ra
cious movements of a b allet dancer w ith
adm iration . W e understand why it is
b eau tifu l and the sight of the abovementioned things brings us pleasure.
People also th in k of a m an’s/w o m a n ’s
appearance as of a m asterpiece of na
tu re and enjoy it as much as a landscape
in the A lp s. B u t is the essence of this
beauty the same?
Landscapes are parts of nature, pieces
of a r t are created by g ifted people; these
objects are not alive, don’t possess an in
tellect, so it is much easier to define the
essence of it ’s m eaning and purpose. H u
mans have divine g ift of speech, abstract
th in kin g and freedom of action. W e can’t
but agree that it ’s ve ry d ifficu lt to de
fine, what is hiding behind good looks.
O ur mind is used to assume that beauty
contains only good things. W e forget
that beauty can also be dangerous. This
rule can be applied to some people that
use th eir appearance to harm others for
th eir own profit. Good looking people are
called lucky and others that don’t fa ll un
der that category are extremely jealous
as usual. “ W h y is my m ark “ unsatisfac
to ry ” i f I worked on my term paper topic
a lot? M y friend didn’t even do a research
and got a “ good” . T his is all because she is
p retty” . No m atter what your term paper
topics are and how well they are worked
at, there still w ill be someone, who is way
more successful than you are. That is a
usual w ay to think. In most cases those
who complain are right. B u t we want to
draw your attention to the fact that “ pret
t y ” doesn’t necessarily mean “ good” . This
statement can be easily proved.
1. ...with the En g lish language and his
lack of friends.
2. ...people didn’t understand that she
Was allowed to wear long sk irts or dress
es because of her religion.
21 СуперГДЗ.9 К . 2 T M
2. to calm him down
3. approached... released the horn over
4. dog tag
5. irrelevan t
6. prank... leads
1. They saw a dog who had been hit by a
2. The boy’s dad stopped the car and the
boy got out and started m oving the dog
o ff the road and then they coaxed the dog
into the back of th eir car and took him
3. They phoned the owner.
4. She told them that the dog had been
m issing for two weeks and had travelled
on the other side of the river.
5. H er husband came to take the dog back
6. Yes, the dog was happy to see him.
7. They received a card w ith a note thank
ing them for saving their dog.
W h a t we have to do is just a little psy
chological research. People are in the
habit of using e ve ry th in g they possess
in order to reach success. P r e tty face
and nice figure can also be used. T here’s
nothing bad in it, of course. W e see fa
mous movie stars and celebrities doing
it e ve ry day. The sto ry is to ta lly d if
ferent in everyd ay life . People who are
a ttra ctive get used to the attention and
adm iration. T hey get proud and th in k
th at e ve ry th in g th a t they reach is due
to the w ay th ey look. People who are a t
tra c tive use th e ir looks to get a job, to
be promoted, to be excused from doing
som ething they don’t w an t to. The only
inconvenient th in g fo r them is author
it y th at they create. The atmosphere
around them can not be ru in ed in any
way. Once the reputation is ruined, nice
looks w ill not help any more for they
don’t m atter from no on. B u t there are
people who are eq u ally p re tty inside
and outside. Such people are pride of
the society and are respected greatly.
E v e r y one of us knows a lot of examples
of above described phenomenon; th ere’s
no need to do it here. It is quite possible
th at people can change so appearances
won’t m atter anym ore.
Beau ty is meant to serve to greater good,
so a person always has a choice. A nd it is:
to be good and respectable, but use fa ir
ways that sometimes can be hard, or to go
the easy way of m anipulating people by
using your g ift, such as appearance. A s
for those, who suffer from being “ one out
of the crowd” , one can advice to show that
you are special in a different kind of way.
There must be a special talent that makes
you a credit to your parents. Anyhow, we
are to celebrate beauty, i f it deserves it
and to t r y to get it on the rig h t track if its
direction is messed up.
4. v a ry Immensely... creature
5. cays... accumulation
1. The great B a rrie r R ee f consists of
more than 3,400 in dividual reefs and 700
2. The perfect environm ent for the colo
nies of tin y coral polyps is the continental
shelf not fa r below the ocean’s surface,
washed by the warm waters of the South
3. The islands of the reef are of two main
types: “ low islands” and “ continental is
4. The waters of the G reat B a rrie r Reef
were declared the M arin e Park.
1. ...a car hit a dog.
2. ...we were sitting not more than six feet
from the tracks.
3. ...the dog had been missing for two
weeks and had travelled on the other side
of the river.
1 have had my rescued Persian for almost
2 weeks (she is 8 years old / 1 owner pre
viously). She still hisses, growls, swats
and tries to bite me when I try to pet her.
I have her in a small room so she does be
come overwhelmed with a new environ
ment. She is eating well and using her lit
ter box, but doesn’t seem to want human
interaction. Her previous owner said she
was a very loving affectionate cat. They
decided to get rid of her because they are
starting a family and do not want a cat
around a baby.
Is there anything more I can do other
than feed and keep her litter box clean? I
go into the room several times a day and
just try to sit close to her and talk sweet
to her, but she isn’t warming up.
I was going up a circular on ramp to
the interstate when I noticed a momma
cat running away. Then I saw them, the
cutest little kittens ever and they were
right on the edge of the road, trying
to cross. I couldn’t help but stop only I
was in traffic and half way up already.
I did my best to pull to the side so that
the others could pass (all blowing their
horns) and with the hazards on I threw
the truck into reverse (not advisable at
I pulled to the side, grabbed these two
very cute but feisty kittens and put them
into a box in the bed of the truck. I really
did try to find the momma but no luck.
I wasn’t in the position to keep them so
the next day I took them to the humane
society and they assured me that kittens
were very popular for adoption.
Ok that’s my kitty story.
6. T F
1. and washed by the w arm waters of the
South Pacific Ocean, the perfect environ
ment was created for the world’s largest
system of coral reefs.
1. Sandra Bullock is adored in A m erica
because of her natural sin cerity and
slightly confused smile.
2. She was born in a suburb of W ash in g
3. H er mother was an opera diva and her
father was a part-time vocal coach.
4. No, she didn’t. She cut both her palms
to avoid having to play the piano.
5. H er mother had inculcated in her a
sense of beauty, gave her first lessons in
acting techniques and fam iliarized her
w ith onstage life.
6. She spent her childhood in Nuremberg.
Since her childhood she was taught mu
sic. She felt v e ry lonely because of forced
music lessons and trip s and tours w ith
her mother. She had no time for children’s
games, she had no friends.
7. No, she didn’t. She entered E a s t C ali
fornia U n iv e rsity but she didn’t study at
un iversity for a long time. She went to
8. She developed an intensive programme
to conquer artis tic Olympus. She worked
in cheap cafes fo r several years to pay for
acting courses. She spent 3 years in New
York and then moved to Los Angeles.
There she played in a sm all performance
and T V programmes and then starred in
9. Yes, she is. She is a Hollywood star
10. She likes m ountain climbing, L atin
A m erican dancing and the Internet.
2. of more than 3,400 individual reefs
and 700 islands stretching a distance of
3. simple, p rim itive organisms that have
lived in tropical seas for about 500 m il
4. the M arin e Pa rk in 1975.
Su m m ary
The great B a rrie r R eef consists of more
than 3,400 in d ividu al reefs and 700 is
lands stretching a distance of 2,300 km.
The perfect environm ent for the colonies
of tin y coral polyps is the continental
shelf not fa r below the ocean’s surface,
washed by the warm waters of the South
Corals are simple, p rim itive organisms
that have lived in tropical seas for about
500 m illion years. They are all the work
of one type of creature.
The islands of the reef are of two m ain
types: “ low islands” and “ continental
islands” . Low islands are the coral cays
formed by accumulation of sand and coral
parts. Continental islands are the rem
nants of the m ainland that have been cut
o ff by changes in sea level.
The waters of the Great B a rrie r R eef were
declared the M arin e Pa rk in 1975, help
ing to m aintain and conserve a unique
3. ruckus a huge fine
4. put a lid
6. fam iliarized
7. was called The German.
8. the cheerleaders
campaign. Im m ediately following gradu
ation, she moved to New York C ity to pur
sue acting alongside her sister.
She caught the public’s eye as the wild,
but vulnerable D aisy in “ M ystic Pizza”
(1988). The next year, she cemented her
status as a rising star in “ Steel M agno
lia s” (1989), appearing alongside such
acting legends as S h irle y M acLaine and
S a lly Field. Roberts earned an Oscar
nomination for Best Supporting Actress
for her work on the film.
A fte r that, R oberts’ career really took
off. B u t it was her performance as a hook
er w ith a heart of gold opposite R ichard
Gere in “ P r e tty W om an” (1990) that
propelled Roberts into the upper tier of
Hollywood actresses. Roberts quickly be
came one of the highest paid stars — male
or female — in the world, eventually rak
in g in $ 25 m illion for a film . E q u ally in
the lim elight for a torrent of high-profile
and often rocky romances, Roberts man
aged to m aintain an output of projects
th at consistently topped the box office.
Roberts then tackled a va rie ty of dra
m atic and romantic roles in such film s as
“ The Pelican B rie f” (1993), “ M ichael Col
lin s ” (1996), “ M y Best Frien d ’s W eddin g”
(1997), “ Stepmom” (1998), and “ N otting
H ill” (1999) w ith v a ry in g degrees of suc
cess. In 2000, she made a dram atic break
through w ith her powerful performance
in “ E r in Brockovich” (2000). In the film,
she played the title character, a gutsy,
struggling single mom. Based on a true
story, Brockovich helped lead the fight
against a C aliforn ia power company that
allegedly destroyed a sm all town’s water
supply. Roberts won several awards for
the project, including her first Academy
Since then, Roberts has taken some lig h t
hearted roles, appearing w ith George
Clooney in “ Ocean’s Eleven” (2001) and
“ Ocean’s Twelve” (2004), as well as some
em otionally challenging parts, such as
“ Closer” (2004) w ith Clive Owen and Jud e
Law. Roberts also made her Broadway
debut in “ Three Days of R a in ” in 2006.
H e r most recent film , “ C harlie W ils o n ’s
W a r ” , w ith Tom H anks and P h ilip Sey
mour Hoffm an, was released in late De-
1. ...musicians... to see th eir daughter
become a singer or a musician... lost her
desire for classical music.
2. ...when she was 12 years old... was on
3. ...entered E a s t Carolina U n iversity. Set
out to conquer New York.
4. ...is unlike the m ajo rity of Hollywood
girls because of her natural sincerity and
slig htly confused smile.
J u l ia R o berts B io graph y
One of the few bankable female stars
of the 1990s, actress J u l ia Roberts re
mained an iconic figure whose assured,
winsome performances underscored her
undeniable public appeal.
She was born October 28, 1967 in A t
lanta, G A and was raised by her father,
W alter, a vacuum cleaner salesman and
her mother, B etty, a form er church secretary-turned-real estate agent. Despite
solid middle class jobs, her parents were
also part-time actors who ran the Atlantabased A ctors and W rite rs W orkshop out
of th eir home. B u t in 1971, her domestic
tra n q u ility was shattered when her par
ents divorced. Roberts moved the follow
ing year to Sm yrna, CA w ith her mother
and sister, Lisa, w hile her brother, E ric ,
stayed behind w ith th eir father. Though
she was intent on becoming a ve te rin a r
ian, Roberts was suddenly interested in
acting afte r landing her first stage role
playing Elizabeth Dole in a mock election
she played in T V programmes and then
starred in Hollywood films. On the day
of the premiere of the film ‘Speed’ she
realised that she became a genuine H ol
Sandra has three more big passions —
m ountain climbing, L atin A m erican danc
ing and the Internet.
2. to transm it
7. profoundly affected
8. to accomplish
1. The A m erican inventor Thomas A lv a
Edison was born in M ilan , Ohio.
2. No, he didn’t. Because of hearing prob
lems he had d ifficu lty following the les
3. He saved the life of a station o fficial’s
child, who had fallen onto the tracks of an
oncoming train .
4. He improved the telegraph by m aking
it possible to transm it messages auto
5. In 1879 he invented incandescent elec
tric ligh t bulb.
6. Yes, he was. He not only designed im
portant new devices, he created compa
nies worldwide for the m anufacture and
sale of his inventions.
7. In his laboratory in W est Orange he
produced the commercial phonograph,
the kinetoscope, the Edison storage bat
tery, the electric pen and some other in
8. He patented more than 1,000 discover
cember 2007. Roberts received a Globe
Globe nomination in the Best Supporting
Actress in a M otion Pic tu re category for
her portrayal of an anticom m unist Tex
as socialite. H er character encourages
Congressman Charlie W ilso n to support
freedom fighters in A fg h anistan in their
fight against the So viet troops in their
country. The film is based on a true sto
Roberts has been m arried to cam era
man D anny Moder since 2002. In 2004,
the couple welcomed tw ins — Phinnaeus W a lte r and Hazel P a tric ia and in
2007, th e ir th ird child, H en ry Daniel,
was born. She was previously m arried
to country singer Lyle L o vett from 1993
to 1995 and was once engaged to actor
K ie fe r Sutherland. Roberts has also been
rom antically linked to actors Benjam in
B ra tt, M atthew Pe rry, Jaso n Pa tric, and
L ia m Neeson.
S u m m ary
Sandra Bullock fits the image of a H ol
lywood star perfectly. She is adored in
A m erica because of her natural sincerity
and slig htly confused smile.
She was born in a suburb of W ashington,
D.C. H e r mother was an opera diva and
her father was a part-time vocal coach.
She spent her childhood in Nuremberg.
Since her childhood she was taught mu
sic. She cut both her palms to avoid hav
ing to play the piano. She felt ve ry lonely
because of forced music lessons and trips
and tours w ith her mother. She had no
time for children’s games, she had no
friends. H er mother had inculcated in her
a sense of beauty, gave her first lessons in
acting techniques and fam iliarized her
w ith onstage life.
W h e n she was 12 years old her parents
moved to New York. A f t e r finish in g
school Sa n d ra entered E a s t C a lifo rn ia
U n iv e rs ity but she didn’t study at u n i
v e rs ity for a long tim e. She failed to
conquer New York and moved to Los A n
There she passed an incredible number
of movies and casting tests and in 1989
played a sm all performance where she
was noticed by a famous critic. Then
1. of hearing problems.
2. he left telegraphy and began a career
of full-time inventing and run ning busi
3. he not only designed im portant new de
vices, he created companies worldwide for
4. more than 1,000 discoveries,
1. W h en and where was Thomas A lv a
2. W h a t happened when Thomas was 7?
3. W h a t did he do from 1862 to 1868?
4. W h a t career did he begin by 1869?
5. W h e n did he move to New York?
6. W h e re did he move in M arch, 1876?
7. W h a t did he invent in 1877?
8. W h e n did he demonstrate his incan
descent electric light bulb?
9. W h a t did he supervise in 1882?
10. W h en did his w ife die?
11. W h e re did he construct a new labora
12. W h a t did he introduce in 1913?
13. W h e n was he appointed as president
of the U .S . N a vy?
14. W h e n did he die?
Genius is 1 percent inspiration
and 99 percent perspiration
This is probably the most famous line u t
tered by the inventor Thomas A lv a E d i
son. W e can complete the quotation thus:
“ I never did anything worth doing by ac
cident, nor did any of m y inventions come
by accident. They came by work.” M any of
life ’s failures are people who did not re a l
ize how close they were to success when
they gave up. D u ring all those years of
experimentation and research, he never
once made a discovery. A ll his work was
deductive, and the results he achieved
were those of invention, pure and simple.
He would construct a theory and work
on its lines until he found it was unten
able. Then it would be discarded at once
and another theory evolved. This was the
only possible way for him to work out the
problem. He speaks w ithout exaggera
tion when he says that he has constructed
3.000 different theories in connection
w ith the electric light, each one of them
reasonable and apparently lik ely to be
true. Yet only in two cases did his ex
periments prove the tru th of my theory.
H is chief d ifficu lty was in constructing
the carbon filament... E v e r y quarter of
the globe was ransacked by his agents,
and all sorts of the queerest m aterials
used, un til fin a lly the shred of bamboo,
now utilized by them, was settled upon.
None of his inventions came by accident.
He saw a w orthw hile need to be met and
he made tr ia l after tr ia l u n til it came. He
said: “ I have not failed. I ’ve just found
10.000 ways that won’t work.” , “ I find but
what the world needs. Then, I go ahead
and invent it.”
W a n t to be a genius? W e ll, it ’s not that
d ifficu lt — all you need to do is to devote
10.000 hours to your chosen field, says a
Researchers in Germ any have found that
genius is one per cent inspiration and
99 per cent perspiration, and one has to
practice just 10,000 hours to reach the
top in th eir chosen discipline, the “ D aily
M a il” reported.
A nd , according to them, talent and luck
are im portant, but it ’s practice that
true m astery,” lead researcher D aniel
L e v itin was quoted by the B ritis h news
paper as tellin g B B C ’s “ Focus” m aga
Ex tracts from M alcolm Gladw ell’s book
“ Outliers: The S to ry of Success” , pub
lished in “ Focus” , describe practice as be
ing the key to The Beatles’ success.
In th eir early career the Fab Four would
play eight hours a night, seven days
a week while in Hamburg. B y the time
they h it it big, they had performed live an
estimated 1,200 times — more than most
modern bands play in their careers.
makes the difference between being good
and being brillia nt.
The researchers at the B e rlin ’s Academy
of Music came to the conclusion after
looking at a group of violin students who
started playing at around the age of five,
practising for two or three hours a week.
A s they grew older, the amount of prac
tice increased. And, by the age of 20, the
elite performers had each totalled 10,000
hours of practice, while the merely good
students had accrued 8,000.
“ It seems it takes the brain this long to
assim ilate all it needs to know to achieve