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  • 1. H. l'. |'| O,E1AJ'IFlK
  • 2. -. ._'+= -=. — La}, 4 _, _ A —5-? ;‘ I V/ Ill _». .%. ,. , . . . . . .0
  • 3. 3.. .“: -—-. .. . H. l‘. r1011AJ1FlK 5" T CPI/ I51 Ezcpagog / I>oHofi'orMqEC1<A;1 m. M “‘ " OII1Kpblmll(’ A, ucpm<u 1 Ko, z_1/M6oM J Onncpbmme Bacxo dn I"a. uoz‘z . !0pL‘K030 nymu 6 I/ Iudmo -nu: -w r—: ns. -n . . . u-~» ' Hammo Pcdmpmmguu 1 7 6 Fepmmuu, « 95 mc3u. co6 L }1fvomu6 zmdy/ Ibeemguu» . Iomcpa . .-nr 151 9_1 2 Hep6ov Kpyeoc6cnmoc nymemecm6ue Maeexmaua I“1pa6/tcnue umrzepamopa 1 9-1 55 C6im; eHHoz'z Pu/ wcxofl umnepuu Kap/ m V 6 K L’Cmb}mC‘KlL‘l 60mm 6 II1”ep, -umuu Fl n6,1c1mc V6 . 3-] arm I V Fposnoeo ‘ 6 MocKo6c1<oM z; npCn16c 1 5-1 563 Tptzdmrzzcxufl co6op H 6', ' 6 I4 ‘ 1556-1598 c: >’Z’, 'm'f. }'§fz"z: ‘"'""”' n 6/ ’ 6 A 1558-1603 a§’. ‘La’z§éii§§, 1 r$é3$L" ’ % J7u6oncKzm 60mm I 571 PeAueuo3ub1c 60121151 60 cbpamum E 3 , _f/ -. 1 ’ Hm; uommbuo-oc6o5o()zm1cAb- “ V “-7- J noc d6u)Keuue 6 Hudepxztmdnx 1 5 72 (2 Cl 62y N1. (1) Bapzpo/1oMec6cKa; z not: b I 88 Pl132p0M «Hcno6e0u. uoz‘z avavu « ' , npmadbz» ' ' Ocno6auue , /_I>Kez2.mfn1ayna - ncp60eo rho . , -I nocmommoeo nocazegum _ f‘ T mte/ umau 6 Ce6epnou Amepmce 1 3 Hpuxod x 6.mcnm duuncmuu . . - Po. unno6ux 6 Poccuu
  • 4. 5 '1» . _ . ... i4““' ' : ?:S , .’ .3?‘ , _. {:1 V_ ‘__s ‘ ' N nu’. ‘ « . L« -. .
  • 5. KII. / -xgi r—~ ---~ '5 »- - a- 4- .2 . . - _ - -1 _- . . - 1". " Koneu XV—XVlIls. Vqeémnc , - 4-: ,_ - mm 8 Knacca . “F d ‘-11%: H" 4 I -- I ~ o6n1eo6pa3oaa'rem: nux yqeéumx aanezzennfi Pexomwdoaauo MuMucmepcmuo. v odpaaouanux u uayxu Yxpaumu aHHee Hosoe / -4 _ BpeMfi(KOHeuXV I. 3 ' ‘iv ; : —nepBa2 nonoauna XVIIB. ) . I‘ 7 . “AV, r7. -«. osoe Bpemz "'-~ (aTopas1nonoBuHa . - ' A ' XVII—XVIlIa. ) ' P . .. ‘.[ W _‘_ « , %‘ ' A -xv‘ -___. . KI/ IEB <<I‘EHE3A» 2008
  • 6. BBK 63.3(0)5a72l H44 Pexoueuaoeauo M uuucmepcmeou o6pa3oeanua u nayrcu Yxpaunu (flpuxaa MOH yxpauuu M 206-] om 19.03.08 2. ) Hanano sa cuew rocyzzapc-rnennmx cpencrn. Ilponaaca aanpenxena OTIOTCTBOHILIC 38 IIOIIPOTOBKY 11311833511 P. H. Eemymeruco, rnanaufi cnennanncw MOH Yxpannu E. B. Fanezoea, Me'ro, zmc1' nucmefi xaweropzm I/ Inc'r1«rry'ra annonannonnux Texnonornfi :4 conepxcamm oépaaoaamm Peuenaelnu: BA. flamuoe — norm-op ucropnqecxax nayx, npocpeccop, npopercrop no naytmofi pa6o're ‘Iepunroncxoro rocynapc-rneaaoro nenarornqecxoro ynnnepcxrrewa ma. T. I‘. Illenqemco; B. I‘. llueambul - Icauzmnwr ncropnqecxnx nayx. nonenr, uepnufi npopem-op , lImmoMa-rnuecxcofi arcanemnn Yxpaunu npn MI/ III Yrcpamm Hepenon ocylnecnmea c aanaxma: Honanax I-I. I‘. Bcecnirna icropisz Honnfi vac (Kinem. XV-XVIII c'r. ): ninpym mm 8-1!) K11. aaranbnoocnrr. Ham. saxn. /H. I‘. Ilonamnc. -IC. : Feneaa, 2008. - 240 c. : iJl. , uapru. Honanalc H. I‘. H44 Bcemmpaaa acropna: Honoe Bpenm (xonen XV-XVIII 3.): yqe6. mm 8-ro rm. o6meo6paaona'r. yqeén. aanen. / H. I‘. Honanax. - 16.: Feneaa, 2008. — 240 c. : 15.11., xcapwu. ISBN 978-966-504-846-6 B y= le6muce ocnemaerca new-opus nepnom nepnozza Honoro npemexm - ano- xn, nponomxasmefica c Korma XV .110 xoana XVIII 3. IIoJm'rm1ec1cax }! (lrI3Hl: , axonommecxoe passmne, couuwmnue u rcwwrypaue nponeocu paccMa'rpnna- mm 3 wecnofi naanmocnaan c noncennenunmn aaéoranm Jnonefi mm npemenn. Bxmoqennue 3 yqefimuc daparmerrru nc1-oqnmcon, xapru, 1uuuoc'rpa- -mnnnm Ma-repnan, aonpocu H sananua nuaoayr y yqenmcon mm-epec K arofi anoxe u npenpa-rs-r yporcu no-ropun n ynnexarennuoe -raopqecxcoe aaname. BBK 63.3(0)5a72l © 1'Ion; a.nm< H. I‘. , 2007 © I/ I3na1‘em~. c'rBo cfeaeaao, ISBN 978-966-504-846-6 opumHa. n-Maker. 2003
  • 7. 1 : ncznmrma-in - HOBOE BPEMSI (noueu XV - XVIII a. ) H. F. ITOANIQK L/ Acm: at-mee Hoaoe Bpem (KoHeuXV-nepaaz nonoaunaxvlla) oaoe spew: (ampaz nonosuna XVII - XVIII 3.) 51 npncrynaeme rc nsyqenmo Honoii ncropnn — nepuozza, npononxcanmemca B Enpone 6oJIee na-ruco'r . ue'r. On natxanca c Bemumx reorpaqmqecxnx o-r1cpm- wait, a sanepmmzcx naxanyne Hepnofi Muponoii noifmu, rcoropax paapaannacz. 3 1914 r. 3-row éonbmofi owpeaox apemean npnrurro ;1e. rm1-L Ha Asa awanaz pan- nee Honoe npema - c X08118 XV no cepennau XVII B. n co6c'rneano Honoe spew: - c cepemmu XVII no Havana XX B. B BTOM rony am noanaxomwrecb c ncwopuefi Eaponu n xpynneianmx cwpan Boc'rorca PI Amepmm o'r ny-remecrnna, npennpnasrroro B 1492 r. ICoJIyM6oM, no Bennxofi tppannyacrcofi penomounn 1789 r. Ilepexon o'r Cpennenerconba K Honomy Bpemenn 61.111 Tpynnum, cnomnum n nepemco rcponanum. Hecxonqaemue nofinm paaopsum cwpanu n naponu. Onycromnrensnue Hamecrana nepemexcanncb zxecroxnmn xaanamn. B orne cpaacenufi maranncs xoponencxue 1-ponu, n nnacn. orcaabxnanacb B pyxax ao- nux npanm-enefi. Ozxnonpemenao 3-ro 6u. na anoxa, rcorna pacunen rymannam. On npnnec c coéofi nonmuanne nennocrn qenonexa H ero xcuaau, ocosnarme neo6xommoc'rn c-rpoxrrb nosue omomenua Mexcny nxommu, aonue nopamcu n rocynapcwnax. Hepemco XVI - nepnylo nonoaxmy XVII 3. naamnaxor anoxoivi cnemucoro npopuna» . I/ I are He cnyqafino. Bemncne reorpaqnmecrme owxpmrna no3na1co- Mmm esponefmen c nenasecmumn panee 3eM.1mMn K Haponazvm, DBCKDLIJIPI nepen mam: aoaue xcnanennue ropuaommx. Haqanocb pacceneune enponefinen n aamopcxne crpanu H ocnoenne mm nanbnnx Teppwropufi. Cnaan Mexcny xoxrrunerrraun pacmnpmmcb, Means npenc-rannenua Juonefi 06 oxpyxcaromem Mnpe H o camux ce6e. Hoame annexing pemm-e. m.ao aroprwmcs B axoaommcy n o6nxec'1-nennyxo xcuaab. <1>eonam. m.1e ornomeuna noc-reneaao ywpaquaann rocnoncwnyromue noammn, a na cmeny mu npnxonnnn noame — xanuranncwnuecxue. Xo'ra cnaqa- na om»: 6bxc'rpo pasnnnmmcb numb 3 OTIIGJIBHBIX enponeficxnx cwpanax, n Ha anaqurenmofi qacru xonmnerrra eme IIOBOJILHO nonro coxpansmca tbeonannam, 'reMnm ucwopnqecxoro passwma Enpouu samerno ycrcopmmcs. B peaymyrawe HBYKJIOHHO ocymecwsnasmeficn uerrrpanusannn B Gonbmuucrne eaponeficxux 1 I I I r
  • 8. floporue pe62ra I L fr‘ 1' ‘ ; ’?~, ; . crpan qpeanbmafino ycmmnacb xoponencxas nnacn. H noanmcna uonan tpopma _ , rocyxzapcrna - a6como'rHaa Monapxlm. Bonee qewrcumn c'raJm rpammu Mexcny omensnbrmu rocyzxapcwnamn, nameamxca xapawrep ownomennfi Mexcny nmvm. I-Ienonex Honoro npemerm no-pmomy nonxonmr K noupocam nepu K cnoero ownomenna K Bory. Bnaronapa Peqzopmamm eaponeifmu o6peJm npano nu- 6upa'rb nepy. Co npemeaem aro nosnommo rm nmpa6o'ra'rb noasrme c3o6on2.1 coaec-m - ozmo us rnanuux 3 cncreme rpaxmancxnx npan n c3o6on. Peq)opManxm oxaaana Tamxe orpomnoe mmmme Ha cbopmnponanne H8J1PIOHaJIbHhIX namxon. , I[ea'rem. Hoc'rr. rymanncwon cnoco6c'r3ona. na aoanmcnonenmo Hoaofi CKCTBMLI ynuaepcwrercxoro ofipasonamm, ocnonnue npmmnnm rcoroporo coxpanm 1o'rca n n nanm gum. Paanwrne aaannfi Haqano onupawbca Ha axcnepnmerrr H nonyro cnc'reMy norcaaarenbcrn. Hennnannufx aaner nepexmnana xynurypa. I/ IHLIMH, ttem 3 Cpezmenexconbe, cranonmmcb noncennennaa xcnam. n 6511 rte- Jxonexa. I/ Ismensmocs nonpmanne qenonezcom cnoero Mecra 13 Mupe, xoropufi nce 6o. nee nocnpmmmaurca xax nonmfi Mnp c HOBHMPI BOSMOJKHOCTRMH. Coébrmem, oauamenonanmmvx npnxon co6c'rBeHHo Hoaoro npemerm, cvm'rae'r- ca Anrnuficxaa éypxcyaanaa penomonna 1640-1660 rr. Ee peaymyrawom c'ra. no npenpamenne Anmnn B nonnnnnufi ofipaaeu mm Eapoum H Mnpa. Ty'r Bo3Hmc- Jxa nonwrnqecrcax cnc'reMa, ocnonaunax H8 Bnacrn napnamerrra. H cq)op1vmpo- aanca axonomuqecxnii c'rpoi&, Gaanponanmniica Ha pbIHO'-IBLIX npummnax. Ha cmeay q)eona.7m3My npmmxa npyraa anoxa, onnaxco nonoe eme nonro cymecraonano napany co c'rapuM. Ilovrrn no xouna XVIII 3. Eapona oc'rana. nacb arpapnoii, nonnnycwpnaabnofi nnnnnnsannefi u coxpamma aeMa. no crapmx nopsuucon K npencwannenufi. Mexcny TGM nameneumz, nponcxozmnnme B Ma- 'repua. nbnoM Mnpe, pennruosnmx nsmsmax, xcnaneanux nennocmx u noJm'm- qecxnx yéexcnennax Jnonefi -roro npemenn, nenaxor awy auoxy no-Hacrosmemy 6Jm3xo1‘i n nonarnofi Ham. XVI—XVIII BB. — are TOT man 3 ncmprm qenoneqecraa, Roma 651.71 npofinea naxcnmia IIYTB n Hanpaanemm 1c conpemenuocwu.
  • 9. BCEMI/ IPHAH I/ ICTOPI/ [H ° 8 Home npexvm (icoaeu XV — XVIII B. ) i . :%-‘-J, . 9 Li K. L2. 1:‘ V A aHHee Hosoe Bpem ' ( KoHeu X V— nepaasz I I‘ . N I , } . -.7‘? ,. .-. I r . —. go 1 ' I : . , .-/ _. "E f”= Inonosuna X VII B. ) / ' , > / . rm ’ ‘ti- . P. . 2 . u’ I f. 1/14‘ , ‘ .5‘ . "‘. »’ ; I I ‘L5’ ":2 I 2 I4‘ , I I , ’§. ., X I . BEHMKHE rEorR«mM%ECKME OTKPHTMH: /. ¢,% BCTPEHA : uHBHnM3AuHH , %EHODEK BMLHWOMEMCH h MHPE » IT‘ , '»’| XVII BB. EBPOI IEI/ ICKOE BOf$I’O? i§IlEI‘II»'IE PIi. <I3*OI-’fV‘rLII-'I$I H I' OI ITPPEk'IJOP— M/ I_II'I9I B E BPO II E EBPOHEHCKHE ILDCYHAPCTBA, BXVl—HEPBOM HOHOBHHE xvnu cnrr IIFEHH: LBPOHEHCHAQ K¥HbTVRN I<oruLxv| - HLPBCM4 HOHOBHHN xvna. I"IIOTIbCI(O E I“OC. V'Ilr‘*I"Lf I HO H MOCI'OI3L‘I'OE LL*PCTBO: B FIOI/ ICI'#X LII/ Ij-I>'IIII>I‘IOCTI/ I
  • 10. ‘I/ :.(, 'I/ J Bcmnxpnm ncropna - 3 H. r. nozmnsax _A__ x’ / Hoaoe npexvm (xoueu XV - XVIII 3.) ‘ : ‘I-I r">f' ‘xi l -“A1 ‘b .2 “fxx * aHHee Hosoe Bpe/ my F kn . .‘ _’’j ‘K ‘« I T T y (KoHeu X V- nepsasz , ; ¢ ‘W ,2; if ~: A , ‘v. L. J‘ l‘ ’ ‘I ‘ '. '. F i (N. :( , ;3‘§’70noBuHa XVII 5. )0 <, - I I. ‘ ‘at a ; - ; 2 v xv. .n ’t. = 4 4%: = ' . ~’g‘lI"'x 2 I 1' i ‘ / "I ‘ > . An» ,9 '6” ‘ '1 -“"’ ‘ ‘ MOPCKIIE alccnnzmlmn " } ‘. HOPTYFAJIBIIEB I/ I I/ ICIIAHIIEB I <. _ ‘N! r» BEHHKHE llpmmnm Bemumx reorpatbmqecncnx o1'xp1.rrm‘i. Bo ace ncwopnqecxne anoxn ncmm Jno, zm, mofimsmne FE-O rPA(DH' ny'remec'rBoBa'rz. H crpemnsmneca B cnonx c'rpaac'rBm1x L[ECK[/ [E YIISCHIIGTB BOBBIE 32311111. B Cpeunfifexosxfie anamemnan _ «- aura o paanoo paaxm Mupa» apxo ono oncpbma OTKPbrTl/ ls! ‘ nepen esponefmamn ynuamenbnblfi Mnp Bocroxa. C006- BCTPELIA meunn Beneunancxcoro Kyrma umpoxo ncnonbaoaanucb ILJIH COCTEBJICHPISI reorpacpnqecxux H MODCKHX K891‘. B ocaoemm Cenepnofi A'r. uan'rm<u aamemyro pom, cur- pajm H0pMaHHbI. Ownpaammcb 3 IIOXOABI 3a nofibmefi, 1 MOPCKI’/ E orm Heonnorcpawno nepecexann oxean H name ocnonamx 3KC’7E-5U4U1’”” Ha 3eMJIsx Amepmm Bpemenmae uocenemm. Hoqemy ’7OP73”7V7bUE3 ace rmexmo panaee Hosoe Bpemx c'ra. no snoxofi, KOI‘1I8 ”””C’7"‘HUEB orxpwrna, conepmemime esponefiuzamn Ha Mope 14 Ha ‘) 3/‘BOEBAHHE cyme, nonyumm naaaaune «Benmcne reorpaqmqecrme H OCBOEHHE o'r1<pm'r1»m»> ? Jleno 3 TQM, trro peayzwrawamxa caonx o'r- HOBOFO CBETA aamnmx nyremecraun Mopennanawenn TOPO npezgreun He 'roJ1m<o pacnmpmm 1Ipe;1eJm nsaecmoro eaponeuuam I ‘.1
  • 11. a-7, T ' 9' r{is! ac": ’ . .—. J, 7 s '9' xvmpa u xx upencrannennn o Hem, no cymgecwaenno na- Meamm a cam Mflp. Moummfi Tonqox poc'ry vurrepeca enponefinen K aa- nexnm c'rpanaM npunano paaawrue Mexcnynaponnoifx roprosnn. Oua ocoéenno axmnnanponanacb B anoxy Kpecroamx noxonoa, xcorna Haceneune Eapoum IIpKBhIK- no K nocrosumomy noc'ryn. nenmo c Bocroxa npexpacnmx mcanefa. naucxcannux xonenupuux uanenufi, nparonen- aux xcamaefi H apomanxux upauocwefi. Onaaxo uocne 'I‘OI‘0 Kax 3 1453 r. rypxu saxaamnn I€oHc'raH'mHonoJIb, nopora H8 Bocwox qepes ‘lepuoe Mope mm 3ana, z1aoea- poneficxux Kynuoa aaxpunacb. Caoéonubm ny'rb 3 I/ Iumuo qepea Enmer PI Kpacaoe Mope aaxommca 3 pyxax apafioa, xcoropme nonnocwsxo aaxaanum nocpennuqecxym 'I‘0pI‘0BJIIO BOCTO'-IHBIMYI 'ronapaMu M peaxo nonnmm menu H8. max. Oco6eHHo nozzopoacanu npsmocm — uepnmfi nepeu, xopuua, Myc- Ica'rahu‘»'1 opex K npyme. I/ Ix yno'rpe6JIe1me He TOJILKO . . T ———. -._: :.. - %j 4.. —.. —
  • 12. "IAC7-b Pawnee Hoaoe ape/ vm (KoHeu XV — nepsasv nonosuna XVII 5.) npnnanano npnsrnmfx Bxyc muue, no 14 nossonsmo aonbme COXp8HH'I‘b npo, z:yx- Thl nwramm, a mommy 6u. no necbma pacnpocwpaueuo. Hpeoxne qem oqywrrhca B Enpone, npnuocmm npnxonmtocr. upeononesawb aonrufi ny'r1.. C 'mxoo1ceaH- crcnx Monymccxnx ocrponoa. me nx co6npa: m, om: nonanann 3 a: ma'rc1cm‘& nop'r Manaxxy. Tam ux cxynamx mumiicxue xynuu, trroém 3&1-em nepenponawb apa6aM. Te Beam»: nymncruii Tonap nanee n H8 emnercxnx pwmax c6r. n3a. nn ero aeaeunannam px renyasuam, o'r xcowopmx npsmocwn p&CX01IH. TIPICb no Bceii Eapone. Cnoxmoe nocpezmntxecrao 11eJ1a. no rrpsmocm oqem. nopormvm. Topronna mm»: npmtocvma orponmyxo npnfimm. (110 800%) n fibma txpeanuqafino BbII‘011- Hofi: 6ora'rb1x xcynuon He cnyuaifmo nasbmajm «Mexmcoxu c nepuem». Ha srux cqacwmatmxcoa c aanncwmo cMo'rpe: m Te, mo x<ax<, zxa. n 6r.1c'1'po pa36ora're'rL. Onn xopomo nounmann, trro cMor'y'r nocrnrn. caoefi uemx, T0.7!bI<O uaéeacan passer- BJIBHHOPO nocpennnqecrna. I/ IMGHHO 3'm mozm nacraunann H8 neoéxozmmocm ucxawb npyme ny'm 3 I/ Immxo, Icwraii n npyrne socroqnme aemm. Hapimy c zyroii 6wIa eme ozma rrpmuma, nmananmaa Benmcue reorpaqmqecxne omcpbrrna. C oumanennem TODFOBJIPI B Enpone aoanmma ocrpaa nexnama 3oJ1o'roi'1 P1 cepefipanofi MOHBTBI. Mecwnbxe aanexcn zxparoneunblx Me'ra. rmon nctxepnanncb, Bcnencrnne Hero enponefiuen npocwo saqapoamsann paccxaau o cxcaaoqao 6ora'rmx crpanax Boc'ro1<a. Tormux caenennffx o aonorouocaux aemmx oxm ne rmema, no cqm'a. rm, rrro nyn. K mm nponeraem qepea I‘n6pam'ap, mom. aauannoro uofiepemba Acbpmcn. 3011010 c'raJ1o Tofi Marnqecxofi cmlofi, xowopan sacwannana eaponefiuen omaxmno nycxawbcs B Hensaecmufi nanbnufi nyws. Hatxano BBJIPIKPIM reorpaqmqecxcnm OTKPBITPISIM nonoxcmm C'I'p8.HhI Impe- ' , neficrcoro nonyocrpona — I/ Icnamm n IIop'ryra. rmn. Orm He npnnazmeoxwm K : Imcny Hanéonee paasprrmx nepxcaa, onuaxo mwexm Bmronaoe reorpatpntxecxoe 1 pacnonomenne Ha Buxone B A'maH'rm<y, npexpacnbrfi q)JIo'r, ynoénbxe raaarm, I 0 onuramx Mopsucos. 1'Ioc. ne aaaepmemm Per<ommc'n.1 (omoesanna IIupene1‘&- cxoro nonyocrposa y apa6o3) 1vmo>xec'rBo 1130- M nc'rormm<oM npnfibnm 6bma Bofina, oc'ra- JIHCI: 6e3 cpe, z1c'rB K cymecmonanmo. OHM xcaxcnann HOBLIX sanoesarenbnmx noxonos. MOPCKHC noxonm nopryranbuen. Uno- aepaxvm Bemncux reorpaqnmecicnx OTKpbI- Tufi c'ra. rm IIOp'! ‘yI‘aJIbI1bl. Eme B XIII 3., B xone Pexcourmcrhl, om»! ocnofionmm cnoro 'reppn'ropmo OT apa6oB H coanama MHOI‘0- tmcnennbxfi qmow. B 1415 r. nopwyranbnm, tum Mopcxaa 'I‘0pI‘OBJIfi oqenb c'rpaz1aJ1a o'r rpa6excer”x apaficrmx Impawoa, paarpomwm ozmo :13 xx pa36oi&m.1x mean — Ceywy. noprr H8 ceBepHoM noéepexcbe Atbpmm. Cpenn yqac'r- nmcon noxona Haxommcx npmm 3upmce Mopennanarens (1394-1460). H xo'ra 3'ro'r cnyqafi ocwancn ezumcmenublm, Roma 311- pmce nozxmmca H8 1copa6.m>, cnoe npoanmne npnnu nonyqnn aacnyxcenno, H60 c'ra. r1 Tananrnnamm opramasawopom xpynnmx MODCKHX axcnenunnfi. DHH, IUHI KOTOPBIX €111/IHCTBCHHBIM aansrmem.
  • 13. BEIIHKHE | 'EOl'PA®VNECK| /IE OTKPblTl45|: BCTPE“lA Ul4B| /U'l}’l3AlJHl7| . I . Ilotrm HOJIcTOJIe’I‘Pl. fi npoxcnn Bnpmce Ha 1cpaI‘«'111eM Iore crpanu - B Carpmne, .. . me ocHoBa. n o6cepBa'ropmo H Mopexonnym mxony. Ilpmm nponopgnn ac'rpo- nomnqecrcne Ha6Juone1ma, nepenncuaanca co ncemn snamennwmmn B TO spe- M8 yqenumn, co6npa. n Boxpyr ce6a 1cap'rorpaq)on, pa3pa6a'rL1na. n Mapmpyru ny're1nec'rBm‘«'1. Cooémelme Mexcny Enponoiai n I/ Immefi ocymecwnnxnocb Toma cnaqana no Mopro, aa'reM (nocne , zum're. nbHo171 PI noporocwoamefi neperpyazcn) no cyme 11 3110131. no MODIO. Hpnnn c'rpeMm1ca Ha1‘»'1'rn mm nop'ryram. c1<o1‘»'1 TOp- romm 6ecnpepL1BH1.I1‘»'I Mopcrcofi IIYTB M 611.11 ynepen, trro, KaKOI0 61.1 orpomnofi 1m rcasanacb Atppmca, me-To H8. Iore ona nomicna aaxanqnnarbca H Tam ee Moxcno o6orHy'r1. Ha 1<opa6Jmx. _. .j _. __ _: _ _ ‘ B naqane XV n. éypa Buépocmxa mayx nopryranbcxnx nnopsn Ha fionbmofi l aeoémaemufi ocrpon, nomxoc-r1.1o noxpbrrmfi necom. I/ Ix paccxaam 06 emu npmcJno- qemm aanrrrepeconama Snpmce. Hpnau cnapannn arccnemmmo, 11 rcorna oaa namna oc'rpoB, naanan ero Manefipofi, trro no-nopryranbcxn oanaqaem «nee». Ocrpon o'r1xaJm 'reM nnym zznopsmam, 1co'rop1.1e cnyqafino ero oncpwm. Onn coxcrvm ncxo ocwponnyro pacmrenbnocrb, a naamen aaneann Ha Manefipy anno- rpannyxo Jxoay, caxapnmfi -rpocrnux, crcor 11 Mnoacecrao saxmoqennux mm nocwoannoro nocenemm. Manefipa c'raJ1a aaacnhm Manon H8. nywn nop'ryra. nb- 1193 B TDOHHHOCKYIO 38.Il8.JIHyIO AQDHKY. O'rnpan. nen111.1e 311p111ce erccneznmnn mar aa marom nccnenonamx Aqapnrcam crcoe nofiepexcbe. 3Ha‘! PITeJIl: HhIM co61.t'meM c'ra. no OTKDI: -ITHG OCTDOBOB 3e. ne11oro M1.1ca. 3.nec1. nopwyranbnm JIPIBHJIHCI: nmcorna He Bnnannmm panee 6ao6a6aM n rvmnono-ramy, rcowoporo naamnann «pb16a-1<o1n. » . Ha aemmx conpemennux Cbeppa-Jleone, Faun I4 Fnnnen onn namam 3OJIOTO n IIGHHYIO cnononyro KOCTB; orcrona nuneann n BI: II"01IHO nponann B Jlnccafione nepnmx atppnrcancxnx pa- 603. Bcxope H8. aux Haqanacx. Hacroamaa oxo'ra. Hanyrannue acppnxannu I Mopcxaa nonycqnepa - npufiop, noasozmnmnfi Tormo nepxcau. naépammfi xypc Icopaémz I Ac'rpo. na6na
  • 14. L-! /""1 C . ./‘('3 ll0n. I)4 __Hc1I. n(uH _ Parmee Hosoe ape/ ~49 (rconeu XV ~ nepaasv nonosuna XVII 5.) ‘ . ., V . ‘o"‘~ Kant: -mo Hmuul Annm- Hos: -1'uAm‘. vepu. mo ’ , / Bum--mu / / °__ Eowngxas V ‘~‘°"°““' ,3’, _ mac: 9 0-an / ‘am. -mI'oc Bemucue reorpadnneclcz f‘. yTeu; -':1aw: Esapronouey flnaum [1486~148B rr. ) . nyroujecram Auepuro Becny-om (1499-1500; 3 rr , ‘ OTKO-: .'Y.1e »'. v-- ; .‘-. .~ 1; 01-1502 rr. ) ——- r1yw. uectausz A¢oncy Anndyxepze (1506-1514 rr. ) T — - Onpuwe Tuxoro O-zeana ’ ’ Bacxo Hy'hb9COM AB 5.1!'nO0;| (1513 r. ) flu see u: yrocnemoe nnavwme we Hana Marennams -.1 yaua acmm-n1 3m. KJNO (151 -1522 rr) u. 'PC1’E. -1e Xpucvoqyoa. KOnyM6a
  • 15. sawanne l'EOFPA<DH‘-1ECKlr1E OTKPbfl'H$1:BCTPEHA uHsv1n143AuM151 T6’ M a H088" VI Y K O Y K A 39M/ m Y C T B O n 5 *3 me C R 0 KJr. :u. arK. a Q‘ o " VI 5 M P b C 1' 5° . o . ° "i°_‘1‘ , .. ~~ Jena 2* 1 4 " ‘ r_ 1 _ / *"‘ " ‘ ” f"“. _ x “ . " . .MoMro.1us1,~’ Q 1 : .1;o. vur_«r11x*, ‘ in “»‘> ", - _/ - “¥. __, _,___ “ —/ R, ‘ 7 ‘ / ' ‘ ‘ 4. Q ' 474- I: xAmrArn51 L C, I‘: "em" 4,‘ S. 1 A V/ ‘ 1 - », 0 , ', V 1 ‘ y. .,, ' : fl“ II 53 r C M :1 7' ‘ V 5 @”c¢M. a4 1 11 1. 1 T = u ".1 ’: ,, 1 ‘VI: 0 ‘ ’ ‘Pj' ‘ « n_1n1;1-nu M''"' r g H Gosbvuwm rY3|"‘W3Y 0' 3 9a''“’( M‘) €L3V2g>ua»cxnn) 7‘'*'‘‘: /:‘ 1:11.10 (flopn) .3 ‘I’ d>mmnn . , nucxne '° ‘xv a fyw / — "x- 1 ‘,1: 1, M, ->-.1 :0 ’ mm 1/ ~/ ~ ' ‘ _ i > V/ 1 Manuxxao‘ . _ 0.53 W npsmocm O C T - M H [.1 M B , O. HoPas1 O51y, .,, . , . / '-nmea o. Tm.4op o. Maaaracxap ' I ' D-Ila QKIQXM _ o IL’, -svourn-.1 -‘-2‘. 0 63260-1 . :c1 o-, -.1 / ID Ou HOBAS1 l'0IUIAHl1|/ I9 Ugjm’ ( A B C T P A II M 5| ) 7 a A§«E1é; ;.2u 39mm B. m-Auuemu (T3CM”""") 3e-Mm: Luravoa " (Hoaaa Sunanaun) oflcpunm I<onom1a:11.ma1e rocynapcvsaxvvll M)! 11na11emm _ Srcnemu. -,1-.1 39.43.“; K0011,-ca (1519-1535 rr ), mono cep: ,’é': ':“m I B n '. .mo€'aaH»1e rocyn. apc1;. .; . .a. ne-<oe ' “"' M: ;3'1‘; B; :;3r“7f_"’;3,§':9,‘1‘°D, y‘_af M, -. .. . .. (lS30— I534 rr ); g°"'Vr“""" noCTopAv: ccunuu<: (1:‘1§_, oé*gy ()| ~$9-1 r. ) 1 u >1 apnroccuo r. nytemecraua )Kax.1K.1prbe(1534 1535-I536 rr. ); ‘’a W“ “cream. .. "V ovxpume 1n ua-cano xonormsauvm km-13:1» HMAGPHGIWA J Aurnmu
  • 16. "IAC7-b Parmee Hosoe apemi (KoHeu X V - nepsan nonoauua X VII 5.) Gexcaam o'r Maps: 3 r. ny6x> crpanu, a pafioroproanm mun cnenom, npommraacb ncé nanbme 3110.115 6eperoa Atbpmcu. PIrICKOB8.HHbIe oxeanmzecxne nywemecwnua c'raJm Boamomnu énarozxapa ycnexam n Hayxe n TGXHPIKG, a Taxme onbrry Mopexonoa. K xouny XV n. samemo YCOBCDIUBHCTBOBGJIKCB xomnac :4 acrponxéns - npnfiopu ma opnelrmponanun D n O'l'KpbI’l‘OM Mope. Bwta naxormena ueanaa nmpopmanua o MODCKKX Teqennax, “ npmmaax 14 omuaax, Hanpaanennax 3e'rpo3. Ynanocs C03,l18'I‘b nopronanm - 6onee rotmue 1<ap1-L1 c newanbnmm naoépameanem nofiepexcm. Hanan ncno- nbaonanca Hosufi 'mn cynna — xapanenna — c cucremofi napycon, xoropaa noanomma znmranaca npowna nerpa. 3'ro cymecrneuuo coxpawvmo xoJn«mec'r- no rpe6uoB PI noanommo 6pa'rb H8 6op'r Kopaénn éonbme npunacon K npecnofi nonu mm nanbnero Imaaamm. B 1487 1". nopryranbcxnfi rcanwran Bapronomey llnam 11oc'mr rcpafinero zora Atppnxancxoro xcon'mHeH'ra. OH Haanan ero Mme , U;o6po1‘«'1 Hanexcnm. IIy'1'b na Arnanwurcn B Hnnnficxnfi oxean aoxpyr Acbpnxn 61.1.11 OTl<pbI'I’. Ompume Xpnc1-ocbopom Ko: ryM6oM Honoro Cnera. Ozmonpemenno c nop- Tyranhnaun noncrcom nonmx 'l‘0pI‘0BhIX nywefi 3a1mMa. nacb I/ Icnannx. B 1492 r. ctona l'IpK5hlJI renyaacrcnii Mopermasawemz Xpnc'rod)op Ko. nyM6 (1451-1506). I _. __________‘ Xpncroqaop Konyufi pozuurca n nraazsancxou ropone Penye 3 ceube ne6ora'ro- ro matm. ficnaas ero onesaa nerennanm n rafinanm. Heaaaecmo, me on ywnmca, no Gm: uenonenou ovens ofipaaonannnm. Cran Mopsucon, I€oJxyu6 oxaaurcn Ha lcormpufi saxnamnn nnpanx, qynou cnaoca, 311118.31: z: oc'rnr1'IoprryraJmn. ‘ Tax on noanaxcoumtca c ylxacmmcaxn arccnezmnnfi anpmce Mopennanarena u or mix ycuuman macro nensnecwnoro o nopwyruxbcxnx mopcxux o-rxpsrmax. Ocodufi mrrepec nuanan paccxaa o renax mayx Myxcwmn, nafluzennux nu onaou » ggfmxnx ocwponon n A-man-rmce. Om: a6co: m'rno no noxommn na npenc'ra- ‘ ' at nanecrnux enponefinau naponon. ‘ YIOo. nyu6aooapeJme. nmmfin. nan -nocum. Hnzmn aanaumum nvrem. Bra men ‘ OIIHDBJIIGB an yuenne o mapoodpaaaoc-rn aenum n aoanmcna eme 3 Anmunocm. ‘ E9 pasnemux Taxace oonpeuemmx Ronynfia, aaropmernuii dmopeamficxnfi xap-rot-pad) Ilaono Tocxaneamn. On cnenan pacqenx, no omnfica n nomec-rm: Hsxmlogaonoqxsno Gnnarco or Ilopryranan. 3'ro ne MOPJIO ne npnnnetna Konymfia. Pdapadoran npoerc-r axcnemmnn, on upenc-ranmr ero nop-ryranrscxomy xopomo, no 101' omnonnn man renyaana. Ronymd nanpannncs 3 Hcnamm. B I/ Icnamm xax pas saxommnacb Perma- xncwa. Muomecrno JIBODHH-PIIIBJIBPO, mm xomopux nofina Gbma ennncrnennuu acron- Hmcom cymecrnosanna, ne nmenn 5OJIbIIIe noennofi 1105bI‘lH H coanasaum Hacroamne paafioihmqbn Gaunu. Koponena PI3a6eJma n xoponb <Depnam1o crpemwmcb n36anm'bca o'r 3'rofi 6ecnoKofiHo1‘& Maccu n ornpannn. ee nonmmme o'r I/ Icnamm, ea orcean. I'Io3'roMy oéemarme KoJ1yM6a o6ecne= m'r1. ncnancxofi xopone nocwyn K aonowum coxponmnam HH- mm 14 Kmaa Buramneno 3 maaax Mouapxoa anaofine npunnexarenbnum. Beanenocnaa napa nonnucana c Mopennanarenem noronop. V _ I€oJIyM6y fibum ofiemanu 'm'ry. n nuu, e-rcopo- - XPH¢‘N¢0P K0-VlY'M5- XVI 6~ :15: PI nmcoxcne npuébum o'r Honoowxpuwux
  • 17. aemem. npn ycnonun, trro nocnennne nape- finyu‘ non nJ1ac'rL ncnancxofi xoponbl. 3 anrycwa 1492 1'. H8. Tpex xcopadnax Eo- . nyM6 norcnnyn wnxyro rananb Hanoc nano- zzanexcy or Ceannhn n annnynca Ha aanan. 3HaxoMmfi Mnp oc'ra. nca aa Icopuofi. Bnep- sue enpouefinu coamrrennno uepecexann orcean. KoJIyM6 nonuman, In-o nunrenbnax o-ropnannocrb 01' ponnnm Ir! cwpax nepez: cmopem Tsmmo , Kan eaponefinu nasmnann Arnanwnqecxnfi orcean, MOPYT npnnecwn K 6ya'ry - nocu-oaanomy cnyrnmcy nanbnnx xmanannfi TOPO npeuean. ‘-I'ro6u YCIIOKOKTB xouanny, on Ben nna 6op-ronux axypnana. B 1-om, xoropufi MOPJIH npo= m'ra'rb Bce, Ko- JIyM6 aannchman necxonbxo npnyxpamem mare A81-Ifible, a 3 npyrofi, cercpernhxfi, saxo- cmr Totmme cnenemm. Haxonen, Ba 33 near. YTOMHTGJILBOPO nnananna, nposnyqan m. tc'rpe. n: own; 143 M0- paxoa 3aMe'm. n aewno. Komarma crymma Ha Geper ocrpona, naaaannoro IConyM6oM Can- Canbaanop. Vsepennmfi, vrro , noc'rur I/ Inmm, Mopennanawem. nan MBCTHOMY naceneamo Haaaazme unzxefinu, coxpansuomeeca aa mam no Hamnx nnefi. Cam rconrnnem nonro naahxntum Bec'r-I/ Innna (3ana, n- nan Hanna), trroéu o'r. vnma'rL ero o'r aacroamefi I/ Imam, nasecrnofi etne KER Oc1'-Magma (Boc-rotmas I/ Imma). Ilpufimnnme na 50JIbI! II{X napycnux xopafimxx enponefinm xaaanucb nnnefinam nocnannmcamn 6oron. Tax ncwpernnncb Ana Mnpa, xoropue pannme ae nonoapenann o cymecraonannn npyr npyra n pam- '! 'eJ'lhHO npyr o'r npyra ommxasxucb. , / cnoano XOTGIWI omarb HaM caou cepnua. .. Bce orm xonm ronbae. .. M ace moan, xoropux 9 amen. owm Mononu. HM onuomy us omx ue Guno 6onee 30-m net, VI cnoxenu com xopomo. a aonocu rpy6ue. coaceu xax xoucxue. M Koponme. .. Oman noxpusavor cefia uepnofi Kpacxofi. npyrue - xpac- Hofi; HBKOTODHG Ten, «to nonano non pvxy. Omm ma Hvux paapncoauaanor nuuo. npy- rme - ace Teno, a ecn-. . M Tame. y xoro paapucoaanu T0flbKO maaa mm noc. OHM H8 HOCFIT VI we ananor xceneanoro opyxma: xoma 9 noxaauaan ma umaru, T0 oom cxaa- TW1MCb 3a neaann M I/ I3-33 Heananvm nopauwwu cefie l'| aJ1bl. .lbl. Hnxaxoro xeneaa y n-mx , . w HST. . . OHM AOHXHH 6blTb XODOLIJMMM, M COO6pa3MTef| bHblMV| , VI CMHUJDBHHMM CIIYFSMM - l 51 3aMemn, ‘ITO OHM O‘4eHb 6blCTpO Hay‘1Mfl| r1Cb l'IOBTOD$lTb T0. ‘N0 VIM FOBODMIWI. I Xi'an be Bo. Kcnnume uopcxnx npn6opo3 XVI 3. M3 . aHeaHuKa nepaoro nyrewecrann KonyM6a , in own TaK xopowo omecnncb x H8M, «no 310 Kaaanocb Hynom. Om annaab ne- penpaallf-Umcb K nonxam. me Mbl HaXOA| v1!WlCb, n npunocmm Ham nonyraea, M xnonn<o- ayno npnxy 3 Morxax, n npomm. u MHOFO npyrux eemefi, VI oémermaanu acé arc Ha npyrme npezwem. KOTOpbIB Mbl MM Aaeann, xax, Hanpwep. Ha MaII6HbKVI6 crexnmmue uerxvu. C 6om. uJor4 oxorofi omaaanw orm ace. «no menu. .. M npoaannnu cronbxo mo6au,
  • 18. . ‘ “ - . I. . . ' . :~—V V > E K ‘ 1 "" | '.ho-. 5' ~. *-. -‘ ' ‘ "F'r. ‘!""‘ . "" 1' *7.’ §. '~s~~~— " Teodop 6e Bpu. Hpufiume Konyméa 3 Honufi C391‘ Hoazmee RoJIyM6 cosepmmx eme 'rpn Imanamm aa oxcean n o'rxpL1.n notrm Bce AHTKJILCKHE oc'rpoBa, a Tarcxce ‘IaC'I‘I> no6epe>xba Henanecwnoro Marepmca. Oaaaxo Tex Hecmenmx 6ora'rc'r3, na xoropme nce nanesumcs, Hair»: 3 nonmx aemnsx He ynanocb. I/ Irrrepec K ICoJryM6y nponan, xoponeacxaa we're Jmmmxa ero noqm ncex npenoc- Tameunux pauee upnnnnemii n noxonon. Benmcnfi nywemecrnennux ymep, saéhrruii ncemn, ncero ve- pes uoJ1'ropa rozxa nocne oxonqanmx cnoeii amne- nmmn. flo nocnezmero nanoxa on 61.111 ynepen, trro Hamen nonufi nyrb B I/ Iunmo. B peaynyrawe ny're~ mecranfi KoJIyM6a ycrauoammcb uocroaunue can- an Mexcngy BOC'I‘0'-IH‘hIM 14 3ana,11m. m uonymapnamn. Bcnen 3a I{o. uyM6oM pnnynca uo'ror< Mopcxcnx arccnenmmfi. Yqacwamc onnofi na aux, nranbmen Amepnro Becnymm, xmaonncno onncan npnpony n nacenenne Honoorxpwrmx aemeub. OH nepnbm aasmrm, rrro are He Aamz, a B01385-‘I, aenanecmaa panee qacn. chem, 1»: npemxoxum aaanawb ee Hoaufi Cae'r. Ynnexarenbnumn paccxaaamn Becnyqqu aaqnwunanacb aca Enpona. B rnaaax coBpeMeHHu- KOB on cram qenoaexom, ,ae1‘«‘1c'ram'em. no o'n<pm3-
  • 19. - BEJTHKHE FEOI'P. r<DH“‘| ECKHE OTKPt>fTH$l BCTPEHA UHBHIIHBAUHH num Hoaufi Marepmc, Koropmfi IIOTOMY :4 Ha3sa. nnAMepm<o1‘»'1. Brow qwam sema- Knii Hememcufi yrxenbxfi XIX B. Anexcanzzp I‘yM6oJ1bz1'r Haanan <<l'IaMflTHHKOM qenoseuecrcofi Hecnpanennnnocwm no ornomeamo xc KoJxyM6y. Ilepnoe xpyrocneuxoe nywemecmue. O'n<pu- THH I€oJIyM6a ofiecnoxomm nsaermyro MODCKYIO conepxmuy ncnanuen — IIop'ryra. r1mo. B 1494 r. npn uocpexnmqecrae nanu pnmcxoro 3 ropone Topneccnmace Mexcny msyxvm crpanarvm 61,111 aaxmoqen noronop o nepnom B ncwopmr paanene Mupa Ha cqxepbl nnxmunn. I/ Icnanmx nonyrmna upano Bnanen. HOBOOTKDBITBIMPI aezvummn Ha aanan or Aaopcrmx ocrponos, a l'Iop1'yraJma — Ha 3oc'ro1<. B peanbuoii xcnmm crrryalum 35mm- Aena noaonbno cwpannoz nopwyranbubx snanenn npasom Ha OTKDBITHH 3 Asma, mmrancb Ha BOG- 'ro1< Boxpyr Atbpmm, a ncnannm nmenn Taxoe xce npano, H0 mmraxcz. Ha aanan. I/ I azxecb yme neMaJ1o sannceno or TOPO, wro nepnum 11oc'rm*- new 6eperoB Tex mm nnmx aemenb. Mexczxy conepnmcamn Hauanca 6er Haneperomcu. 8 mom: 1497 1*. H3 Jlnccafiona ormxbma (buo- 'rnJma H3 qermpex Kopaénefi. E10 xomannoaan 3na'rH1.u'«'1 npmmopubxii Bacrco na I‘aMa. OH He mvxen onbrra nnaaannii, no O6JIaJ1aJI BceMu Kaqecnsamn, HeO6XOJ1PIMbIMK mm ycnexa, — MY>! <eCTBOM, peI1lHTe.7Il: HOC'l'bIO, xcenesnofi Boner? ! n Henpepercaembm aawopn-re'roM cpezm Mops- xon. I/ Imenno eMy 5bIJIO cyxmeno nafrm xom :4 He Kpamafimnfi, aaro caMbn‘»'I ynofinbxix mm na- pycnmx cyzzen nyu. K Mblcy Ilofipofi Hanexcnu. Ofiornyn ero, arccnezmnua Bnepsme npomna anom. Bocroqnoro nofiepexcbs Aq)pm<n n oxa- aanacb B I/ In11m‘»'xcKoM oxeane. BOCI1OJIb3OB&B- IIIPICB MYCCOHHBIMH ae1-pazvm, xoropme 3 My nopy rona gym: 3 cropony I/ Iaxnm, qmommwm Bacxo na I‘aMb1 npnuma 3 Kanmcyr oxum 143 6ora'rei'mmx mu1m‘«'tcKnx 1'I0p'I‘0B. O6pa'rHLI1‘»'I IIyTb JIJIHJICH notrrn F011. B JInc- C860!-I BBDHYJIHCI: 'ro. ru.1<o maa rcopaénn H orcono 'rpe'm axcnnama. Taxoii 6hIJIa uena, KOTODYIO Hopryrannn IIDPIIIIJIOCB 3a1ma'rm~b 3a can/ roe 3H&'-IHTBJIBHOB B ee ucwoprm unananne. Bnpo- qeM, cnoefi nemx ona 11oc'rm':1a: Mopcrcofi nyrb us Eaponm B crpanbx Bocworca 61.111 nponoxceu. Bczcope nopwyranbnm BBITGCHPIJIPI us I/ In- Jmficrcoro ozceana acex xomcypemoa 14 c'ra.7m ero noammmn xosneaazvm. Oxm rpafimm qyxcne xopa6Jm PI 6e3>x<aJ1oc'rHo pacnpanmumcz. c ux xomannaxvm. Oco6eHHo canpencmosan K0- ponencxnfi HBMQCTHHK Atponcy Anbfiyxepxce. TCt‘ {L1, , . -. ‘ ‘ . . u "§ , ’ 1" <. u l‘~ll*! -; 4:7" " U '3', ‘ , *‘ T, 5”! ‘ A ‘ * If -» t / a‘. —/7 7 ‘ - “v ‘N’ = ’ Bacxo na Panza
  • 20. % ‘lACTb Parmee Hosoe BPGMH (KoHeu XV — nepsan nonoBuHa XVII B. ) ‘ OCBOHBIIIHCI: B PIHIIPIH, IIOpTyI‘&JIbl.1bI H8‘{8JlH IIpO, l1BHI‘8.TbCfi nanbme: PIX ne- ynepxmmo BJIBKIIH Ocrpona npsn-1oc'refi. B 1511 r. Anséyxepxe aaxnanm Manamcy H ocnoaan Tam Haénlonarenbamfx nymcr. ‘iepes nponna, MKMO ropozxa, £IBHI‘8.JIHCb comm 1copa6JIex7x. Hopryranbum ocranannnsanu xx, onnaxo He rpa6n. rm, a Tonbxo Tpefioaamx, ‘-{T0551 xaxcnoe cynno aasmo Ha 6opr ux Mopaxa. Tax orm naytmmx Mapmpywm K0 MHOPHM 0C'I‘p0B8.M, B TOM tmcne n K MoJ1ymc- cxmvx. Co npemeaem Tam BOSHPIKJIH Topronhre nocenemm nopwyranbcxnx rcynnon. H Mecmoe nacenemae 61.1110 065133.110 C5hIB8'l‘b npanocm TOJIBKO HM. I'Iop'ryra. r1b- cxoe npaanrenbcrno ncxyccraenno nonnepxcnaano nmcoxne ueam, noanomm BBOSPITI: 3 Enpony He 6oJ1ee 5-6 rcopafinefi enymncworo Toaapa» emerozmo. He npexpamamxcr-. . noucxn aanannoro uywn 3 I/ Inmno. B 1513 r. ncnancxnfi o'rpsu1 BO mane c Bacxo Hynbecom ne BaJu.6oa c orpommmn Tpynnocmmn npeononen JIeCPIC- Tue ropu, Hanamcxnfi nepemeex n ammen K umpoxomy aamusy. Hepen ncnannamn o'rxpL1.ncsx Gecxpafinnfi aozmmfi npoc'rop. Ba. rxL6oa Haanan ero I0>xHoe Mope (Tnxnfi oxean). Hepsoe nywemecmue no Remy, K0- Topoe crano n 1'IepBbIM rcpyrocaernblm Ima- Baxmem, ocymecwsnn tbepnaa Maremlan - onmrnmii nopwyranbcxnfi MODHK. H8 cJIy>x6e y Hcnancxoro xopomx. 20 ceH'ra6ps 1519 1*. Han. Kopaénefi Boamaanxemofi mu acxanpu noxnnynn ra- naab Can-Jlyxap H serum xypc Ha aanan. l'Ipoi'1,zm A'rJ1aH'rm<y, Marennan Meaneuao nponnnranca BZIOJH: 6epero3 IOmnoI‘& Ame- pmcu 3 noucxax nponnaa P! 61.111 Bbmyxczxeu aaamwonarb B amapxrnqecxnx umpowax. BMec'ro paiicxoro 6J1a>xeuc'rna B 'renJ1o1‘«'x I/ IH- mm Ha nomo xcomauzzm ahma. Jm M0p03bI, urropmu H yparauu. Honnxnca 6ya'r, no Marennaa pemurenbno I-1886.71 nopanox :4 or mean csoeii He o'rc'rynm1. Ynaqa y. rxb16HyJ1ac1. Myxcecrnenaomy MOpel'I. TIaB8- Temo. Hotrm now-epms Hagxexczxy, on ace-Taxu Hamen nonroxczzannufi nponna. Haaaannbxfi noazmee Marennaaonbxm. Hpeozzonen ero. xcopafinu (nx oc'ra. nocb acero rpm) 28 Hoafips 1520 1*. BBIIIJJIYK 3 o'rr<pm'rbu"1 oxean. B Teqenue acero rmasarms CT05-U18 qynecuaa norona, PI Mopmm Haaaama oxean Tuxnfi. CaMo xce rmasanne oxaaanoch coaceM He nerxnm. OT ronona u xcaxcnm ymepna sna- qurenbnax qacrb axunaxca. Te, I-(0My nocqacrnnsnnocb yuenewb, nocrnrnn dlnnnnnnncxnx ocwponoa. Ty'r Maremxan 6eCCMbIC.7IeHHO norufi B C'I‘bI'~IKe c Mec'rHbnvm xcnwenamn. 3/me nocne noreppx xannrana xomarma zxocwnrna Mo- Jxymccrcnx oc'rpo3oB, me npuoépena Gonbmofi rpya npsmocrefi. 8 ceH'ra6pa 1522 r. xopafim. c cumnommecrcum Haasarmem «BHKTODHFD fipoczm mcopb B nop'ry Ceemmn. 1'Iepnoe 3 ncropnn xpyrocnemoe ny'reu1ec'rBue aaaepmrmocb. Ono mnnocs notrm 1-pm rona. I/ I3 nxrru cynoa aepaynocb TOJ'Ibl-CO omao, H3 265 tmenon xomannm — TOJIBKO 18. I‘epoeM nnaaarma, o'r'recHmmmM H8. 3a, zxHm‘51 Imam Mar*eJmax-Ia, c'ran xanwran «Bmcroppm» Ce6ac'rbaH 9JIb Kano. I/ Icnaucxmii KODOJIB noxcanosan eMy , z1BopaHc1<m71 repé, ynenqannmifx H3o6pa- I Cbepnan Maremari
  • 21. BEHHKHE l‘EOl'PA¢H‘-IECKHE OTKPblTl/ |$1:BCTPE‘-‘IA LMaHn143AuHIa TOMB ncenuem aemnoro mapa 14 nammcbxo: «Tu nepnufi Merm o6orHym. Ha 110.1110 Marennana oc'raJmcr. oéannenna n Hapymemm rcoponencrcnx nncwpyxnnfi n qpesmepnofi xcecwoxocm. I/ Icrnanaa pom. a'roro Bunazomeroca Mope1mana're- Jra éhma npnsnana TOJILKO co Bpemenem. Marennan Aonen no xconna neno Ro- . nyM6a H nponoxcnn aanazmufi ny'rz. K c'rpanaM Bocroxa. Ero nyremecwnne Ha npammce norcaaano, rrro 3eMJm nMee'r cpopuy mapa, a Bee orceanu coc'ranmno'r omm Mnponofi oxean. Orpomnme pasmepu Tuxoro oxeana onponepmm Mnenne o cymecwnennom npeoénanannn cynm nan Mopem. Honme o'r1cpm'rm1 050CTpKJIK npornaopeqna Mexczxy Hcnannefi 14 I'Iop'ryra- Jmefi. B 1529 r. cwpanm HBJCOHGII JIOPOBOPKJIHCL n nozzrmcaam Caparoccrcoe cornamenue o paanene cq)ep annanna B Tnxou orceane. Mexcny 'reM IIYTB, nponooxennmfi Maremzanom, nonroe npema He muen nparmmecrcoro anaqenna. Honmopmb ero Tpynnoe nywemecrnne o-raammmcb JIKIJIL tzepea noncronema. 1. Karcoebt 6bmu npultuuu, noamomcuyewue eeponerluee rc noucrcy uosbtx nymea na Bocmorc? / 2. Houeuy uuenuo cmpauu Hupeueficrcoao nouyocmpoea nepebuuu nauaau Benurcue eeozpa¢uuecrcue omxpumua? 3. Ifatcofi ercnaa enec Supurce Mopenaaeameab 6 opzauuaauuio Jnopcrcux nymeutecmeuxl? B rcarco. u uanpaeneuuu on uaaeuca nazimu an H op- myeaauu uenpepueubui Jocopcrcozi nymb 8 Hnéuro? 4. IIo= ¢euyA. uepu1ca ue uocum uata ICoJ¢y. u6a? 5. Kouy ua canon aene c. /Leayem aapecoeamb caoea: «Tu nepaufi Jueua odoeuya»? 3A/ JAHMH 1. B XVIII a. ¢paHuy3cKmZ reorpado )KaH AHBMl1b 3aMeTm1, taro HeI1paBMl7bHbIe pac-Ierbl I7ao11o TocKaHen/ m cranu «camofi Oonbwofi owudxofi, Koropan npmae/1a K caMoMy ae/ mKoMy orxpurmo». ‘Ira, Ha saw aarnaq, nocnyxnno ocuoaar-meM mm raxoro yraepxcaeumv n o Kaxou orxpurma mzer pews? 2. Onupancb H8 aanucu M3 . aHesHm<a Ko/ ryM6a, onmume ero snevameuun or acrpetm c m-mefiuamn. 3. Hafiaure Ha Kapre reorpadauwecme Haasai-ma, casvaam-me c MMeHaMM MO- pennaaarenefi anoxn Be/ mmx reorpadmvecxux orxpurmfi. 3ABOEBAHI/ IE I/ I OCBOEHI/ IE o HOBOFO CBETA I/ Icnancxcne xonxcncranopu. Ynunnwenbnaa npnpona Honoro C3e'ra, ero Hacenerme — moépbxe nmcapm , xcmamne, K338110012, 6e3 3a6o'r o xJ1e6e na- cynmom, - acé 3'ro omenomnno enponefinea. Ihm nnnefinen enponefinu 6I>IJIK fioxcecrneanumn cymecwnamu 143 crapnnnux nerenn n upopov-1ec'rn o 6eJ1oM 6opoz1a'roM fioroqenonerce, xoropmfi npnner c Bocworca. I/ Imenno 3-mm 05'bficI-Ifi- Jlocb YAKBPITBJIBHOB mm enponefinen nonenenne aéopnrenoa - nx fiearpanmmoe rocrenpnnmcrno, npnnemnnocrb n m; e,z1poc'rz. . Cnnmennmfi 1-pene-r Bmaunann y nunefinen ornecrpenbnoe opyxcne n nomann, xompmx om»: no a'roro nmcoma He nunenn. Tax nponaonma ncwpeqa nnyx paanmx Mnpon, HGCXOJKPIX rcynyryp, Heanaxommx nnnnnnaannfi.
  • 22. Tb Parmee Hosoe ape/ vm (KoHeu XV ~ nepsasi nonoauna XVII 5.) . , . ... .__. ..__. _.. .* Bcnen 3a orxpbrmem Hosoro CBe'ra Haqanacb xcommcra (o'r ucn. - .3a3oe- eauue) - saxnarmmecxcne noxopgbl PICIIaHI. IeB Korma XV - XVI B. 3o. rIo'ro Ia BJIECTI: — TOJIBKO 3'ro 1m'repecoBaJ1o Tex, wro c'raHoBm1ca rcomcncranopamnz Bqepamrmx B01/IHOB, Monaxon, paaopemmx nnanbro, mmmx, rrpecrynnmcoa. Hefionbmne o'rps11u. x 143 300-400 qenoaezc Bmcrynann npowms coroaon rmemen H uenux rocyzxapcna. I/ Ix ycnex ofiecnetmaano He TOJILKO Hannqne orHec'rpe. nb- HOPO opyxcmi, no u ymenoe ncnonbsoaanne Me>1<11oyco6m1 3 unneficxofi cpene. B pacnpanax nan HOKODGHHBIMI/ I Haponaxvm 3a13oeBa'reJm He 3HaJm xcanocrn. XVI B. Eapronome , ae flac Kacac «Mcropm: MH, am71» Xpmcmane. .. cTanm yumnmb noéomme cpenvu mnnefiuea M TBODI/ |Tb = |pe33bHaL7u- Hble xcecroxocm. Bcrynan e cenenme, own He ocraansuwu 3 )KI/ |BblX Hw<oro — yuacm 370:7: nomaeprancn M crap M Mnan. .. VI Tax Kan Bce. no MOI’ y6e>KaTb, yxpbmanmcb 3 necy mm ropax, cnacancb or monefi, cronb éecqenoae-mbux VI 6e3>o<anocTHux TO ébmw o6y-4eHb: mome l1Cb| , : <oTopbve, aaamnes v1Hp. e:71ua. B MFHOBBHMG oKa paapbuaanm ero Ha Kycxm. A ecnv: vIHorp, a — I/ I no cnpaaennmaofi npwmne — MH[1el7|U, bl yémaanw Koro-nm6o I/ I3 xpvncmau, TO Te croaapmaanvncb Me)KD. y co6on7|, -470 3a onuoro xpmcm- auvma , !1OJ'l)KHbl yémaarb CTO mmefiuea. Eqvmcveenuasu IA v: cTw-man npwmna TOFO, nouervny xpucmaue paaopwm M yumroxunu Mnoxecrso HI/ I B Hem He noawmbux nnonefi, — sro xenanme aaxearmb vux aonoro. OHM Lunm c KDBCTOM 3 pyu<e VI c HeHaCb| TH0l7| xaxnofi 3onoTa B cep11U. e. I -0 V —— — — — __, __ _ ilfiafia — ennnc-rnennufi us Haponon pgoxconyméonofi Amepmcu, Icoropufi nmen ‘ nggamennocn B BI/ me ne Ivmtpon. Cnou KHHPK (xo11_e_15_c_r.1) Mafia nucum 1cpac- rcamn Ha mrnnamx nonoc Ma-repnana, n3ro'r"' onnennoro us pacnrrenbnmx no- noxon, a 3a-rem nxnansxnann 3 tpymapu. Hpn xpamax cymecrnonaaln 6n6Jmo- -r n. Mafia nmema cnofi rca.1IeEg‘aQn, yuenn onpenemm. Coi@W ](__'EI: I. Onn ne Bum: nnenn B qgmMawmy . I 1 Ha noJ1yoc'rpoBe Iggy xqnrggrcragopm He- oxcnnanno BCTDGTPIJIPICB c Bmcoxopasnvrron unnu- Jifiéafihefi. I/ Ix P[3_VM. TIeI-IHBIM B80paM 11pe. u;c'ra: m obnééeanme crenamn npexpacume ropozza, nema- qecnaennbre panm nnpamnn Id namcxamio y1cpa- mename xpaMoBr.1e coopyxcerma. Teppwropmi npunaanexcana Hapo11;y0Ma1‘«’m :4 6mJ1a nozzenena Memzxy HBCKOJILKHMPI roponamn-rocynapcwsamn c xopomo Hanaxcennoffx c1»xc'reMo17I ynpannemm. Hocroannaa Bpamna Memny ropopgamn marm- TCJILI-{O o6Jxer! mJ1a HX aanoenaxme ncnanuamn. 0'1‘ Mafia rcomcncrazxopm y3HaJm, trro cenepnee IOrca'raHa Haxonnwca Morymecrnennaa c'rpaHa augrercos, me 1«1Mee*rc51 MHOF0 aonowa. B 1519 r. Ha 3aBoeBaHue 3’I‘I/ IX aemem. ornpannncs ncnancxufi o'rpsu1 B coc'1'aBe 400 IIexo'rm1I1eB PI 15 ROHHHKOB npn 6 opyzmax. Ero Ben He6oI*a'r1:Ifi ncuancxufi nnanbro Bpnan Koprec - Myaxecwnennmfi Bonn 14 yMeHbIfi 11mmoMa'r, HO xcecrorcnfi PI 3epoJ1oM- Hmfi qenonerc. 3'ro 61.111 nepnmfi noxop; ncnanuen B myéb Marepmca. i
  • 23. / Manmecxan cmla 3Jnnopano. Onnonpemenno c aanoeaanuem Merccmca Imman- E cx "0 nefi neacan peanbnmfi oéuqafi napona tméqa-Myncxca, xcunmero rcorna-To BEJTI/ IKHE FEO| 'P/ VDHHECKHE OTKPbfFV|5l: BCTPEHA LLHBHHHBALMPI TOM ' I | Hcmpna axrrexon no nx nommeaua no lrropoii nonosuae XII 3. B Ilem-pa. m» aofi Mexcmce uonna aaranox. C3010 ponrmy oan uaaumum ocwponom Acrnan (cram, rne xcnnyw namuao). Mecroaaxomnenne ocwpona no cnx nop oc'rae'rca aenanec-mum, no xmenao or new nponcxonm cnono can-rem. Koqenue oxo'r- nmcu-azrrerm Gsum orxenh nonucrneuammu :4 nontmnmm ce6e Maoxcecwno HI! - I neficxnx nnemen. Boanmma Morymecrnennas rmnepna co cronunefi TeHoq'm'r- ' nan (conpemennmfi Mexmco). 4 Korna Roprec ncwynwr so nnaneana npanwrena Momecymu, TOT, na6m npe1cpa- mm nponnnacenne aanoenawenefi, nucnan nancwpeqy um caoux nocnon c napamn nmz ncnaacxoro xopona. Cpenn Maoxcecrna nparouennocreii aaxonwmcb upe- xpacnue npouasenemm nnneiicxnx uacrepon — ne: rmco. uennaa nocyna, n3b1cxan- nae yxpamenrm, conepmemiue qmryprcn aaepefi. B ornmxne orr ocaonaofi Maccu nnneficxux roneampnux nanennfi, éeamanocmo nepennannennux eaponefinanm 3 aonorue cunncn, nonapxau Moxrrecyuu noneano. Oan nonanu npsmo K rcopo- mo n noarouy coxpanmmcb. Co Bpeuenem can nponaaenn nensrnannmoe sne- tlawxenne Ha aameqarenbnoro nememcoro xynoxcnmca Am.6pex'ra llxopepa. On ncnounnam «Ba ncxo caoro JRHSKI: a He annex nuqero. wro 61:: Tax nopanonano Moe cepnne, Kan awn nemn. I/ Prax, a lumen cpenn tmx qynecnue. coaepmeaneihnne Benn: u ynnnmmca Talcofi onapezmocm monex‘v‘1 nanexnx crpau». Illenpme nonapxn He ocranoannn ICop1-eca. Ero aoficxo, B xo'ropoe BJIPIJIHCB noxopermue axrrexamn Imemeaa, ynenmmnocb no 100 'I'l: lC8‘I H uononmo x Teno- vrrmnany. Momecyma, nnycmn Icoprreca B mpon nus neneaua nepemsopon, o'mec- ca K Henry c ynaaxexmem, no ncnaneu Beponomno aaxaarnn nmneparopa 3 xmea :4 y6u. n ero. Hacenelme c'ro. rum1.1 nonmulo Boccranne. Torna ICop'rec 335111 ropon 3 ocany n, nepexpun nocryn Bonbx, Bmnynnn em aamnmuxoa cnoxcwrb opyxme. Iloxcoperme Mexccmcn ornem H Meqom npononmanocb no rcorma XVII B. 3118C]: nanmn 6ora'rme aanericn 3o. no'ra K cepe6pa, Koropue B Heqenoneqecxnx ycJ1o- nnax nofimsanu nanefinu. Hemannaa axcnnyawannn, Geaaamwrnocwb nepen saneoennunm eaponefinamu anunemrmeczcmvm 3a6o. rxeaannaMn — ace 310 npmseno K 6uc'rpoMy nmanpanmo rcopennoro aacenenna. B cepenxme XVII 3. a Merccmce nponcnnano ncero 750 Tblc. mineifmen, 'r. e. numb 3% o'r Hacenenns no1coJ1yM- 6onofi apu. Hponsonma nacwoamaa nemorpaqnmectcaa r<a'rac1-poqaa. R8 KOHKKCTBJIODLI PICKBJIPI cxaaoqnyxo CTPBHY 3J'Ib1IOp&J10. B OCBOBG JIGPBHJIBI I Bupanmnanne Mauca (Kyxcypyau). Plnmocwpanna as ncnancxofi xanru 06 anrexax. XVI 6.
  • 24. U Lluezo Pu6epa. Koprec B Mexcmce 5 o 9 I P B ropnmx paffxonax conpemennofi KoJIyM61m H cosnanmem o, rzHy 143 Hanfionee pas- _rqnT1>1x gnannuaannifx. Hepen 'reM Kare upnnmrb BJIBCTB, xcaxuzmfi Honmfi npa- Bprréilb 3'17d1*5 fiiéfigun Bbmoaman or1pe, z1eJ1eHHyxo uepemonmo. OH H8.M8.3hIBaJI cMoJIof«'1 PI norcpmnan 30.TIO'l‘bIM nopormcom 'reJ1o, a 3a'reM c Bocxonom comma BbII‘IJIbIBaJI Ha rmory Ha cepemmy cnamex-more oaepa I‘yaTaB1»1'ra n B ero aonax Bce c ce6H CMbIBaJI. Home a'roro upncywcrnyxomne 6poca.1m B oaepo 11parox1eHHoc- Tn. Ho y6e>1<11eHmo ncnanuea, Taxoe Morno l'IpOPICX01IPI'l‘b TOJILKO B c'rpaHe, ovens 6ora'roI‘/1 30J'IOTOM. Konxncranopm zxsnnynncb Ha ee aanoenarme. Omm H8 orpsuzoa B08I‘J18.BPIJI 6LIan1m‘& camionac, noJIy1'paMo'rHbn‘»‘1 dlpancnclco Ilncappo. OH Hroprca B Hepy, me pacxnnynacb nepxcana mmoa c ueH'rpoM 3 ropozxe Rycxo, pacnonoxcennum BBICOKO B I‘0p8X. «.1 I/ Imca (caMo cnoso o3Haqa. :Io «npa1m'reJu. ») o6ox<ec'rBJ1su1u Cojnme H Gbum upe- -‘--. ~.. xpacnmmn acTpoHoMaMn. OHM ycuenmo aaunmanncr? selvmenejmem, passomum c'ra;1a Jram, fiéfiqrafiifisann x<aqec'rBeHHL1e Trcann. I/ Irma n3o6pe. rm opnmHa. ru. - H08 yaemcondé tmcbmo — Kmxy. Ono IIpe1ICT8BJIi{fI0 co6o1‘»'x nmyp, rc rcowopomy B Bmze uozuzecox upxua/ s;3r_§1f3aJ1u paanousernme nwncn. KoM6mmpoBaHne TBKPIX mwox nosaommo Jxenars Heo6xo, zm1vpa_Ie esalmcn» . Oman as Haiinennux o6pa311oB «KHIIy? j3§CK1P~6,j$, P. Bocnonbsonanmncb Meoxnnemennmmu yco6nn; aMn, Hncappo co6pa, rI 6oJxbnIoe Boficxco. Ho omnqao coopyxcennbnvz zzoporalvr nmcon on 61.1c'rpo lIO6paJIC5i 110 22 ropona, me Haxoxmnca npanwrenb rocynapcwna — Bem»ucm‘»'1 I/ Imca A'rayJ1LI1a, H . ;.s o6MaHoM saxsanm ero 3 rmen. Honas, trro 6oJ1ee Bcero ncnanum nensrr 30JIO'I‘0, ) Araynbna momma pyxy 14 Ha Bmcowe cnoero poc'ra nponen 110,11 IIOTOJIKOM ROM- Hawm, me ero , z1ep>1ca. rm, Jmnmo. B o6MeH aa cBoe oc13o6o>x11eHne on noo6e1na. u 3anoJ1H1»1'rL nomemerme no ypoana qep'rL1 SOJIOTOM. Co Bcex yromcon cwpaxm Q; - naqann CB03H'I‘I> nparouennocwu. Co6paB 6 T01-IH sonowa 14 cepe6pa, ucnannm
  • 25. 1 51 BEHHKHE FEOl‘PA@V| ‘-IECKHE OTKPblTl/ ISI: BCTPE‘-[A l. ll/1Bl»‘U1}’|3AlJ. |/WI a Beponomno rcaamum A'raym. ny, a BCKODB ORDE- qarenbno paarpommm n nmnepmo nmcon. K KOHIIY XVI B. B pyrcax ncnaacrcux 1comcnc'ra- zxopon oxaaanacb Boa Hempanbnas PI Ioxcnaa Amepmca, aa ncrcmoqennem Bpaaxmnn, 3axBa- qennofi nopryranbnamn. Honuii Cner nocne rcomcncrm. Ecnn Ha nep- BOM arane KOHKPICTLI nponcxonnn oébmnmii aaxnaw pgparonenaocrefi, T0 c cepennnm XVI B. 3aBoeBa'reJm nepemnu K 11oc'roxHHoI‘«’1 paapa- 6o'r1ce pyzmmcon. Honufi CBe'r , z1a.3a. n yxce nono- nnny Mnponofi zzoémtm zxparonexmbzx Me'raJ1- nos, 14 B I/ Icnanmo IIOTHHYJIPICB MHOFOTOHHBIG «sonowme» n ccepeépsmmev qmo-rmmn. Bce aanoenarmue sewm c'raJm co6c'rnennoc'rL1o ncnancxoro xopona, a ux oxn'reJm — eno no1man- Hhmm. ,I'. IJm ofipamemxa mu1e1‘»'meBBKa'roJm1:ec- - ’ . . -Vs. +. . I - , ._ rcyro Bepy aa oxean npnfiwm Mnorotmcnennme . wmflm 3° I-V‘ " Mnccnonepu. I/ Icnancrcan Iconounanbnaa mmepua npocrnpanacb Ha Tbxcsxtm 1cm1oMe'r- p013 - 0'1‘ RaJmq)opI-um no Ornennofi 3eMJm. Ona 6uJ1a camoii oémnpuofi mm TOPO Bpemerm n cocrosma K3 znayx Bnne-rcoponencwn, K01-opmmu ynpaanann Haanaqennme ncnancxnm Monapxom mane-1copo. rm. I/ Icnanna pennocwno oxpamma cnoro Mononomno (ncrcmoquwenbnoe npano) Ha TODPOBJIIO c 3aorceaH- cxnmn Bnanennamn. I/ Inocwpannmx rcynnon n Hosmfi CBe'r He nonycxann, M 01114 MOPJIH npno6pe'ra'rL xonounanbnme Tonapu (xonomm - Teppwropna, xowopaa no'repa. z1a Hesanncnmocrb n Haxomrrca non Bnacrmo Apyroro rocynapcrna) Tonbxo 3 Ceannbe, sannawun nomnnny B xoponencxyro xaany. lloxon upnnocnnn He Tonbxo pyzuuucn, no PI o6pa6o'rIca CeHbCKOXO3fifi- c'rBeHHL1x n. naH'ran; m}'1. I/ IMP! Bnanenn ncnancrcne ICOJIOHKCTLI, no pa6o'raJm Ha 3eMJ1e nnnefiuu, HaCHJIbHO npenpamennme 3 pa6on. OH}! nmpamnnann Mano (rcyxypyay), 'ra6a1c, caxapamfi 'rpoc'rHmc, 1coq)e. Henocnnbamfi Tpyn n Henn- HOCPIMBIG ycnonns xcnarm nmamnann Maccoayzo cMep'rHoc'r1. mmeifmea. Roma one B snare npo'rec'ra om»: BOCCT8.BaJIPI, T0 Mnorne BMec're c cembamn I‘PI5JIH B xcecroxnx pacnpaaax. Cymecwnoaann pafionm, me 3a Koponcoe Bpema ncnannm nonnocrmo ynmrroxcmm nnnefinen n 6mJm Bmnyxcnenm sanoswrb aqwpmcancxux Henonbnnxon. Tpyn Herpon nmporco ncnonbaonanca Ha pyzmmcax :4 nnanwannax, ux BBO3 nocwoanno noapacwan. C cepemmm XVI B. Ha amanwnuecxnx nywax IIOHBPIJIKCL Mnoroqncnennme anrnnficxne, qypanuyacrcne u Hunepnanncxne nnparm. I/ Ix neiicwnna 6L1Jm BbI3B8.HbI 'reM, trro enponeficxne c'rpanL1 He xcenann Mnpnrbca c Moaononnefi ncnamzea Ha TOpI‘OBJIl0 B HOBOM CBe're. Kynnbl APVPHX c'rpan IIbI'l‘aJIHCb npopnamca 'ry, u;a co cnonmn rpyaamn, no ncnannm nepercpunann HM ny'rL I/ I 6e3xcaJ1oc'rHo o'r6Hpa. un Bce TOB8.phI. Howepnenmne, trroém B03Mec'l‘HTb ymep6, nonytxann o'r cnonx Monapxon cnennanbuoe paapemenne Ha orpa6JIe1me ncnancrcnx «sonormx» n «cepeépsmmx» qmoron. Tarcoe oq)nn; naJ1LHoe m»1pa'rc'r3o Ha3I: IBaJIOCI> rcanepcmaou. Hepemco camel xopoma Bxnanunann nenbrn B cnapmicenne xanepcrmx axcnennnnfi, B coc'raB 1co'r_op1.1x 06511130 nxommo Hemano maopsm n 3Ha'rHux mone1‘«'1: B8111: Tarcoe nnparcrno IIDPIHOCHJIO 6OJIbII. IHe npnfimnn n cqnranocb , z1oc'ro1‘»’1HL1M sansrrnem.
  • 26. r A 7 L C: l‘. "l/ ‘( I I-ti PaHH<: -e Hoaoe BPEM5? (KoHeu XV ~ nepsas no/1oBuHa XVII B. ) v ‘ Enponeiium 3 Cenepnoii Amepmce. Kpome nupeaeiicrcnx rocynapcrn, yqacme B Bennxnx reorpaqnmecxux orxpbrwnax upmmmamt Taxcxce npyme enponeficxne c'rpam.1. 01114 IIpHO6II1PlJIPICl: K a'roMy npoueccy noamiee PI, no Topneccmrbaccxcomy noroaopy, He umemx npan Ha aaorceancxne aewm, a no'roMy He ornancnaanncb aanpannsrrb x<opa6Jm Tyna, me rocnoncraoaanu I/ Icnarms n Hopryranun. Amvms n dlpamum o6pa'rmm caofi serum: 3 cropoay Cenepnofi Amepmcn. Vaaan 06 ycnexax Xpnc'm(1)opa KoJryM6a, Kynum Ixnanaoro B To spew! anr. nm‘&- cxoro nopra Bpucrosm cuapsuxmm 3a co6c'r3eHHbu”x cqer He6oJn. mo1'5x rcopaém. mm Imaaamm Ha aanan. 20 Man 1497 r. cyzmo B0 mane c llmonom Ka6o'roM (reuyaauem , I1>xoBamm Ka6o'x'ro) B coc'raBe arcmrama P13 17 qenoaex ornpanmrocb B nywb. 3a Mecmz ono noc-mmo cesepnoix t1ac'm ocrpona Hbrocpayuzmeazx, rco'ro- pufi I€a6o'r 05’bHBIUI nnanemxem anrnnficxoii xoponm. 311ecr. , Ha Memzx, anrJm- qane Hanum 0111111 H3 fiorarefimux 3 Mnpe pafiouoa pb16OJIOBCTBa n Tonuamu naqann omaannsawb Tpecxy n cenbnb. Cnycm rozx 6p1«1c'rom. m>1 cnapsumam eme o11Hy arccnexmnmo, yxce us nmu rcopa6J1e1°4. ‘menu rcomanzxbx JIOCTKPJIYI Cenepoamepmcancrcoro Matrepmca, BCTDGTPIJIH T8M mo;1e1‘«’1, ozzewbxx 3 uucypu, HO rm 3oJ1o'ra, nu xcemqyra He naxmm. Ha MBXOBI: -I6 6ora'rc'r13a c'rpaHu Mopsnm ammamm He ofipanum. Bxcnemmua cinna- nacs neynatmoii, u anrmwane H8 aecrcomnco ne- “* csmme'rm“1 upexpaumn noxxrowomcy MODCKHX ny- Temecnsufi. Tonbxco 3 XVII 3. Amvmx npucrymma K ocsoeamo aaoxeanclcnx Teppwropufi. B 1534 r. cppaxmya max Kapne ownpannnca Ha noncrcn ceaepuoro MODCKOPO ny'ru 3 Kuwait. ; 3a 20 zmeiix on nepecex oxean. I/ Iccnenys aamxn N . ‘ CB. Jlanperrmst, Rapwbe BCTDBTHJI mmefmen, ~*, oxomnumxca H8 nymnoro saepa. Caon noceJ1e- I mm oan aaahmaxm « xanazxa». Co apemenem am cnoao nano nazmanue 6o. rxbmox'7x aaoxceancxofi KO- JIOHHH Honan tbpaxmna. Oua nxmoqana B010 ce- Bepnyxo qacrb Hosoro Caera n nocne no33paxne- mm Kaprbe nomofi fibma o6'Lm3J1eaa Bnanennem <1)paHuy3cxox”x Koponbl. Crona, x 6eperaM Kaza- nm, 0'l‘HpaBJI8JIHCb uenbxe qmo'mJmu q)pa1my3- crmx KKTOJXOBOB mm aezxemm npommcna. B Ceaepnofi Amepmce 3oJ1o'ra He Hamnn. P13- __ aa aworo ee ocaoerme ornuqanocb OT ncnaacxofi 2‘ xourcncrm n npoxonnno cnaqana MHDHO. K0110- rmcru — Gexnzsncn, npecrymmxn n Jmna, upecJ1e- Ayemue aa pomme 3a caon pemamoanbie y6ex<- nemm, — cam: '1-py; mJmcL na aewre, paaaonmm c1<o'r :1 coxpaaama Mnpame oraomemm c Mecnzmm nacenemxem. B XVII 3., pacmnpsm csoe xoaaiicrno, KOJIOHPICTBI naqann o'r6npa'n, aemuo y mmeiinen. a cazvmx ux nepecemrm. B peaepnaurm — cnexmammo ornepgemame 3aMz<Hy'rb1e TBPDPITODMH, xowopme sanpemanocr. noxnnarb. Taxoe omomenne susaano oxcecwoqenuufi o'rnop co -3. H max Kaprbe. Fpamopa croponbx nrmefiuea. IIoc. ne;1c'rnmx Bemucnx reorpadnmecmrx oncpbrnxii. Oncpbrms XV-XVII BB. oxaaama orpozvmoe mmmme H8 nanwefimyro ncropmo qenoseqecraa. Hecxo. nL- K0 norconermii fieccrpamnmx H Mymecnennmx Mopen. r1aBa'renei»‘x 3ua<m're. nbHo
  • 27. BEIIHKHE reormowaecxwz O'IKPblTHfl: BCTPEHA LIHBHHHB/ Ll| «1V'| TB {~46 : ","A “ __-‘s ‘- ‘ ? .."J " I J / . '. I . / s’ . ».. L ~ L». ‘. , :4». f. Kama Mupa XVI 3. paananaynu rpanunm ofncymenbr (uaaecnimx 3eMeJu. ): enponefiubx no3Ha1co: vm- JIHCB c uonsxmu semnsmu, Hapoaamn H uuazmusannamn. Ilpouaouma Bcrpetxa nnyx Mnpoa — esponeiicxcoro Id amepmcancxoro, CBHGI: Meaxny Hmvm c'ra. na no- croannoifx. JIM: IIOK0peHHbIX naponoa uocnencmna oncphtwuii nmema msomcoe anaqerme: c onaoii croponm, 61.111 Haaecea orpomnmfi ymep6 nx ynuxanbnoix xynwrype. a c npyrofi — nonoxceno Haqano Baanmooéoramenmo 1mnnJmaa- Imii. Hoauii CBe'r npeaparnnca 3 cocmnuyro ‘IaCTb aanazmoii xpucrnaacxofi nmammaaunn n soxnen 3 xpyroaopow acemnpaofi ncroppm. R C OTKDBITPICM Amepmcn 65111 coaepmen nacwoamnfi DBIBOK B paamrrmr na- ytmbxx aaaauii. Ha cMeHy (1)an'rac'mtxec1cuM Barmmam o crpoemm 3eM. rm npnnmo nozxxpennennoe OIIBITOM yfiexcnenne B ee mapooépaanocrn. Buet1a'r- Jmxomux ycnexon nocwuma reorpaqma: Ha xaprax IIOSIBHJIHCL yrotmennme paamepu PI otxepramm MBTBPHKOB, Mopefi 14 oxeaaon. Jhonu ocosnann, trro zvmp senmc u pasnooépasen. ' Vcranoaneane uocroanuux caaaeifx Mencny Enponofi H HOBOOTKDBITBIMK servmnmn uamemmo xapawrep TODPOBJIPI. Teneps maanaa pom; ownonunacb ne anywpennum Mopsnvx, a ozceaaam: nponcxommo nepememenne ocnoanmx T0pI‘OBblX nywefi H3 Cpezmsemnoro H Banruficnoro Mopeiix 3 nozxu A'r. r1aH'rmm. Bro npmseno K ynamcy c'rapmx'roproBb1x uearpos — Benemm, Fenyn, Mapce- Jlfl, Bapcenousx K roponoa nemenxofi Fanau. B uexrrpe nenosoii xmaau o1<a3a- JIKCB oxeancrme nopnn: cuaqana Jlnccafion, Cenmxsa n Axrrsepuen, a 3a'reM —« Axvxcrepzxam n Jloanon. Topronna ace cunmiee casxamaana pauee naomrpoaam Hue xoarnaemu 3 ezmnoe uenoe: aapoxcnancx Mnponofi phmox. 25 Hpwrox P13 Hoaoro C3e'ra 3o. uo'ra H cepeépa nan BO3MO>KHOCTb qercanmm 5‘-_‘. aeofixommoe mm o6opo'ra xonuuecnao Moneru. 31-o coneiicraoaano pacnaewy TODPOBJIK, ycxopermomy no; .u. eMy npommnmennocnx H aapoxcnennlo 1<ann- 'I ’ 'raJm3Ma. Paapacranncb ropona, npeapamaach B TOpI‘0BO-IIDOMBIIIIJIBHHBIB ‘"'«-= .,, -_4» H anmnaxicrparunnue n; eu'rpLx. C npyrofi cropoam, orporvmoe nocwyunenne B I
  • 28. ,/7 EN/7 / ’ VA C Tb PaHH6€ Hoaoe ape/ +49 (KoHeu XV — nepsasr I'70l'l0BUHa XVII B. ) Enpony finaroponnmx MeTaJIJ! OB Bmanano B XVI 3. nenanecrnoe no cnx nop anneaue. I/ Iafihrroqnoe rconnqecrno Mone-rm npm3e- no rc 'roMy, qwo nenu H8. Tonapu nepaofi neoéxonnmocm, nponyxrbx nmarma n cmphe mm nponanoncwna c'rpeMm-enbno nupocnn. Tarcoe oéecnennnanne nener no- nyrumo naananne penomonna nen. B ee - , .4_§. ’g= -‘*""’«: ?», " . A» ycnonnax nponcxommo 5hICTp0e pa3ope- 17". ?’ . '5-9., » 1' , - , 4 e 60 e e : ,.¥_ _f_. _2. . Hue olziinnx H Monnnenocno 0 ram H1»: '7; . n X on” “P” - 1., ,'_: ‘;. o:, ,A1,_ B Peorpaqrnqecxne ompurnx nonoxcnnn "’: ’. _if-‘if’ naqano KOJIOHHRJIBHOMY paaneny Mnpa. ' 7,; . Boanmcnn Kononnanbnme nmneprm, a KO- “ . - ; _ . nonnaanna o6pe1cJIa nenue H8.p0,ZIhI Ha pa6- . N if _. c'r3o n nbmnpanne. Mnmmonu xcnwenefi § , ,_o-, r 7- Amepmm, Aaxm H Atppmcn norn6Jm or ""7 g. L! g. y,, .. Q aanecennux sanoenarenamn 6oJIe3ne1‘»'x n i _ ‘_§_‘—: :n. :1», xcecrorcoro yrHe'reHm1. IIJM Kopennmx ame- . ‘ ~ ’ '/ f~. :.-1. -:5 ** pmcannen nwopxcenne enponefinen npe- ¢ 7 ff ‘ - npawnnocb 3 nacroamee 6enc'rBne - y'rpa— -'; ,'/ ’ Ty coficrnennofi no’: -opxm n caMo6h1'rnoi'1 . 3 i6: -. ‘ 1cyJIL'rypLI. _ . M. ‘-5; _> Bcrpetxa ABYX Mnpoa Bnecna namenenna ‘- to 1 - t 1“ _ "' ‘ " B 61.11‘ K ofibman. Enponefinbl I: [038.KMCT- '11." B i nonama y nnnefinen n nayqmmcb Empa- < V 3V "r / ‘ II1HBaTI> nemano cenbcrcoxoaaifxcwnennmx ‘"5 M / _ H pacrennfi. Honcemecmoe pasnenenne 3 EB- I ‘ Y . . - _/ V , -. one rca TO ens same’: -no oc. ua6m1o r o- W‘ W _ or p p <1) yp L . -4‘ ~ 1 go sy ronona. Kyrcypyaa npnmnacb no Brcycy 9 X '- V: ‘r . H Jnonam, a Taxxce nomna H8. xo M cxow . g , «_K N . .; ‘ X I H I " 4‘ . ‘ 1* Poor nponaaoncraa B HOBOM CBe're caxapa , , H, _ 1 . vi cnenan ero nocrynnmm He TOJILKO mm B éoraqefi, no H mm npocromozmnoa. Ha cwonax eaponefinen nomzmmcb 'roMa'r1.1, qaaconb, c'rpytncoBLn‘«'1 nepen, rcarcao, ananacm, paanoofipasnue 6.u1op; a n3 Tpecrcn n nococenmx p516. I/ I3 Amepmcn npnnoamm xnny H 6a. n1.3aM, Koropue ycnemno PICI'IOJIb30B&JIK 3 Memmnne. Ommm na JIIO5KMbIX paasneqennfi C'I‘8.JIK nnneficxne nrpu c ynpyrmxm rcayqyrconumn M. iI‘IaMPI, npe;1n1ec'rnen- nmcamn conpemennmx Bo. ne1‘»‘16oJ1a n 6ac1ce'r6o. na. R coaicanenmo, enponefinm nepemum y nnnefinea n nercowopbxe npennme npnnwncn — Manepy KYDKTB n IIPITL Hacron na Haprcownqecrcnx Tpan. B cnoro oqepenh, aanoenarenn o6ora'rnJm Honmfi C3e'r Taxnmn cenbcxoxosaficrnennmmn Icynmypamn, rcarc nmennna, aqmens, pnc, poms, nnnorpan, anenbcnnm, JIPIMOHLI, rpymn, cnnnm, aénoxn, MIrIH)1aJII: , onnna. Onn nsesnn Tyna caxapnmfi Tpocmmc, 6anaHoBoe nepeao, " cnnnefi, nomanefi, rcoa PI osen. Benmcne reorpatbnqecxne o'rrcpLrrna nponsnenn Ha conpemennmcon ome- V JIOMJIHIOIIIGG Bneqamenne. OI-II/ I OTICPBIJIK nepen HPIMPI HOBLII‘/ ‘I Map PI HOBLIB JKKBHBHHLIB I‘0pI/ ISOHTBI. I/ Inneiicrcne yxpamenua
  • 29. BEFMKHE FEOFPACDHHECKHE OTKPblT| /15!: BCTPE'-IA LlHBlr‘U'1H3ALlHV1 fw C7 “4“> 2 ‘. . . ._. ... .. 1. C rcarcumu apeenumu uuauauaauumzu ecmpemuzzucb eaponefiuu 3 Hoao. n Ceeme? ‘Imo o6.~1e2-tuna aaaoeaauuu xomcucmaaopoa? 2. Rare, na saw 8321136. npaeuxzbuee aoeopumb: «Omrcpbzmue Antepurcu» tutu «Bcmpe-ta Oeyx uusuJLu3auua»? 3. Ifarcott xapaxmep nocuna xoaonusauua Cecepuofl Ameputcu u omJzuIca- Jzacb nu oua om tcomcucmbl? 4. Kaxue nocneécmeux Beauxux aeoepacpuuecxux omxpumua am cuumaeme nau6o. nee ea: /cubtmu u novteazy? 3A, £IAHl/ IF! 1. Cpaaume orpuaox M3 . aHeaI-mxa Ko/1yM6a c p8CCK83OM flac Kacaca. Flowe- My, Ha saw ear/ ma. muzeituu ornec/ mob K eaponefiuam . apy>Kemo6Ho, a re oraemnu MM xecroxocruo M y6m>icraaMM? Kax flac Kacac onpeae/ mer oc- HOBHyIO uenb Konxucraaopoa u Kama qyacraa oam y Hero ab/ auaaror? 2. rlonbayncb Kaprofi, abmcrmre, Ha Kaxux reppwropnnx a HOBOM Caere pas- aopauuaanacb ucnaucxan Koumcra, Kame M3 HMX aouum 3 nop1yra/ uacxue anaaeum, a Kama ocsanaazm , apyme eaponefiuu.
  • 30. ll LIA U‘. Li/ -1C Tb TE‘/ ~48 2 HEIIOBEK B MEHFHOUIEMCSI Ml/ IPE XVI —XV| I BB. HA C E'J7E HHE . MA TE PH/ U7bHblI/ "I MHP H K / l7HT A171/13M HOBCEHHEBHAFI )KM3Hb 3A HALIHOH EBPOFIBI Pawnee Hosoe ape/ as (KoHeu XV nepsasv nonoBuHa X VII B. ) _‘ / HACEJIEHHE, , - ' ~. : MATEPHAJII>HI>II/ "I MI/ IP ‘— I/ I KAIII/ ITAJII/ I3M I/ Iameuemux 3 mass}: Ilenonerca. Bo Bce Bpemena naxmyxo pom. B xmarm qenosexa nrpama mama? u upm- ponuan cpena. C XIV B. 3 Banannofi Enpone naqanocb noxononanne. Ono nponomxcanocb no Korma XVII 3., noxa He ycwanoawxca I-CJIHMa'l‘, 3 ocnonnom coxpan5uo- muiicn n ceronrm. I/ Iamenemm nponcxonmm n 3 nann- Luaqrre. Ha Bmpyénennmx JIGCHBIX ytxacncax nonun- MaJIPICb I-IOBbIe ropona :4 nepemm, ocymemibxe 6o. no'ra npeapamanncb B Imonoponnbxe Hunbx. Bea Bananuaa Enpona rxoxcpbmacb r'yc'rox‘»'x cermo nopor, zcananon, Moc- 'roa H ropumx Tonnenefa. Ocaoexme npnponnoifx cpenu npuofiperano maorna xnxnmmecxne pasmepu, no xen- Bombrfi n pac'rn'reJ1bubu“4 Mnp ocwananca 60I‘a'l‘bIM. 3a nsa c'ro. r1e'ms1 — c 1600 no 1800 rona — Hace. ne- Hue Banannofi EBpOl'IbI yB€JIId'-IHJIOCB 6o. nee ‘mm B nna paaa H BbIpOCJIO co 100 no 211 MJIH qenonex. Bonbmefi cwana H IIDOIIOJIJKPITGJIBHOCTB xcusrm OTJIBJIBHOPO ‘I8- Jxosexa. B Cpenrme Berca Te, 1coMy ncnonunnocb 50 new, cquranucs ynce oqeub C'I‘apbIMH. Tenepb aeMa. no moneii no>Km3aJm no 60—70 J1e'r. Crana nponomimrenbnee He mnmco musm. qenosexa, « noB3poc. r1eJm» Tarcoxe 6pa1<u. B roponax My}K'~{HHbl aaaonmm cemmo ofiwmo rxocne 26 new, a neaytmm BBIXOJIIUIH 3aMy>K B 15-23 rona. 061;- HCH5!. TI0Cb : -no rem, trro My‘/ K‘<IHH8 nomxen 651.11 caMoc'roa- 're. ru. uo conepmarb cezvmo. a x<emmma — ymena seem no- Moxoanficwao. Hoxcemismucb, Taxax napa, xax npammo, xcmxa ownenbno H Heaaancnmo 01‘ ponnrenefi. B nepe3- Hnx Bc'rynaJm B 6paI< Ha 2-3 rona panbme. Bce qame B naopsmcrcux 14 fiorarmx roponcrmx cemmx cbmonbnm :4 nouepmvx paapemanocb O'I‘K83bIBa'I'bCfl or Hex<eJ1aTem. Ho- ro Gpaxa 14 name CaMOC'I‘Ofi'I‘eJ! bH0 abxfinpan. ce6e napy.
  • 31. Tami ‘-{EIIOBEK B MEH>i| OlllEMC$1MHPE XV| —XV| | BB. I HM Murcuc. Y cfiopmnxa uarxorms. XVI 8. B Hoaoe Bpema, no cpanneumo co Cpem1eBe1<oB1.eM, Msmeumxocb o'rnome- Hue K AGTXM. 3a6o'ra 06 xx aaoposbe, Bocnwrannn, o6pa3oBaH1m 11 6y;1yuxeM npesparmlacb B ozmy P13 rnaanmx aanaq CCMBPI. V mozxefi ycummocb txyncnao pozworo Aoma n pO, l1CTBeHHbIX cnaaefi. B anoxy, xorzxa Eapona nepemnaana myfioxne nameuemm, 3aMe'rHo Bmpocna pom. )KeHI. I.1HHbI B o6u1ec'rBe. B XVI B. 0’I‘KpbIJlHCb nepabre mrconu mm zzesoqerc, a yxce B cJ1e11y1ou1eM cwonermx nx 06y- qexme 3a npezxenamn pozmoro noma c'ra. r10 o6bmHmM. Hemano 3Ha'I‘HbIX ncenuum nopaaxann cospexvxennmcoa csoeii o6pa3o3aHHoc'rmo. auamxem namxos H unca- TBJIBCKHM 'ra. naH'roM, He roaopx yxce o6 uamcxannocrn Manep. Hpu xcoponeacxnx maopax aoanmcaew‘ HOBOB manerme — 11aMc1<m“1 1130p. B Hero Bxommu xcenuumbx H3 finwxafimero oxpyxcenmi Koponeabx, oébxtmo xcenm H poncraennnuu B€JIbM0}{<. Hepenxo 11aMc1<m“1 maop 3aMeTHO 311mm Ha Pocynapcrnemnne zzena. Hfinaub qenonexa npoxomma B Hecnorcofinom Mnpe. Emy yrpoyxann ronozx, snvuzemmx, BOCHI-Ihle onycwomenma. Bucoxofi ocrananacb zxewcxaa CMGDTHOCTLZ 'rpe'rb Manumefi yMnpa_na, He nocrumya I‘O, lIOBaJIOI"0 Boapacwa. Ho no cpaauen mo co Cpezuieaercosbem qyacraoaanucb nonoxmrenbume cmmm. Vnyqmnnocb neqerme 60JIbHbIX PI yxon 3a HHMH, 6o. nee IIOJIHOI. I.eHHbIM c'raJ1o uwranue, no- crenermo. xo'm H oqem. Mezmemxo, nonmmanocb snnmaxme K mmene. Bce 3'ro nomorano x1epe6opo'rr. pamuoxo cmepruocrb u cz1ena*rb >KH3Hb qenoaerca 6o. nee npononxcnwenbnofi. Banam-Ian Enpona 6b1.r1a saceneua IUIOTHO, H0 Hepaauomepuoz B XVI B. B Peiiucxoii o6.rxac'r14 upoxmsano 30-40, a 13 JIoM6ap111m — 6onee 200 ue. rIoBe1< Ha , I 1 KB. KM. Kan M npexcne, OCHOBHYIO M8CCy HECGJIGHPIH COCTEIBJIRJIO KpeCTbHHCTBO, _‘ xom ero o'r'rox B ropona 3aMe'ruo ycmmnca. ‘~I1»1cneHHoc'rb ropoxcan TOJIbI-C0 B Teuenue XVI B. BblpOC. TIa Bmsoe. I10 1<oJumecTBy ropouoa anepezux mum I/ ITEIJII/13 14 Hnnepnaunm, me ropomaue COC'I‘aBJI$UII/ I or/ ;o. r1o nononunm ncero Hacenenmr.
  • 32. i ! ‘-lACTb RBHHEE Hoaoe BpeM5l (KoHeu XV ~ nepsas nonoeuna X VII 3.) _ _ __. _._. __. .j -. -- *- I I. . 3' < I O - . h I II umep Bpeflzezua Cmapwufi. Plrpbx nerefi. 1560 2. Eacennenno ropona nonnomann MHOJKBCTBO nponyrcron, cmpbn, 'ron. Jmna. Bce Heofixozmmoe B ocnonnou nocwannann oxcpecrnme rcpecrbnne, HO nuoma Tonapu npnnoamm nananexa. Popona ocrananncb npenmymecrnenno I-Ie6OJII: I.IIKMH - HaC‘{PITb1BaJIH 2-3 TLIC. ncmenefi — H coxpansum cpezmenerconmfi mm: aa O60p0I-11-IHMH c'reHaMn B paanme CTOp0HbI paaéereumcs yaxne uanmmcnxe ynoqxn. Hepemco npoeapg :4 npoxon no HHM nperpaxcnann cwana cnnnefi, y; xo6Ho ycrponnmnxca B rpxsamx ny- xcax. Vénpamx ynnnu pemco. B cepezmne XVII 13. B Hapxmce B qecn. Tarcoro coéhrrna name owqexaxnnn namrrnyro Menanh. Axwncannwapnoe cocroaune roponon neno K ‘I8.CTbIM annnemmim u nucoxofi cmepmocrn. Fopona c 20-30 TLXC. xcnrenefi c‘iK'1‘aJIKCb 5OJIbIIIHMIrI. Hacwoaummn Benn- Icanamn Bmrnazxenu tlmopennna, Benemm, Arrrnepnea, JIoH, z1oH, Hapuxc, me npomnaano 6oJ1ee 100 THC. qenonex. Kare Bnyrpu, Talc n Borcpyr cwapnnnux roponcxnx c're1-1 pacxnaynucb canm, oroponu, mmorpannmcn. Hmcoro He ynnnnano, Roma B xcawny pemecnennnxn ocranamnn Macwepcxne 14 mm: 1'py- APITLCH Ha caonx ytzacmcax. Vnemmenue Hacenenna conponoxcpganocb noannennem Ha ropozzcrmx o1cpau- Bax xBap'raJ1oB fiennowm, me 'l‘eCI-IPIJIPICI: xcamcne naqym, a Mnoroqncnennue Tpawrupm Hepemco npenpamanncb 3 Hacroamne aopoacxue rneana. Czona me, B npenmecwba, BLIHOCPIJIPI Bpezmme peMec. ua — Macwepcrme rcpacmmmmcon, zxyfirmbmmcon nucyp 14 npyrue, o'r xoropux paanocunocb yxcacnoe anonorme. CoBceM nHo1‘»'1 B1411 nMeJ1 roponcrcofi nerrrp, yrcpamennmfi 3p; aHneM Mamc'rpa- Ta, ueprcnamn, nsopuamn anarn, Gamcarvm K npyrnmn Bennqecrnennumn co- opyxcemmmn; aauonnennmfi pocxomammn Toproammn namcaxvm c Mommmn 'roBapaMn. 311601: yxce qyncrnonanocb onpenenenuoe 6J1aroyc'rpo1‘»’1c'rBo, 14 Bnacm cnenunn aa nopamcom :4 cofimozzexmem rmc'ro'rm. Fopona 65mm Kpacmammn I/ I
  • 33. HFJIOBEK B MEHHIOUIEMCH MHPE XVI—XVl| BB. Tana? I H. Bpofl. PhIHO"-188$ HJOIIIHJIB 3 Ayrc6ypr; e. 1530 2. rpaanbmn. 6ora'ruMu H Genaumu ozmoapemeuao. 3eM. rm n max crowxa napo- ro, noa'roMy npeo6na, z1a. Jm Mnoroaraxcuue azzaaxm. Banannoenponeficxne ro- pona Tax crpemwrenbno pocnn naepx, Irro 1mac'raM 3 uensx 6e3onacHoc'ru npnxonnnocb orpannqnnawb KOJIPU-IGCTBO araxcefi. C XVI 3. B oénxon nommx xapewu I4 Tenexcxn, no Gecnopsuxormblfi JIa6n- pmrr ynoqex CHJIBHO 3a'rpy11HaJI xx nepemamicenue. Heomoacnofi c'raJxa no- 'rpe6noc'rb 3 rmannponaapm roponoa. B éonbnmx roponax. npexcne Bcero PM- Me. tbnopennun, Jlonnone, HBDPDKC P! npyrux, cnocmm uenue pafionu, a Ha pactmmenamx yuacrxax npoxnanuaann nmpoxne ynnuu, ycrpannanu upoc- Topaue nnomann, paaénaama yromhxe naprm. 3'ra arpanocrponwesrbaas XM- pypmao ocymecrnmmacb no reomerpuqecxomy xmany: ynuuu nepecexajmcb non npsmumu yr. uaMn H qenco paanenanu ropon Ha Kaapranu. Hocrenenno aanannoeaponeficrme ropona I-xaqann rxpno6pe'ra'rL conpemennmfi mm. Hormmm ocaemenuem oéwmo cnyxcmxa Jryna. I/ Inoma xpomeumyxo TbMy napymama omu qaaxenon, c KOT0pblMP! cnym conpoaoxcnama K31-CYIO-HI’!6y, l1b Ham: -xyxo oco6y. IIepBb1e (poaapn eme 3 XV B. uoanmmcb B0 tbnopeaunn, HO xx ncuonbaonauue pacnpocrpamuxocb oqem. Mezmenuo. Tonbxo c XVII B. B JIoH, z1o- He 3 Geanymme noun uaqwm 38JKHI‘8Tb qxoaapn 3o3.r1e Kazmzofi necsrrofi zmepn. Map TBXHIIICII. BO BCB SIIOXH OCHOBHHM IIOK8.38TeJleM 'rex1-mqecxoro P83- Blrl1‘l/ Ifl o6u1ec'rBa 5bIJIPI T6 BHJIBI SHBDFHH PI ). IBHI‘aTeJIH, KOTODI: -I8 HCIl0JIb3OB8- JIHCB 11.718 HDHBGIIEHHR B nnnxceune MeX8HPI8MOB. H8 nopore HOBOPO BDGMBHH l"JI&BHbIMl/ I ncroqnuxamn auepnm 0C'l‘aB8..7IPICb Mycxynbnas CI/ U18 moz1eI‘«'1 Id 110- Mallll-IHX JKHBOTHBIX, 8 TRKDKG BOIIB Pl BGTGD. ‘-Iejxoneqecxne DYKH IIDHBOJIPIJIK B ‘ nnmxenne cramcn, ronuapnhxe rcpyrn, nogrbemume coopyxcenmx. Dbl‘-I8.I‘PI. C no- Mommo nomanefi, BOJIOB, Mynon n OCJIOB nepenoamm rpyau, o6pa6aTbu3a.7m aemmo, sanycxann Hacocm. Bepwenn xonoaopowm.
  • 34. ‘i'x’~ Tb Rat-IHee Hosoe Bpemsv (KoHeu XV — nepsasi nonoBuHa XVII B. ) Pacnpocwpanennbm 14 o6b1txHbIM 1IBPII‘aTe)'IeM 61-mo Bonsmoe Menbnnqnoe KOJIGCO c cncwemoii 3y6=xa'r1.1x nepenaq. B XV-XVI BB. ero yconepmericwnonann: ropnsonranbnoe KOJIBCO ocnacrmm nonacmmn, a Bepwmcanbnoe — notrm Bnaoe ynennqunn B nnaMe'rpe (mzxorna no 10 Merpon), rrro 8Ha‘IPITeJIbH0 IIOBBICPIJIO nx Momnocn. B 6enHmx percamn MGCTHOCTHX ncnonbsoaann Berpanme MBJILHPIIILI. Fonnanncrcne nao6pe'ra'reJm npnnymama cneunanbnoe npncnocofinenne, 1co'ro- poe nosnonano, Bpamaa BGDXHIOIO nnmrcymyrocsi ‘{aCTI> 3e'rpaHo1‘»‘1 Menbnnnm, namensrrb Harmon xpbun-ea PI JIOBPITI: newep B . rno6oM Hanpannennn. C Tex nop ncnonbaonanne MBJIBHPIIILI 3aMe'rHo pacmupxmocb: c ee nomommo npmaonmm B namxerme CYICHOBBJILHPI, xyaneqnme MOJIOTLI, neconmncn, noxvmm, H3I‘O'I‘OBJIfiJIH 6yMary, O5p8.6aTbIBaJIH tcoxcn, aaHnMa. Jmcb InJ1m1)oBaH1«IeM. Baxcnmm ncwormmcom anepmn HBJIHJIOCB 'rerx. no, nonyqaemoe B OCHOBHOM o'r cxcnranrm npenecnoro yma. C pasawmem nponsnoncwna cnpoc Ha Hero noc'ro- snmo poc, trro Beno K ynenntlenmo Bb1py6r<n 14 name K no. rmoMy ynmrroxcenmo JIGCOB. Bosnmc neqmIm'r npenecnnm, a c mm: I/ I npo6.r1eMa Hexnaucn Tonnnna. Bmxon B0 B'ropo1‘& nononnne XVI B. Hamnn anrnnqane, Haqasnme mnporco HCIIOJIL30B8.'l'I: Kamennmfi YPOJIL. OH nanan 6oJ1ee nucorcyro, no cpannenmo c npenecnnoiix n 'ropq3oM, 'reMnepa'rypy ropemm, no npn cxcurannn nunenan 3JIoBom»xe 14 KOIIOTB. Amvmqane Hayqmmcb B cnennanbamx neqax nmxcurarh P13 yrns np1«1Mecn n npenpamawb ero B zcozcc. Hocnennnfi umpoxo PICI'IOJIb30B8JICfi B o'rpacJmx c Bbtcorcnmn 'reMnepa'rypaMn -— 3 co. ne- 14 Mbmonapemzm, npn na- POTOBJIBHKPI qepennum n c're1c.11a. 3T0 cnoco6c'rBonaJ1o ynyqmenmo rcaqecrna nponyrcmm H pacmnpenmo nponsnoncwna, onnarco nonnocrmo ICOKC BLITBCHHJI npenecmxy TOJILKO B XVIII 13. Texmmecrme ycnexn 61.11114 TCCHO cnasanu Tarcxce c yconepmencrnonaam eM Bmrra - Baxcnoro snemenra rcaxcnoro Mexannama, nepenaromero aneprmo. BMec'ro nepensmnoro B M'accoBoe yno'rpe6.ne- fine Bomen 6oJIee npoqumfi Mewwumqecxnfi BPIHT. Oco6eHHo mnporcoe npnmenezme on Hamen B c<1>epe xnnroneqawanmx n trexcamcn MOHGT. Parmee Honoe BpeMa He o'rMeqeHo ana- qnwenbnmmn Texnnqecrcumn 0TKphITPIfiMH. HpOHCXO, l1KJIO 6o. nee Macnrrafinoe ncnoJn.3o- Barme KDYIIHBIX n3o6pe'reHm‘»'1 npenmnynmx enox n yconepmencwnonanne nmeromnxca Mexannamon. 3T0 nomorano ynyqmnrb op- rarmsanmo nponsnoncrna, upeaicne Bcero B ropnopynnom nene. IIIax'rm yrnyémmch no 300-800 Me'rpoB, Bony us HHX Bmxatmnann Hacocamn n nomnazvm, npmzonmsmnmnca 3 nnmicenne yxce He pyqnbm 'rpynoM, a Mom- HbIM Bonanmm KOJIeCOM. Pyny nonnnmann Hasepx Ha nerrrormom Tpancnoprepe c HOMO- mbro I-COJIOB0p0'I‘a. Iina ero o6cJ1y>§mBamm xnawano nnyx qenonex, B TO npem: rcarc pans- me pyny Bmnocnnn HGCKOJILKO co'reH pa6o'r- HKKOB. ‘I'ro6m 05.7161“-IPI'l‘I> pa6o'ry nomanam, Harpyxcennme pynofi Baronemn noc'raB1«1- JIM cnaqana Ha nepermname, a sawem 14 Ha Mewammqecrcue penbcm. I-gg 1'Ion'z. eMHan Maunma. XVI 6.
  • 35. i ‘ ‘-iEJ'1OBEK B MEH${IOU.1EMC$i MHPE xvu—xvn BB. I C‘ if 4'“ ‘. .' P’ 3 — " 7 IT-v’ . _;. ~ ‘ I; ’ ', x’ j . : ‘ 1 H . .'r 1 I _ » fr ; ‘ I I _/ "‘ x ‘ ‘ ‘ " . ’ 7‘ I’ 3 , I I’ 4" / 1 1 ‘. _ '~. -I ’ Kx -. -‘ I ‘ ‘ / . L. < V‘ '- _ U . . . r. - . ‘ -. . , ‘‘I’‘’ z "»g}l]“‘ _ *' Q * . -, ‘ -», ‘ - umr "avg ‘ H , _ 4', ‘ ; j§_E¢_'s .95.. ‘ ’ E ~. " - 5 “ ' ' - ‘ x 7;. - I , ‘ ‘ ' 2* F. “ ' » 1 / l ’ ' ‘ ‘ . “ ’ (/ J I ' ' s’ ’ I J ‘L’: ~ ~. . > v‘ ‘ J E t . -‘y ‘ X‘ . . ‘I 1' ' go‘ “ ‘: X. Xecce.1Io61.ma cepeépa B pymxnke. 1521 a. Bbxnnamca Mewasma Aonroe Bpema ocyzuecwnmmacb B neabrcoxoix n. nanmn>- non": nerm, ocaameunofi pytmmmn Mexamx. Pym: narpenanacb, Me'raJm, Hexa- zmmuuficsx B neii, npeapauxanca B 1'ecToo6pa3Hy1o Maccy - xpxmy, H ynce H3 nee Bbll-(0BbIBa. HI! neoéxommme nanexma. Brow rrponecc 651:1 cnmmcom Memxenabxm H He MOI‘ y,71OB. T18'I‘B0pH'I‘b pacrymmi cnpoc H8 Me'ra. u.r1b1. B XV B. nomennylo neub yconepmeacmosamtz xoxcanme Mexn Haqaam npnnonwrb B nnmxcenne Mom- nbnvx Bommum xonecom. Ycmnmca rzpwrox B neqr. xucnopona, 'reMnepa'rypa 3 uefi nozumnacz. aacwonbxo, trro Merann uepexomm 3 coc-romme xcnnxocrn - qyryn. Ero pa3.rmaa. rm 3 cpopmu. naaajm 0CTbITb H 3a'raep, u;e'rL, a aa'reM nepe- rmammmx 3 xceneao mm C'l‘aJIb BBICOKOFO xaqec-ma. Tax npoxaaomen nepexon K coapemermofi nepepa6a1'mBa1ou1ex”4, mm zxomemioii. Me'ra. n.nyprx«m. Jlbannaa nona Meramron Inna Ha HYJKABI opyaxeiinoro Aena. Ecma nepaue nyunm nenann ma 6pon3b1 H cwpenann om»: rcamennmmx apgpamn, 'ro c xconna XVI 3. xx yxce o'rJmna.7m H3 tryryua. 3T0 oxaaanocb auaqwrenbno nemeane, K TOMY me qyrynnbxe anpa o6J1aJ1aJm Gonbmefi paapymuwenbnofi cwxofi. Bucc- xue Kamennme cream roponos He nbmepmnnann nymetmux aamxos, no3'roMy _. zpnxommocb cwponn. yxpermemm nosoro Tuna. Boxpyr roponon HBCBIIIBJIK " Z~Z2!3KII€ 3eMJ'I5{HbIe Bajlbl, B KOTODHX FUID8 YBfi3aJ1Pl, He l'IDH‘{HI-I515! Bpena. BOGBHG ‘ ~ -. -n. "mas: »1cTopma.8 um Ill
  • 36. F7 an ‘ / A/ f "'/ A CTb Pannee Hoaoe ape/ ~42 (KoHeu XV — nepaan l7OI'l0BUHa X VII 8.) I x y L) Hymn XVI_XVH BB 6”” neficwnna nce name pasnopaqmaanncb Ha oqenb Kpacnnumn. Bnecmnme °TKpHT°" Me°TH°°T"’ me°%y§: ;6anr; °6fn§I nmmponannme noBepxHoc, m’pe_ aanncena mvrenno o'r omen In p n - nbetbflble Hannncn C nMeHaMH JICDKK. Hymex B EBPOHC CTSJIO HaMHOI‘0 MacTep0B H 3aKa3qKH-'03, pepfim ‘ 601151119, H3MeHHJIKCb K CpelICTBa PIX TpaHC- / '2) enponeficxnx Mogapxon, 111,111}- , HODTKPOBKHZ 'renepL IIYIIIKH cwannnn Ha J18- <? ~;, , Hmfi pacmrenbnmfix opnamerrr, ‘ q)e'rb1 — nepenannue mayxrconecnue coopy- '» naoopaxcemm repoen n q)an'rac- ‘ means — n nepenoannn Ha nomanax. B xone TWIGCKKX JKHBOTHHX — '! ‘aK BI>I- éwrnm nepennmicnme nynncn coénpann B T‘-’mlIeJ"’1_,3T1’1 5011311433519 11191193‘ 6a'rapen, ‘IBM anatnrrenbno ycnnmaann nx pm nwrennoro MaC'I‘epCTBa, rpo3- 5oeBy,0 Mom, » nue nponaaenenna ncrcyccwaa. Hepnum pyqlmm omecTpemHHM opymm T V em 6L1na apIce6y3a. Ee oécnyxcnnann man 9 ‘ - qenonexa: crpenoxc aaxcmvxan aprceéysy non 1‘ T " Mmmxofi mm rcnan Ha nneqo n nanonnn Ha nenb, a ero nomonmmc me'roM saxcnran no- pox. Tarcaa c'rpenb6a Guna He TOJILKO He- ypgofinofi, no 14 onacnofi. B cepennne XVI 3. noxnnnncr. MYIIIKBTLI - nnnnnue pyxcm, _ . mnpoxcne rpanenue npmcnazzm rcowopmx . - . A . nnorno npnxcnmanncb xc nneqy. C'rpenorc- ‘ Mymxerep c'ra. n rnannoifx qmrypofi Ha none Gwrnm. Mynncew - ocnonnofi, no He enmi- '~ cwnennmfi Bun ornecrpenbnoro OpyJKH$i n . enponeficxnx apmnax XVI-XVII BB. Rana- ‘, - . 2 nepncwm ornanann npennotrrenne rcapa6n- P v~ '—'- H8.M - KODOTKPIM, y, lIO5HbIM mm c'rpenb6L1 u3P‘>'"YmK3' 1535 3- Bepxom pyxcbam, a Tarcxce nnc'rone'raM. Jlnxo aanomnennasx nmpoxononax mnsna c nepoM nnn xcenesnmfi n1neM, rmpaca mm xoxcanaa rcypnca, mupoxne nrranm no KOJIBH, qynxn n 'ryq)nn c 6an'raMn — Tax BbIl"JIfl- ~ nen MyImce'rep XVI-XVII 33. ‘Iepe3 nenoe nneqo y Hero 49‘) 651:1 nepefipomen pemem. c npmcpennennbm K Hemy cne~ 1%’? /7 I1HaJIbHhIM (by'rJmpoM Ana Goenpnnacon. C6orcy Bncena ‘ ‘<3, mnara, B pyxe on nepxcan conmy - noncwamcy, na KOTODYIO 3 npn c'rpenb6e xnann Mynn<e'r. ‘ Mynxrcerepm ~ rpoanaa cnna, cnonM orHeM om»: Hepemco pemann ncxon BGJIHKPIX 61473. C'rpoI‘»’x Mymrcerepon <«Kapa- ‘ none» (ynwrrca) BKJIIO"-I811 10 mepenr K 12 pimon. K HeMy I 6L1no He noncrynnwbcaz noxa nepenmm mepenra Bena 0I‘0Hb, sannne sapaxcann opyxcne, 14 Gecnpepbuanue aannu rpexvxenn onnn 3a npymm. I Mynncerep I'IpnMeneHne ornecrpenbnoro opyncmx namennno xaparcrep Benenmx Bofinm. Hynn npo6m3ann pmnapcxoe ofinaqerme, noa'roMy Taxcenonoopymennan KOB- mma nocrenenno yrparnna 6mnoe snatxenne. Ha ee MBCTO npnmna nerxas Kaaanepnn, ocnony xoropofi cocwannano , zn3op5mc'rBo. Boapocna pom. nexoru, nafipannofi 143 npocworo nrona. ‘-Iacmrtmo ee Boopyxcann orHec'rpeJn.1~n, nv1 opyxcnem , qacrnquo - , ll; JIIrIHHbIMPI nmcamu. C'rpenIm c'raHoBnnncL rnannofi cnnofi Ha none 6051, H0 TOJIBI-C0 B Konne XVII B. BCIO nexo'ry Boopyxcnnn pymbnmn co nrrbucamn. Tenepz. mvrenno Ha ee nneqn nerna ocnoanaa THJKBCTL Bofinm.
  • 37. ~, ..- ‘-lEI1OBEK B MEHSIEOUIEMCSI Ml/ lPE XVl—-XVII BB. Te Iv. ’ 3 Kapaxxa - Tpexmatrroaoe Momaoe Kapanemra - n3yx- mm Tpexmaqronufi cynao 1copa6m. c neéonbmnm nononamemeanem Aprnnnepna npnmensmach n Ha Kopafinax. B Cpemme Berca nenenmr Ha TODPOBLIG :4 noemme cyna He cymecrnonano. B cepeznme XVI n. Hnnepnannnu nepnmmn coanamr qmow K3 éoeamx xopaénefi, oxmarco oxormamenbnoe pa3z1eJ1e- rme nponaomno 3 XVII B. , xorna roJmanm: u.1 nocwpowm cneunammue Topronbxe cyna - (bJIoi»’I're. mm paanvrma xopa6.nec'rpoem»1s pemammee anaqerme PIMBJIPI Bemncue reo- rpaqnmecrcne orxpmma n aaponcnenne Mnponoro pumca. Hapany c q)J1o1'i're Ha oxeancxne npocwopm nbnmm npyrne éonbmne n yconepmencmonannme cyna - ncnancrcne raneonm, nopwyranbcxne rcapanexmu PI rcaparcxm. Peorpaqanqecxne rcapwbx, rcomnacm, ac'rpoJm6m1 K npyrne nannraxmonnme npnfiopm nomorazm Totxno nponoxcnn. ny'rL B Manonanecwuux Mopax n oxeaaax. Pa3Mepb1 rcopa6- Jrefi noanomum OTHOCHTGJILI-I0 nemeno PI 6bxc'rpo nepenosnn. xpynnme napwm rpyson. ‘I'ro61-.1 npnnsrrb Momnufi no'ro1< Toaapoa H3 Honoro CBeTa, eBpone1‘»'1- um nepecwponnn cwapme 14 ocaonaam HOBbIe noprm c ynofinmmn npnqanamn, nepepgnuxcnmmn nozrsemnumn rcpanamu, BMec'm'reJu. HL1Mn crcnanamn. Bcro Enpony oxnarunana peqnan ce'rL. I/ ICKYCCTBEHHBIG rcaaanm coennnmm perm H ofiecneqnnamx nuxon K MOPCKHM nop'raM. Bonee cxpommmn 65mm ycnexn naaemuoro 'rpaHcnop'ra. lIoporn oc'raJ3aJmcb npenmymecrnenno rpyH- Tonmmn K 3 Henoropgy cranonmmcr. B ocnonnom Henpoesxcnmn. Tonapm no cmpnmce Beam: Ha Tenerax H carmx, xom noanrmacr. 14 Honmma — 6oJ1ee non- nnxcnue Tenexcrcn. Hepenoarca rpyaon, oco6eHHo Ha namanne paccroanua, cromxa noporo, no3'roMy c XVI 8. Ha rnannmx TODPOBLIX nymx ee 1Ipn6paJm rc pyrcam o6'Le1mHerma nanoaqmcon, Bnanenbnen Jxomapgefi. CTBJIO Gonbme notrronmx cwannnfi, me MGHHJIPI xonefi, nasann HO‘: IJIeI‘ n e, z1y. Texnnqecrcne yconepmeucmaonanna nytxme acero npnmnnanncb B HOBLIX owpacnsx — naroronneunn seprcan, 6yMam, rcnnroneqaramm, 'r. e. 'raM, me He cymecrnonano nanmax nexonmx Tpanunnfi PI cyponux orpanuqennfi peMec- JIGHHBIX ycranon. I/ Inoma HOBOBBGJIBHI/ Iii IIpOHPIIC&JII/ I P! B C'I‘apIdHHI: >Ie OTp8.CJIPI! l I c XVI B. BOIIIJI8. B yno'rpe6J1eHHe xconecnaa npamca c nezxanmo, o6JIer= mBI.1Iaa K YCICODHBIJIBSI Tpyn 'l‘R8.‘{8., 8. Taxxce CTaHOK IIJIH nsrowonnennx y3op=1a'rL1x I It Txanefi — ro6e. r1eHoB. O£[HaI<'.0 pemecnennnxn 6oaJmcb xomcypenmm n pasopenmx 21
  • 38. W" ’ 'r= ‘.4i? ;. ‘T x 0 2 4 / .. ‘ .5 " " '—-. ' -' . = 1. . Hcaax can HIaauen6yp2. Ilpsxu. XVI 6. n no'roMy IIDOTHBPIJIHCB ncemy nonoxvry. Hexn BHHMETBJXBHO cnennnu He Tom. - xo 3a 'reM, ‘ITO6bI OTJIGJILHBIG Macrepa He cwaamm IIOIIOJIHHTGJILHLIX cmmcon Y! He npenmmann nopm narowonneana nponyxmm. no :1 3a 'reM, rrrofim mm He npnmensvm Texsnqecxnx n3o6pe'reHm‘»’I. Ho awofi npmmne B XVI B. Gbuxo aa- npemeno FICl: l0JII>3OBaTb co6paHHhn‘«'1 AHTOHOM Mwmepom Mexaanqecxnfi 'rxau- Icnfi cwanorc, a npannnbnoe Koneco c I-Iooicnmm npmsonoxvx, nsaecwnoe yxce 6o. nee c'ra JIe'I‘, c'raJm BHe1Ipfl'I'b TOJIBKO co Bropofi nononnnbr TOPO ace cronerua. Hey; m3n're. m>Ho, vrro Mrioxcecwno u3o6pe'reHm‘i Tan H oc'ra. rmc1> JIPIIIIL Ha 6yMa- re. Hepemco 'l'aJIaHTJIHBbIe npoewru Bonnomanncb B nmanb qepea 200-300 new nocne nx cosnamm. Coxpanerme nexonoro ycwpoficrsa c ero npo'm3oc'rommeM Texmmecxnm aosonnezxenmm 'ropMo3n. no nanbnefimee paarawrne nponaaoncraa. Pe. w6pau6m eau Pefm. Crapefimunu cyxonaoro uexa. 1661-1662 as.
  • 39. HEFIOBEK B MEHFIIOULEMCSI MHPE XVl—XVl| BB. Pomnemae Icaxnrraumama. B XVI—XVH BB . B 3ana11Ho17I Eapone sapoxcnanca rcanx»I'ra- Jm3M. 11.1151 ero Boanuxnonemm Heofixogmmm msa ycnosna. Bo-nepnmx, Hanmme xpynumx nenexcnmx cyMM — rcamrraalon, Heo6xom»1- MBIX Ana oprannaauun nponanoncmaz no- xymcn aexvum PI Boanenenna Ha Hefi azzannfi mm Macrepcrcofi, npnofiperenna cramcon PI cmpbsx. Bo-wropmx, cymecwnoaanne pbIHK8. cnoéonnofi pafioqefi cmm - 6oJILmoro K01114- t1ec'rna Jnop; e1‘»'1, nponaxomnx npe, zuIpmmMa- _ . _ 'reJmM caon pa6o= me pyun H nonyqaromnx ; 3a cnofi Tpyzz 3apa6o'rHyIo nJIa'ry. Romy ace B -*3? ~ . - ' 1 " Te BpeMeHa ynasanocb HaICOIIPI'I‘L xannwanu? "»‘ Ifeeumuu M accelic. Measma Iloqemy PI rcax Boarmx phll-IOI-C cBo6om-Ioro C >! <€H017l- 1514 8- Tpyna? . Camme 6oJIbnme 1Ipn6L1.rm npxmocmla Mexczzynapozmaa TOPPOBJIH. Kyneqec'r- ‘ BO Haxcnsanocb 6JIaro11apa Toprosofi Mononomm - PICKJIIO‘IPI'I‘eJIbHOMy npany Ha npouamy TOPO mm unoro Tosapa. Bmnrpmsano 0110 n or paammm B nenax. I/ Isnecwno, trro npmneseunmifx B Enpony nepen CTOKJI B comm pas nopooice, ‘IBM Ha Boc'ro1ce. OCO6bIe BL1ro, u;LI cymma Topronna c xconoanamn. O, u;HaI<o xyneqecmo He cpaay Haqano nycxarb neahm B uponanoncmso. Ono npononxcano yBeJImn«ma'rb cnon cpencmaa qepea pocwosnmqecxne onepamm PI nonro omanano upezmoq- 're1-me Tarcmvx Haxzexcnmm ucwoqnmcam BJIO- xcenna xanmanoa, max norcymca sexvum, ,z1pa- ro11eHHoc're1‘«'1, 1IBOp11OB. R 'roMy me cepbesnofi nperpanofi mm nponmcuonemm r<ynet1ecKo- ro 1caIm'ra. na B npoussoncwso 5bIJIPI uexn. OHPI pennocwao oxpamum cnon upana Ha sax-urrne pemecnarvm n nasaam o'rnop HOIIbI'l‘KaM qyxcaxos Bofirn B My cqaepy. IIoc'reneHHo cnryamm Haqana MeH51TbCi{. Kynnm xopomo nonnmann, trro nonyqaw Maxcnmanbaue npnéumrx, ecnn nonqnusrr ce6e Becb npouecc — o'r n3ro'roBJ1eHmz Tonapa no ero c61.1'ra. 01m c'ra. Jm B1c. nam. ma'rL gens- rn 3 BbI1'IyCIC r1pep; Me'roB cnoefi Topromm, Hanpnmep B npon33o, z1c'rBo 'r1caHe1‘»'1. He- 1co'ropb1e ropoxcane, 3 TOM tmcne 21 qacn. Macrepon, cymennmx Haxonwrx. neuer, Tarcxce cranonwrncb npezznpnnumaremimn. Pa6o'raJm Ha HI/ IX Te, 1<'ro y'rpa'rI»xJI xo35u‘»'Ic'r- Bennyro CaMOC'l‘0H'I‘eJII>HOCTb I/ I 651.71 m.1Hy>1c- nea nponanan. cnoro paéoqyro cnny: ma- mermme 8eMJIPI rcpecwbane, pasopename pemecnennnxn 14 «netmme nonmacwepba», mm Ico-ropmx 143-3a o'rcy'rc'r13na , z1eHer 33a- Hne Mac'repa cnenanocb He, z1oc'rm; cnM1.1M. Bce oun cwanoammcb Haemnbmn pa6otmMn. Tax cnoxcmrncb ycnosmt, Heo6xop; nML1e U mm coazxarma npousnoncrsa HOBOPO Tuna. “ B“p’*‘a '”“"‘e“' 1530 3°
  • 40. ,«_. _ ’ / /7 . -, , » ‘4ACTb Parmee Hosoe ape/ ~15: (KoHeu XV ~- nepaasv nonoauna XVII 3.) Hepaumn paHHe1can11'ra. n11c'r1n1ec1mM11 npenupmrrnamn 61.1.1111 Manyd)a1c1'yp1.1. Ran 11 13 cpenHeBe1<o13oM peMec. ne, Ha mix roc11onc'r- nonan pyrmoii Tpyn, Irro Hamno orpaxcenne 3 npo1»1cxo>1<ne111111 ynce can/ xoro Haanannsx (. r1a'r. manus - pyxa, factura - 113ne. n11e). BMec're c 'reM Maaycbawrypa c1m1.11o o'rJ1m1a- Jxacb o'r Mac'repc1<o1‘a'1 peMecJ1e1111111ca. Bo-nep- aux, ona 6b1.r1a nosonbno 50.JIbIIIHM npo113- 13onc'r13oM c necsmcamrx, a 11Horna 11 co'rHs1Mn pa6o'r11mcoB. Bo-3'rop1=1x, 13 o'rJ11n111e 01* open- Henexonoro peMecJ1eH1am<a, 1<o'rop1=11‘«'1 cam n3ro'ro13J1su1 caoe uanemae or Havana no KOB- ua, Ma11yq)a1<'ryp1{b11‘& pa6o'mm< ocy1I1ec'rnJ151J1 HCCKOJIBKO 141111 name 'ro. r11.1co onuy 'rpyno- nyxo onepanmo. Tax-coe paaneneune Tpyna noanommo conepmencwnoaara 1v1ac'repc'r3o B ICOHKDGTHOM nnne pafiorr, neno 1< poc'ry nponanonwrenbx-1oc'1'11 wpyna 11 yaenmienmo n1,1nyc1ca nponyxuvm. '-lame acero npen11p111111:v1aTenb saxyuan Cblpbe 11 paananan ero nna o6pa6o'ncn o6en11e1311111z~—1 roponc1<11M pemecnemmrcam mm 1<pec'r1.5maM 11:3 6J1m1<a1}‘1111e1‘& o1cpyr11. 01m BbII'IOJIH5{JIH pa6o'ry He 13 o61ne1”1 Mac'repc1co1‘&, a xaxcnmfi y ce6s1 noMa 11 noaapamann 11pennp111mMa'reJ11o yxce ro'ro13y1o npony1c11111o. Taxne pa6o'r1m1<11 61.1.1114 oTc'rpa11e111,1 Kart 01* aazcymcn Cblpbfi, Tax 11 0'1‘ nponaxcn cnonx 113neJm1‘«'1. 01114 pa6o'raJ1n He Ha 3a1<a3t1111co13, a TOJIBKO Ha onuoro nocwoannoro xoasmaa 11 11on11oc'r1.1o 3a311ce. r111 or Hero Ma-rep11aJ11.11o. Tax abrrnnnena pac- cesuman Mauytpaxrypa, npeofinananman 13 'r1<a11,1<oM npo113aonc'rne. Hapany c pacces11mo1”1 cymecraoaana Taxxce u. e11'rpa: m3onan11aa 1~1a11yq>a1c- 'rypa. IIpennp1x1mMa1~e.111. cam o'r1<p1.13a. r1 Macrepcxyro :1 co61»1paJ1 non onnoia 1<p1.11ne1}'1 nec51'r1<11 pa6o'r11111<oa. 011 o6ec11eq11Ba. n 11x cbtphem, c'ra111<aM11 11 o6opy- nonarmem. Ilempannsonannhxx 1v1a11y(1)a1c'ryp 6b1J1o Menbme, ‘IEM pacceaaaux, Ben}. B 11x coanarme npnxonunocb BKJIa, Z1bIBa'l‘I> 6OJIbI.11e nener. I‘. r1a1m1,11v1 o6pa3oM 01111 13o311111ca. r111 13 noamx orpacnax npo11313onc'r13a. $ip1<11M np11MepoM 11e11'rpa- . rm3o13am1o1‘& Ma11yq1a1<'ryp1;1 c'raJ111 M11orot111cJ1e1111b1e 'r1111orpaq)1m. ‘e‘. ’;: !‘_f: /,I, )'. . '. _f. . ‘ . ./-'-:1'; ‘.‘0~“ J 1 ’: ‘ i3'. , 1 w‘: :~: 1' mnorpa . 1‘1Jaampa. XVII e. -, ' ‘~31 4 4 HP! .0 XVI B. M3 «5anna, abI o 3HaMeHMTOM cyxouumxe , £l>KeKe 113 Hbloéepn» aHr1wu71cKoro nwcarenn Tomaca , £le/1oHM B ropnmue. npocropuofi M nnMHHo1"1, cronno 200 CTaHKOB. Ha amx cTaHo<ax pa6oTa: m 200 Henosex, ace 3 on»-uy mepenry. Boane Kaxcnoro M3 HVIX cmneno no npe- necmomy Mam. -mxy, Koropbue c 6OI'| bUJVIM socroprom npnroroannnm uennom. A Tyr >e<e, a npyrom noMeu1eH1m, 100 >+<eHu111H 6e3 ycTa. nn uecanm l. UepCTb, c panocrubwn e11noM M aeouxo pacneean necum. B cnenyromefi KOMHaTe pa6o‘ram4 100 neaywex B xpacnbvx 1o61<ax. c éenbwm, xax Monoxo, nnarxamm Ha ronoaax. Sm npenecmbse neayumvu. He nepecraaan, npmm e ropuuue aecb nenb. pacneaan cnanmmva, Kan y conoabea, ronocamm, He>+<Ho-npeHe>1<Ho. Flocne aroro OHM aomnm 3 npyryno KOMHaTy, rne yemnenm 6enHo onerbux nerefi: ace own cnnenm M umnanm UJepCTb, ornennn camyno Touxyro or rpy6o171; acex mx 5blnO non- Topacra — neTe171 5e, l1Hb| X 11 C! '|a5blX ponmenefi. B Harpany 3a CBOVI Tpynu 1<a>+<nbu71 M3 HI/ IX nonyqan aeuepom no onnomy nemm. :<poMe roro, «no orm Bbll1biOT M cbensn 3a 116!-lb. B cneny1ou1eM nomemenvm on emnvn euJ. e 50 Mononuoa: 310 ébmu crpmrann. Boane HMX paéoranw 80 rnannnbmmxoa. Kpome Toro, on wmen eu1e Kpacmnbmo, npm Koropofi nep>+<an 40 uenoaex, na eu1e Ha cyxnoaanbne - 20.
  • 41. TeMa 2 Hpeoénanaromaa qacn. enponeficxoro uacenemm, Kan PI pamnne, 3azmMa- nacb CBJIBCKHM xo3ax‘«‘1c'r3oM. Ono ocraaanocb Memcnm, ocuoaanamm H8 pyqnom Tpyne c 'rpa. zmunoHHuM ucnonbaoaanuem Tarnonofi Cflllbl xonefi :4 6bIROB. B Ha- qane XVI n. 60J'IbI. I1HHCTBO rcpecrbm-I 61.11114 JIM‘-{HO caofionammn, no 6e3aeMe. rIL- HLIMH, uocrcomacy ceabopu coxpaumm aemmo 3a cofiofi. Rpecrbane MOPJIK B3fl’I‘b ee 'rom. rco B apermy, 3a Kowopyxo npnxommocb n. na'ru'rb nenbrn. ‘1'ro6u nonyruvrn. nx. xpecrbane Beann Ha punox K nponaaaml cnoxo uponyxumo - aepno, MHCO, mepcwb. Taxofi cnoco6 xoaaficrnonanua c'raJ1 oébrtmhrm mm cpe11- aefi upocnofixu cenhcxoro naceneamx. Ilepesencxcan 6ezmo'ra He muena nener mm apennu aemm H nammanacb Ha pa6o'ry K tpepmepam - aaxcwroqnum 1<pec'n: .smaM, xowopue KBJISIJIKCB c06- crneanmcamn aemm mm xpynnmmn apenmrropamn. Cbepmepcrme xoanficwna pa6o'raJm Ha phIHOK, noa'roMy nx snanenhuu omananu npexznotrrexme Bbxpamm nanmo npnfisuxbnux xynyryp mm cxowoaoncray. Haemmfi Tpyn ace awrmmee npnuensmcn 3 nepenne. I/ Icnonbaonaane naemioro Tpyna P! pacnpocrpaneuue punouumx oruomenufi Buanann namenenna B cocnonnofi c'rpyr<'rype o6mec'rBa. Boanmum 1108518 60115- ume rpynnm — Gypacyaanm n naemxue pafiolme. B cocraa Gypmyasnu aomnn re xynnu, pocronmmm u pemecnennnxu, xowopme axnanmnann uaxonnennue nenbru 3 IIDGJIIIDKHKMBTBJILCTBO, a Taxxce uacn. nsopancwsa n cpepmepon, uppi- coemumnumxca K xanuwanncrmxecxnm (popmam senexmn cenbcrcoro xoaaficrna. Haemmmu pafiotumu CTEHOBPUIPICI: ofieauenume uexonue pemecnennmm, uonmacwepba H Hexaannqmunpoaannaa roponcxaa 6e, z1Ho'ra. I/ Ix puma nonom1a- nu Jmmemme aewm xpecnane. nbmyxcnennue ncxan. npxmeueamx cnoma pa6ovmM pyxalvx 3 ropone. HETIOBEK B MEHFIIOILIEMCS! MHPE XVl—XV| l BB. I Humep Bpezleema Cmapwuiz. Ceaoxoc. 1565 2.
  • 42. E. B {/7 '‘'/ A C Tb Par-IHee HoBoe Bpems (KoHeu XV ~ nepsasi nonoBuHa X VII 3.) --~ v. .. ‘- -ua. "" ' A. rzb6pexm ,1Iropep. Macwepcxas no nsrowonneamo npononoxn. 1494 2. C'rpeM1»rre. uLHo poem»: Humencuao H 6po- naxcnmtecwno. Oco6eHHo a'ro omymanocb B ropozzax, Icyna B noncrcax pa6oTm cwercanacb Macca 6e,1IHOTI: I. BJIac'm qe'rKo pasnenann Hmnux H8. ropoacxnx PI npnnmbrx. Tonbxo «cnonm» orm Bbmananu cneunanbnoe pa3pe- merme Ha co6npaHne MPIJIOCTLIHI/ I, nepno, zm- qecrcn pa3z1aBaJm oneacny H nenbrn H yc'r- pamsaml 6ecn. na'rHL1e oéezzm 14 npmo'rLI. Sm 6JIaI‘O‘1‘BOpI/ ITGJILI-Ible Mepm He pacnpoc'rpaHa- mach Ha «txyxcnx» nnmnx, ‘{TO5bI He nonyc- mwb ax qpeamepuoro Hanmmza 13 ropon. B ne- JIOM, cpanmrrenbno c anoxofi Cpezmenerconm, ownomenne K HPIIJIPIM pearco YXYJIIIIPIJIOCL. B XVI—XVII BB. 13 Enpone nponcxonmm naaxnue namenemm. Xo'rs B 6OJII: IIIHHCTBe crpaa coxpansmncb crapme qaeonanbnbre no- pamcn, B Han6oJ1ee paaaxnmx rocynapcrnax sapoxcnanncb K IIOCTBIIBHHO paanmaamtch Honme xanuwanncnmecxne ouxomenna. 1. ‘IeM odvmcmuzcaz pocm nacextenux u yeeauueuue npoaomlcumexwnocmu JICUJHU 6 XVI -XVII 66.? Hsuenuaucb Jzu omuoutenua auympu cembu? 2. ‘Imo oézeauruuzo u pasnwto eopoaa Cpeaueeercoewz u pauueeo H oeozo 6peMe- nu? Houemy e XVI -XVI I 33. eoauurma ueo6xo0uMocmb 6 nepecmpofuce ea poaoe u nouemy amom npouecc nasswzu «epa6ocmpoume. rLbua. a xupypewz» ? 3. 'Imo no6maJucuea. ao pemecneunbte uexu rc conpomuwzeuuro mexuuuec- mun uoeoeeeflenumn? 4. Houemy npefinpuuumameau uauge coaaaeaau paccemmbte, a He ueu- mpaztusoeanubze Manycparcmypbz? 5. Ifarcue uameneuua npoucxoauxzu 8 o6u4ecmee not? enunnuem paseumua rcanumaJLu3.Ma?
  • 43. HETIOBEK B MEH$llOUJ. EMC$l MHPE XV| —XV| | BB. 3A£AHl/ IF! - mg .2 1. Oxapaxrepuayfire 0CHOBHble amzu omecrpenbuoro opyxma. Flo-4eMy ero npmweuenue euecno Mame: -Ieumv 3 crpomenbcrso O60pOHHblX coopyxe- Hm? M 3 xapaxrep BGAGHMH BOt71H? Mcnonbayn OTpbIBOK M3 «Ba/ u1a. ab: o 3HaMeHMTOM CYKOHLLMKS flxexe M3 Hmo- Gepu», abmcuure, o KBKOM mne Manycpaxvypu paccxaauaaer ee aarop. Kaxne rpyaoaue onepauuu ocymecrszmrm pa6on-mm npn narorosnemm cyxua? l‘lo, ac«-mrafire, CKOl7bKO mo, aet7: pa6ora/1o y cyxonumxa flxexa. Ha saw B3I'l1fl/1, co6craeHHm< Mar-IycbaK1ypbI aeficraurenbuo coaaan xopoume yo- noaun my caonx pa6orHm<os wm aarop npuyxpacu/ I zzeircranrenbuocru? - . 1 ‘uuoo -— " >2. 2 l 5 IIOBCEIIHEBHASI QRI/ I3HI> . 3AHAJ1HOI7I EBPOIIBI llomamnee alcmmme. Rafi n B anoxy Cpezmeserconur, B XVI-XVH BB. Bun am- Jlmna sanncen or reorpaqmqecrcnx n xmmanmecxnx oco6e1moc're1‘«'1 MBCTHOCTPI, a Taxxce o'r pona sansrrnfi 14 6.narococ'ro: nms ero co6c'rneHnmcoB. Ha ceaepe Eaponm rcpecwbane o6n'ra. nn B zxepenmmmx nomax mm B xcwmmax, Bmnonnennmx B Tex- Hmce ccpaxneprca» — Ha p; y6oBoM rcaprcace B03B01IPIJIPICl: nacbmnme onrry1ca'rypeH- Hue CTBHLI. Ha lore, me neca pano yumrmxcwm, xcmmma ooopyacaamcb na rcamm. Rpmma Ha lore 61.u1a m1oc1<o1‘«'1, a Ha cenepe - oc'rpoBepxo1‘»'1. I/ Inorpga ee norcpbrnann rcamhunom, a qame — co. uoMoI? '1, rcowopyro B mnonnme roam crcapmamnamr crcormne, a npn samene Ha Honyxo HCI10JIl:30BaJIPI mm yno6peHna rpyrrra. Hepemco TOJILKO neperopomca omemma xcrmoe nomemenne 0'1‘ Mec'ra, 3 xo'ropoM nepxcaaln cxo'r. Ofimtmo nca cembn o6m'aJIa B o, z1HoI‘»'1 60:11.- mof/1 1<oMHa're, o'ranJmnaeMo1‘»’1 oqarom mm 1Ipm'o'roB. neH1m nmun. Me6eJm 61.1110 HeMI-IO- ro. Boxpyr c'1'oJ1a cromm crcambn, rcoropme Ha Horn. oronsnrann K c'reHaM, uoupmsann Ha6PITI: IMIvI coJ1oMoI‘/ I Mawpanamn mm nepn- Hamu n npenpamann B nocrenb. Onexcny K npyrofi nomamnufi crcapfi xpanmm B 60.11:. - moM cynnyrce. Kyxomiax ywnapb Tarcxce 61.1- . na cxpomnofiz = IyI'yHHLII‘»'1 Ico're. n, cxonopopgm PI ropnncn, Kynmmm 14 xcéanm, xamcn 14 Ben- pa. Ema n nmm ma Aepenmmmx mm murm- HHX MKCOK 14 1cy61<oB, IIDPI‘-! eM Hepemco nx He XB8.'l‘aJIO H Toma npnxozmnocb IIOJIL3OBaTbCfi ofimgefi nocynofi. B roponax coxpansmocb HeMa. no nnsrcnx rnnnanux PI nepenaanux xuéap, IIOKDLITBIX coJIoMo1'& mm npanxofi. B rmx, a Tarcxce B nonynonnanax mm Ha qepnaxax Mnoroaraxcnmx ananufi ncmla roponcrcaa 6e, u;Ho'ra. ‘-Iacu-L 5e, lIH$II€0B noo6me He umena nocmoannofi KpbIIJ. IH Han rononofi. B o, zmoM us 6ora'refiumx roponon I/ I'ra. Imn — l"eHye - 6e31J; oMHLn‘F1 Jnon xaxcnylo 3nMy nofipononsno npona- Ban ce6a 3 rcaropry Ha ranepm. B Benemm — acemqymnne A,11pna'rmcn — Hmnne CBMLPI xcmm B crmmmnx nomcax Ha Haéepeoicuux mm non Mocramn. ‘Iac'rL1e noxcapm Bunyxcnann roponcan nepexonrrn; K CTPOPITGJILCTBY Ka- Mel-IHBIX oxmmnx. ‘I'ro6b1 u36exca'rb 6mc'rporo pacnpocwpanemm orna, Mexcny XVI 8; ‘ 4- - —. -.. 41
  • 44. (TV I '-/ AC Tb J aparmee Hosoe ape/ ~12 (xoneu XV —— nepaas: nonoeuua X VII 5.) 1 ' . , 3 _. ‘L ‘ __ 1 ' r “ I " I ‘ z/ . 4 1 » ‘ _ I, / _ . J . , . ‘ ’ . . ' 1 9‘ ,7 " I’. '3‘ A4<ho H L. I . __ . - . I A, I, “ . ,- X ' __ ‘. '.. --. : flu Bpeimaz b. 3naruax cynpymecxaa were 3 xpecrbsmcxom noMe. 1600 2. aecxonmmmn anammmn coopyxcarm pasnennrensnme cream. C aroii ace nenmo c XVH 3. xcpbmm aaqamx noxpsmarb qepennuefi, no oaa cromla noporo n Ghma no xapmaay nanexo He acetvx. B nomax ropronuen 11 pemecnenunxon Ha nepnom araxce paamemanncb namca rum Macrepcxas, a raxxce xyxna. Ha B'I‘0pOM - acnna CBMBSI xoasmna, ram aaxonmmcb rocrnnaa PI cnanmu. Tperxm araxc aannmamx nonmacrepba, yqenmm H cnym. ‘-Iepnarc cnyxcnn crcnanom. Bnaqurenbno 6OJ'IblI1e Brmmamm cram: ynensrb any-rpermemy yfipaacrsy xcmmma. HOJIBI acrony, name 3 Heéorarmx nomax, uorcpmsamx 1cepaMm1ec- xcofi mm xaMeHHofi unnrxofi. Ilapxcer napenrca acrpeqanca 3 nnopnax 31-Iarn; Mona Ha Hero naqanacb JIPIIIII: c XVIII B. B0 Bcex cnonx Hacenenns — or 061:! !!- xoro xpecrhsnmna no Morymecrnenuoro Monapxa — coxpammca crapnnnuii ofibmaifx amvxofi aacmnarb non coJ1oMo1‘»'1, a Jxerom — JIYIIIPICTBIMH rpanalvm n unerarvm. B XVI 3. Ha lmpmecrse so naopue tbparmyacrcoro xopomx necb non no ero npmcaay ycrenmm « uexcnumn nymncrumx rpanamu» . Ha cxvreny mu npnxonmm conomemme nunomm, a ramrce rconpm, xoropue xnann He ronmco ma non, no 14 Ha cronu, cyunyxm n name Ha mrcatbu. Ilomarbxfi non Bepxnero araxca cnyxcmr noromcom nnx amxnero. Ero no XVIII 3. He mryxarypmm, a ofirsmnajm rxanuo mm pacnncbusamx yaopama. O5HBHbIMH rrcammn aaxmrovmbxe monn aaxpusann rarcxce cream. Jlenlenme 6yMax<Hbxe o6on (ux Ha3bIB8.JIPI «noMnHo>>) cnaqana IIOJIBSOBBJIPICL cnpocom ronmco y neéoraroro Hacenemm n JIHIIIL co Bpemenem npnoépenn nmporcyro no- lIyJl5IpHOC'l‘b. B XVI B. Hay‘{HJII{Cb nenarb no-aacroamemy npoapaqnoe crexno. Oxcon c mm cra. no 6om. me max 3 roponax, rare :4 B nepemmx, onnarco EIOJIHOCTLIO BLITGCHHTL npomacneanyxo 6yMary n nepramenr cremxo ace eme He cmorno. I'Ipn BI>I50pe Me6eJm oco6eHno npnanmann no Bnnmamxe ee ynoficrno n anemrmfi nun. Accoprmweur Me6eJm cran nmpe, a cama ona — npaxcrmmee H repa- cnnee. Me6e. uL nomxpoaann, yxpamann peabfiofi, xynomecrnennofi pocnucuo H noaonoroii. Illnpoxo HCI'IOJIb3OBaJIPICb mrcaqmx paanoro nnna n Haaaaqermaz
  • 45. HEIIOBEK B MEHSIIOLLIEMCQ MMPE XVI—XVII BB. 13 o11;1111x xpa111u111 onexcny, 13 z1pyr11x -— nocy- ny 11 c'ro. noB1.1e 11p116op1.1, 11 'rpe'rL11x - 141111111. I/ I1-a. I11;s111c1c11e Me6eJ11.n1111c11 1'IOJII>30BaJIIzICb cJ1a13o1?'1 11c1cycHe1‘»'111111x 11 Espone Mac'repo13 11 3a1<o11o11a'reJ1e1‘«'1 Me6eJ11.Ho1‘«'1 M01151. OH11 co3naJ111 1111ca(b-1ca61111e'r c o'1'1c1111Ho1‘«'1 111111 31.1,z11a1»191<11o1‘«’1 , z1oc1<o1'1 111111 IIItICbMa 11 MHOI‘0- '-IPICJIBHHBIMK s1111111caM11, 1cy, z1a CRJIaJIbIBaJIPI HPICBMBHHLIB 11p1111a,1u1e21c1~1oc'1'11, Q)8.MPIJII>HI>Ie z1paro11e1moc'r11 11 pa3H1.1e MeJIO‘{PI. Me6eJ1L 11.1151 c11,z1e111.:1 — c'ryJ11.s1 H 1cpecJ1a - ,11eJ1aJ111 c nmcoxnmn c1111111ca1v111 11 BL1rHy'rL1M11 11011- J1o1co'r11111ca1v111; 11x o6'r:1r11BaJ1u 'r1ca111=1o 11.1111 1<o>1ce1‘»‘1. Kponawb 6h1J1a c 13L1co1<11M K3I‘OJIOBI: eM 11 11o;1H51'rL1M Ha CTOJI5PI- 1cax pe3111.1M , z1epe13sm11b1M r1oJ1oroM: 011 11oJ1>1ce11 61.1.11 3a11111111a'1'1. cn5111111x 0'1 11ace1coM1.1x. IIoc'reJ11.11oe 6eJ1be 11cnoJ1L3oBa. nocb o=1e111, pemco, Icponawb 3ac'm.11a- 1111 cy1co1m1.1M11 11 IIIBJIKOBBIMK o, z1es1J1aM11. RoMHa'r1.1 y1cpa111aJ111 3ep1ca.11a1v111 11 1131.1c1ca11H1.1x pamax, no11c3er111111caM11, t1acaM11 Ha 11o11'c'raB1cax, 11e1copa'rn13111.1M11 Basamn, 111'ropaM11 11 3aHaBec1caM11. Mexcny 're1v1 no, z1J1111111o1'o 1coMq)op'ra He cy111ecTBo13aJ1o name 13 zzomax 311a'1*11. 0'l‘, lIeJII>Hafi Barman 1coM11a'ra 11 'ra1v1 ct111'ra. w1ac1. 6o111.111o1‘»’1 poc1co111b1o, 1<a1<, 1cc'ra'1'11, 11 'ryaJ1e'r co CJIPIBOM BOJJ; I>I, 113o6pe'reHHL11‘»'1 B XVI B. a111'.1111t1a11a1v111. Yposem. r11r11enb1, cpa13111»1'reJ1bHo co Cpe, r111ene1<o131.eM, c1m311.r1cs1: c'rpax ne- pen 60.71831-IflMP! 131.111y>1<, u;a.11 38.1-CpbIBaTI> ropop; c1<11e 6a1111. K‘. 11oJ111oMy Mb1T1.1o 'reJ1a o'r11oc11.n11c1. 1ca1c 1c Me11111111Hc1<o1‘»'1 npouenype 11 yc'rpa11BaJ111 em 13 J1yq111eM cJ1y11ae pas 13 r011. BMec'ro yMmBa1111a 1111110 11 py1c11 o6'r11paJ111 yTpoM MOKDLIM 11oJ1o're1111eM. Xo3a1‘»'11<11 11po11oJ1>1ca. J111 13L1J111na'r1. noMo11 11 11eq11c'ro'rb1 Ha yJ11111y, Hepeznco 11p51Mo Ha FOJIOBLI 3a3eBa11111141v1cs1 IIDOXOJRHM. Ilaxce B 1copoJ1eBc1<11x zmopuax 61.1110 rpaauo. Cepbe3Ho1}'1 11po6J1eMo171 oc'raBaJ114cL o'ro1IJ1e1111e 11 oc13e1rLe1111e. IIOM o6orpe13a- .1111 1cyxo11111.11‘»'1 oqar, 1caM111«11.1 11 11eq11. K. a1v111111.1 Mo1v111 IIO3BOJIP! Tb ce6e TOJILKO 6o1‘at111, netm 651.1111 ,11oc'ry1111ee. Ha 1ore 11c11oJ1b3oBa. I111c1= >1<apoB1111. O'ro11J1e1111e CTOPIJIO noporo, 11oa'roMy Hepemco o6o1'pe13a. r1ac1. TOJIBKO o1111a c11a.11b11s1. O6n'ra- 're.11a1v1 11oMa 11p11xo,1111J1oc1: xo, z111'r1. 're1u1o o11e'r1.1M11. I/ Ic'rot111111<oM 11c1cycc'r13e1«111oro ocBe111e111»111 cJ1y11c11J111 q)a1ceJ11.1, c13eq11, xyxonnmfi oqar. 01‘ max Bce 11o1v1e111e1111e 11o1cpb1BaJ1ocL 1co11o'r1.1o, trro ycJ1o>1c11m1o 11011;- nepaxanne 1111c'ro'r1=1 11 13pe1111.11o 3,z1opoB1.1o. I C11aJ1b11s1 E1<a'1'ep11111.1 Mennqn C-ro:1 11poc'roJ11o111n1on. B XVI—XVII 1313. E13poI1a e111;e He oc13o6o1111J1acL o'r c'rpaxa ne- pezz roJ1oz1oM. E113 ocHo1311o1‘& Maccm HaceJ1e- 111111 oc'ra13aJ1ac1. 1101301111110 o, z111oo6pa311o1'»’1. Ocnony paxmona coc-ra13JmJ111 aepnonue — 11111e1m11a, poxcb, :1t1Me11b, npoco. «XJ1e611oe Memo» 11o11o.1111aJ111 rpetuca, a Ha 1ore E13po111.1 e111e 11 saseaermaa 11.3 AMep1/11411 rcyrcypyaa. I/ I3 1111x POTOBPIJIK cynm 11 1<a11111. K npo- , z1y1<'raM Maccosoro no'rpe6J1e1111s1 OTHOCHJIPICL 'ra1c91ce 6061.1, ropox, qeqennna. Maca — 1‘o13a111111b1, 6apaH1111L1, CBPIHPIHLI, 1cypa'r11111.1 — 11o'rpe6.11m111 11030115110 Muoro. ', .‘_'4"i4 . ’. ‘ I Feppum Bepxxeftae. l'Ie1cap1.
  • 46. ‘*1’/1 C Tb RBHHGE Hoeoe Bpe/ ~12 (KoHcu XV — nepsan nonoBuHa XVII B. ) " ‘I . .'-av. ; Humep Bpefizeab Cmapwua. ICpec1-1.:111c1<a51 cnazxbéa. I 568 2. IIo1Iy:151p11oc'rb1o nonsaonwmcb 'ra1<x<e 6mo11a 113 mmn - Maca Kaéanos, o:1c11e1”1, Icocynb, saifmen, a Taxxce xyponarox, xcanopomcoa, nepenenon. Cne1ma:11,1-to ans enu paanomum ronyfiefi. Caexcee Maco CTOHJIO noporo, noa'roMy Ha c'ro. ne y npocwomonnuos 6oJ1ee npnnmqaofi 61.1J1a cononmla. B npasnnnxn Tam nonn- JIKJIPICI: 'ra1<>1ce paanue xontzenocrn K ICOJI68CbI, H0 3 6y, z11111 JIOMOTI-a x:1e6a c 1<yc1coM cana mm c cupom 11 J1y1<o31w, ei'1 nurnanen xoponeacxum yromermem. Excennennmfi yxum ofihmnoro ropoxcannna cocrosux 113 oc'ra'r1<on x. ne6a. pas- M0‘! eHHbIX B MOJIOKB. B nponmoe yxomma «Manna np5moc're1}'1»: nx ncnonbaosamx yme He Tax Mnoro, xa1< B Cpezume Berca. Owqacrn 3'10 O6'b5ICH5IJIOCb nomsjxetmem noamx oaonmmx Kynyryp — cnapxm, mnunawa, se- , ‘ JIeEOI‘0 ropormca, mae'moi'1 xanycru, nonm- 5: . ' . ‘, nopon, xaéatucos, rcyxcypyam 14 rcapwomrcn, . —~’g F»; -41 ‘ . ,3 -' o'rqac'm — ymenbmermem no'rpe6.ner1m1 ne- 'Jj, - , _ "i I. .. ' ‘ _ csexcero Maca. B oébrrnxbxfi panrxon e3po11eI}'1- , /I ' ‘ ““ ua Bxozmmz Taxxce cmpu, sifixna, cnuaoquoe " , ,_. » - . ' I . Macno, MOJIOKO, omxnxonoe MHCJIO. - 1‘ ‘ IIot1'r1»1 nonosnaa rona npuxommacb Ha I , nocrnme mm, npmlem 3 13eJ1m<1«1i'1 40-zu1en- 1. Hui’: noc'r M800, s11‘«'111a :1 11'r1«111y Moxmo 61.1- 'r_/1.. ‘ I no uponaaarb Jmmb 60.TlbHhIM 11 enpesm n ' - : ~ < TOJILICO npn npezrhanneunn nnofémoro canne- * ' 're. rn. c'r13a — or npaqa 11 cnsxxnennmca. Toma nacrynan rzepen zxapon MOD8. Cnexcaa, no » I ocofienno zconqenaa, conenaa n cymenaa Hoaxu. -.1 Beiucezmp. Ha xyxne pm6a 3aMe'r1=1o nononuana K paanoofipaamra
  • 47. HEIIOBEK B MEH5ilOll1EMC$l MVIPE XVl—XV| | BB. TBM8 2 CTOJI. BaJ1'r1«11<a 11 Cenepuoe Mope 1cop1vmJ1I»1 ceJ1b1u>1o, A'l‘J1aHTPIK8. — Tpecxofi, Cpe, l1PI8eMHOM0pbe — TYHIIOM n cap1m11aM1»1. Ho 14 1:11am: 01' Mopa BOJIBI pen, oaep 14 ncxyccwaennux 11py11oB 11aBaJm HeMa. r1o p1.16m. Jlonroe npexvm Espona 61.1.na orpammena B cJIa11oc'r:1x. Caxap cnaqana ctm*ra.1m . ne1<apc'rBe1~1H1.1M Cpe,11CTBOM 14 r1po11aBa. u1«1 TOJILKO 13 J1a131cax an're1cape1‘»‘1. B XVI 13. em nonyqann 113 caxapnoro 'rpoc'rH1«11<a, 'rpy11oeM1cnM 14 1:opornM c11oco6oM. 1Io9'roMy caxap ocwananca upe11Me'roM poc1co1.u1«1, 110 Bce ace ero no'rpe6.ne1me noc1'eneHHo pocno. B KDGCTBHHCKPIX 11oMax caxapnyro l"0JIOBy (6oJ1L111o1‘& KYCOK) I1o1113eum13aJ111 Han CTOJIOM. K Hefi no11Hocm11»1 c'ra1caH c ropat11»11v1 1-1a1m'r1<oM H >1c11aJ11«1, noxa 'ry11a 11011 11e1‘&c'r1aneM napa yna11y'r rcamm caxapa. Hmm r1peHMy111ec'rBe1111o na'rypaJn>Hoe Bnnorpannoe 13121110. HOJIHKHHBIM Hapo11H1.IM Har11»1'rKoM 651110 1111130, a 13 CeBep1io1‘»'1 Cbpanxnm — c1111p. K 11x I1o'rpe~ 6J1eH111o no6y>1c1(a. r1a He c'rom,1co, 111060131. 1c XMeJ'IbHbIM Hanwrrcam, CKOJIBKO nnoxoe xaqecrno 30111.1, OC05eHHO B ropo11ax. F. 1 WW _ _ . __. , - Hoannnncx. oco61.1e 1cy61cn Bmlbrcommen (o'r 1-1eM. - 11o6po noxcaJ1ongaT1.)_. _,&*§n_x- ; nonnocnnn nnao noqemomy rocno 3 MOMGHT ero npnxona. R1-o ne xo're_. u 1111111711,, ‘ 1 M01‘ o'r1cyrm'r1~. cs1 Monerofi, 1co'ropy1o cpaay ace npnrcpennann 1c 1cy6I<y. 3'10-1-. * oéuqafi pacnpocrpanmxca npenmymecmenno cpe1:1«1 pemecnennnxon. Kaxqzxbxfi nex muen cnofi 3Mec'm'reJ1LnLu‘2'1 BHJIBKOMMCB. Taxme 1cy61<1»1, oénqno ononannue, | nepemco IIBHKJIHCL 11030115110 noporo, 1160 nmenn na ce6e unomec-mo o-1-14-. ynm. '1,x MOB! -3'1‘. Kare cam ofiwzaii, Tax 11 nasnanne 1cy61<a 61.1c'rpo npnxcxmncs ne 'ro. n1>1co’ B Fepmannn, H0 H B npyrux c'1-paaax. 1 ‘ j ——. ,-an -9 Lu: Bo11onpoBo1J; oB cymecnaonano Mano. I/ Ic- no. r11;.3o13aJm 'ra. n1.11‘»’1 cner, petmym 14 11o21c11;e- Byxo Bony. Oco6e1111o onacno 6131.110 111«1'r1. Bony 113 pex, HOCROJILKY B max nbu11»1Ba.111»1 13pe11- Hme o'rxo11m Icpacnnbnoro, 1:y6m1L11oro 11 11pyr1»1x peMeceJ1. Ta1cy1o Bo11y ot1m11a. r111, upo- nycrcan qepea Menxnn necorc, a 3a'reM upo- 11aBa.1m. Ex<e11HeB11o no y. r11»111a1v1 Hapmica paauocmmcb rcpmcn 20 Tue. Bo11o11oco13, 1ca>1c11m1‘& 113 1co'ropb1x 11oc'ra13J151JI no 60 Be11ep 30111.1 13 1cBap'rnp1.1 Mnoroawaxcnmx 110M013. .1:-g. .—u. .. .1-u—. - . Hosue 11am1'r1c11. Bnaronapa BeJm1cnM reorpa(1)1mec1cnM OTKDLITKHM 13 Eapony upo- HPIKJIPI Hosme 11anp1'r1<1»1 — mo1<oJ1a11, qafi 14 xocpe. IIIo1<o. r1a1: npumen 143 Amepmcu 14 cpasy me C'I‘aJI JII05PIMLIM 11aIm'r1coM 311a'm, 1co'ropaa nmxa ero ropmmm, 11o6aBJ1s1a B rye- 'ry1o >1m111coc'rb MOJIOKO 11 rcoppmy 11.1151 apoMa- Ta. EMy np1»1111»1c1.1Ba.1m JIe'-Ie5HbIe cBo1‘«’1c'rBa, HO 14 no6a1z113aJmc1>: so <I>paHn;1m 1Ipo'r1»113111»11c1«1 _ _. Hanwrrca pacnpocwpanmm cnyxn, 6y11'ro 651 I , lIuezo Beaacxec. Ceammxhfig y Tex, 1c'ro yI1o'rpe6J151e'r mo1coJIa1I. p0>i<11a— no11o11oc.1_620z. I ' . 45 1o'rcs1 tzepnme 11e'ru. ’ ‘Iafi 113 11aJ1eKoro Kwrasi npnnesam 13 Haqane XVII 13. I‘0JIJI&HJ. II1I>I. Ero no- 11;a13aJm 13 'ro111cnx 1m'ra1}'1c1<nx rpapqaoponmx qanncax c Kpacnnofi pocrmcmo. 1Iy111nc'r1.11'»‘1 Hanwrorc JIOJIFO oc'ra13a. nc51 r1pnBm1er11e1‘«’1 311a'rn 11 Tonbxo c XVIII B. Bomen 13 mnpoxoe no'rpe6J1e1me.
  • 48. Parmee Hoaoe Bp€M5l (KoHeu XV — nepaan nonosuua XVII 5.) Ocofienno no nrcycy npnmeuca xodae, c xowopmm enponefinu noanarcommmcb 3 My- CYJILMBHCKPIX cwpaaax. C XVII B. Hapnxc Gyxnanbao Hanozmmm Gpozumue 'ropronnm- apmme 3 xcnnonncnmx Typemmx 'nop6a- Hax. OHM npozxanaml ropsxufi apomawauix Koqre c 5OJIbII! HX nonnocon, xyna crannnn Manenbxyro ropsmyro netucy, xocbefiunx H qamrcu. fins nxyca nanwrox uocmnann ca- xapnoii uyzzpofi. Bcxope pacnaxnymacb anepn M1-xorormcyrennux ylomux rcocbeen, me 3a qamxoii xo(be ncrpeqanncb 11 Benn Hecxonqaemne éecenu apncroxpawm, no- Jlwrmcn H moan ucrcyccrna. Honcrony Ha ymmax nonnmmcb xcennmnu, xoropme na cnennansnmx 6aqxoa c xpanmcamu n no- . Typemmfi Roman“. XVI 8_ norpenom nponanann 05hI'{HbIM ropoxcanam paafianneaauilx MOJIOKOM ropatmfi 1<oq)e. Iloxoacyxo Icapnmy Moxcno 651.710 nafimonawb no Mnornx enponeficxnx cwpanax. C XVI B. B nponaxcy noc'ryrmJm xcpemme Hamrrxn — nozuca, pom, xmcxm, Jrmcepbx. 3apa6o'ra. rm Mnorotmcnennble Tanepnm, me aa nunumcofi H saxycxofi Moxcno 651110 II006II1aTbC5l c npyabamu, noxarpan. B xapwu rum xocm. Hepemco Tarcne Tanepuu CTBHOBHJIHCB Hac'ronn. mM npncrar-mmem mm npecrynnmcon K Momemuucon, ocoéermo 3 Gemumxnx xnapranax. Ilpamma numnoro 3ac'roJn. a. XVI 3. mice sameruue nsmeaerma 3 enponei»'1- CKYIO xyxmo. Haqann o6pama'm. nnnmaxme He TOJIBKO na 1'0, new: H&K0pMId'l‘b rocwefi, no :4 rear: nonarh npnromnnennue émona, xax necwn ce6a aa cronom. Ha Oonbmux nnpmecrnax odnmuo nonananu Tax naamaaemoe noxaanoe fimono. ‘ Onao n3 aux n xonne XVI 3. npnroronnn mopndeprcrmfi tcounwrep Xanc Illnamxep. Ha necmenofinux Ma-repnanoa on uaroroann xxrrpoymme aanucn, fiamnn, qmrypxm acnnomux in man u nanonnnn ax namre-rarm. Bnywpn 3'l'0I‘0 nennqecrnennoro coopyxcemm nonap cnpsn-an nac-roanmx xponnxoa n 6e. nox, a rarcace MGJIKHX n-mu. Roma 3 -ropxcecmeanuii uomerrr nanrrer ormpwxn, us aero " ‘ na nowexy roc-mm paafiexcuxacb n paanerenacs 3 paanue croponu ncn ncnnnocrs. ~ Pacnmpmxca accoprnmexrr xyxonnofi ywnapn H nocynm. Hapsmy c Me'ra. u.mmecrcn- Mn n nepensnmumu, 3 nomamnem xoasficme ace qame KClIOJIb80B8.Jfl{Cb cwexnanaue, qaaanconue :4 xpycwanbnme naam, 6orcaJm, paaaooépaaaue émona, Tapenxu, caJxa'rnu- nu, caxapmmu. I/ In c'rapaJmcx. npunarb rcarc Moxcao 6oJ1ee Kpacnnufi nun. Bnamemarrufi nranbxncxufi CKYJIBHTOP H zonemap Benaenywo ‘-Iemmnu cnemux gum mpannyscxom KOp0JI5I Opannncxa I aonaryxo conomcy, yxpamennyxo auamno n nparonem 1-mun rcamaamu. Ona rmeer cpopmy qanm, I Beuaeuymo'1eJuIuuu. CoJrom<a Kampylo C lmyx CTODOH n°1mep, K,ma,0T
  • 49. r'~~r _) “__ tbpancucrco Cypdapau. Hanopmopw. 16 30-1 6 35 22. nonynexcamne qmrypm Herrryna n Hepepm, n annaewca nozmnnnmm nponanenennem ncrcyccwna. I‘o'ro3acL R nnpmecmy, aafiormmcb 06 yrcpamemm 3a. m.1. C'reHLI 3a13en. Im3a. Jm ro6e- nenaxvm H rnpnannamu as maeron, Ha mm- HOM Mec're c'raBmm mrcaq) c «napam-1of«’1 » nocynofi. C'roJIhI paamemama 6y1cBo1‘»'x «II» n B HGCKOJIBRO cnoen noxpunann pocrcomno BHHIHTLIMPI c1ca'rep'raMn. Poem capgmmca c nnemnefi cwoponm c'roJ1a, oc'raB.7ma B cepe- zmne npocrpancwno mm pasnocrmxos 6111011 n min pasnneqennfi. 06hI‘{H0 pasmemanncb nonapno — mama c rcananepom. florca o>xn, z1a- Jm nepnoe 6.7110110, mum Jrerxoe mmo, yro1na- JIHCB (ppyrcramn, cnymwm Mysbncy. Banana nosapon cocroana 3 TOM, trroém rcax Moxcno crmbnee YJIPIBPITI: roc'refi Hemmaanmmn nponsnepgenmmn xymmapnn. Hepepmn Mencny cmenofi 6Jno, z1 I{CJJOJII>3OB9.JIPI mm yéoprcu c'ro. non n cmenu crca'rep're1‘»'1. I‘oc'm 'reM npeMeHeM paaanercanncb spennmamn n Tannamn. Ezzy 6paJm npenmymecwnenno pyxamn, H3-3a Hero ncnonbaonann MHOPO ca. nq)e'rorc n Ha npomxcennn sacwonba no Hecxonbxy pas Mwm pyrcn apomamanponannofi nonofi, nonnnaa ee :43 xynmnna nan cnem»xaJn. Hb1M 'ra3mcoM. Cpenu cwononux npn6opon man- HBIM ocwananca HODK. Jloaicrcofr cwapanncb o6ecneqm'L rcaxcnoro room, opgnarco Bmncn c qerupbma 3y6n; aMn 'rom. xo Harmuamx axo- JIHTI: B yno'rpe6.ne1me. He ncerzxa MHOI‘O‘{PIC- JIBHHLIM rocmm x13a'ra. uo Tapenox n 6orca. noB, noaromy mvm HOJII:30B8.JIPICb 3Mec're mm no oqepezm. Cbpanrnyacxcoro nywemecrnennmca, npoeaxcanmero 3 rconne XVI 3. no I. IIne1}‘ma- - “IEHOBEK B MEHSHOMEMCFI Ml/ IPE XVl—XVl| BB. Te/ we . _ >1’Iao. ao Bepoueae. Caanbéa 3 Kane (cbparmenw). 1562-1563 22. BuJu1be. u Kuac. Ha'r1opMopT c emesnqaum xmporom
  • 50. ‘-IAC Tb RBHHEE‘ Hoeoe ape/ ~12 (xoneu X V - nepaan nonosuna XVII B. ) ppm, xpafine ynunnno T0, «T0 Tam name 3 Tparcmpax xaaxnufi noce'rm*em> mvxen nnnununyanbnyro noxcxy, Tapemcy u xy6oK. Honbaoaanne crononumn apn- 6opa1m c'ra. no conepmenao ecrecrnennmm 3 xonne XVII 3. Ilosmmmcb name cnenuanbnue, qacwo pocxomno yxpamemxue cpymsxpm, 3 rcowopux Jroxmu, BPIJIKH H H0.'}KH KJIBJIH H8 CTOJI. Hem. IILIIIIHOPO 3ac'ro. ru. a — He 1~om. xo nan, rocram B03M0)KHOc'I'b nacaxamrrbca nrcycno npummnnenaofi enoii n rcpacmao cepnnpoaannum cronom, no 14 npo, ne- MOHC'I‘pHp0B8'I'b um 6ora'rc'r3o 14 Moryxnecrno xoaaficxofi CGMBK. Kanpuam Moan. Enpoueiicrcax Mona Taxxce omgywwxa mxmmne reorpaqmqec- xxx orxpmrnfi. Hpmaenezme aannficxnx Kpacwrenefi nosnommo npunanawb ncaaam aeoéuqmae use’: -a. Plcnonbaoaanne socwoqnux énarononufi u np: moc- Tefi, a Taxxce npoxzywra amarrrxmecxom npommcna — xwronofi aM6pm — 0TKpbIJ'I0 IIIHDOKPIB BO3M0)KHOCTH 11115! COSJIRHPIK HOBHX l1yXOB H ICOCMETPIKH. ylIO'I‘p€6- Jxerme 'ra6a1ca Buanano cnpoc Ha 'rpy6xn n rafiaxepxn. tbopma H mm xowopux Measumcb 3 coo'r3e'rc'rmm c Tpeéoaannsmn Mona. Yace Ha sape Honoro npemenn esponeficxme C’I‘paI-lb! ycranomum Mexcny coéofi 6oJ1ee-Menee IIOCTOHHHLIB Toproaue n annnomawnqecune Konwaxrmz Eapona Havana )! (PI'I‘I: ezmnoit xmsumo. Boanmcna n oémeeaponeficuaa Mona, xomopyro m»u<'ro3a. nn camue BJma're. ru. m.1e c nonwruqecxofi Toruu-1 apemm nep- I Jlopeuuo Jlommo. IIop1-per Jlyrcpexmn Bopmxa. On. 1510 2. Benennancxne uoxrcozm Jxasu. Ha py6en<e XV—XVI 33. ee 3aKOHO- 11a'reJmMn 6511114 PIT8.. TIh. i{HI1bl. Ha Hmm-noro copotncy ozm Haneaajm yaxnfi KOCTIOM, 11 Ha Hero — 6o. r1ee npocwopnyro nepxmoxo onexcny. Beneunancxne MO11HHU, bI, trroém BbII‘JIH11eTb 6oJ1ee BBICOKHMPI n c'rpo1‘»'mb1Mn, Hocmm nox- KOJIPI — «ryqmn-xonu'rua» Ha sucoxofi 1ma'r- cbopme. Taxaa 06}/ as ycnoxcmma H 3aMe1um- na zumxcemae, no Kyna cnemnrb B ropone, me Bea )KPI3HI: nontumena Mennenuomy Teqenmo son 13 zcananax? Cpegm xcexmxml pacnpocwpamuxca 061.1- qaii xomm. c Henoxpbrroii mnoaofi. Iloryromy orm ynenann 6oJu. moe mmmaxme rIpm1ec- xaM H rononnmm yxpamezmsm - zmazzemam, aemcam n cencam. I/ I,z1ea. noM C'~lH'l‘8JIHCb 611011- nmum c nucoxnm . rx6oM. He mans 3z1opo- Bbii, nwanbauxcn Hanesamx cneunanbnme mnanm conanm (y max He 61.1110 Ana, a TOJIBKO
  • 51. HEHOBEK B MEH5ilOU. lEMC9l MI/1PE XV| —XV| l BB. 1101151) I! npoaonmm nenme mm non naJmnm- Mu nyuamu comma, crpemacb BBICBGTJIHTL nonocu. ‘I'ro6u czxenawb 1106 Bume, aonocu nan mm épmm. B XVI B. Benymas pom. B eaponeficxoifr nonwmxe nepeuma K I/ Icnamm. Mozzy Tax- nce 11PIK'I‘0BaJIPI ncnannm. OHM co3,z1aJm Myaxcrcofi c'rporm7x xocnom 'reMH1.Ix TOHOB c 3ac'ren-1y'n,1M Harnyxo BODOTHPIKOM. 3a mo- 6o3b K qepnofi onexcne ncnanuea B npyrnx crpanax npeapnwensno uaauaann ¢B0p0- aamno. Ilpanna, nuoma o uaewe ozxexcnm anawn M0)KHO Guno TOJILKO 110l‘a11blBa'l‘bC5l, aacron bKO r'yc'ro ona Gmna yxpamena nparo- uemlumu rcammmn, 3o. r1oToi'x H cepefipanofi HMTHO. 111151 npmxamm K0pO'I‘KHM 6p1orcaM mapooépaauofi d)opMbI nx Bbxcreruaann B8.- Tofi. C ee nomouxmo, wroém nozxqepknyn. anaqwrenbnocrb qenosexa, yaennqnnann paamep xmeq n name mmaowa. Ocwpocnoau npoaaamx 3'ry £[e'I‘aJII> onexcnm « 1"yCHHbIM 6p1oxoM» . Bo ncefi Enpone npnoépenn uonynapnocwb xoponme ncnancxne nnaum H Manenbxan yaxaa 6opom<a — acnanbomca. Oéynanncb ncnauuu 3 MKPKPIB yaxue 1~yq)Jm. yicpameauue no- xozxxmu Ha rcorm paapesamn. — Tax uasunaemue ¢BOJI‘lbH nanm». Ponony noxpunana Tnepnaa mmma c yarmmu nommn. Dicencrcaa ncnancxaa Mona Ha zxonme roam nonapvma Mnpy 1o6x<y Ha xcecncom Mewannuuecxom xapxace. Tatcoii KOCTIOM Becvm Hemano, H noxomca 3H8.THOfi nambx npuo6pe'ra. na oco6y1o Benuqanocrb. Hapsm nouonnann cepencxn, nepcwnu, ooxepenba PI uenotmn, a T8.K)Ke Beep P13 cwpayconux nepbea n 'rom<m‘»‘I Hoconofi nnawox, o'r, z1eJ1aHH1.n‘»'x uamcxaaublmu xpyxcenamn. Co apemen apaécrcoro roc- nozxcraa xceumnnu coxpanmm oébmaii upu BBIXOJIG Ha ymmy uafipacmaarn Ha ronosy Tervmoe noxpuaano. Co Bpemenem oao npeaparnnocb B anamemarryro ncnancxyxo MBHTHJILIO n3 qepnoro xpyxcena. ‘J 5") U Had Oauap Puuapa Cexeuu. Plcnancxcaa noun 3 Anrmm. 1616 .2. : _—. ~.. _ V . B‘XVI 3. ncnannagnauan nupagnauiagpeaennufi us Honoro Cnera _Kap'ro- Irla zero nayrnumcx. nonysthrla, xpaxuaa, conepmnnxnnfi nacwqamnfi lggpempm 3 esponeficrcofi M0136. Honxpaxuangnnufi nopownurc cwanonunca « » . . -rnepnuu. tn-o nosnonano, .y3ennIuna'rsero paauepu. Bcxcope on yace nanoum _ nan nacrosnme cuwnnnqnue Vggcepnopgg. Tarcoit nopownmc recno oxna-mnan V xnexo, noarouy ronony npnxoamnocb Izgepacarra nucoxo nouns-1-ofi. IIo. n;o6naa ocamca nnonne coo1~3e1~c-rnonua mpgoro apncroncpara-ncnanna. ‘Prods: npnmrb nopommcy axecncyno (bopuy, ero rmomm cnen; n- azmnnm numnanm, a. aa'reu o6mnna_,1_m -rotucnu yaoprzanm upyacenou. Llena xvrqnoro aopovrnmca Gwra oqens nucoxofi. E1-1061.1 no spam! -rpaneau ne ncnmncan. n he ncnopa-nrsiuoporyn senu», 3 xonneXVI 3. ncnonannn 0 Annex nao6pe're- rmn anrnunocwn - nmnce. C -re: -nop cpezux Vans. -rn c-rano nenpnc-roihnm ecu | 49 I 1 . P_Yi¢8l! l!- ; =____ 7____ _ _] B XVII 3. uexrrp Menu nepemecnmca BO Cbpannmo. Bass aa ocnoay ncnaH- cxnfi xocnom, qnpannyau nonomnn K neny Tnopqecrcn. OHM cneaxama onexcny M 6oJIee naucxannofi 14 apxofi, yxpacmm ee DOCCBIHBIO nparouennocwefi. Toma
  • 52. L1’. *5. C Parmee Hoaoe apems (KoHeu XV — nepaas nonoaur-Ia X VII 5.) me npuo6pen nonynapnocws ronnarmcrcnfi , owns - mnana c ahxcorcoii Tynaefi K o'rnox<- " W 11011 aopo'rmu<. ‘ B XVI a. naytmnucb aaaarh qynxn. Kap- Manoa eme He npnnymann. no: -rromy ace Me- norm nepxcann a rcomenbxe, npnxpennexnom nenotncofi 1< noacy. Cannewenbcwaom samu- ‘. -j«‘. ~ Totmocm 6ama onencna, yxpamemzas Me- _ I XOM. C XVII 3. cpezm 3na'm pacnpoc'rpa- ‘ xfi Hunca oébmafi cnars a aovmmx copoqxax, no 7.; . B nmpoxoe ynowpeénexme nmrcnee 6enbe V‘ aomno JIPIIIIL c XVIII a. Tonmco nocne aroro _-~, . I-mqann o'rc'ryna'rL safioneaamm KOJKH. . Onexcna npocrux nroneii He 6b1na CTOJIB . . pocxomaofi, xom aexowopme yxce Mornn uoaaonwn. ce6e napanax Mao nsaa, 1-omcoro cyxna, menxa 1»: crpemnnuca, ocoéermo B ropozxax, npnnepxcnaaracn Momn. Bemzowa aocnna onexcny P13 rpy6oro nonoma, arm K0- Topofi Mano Meannca c Teqermem apemexm. Ilenue apmm nop-raux, canoxcamcoa H mnmmmcoa 3apa6a'rb1aanM na JKHSHB énaronapa xanpnaam Monu. Cmena (bacoaoa xancnmfi pas naaana noamfi Tonuox paaammo nponaaoncraa PI TODFOBJIH. Horoaa 3a Manor‘? ! ne éuna nycwoii npuxoraxo, oaa nanrana oémec-rao auepen. .35,- ‘ ‘. I(t Anonco Cauuec I€o.9.1bo. I/ Iatbama ( nprmuecca) I/ Iaaéenna. 15 79 z. XVI a. I'IMcbMo o . aoMe Hemeuxoro 6aHKMpa PaI71MyH, aa wyrrepa Hro 3a pocxowb a Acme Pafimynna cbyrrepa! Ero caom-. .n nonnepxmaanor MpaMop- Hue KOI1OHHb| . 8 He»: npocropnaue M xpacMaan_e KOMHaTbl M aanau, a caman »<pacMaasa M3 HMx — Ka5I/1HeT caMoro xoasmua. c noaonoqennam noTom<oM M upeaaamam-no DOCKOLU- H0 y6paHHoM nocrenbno. K Hervny FlpMMblKaeT uacoaun Ca. Ce6acTanHa. co CTyI'lb'r'IMVl M3 uennoro nepeaa aecama Mcn<ycHoF1 padom. Ho rnaanoe y»<paLueHMe ero - npe- Kpacnaue KapTV| Hb| . VAVIBI/ |I1O Hac co6paMMe naMnmMxoa CTap| r1Hbl. Koropue Mb! yaM. nenM Ha aepxuem 3Ta>+<e . uoMa. .. B onnofi KOMHaTe Haxonmmcb MOHeTbI M 6poH3oabne cTa1'yM, a npyrofi — KaMeHHbl6 CTaTyVl, Hexoropaue M3 HMX K0nOCCa11bHbIX paamepoa. Ham paccKa3anM. two ace am JIDGBHOCTVI nocraanenau cnona c 50flbUJMMV| 3a'rpaTaMM M3 paananx crpan. a OCHOBHOM M3 FpeuMM M CMuMnMM. Cam XOSSMH — o6pa3oaaHHbu71 M 6naropo, qHbu71 Henoaex. XVI a. Paocxaa Mranbsmckoro nyretuecraemmxa o , aoMauJHeM Gbrre xcurenefi ropo, aa UIODMX8 Bo acex a. neumMx nomax cpaay nocne yrpenuefi Monwraax cny>+<am<M, a me Mx Her, TO M caMM xo3m'4KM. Hatmuanor y6MpaTa xomuam, nonmerarb xopmnopu M Kpbmauo, MblTb M '-MCTI/ ITb CKaMbVl M Apyryvo yraapb. KOMHaTbl O6CTaBI'| eHbl 0'-leHb npocro. «cac- ro ace yxpauxer-«Me cocToMT a '-WICTOTG M nopsmxe. HaM6onee pocxomnofi uacraoo no- K088 cny>+<aT nepeam-mane naMenM. KOTODHMM O6LUVIBalOT CTeHb| . Ha : <a>+<AoM naHenM aaupeaauau M3 opexoaoro nepeaa MnM nopTpeT, MnM rMpnsmna. Taxasa o6umaKa creu saummaer or 3MMHMx xononoa. HO TeMHblI7l uaer opexoaoro nepeaa M naxa, Koropam I'1OKpblTbI cocnoabne naHenM, nenaer Komnarax Mpa-+HbIMM. 3TOMy cnocoficrayror Tanoxe y3r<Me M HI/ I3KMe OKHa M He3Ha'-ll/ |TeI1bHafi auco‘ra a1'a>KeM. 3MMoI71 KOMHaTbl oéorpeaasor 6onbumMM neuaMM.
  • 53. ‘-IEHOBEK B MEHFHOLLIEMCSI MHPE xv| —xvn BB. TQM 8 - ‘ '/ J"j“; ‘_""' ‘4““A' ""7 "”"" 7 ""’i"' '7' '1" j Yraapm Mano, M on-aa Heéorarasa. B, D.0flb CTeHb| M aoxpyr Gonbworo crona nocrasne- ‘T HH DJ1MHHble CKaMbVl. I-OCTFIM B 60l'aTblX D. OMaX l'|01J. a|OT . D.epeBfiHHble CTyI1bF| , 066|/ lTb| e 6apxa1'oM M O5|. UVITb| e 3onoToM MnM cepe6pnHoI7I 6axpoMoM. Hefiorame mo, a.M 3Mec- “ii 7? TO 6ap)gaTa Mcnonbayror cyxno MnM KO)Ky. a csepxy Knanyr no. u.yun<M, BblU. |V| Tb| e )KeH- [ mMHaMM CeMbl/ I. TaKMMM >Ke BblUJl/ |Tb! MIr1 n<oBpaMM noxpbneaoor 3 npa3p, HMKM M CTOIlbl. ‘ Kpecna 3101 6OApbli71 M u<penKMM Hapon p. aeT HI/1LUb cTapM: <aM M 50I'| bHblM. Lloporan nocyna Mcnonbayercn T0l'lbK0 3 flpa3JJ. HW-lHb| e . uHM. noacenueeuan CTOJ10- Ban y'rBapb 6bma rnMHnHo17I M . £1epeBFIHHOI7l, y 60I'aTblX — onoasIHHou71. 1. Houemy na ceaepe E6pOIlb£ xpbnuu aomoe 6eJLaJzu ocmpoeepxumu, a 8 roarcnux paaouax — nzzocrcumu? 2. Kate usmeuuacx, no cpaaueuuro co Cpeaneaercoebem, enympemuui euc? 9IcuJLuu4a? HaCKOflbT€O xompopmubmzu MOJICHO cuumamb aoma eaponefr uea parmezo H oeoao epezneuu? 3. Hoeauanu Jzu Bemucue zeozpatpurzecrcue omrcpbzmux Ha numauue u o6eJIc6y eaponeauee? 4. Kaxum demo cocmoanue euzueuu u rcax amo CI€a. '3bl8(1Jl0Cb I-id .36opo6be Juoaezl moeo epemeuu? 5. Houemy 8 XVI 6. aarcouodamextbnuuea Moau cmaaa I/ Icnamuz u rcarc ebtzJuu3eJtu napxabt ucnanuee? 3A, [lAHl/157 1. npeacrasbre ce6e, wro Bblflpl/1I'J7aU. IeHbI Ha nwpwecrao K 3HaTHOI71 nepco- He XVI a. Flonpoéyfire cocraawrb paccKa3 o noaeaemm rocrefi 3a CTOJIOM. 2. Ha ocHoBaHMM co, aep>KaHMn o6oMx / .'1OKyMeHTOB abmcunre, ornmanocb / ‘M 6/varococrosmne mo, ae:71, o KOTOpblX Maerpeub, M o6ocHyA71re caoM BblBO11bI. I'7oweMy aarop I‘IMCbMa cqmaer, -no Pa;71MyH, q ¢yrrep — o6pa3oaaHHbu71 M 6/1aropo; zHbu7: '-IGIIOBGK? Ha saw aarnsuz, Kaxoe snewar/1eHMe I'lpOl/ I3BeJ'M Ha asropa sroporo AOK}/ M€HTa Aoma M Mx o6MrarenM 5 L(IOpMXe?
  • 54. ‘IX’. C Tb Parmee Hosoe Bpemsv (KOH€'u XV ~ nepsan nonoeuna XVII B. ) . “_ , I -J’ . .. . _. , -) "‘* EBPOFIEPICKOE BO3PO)K, ElEHl/ IE 9 ; _ HOBASI KYJIBTYPA /405,49 Ky/7bTyp, x Pozmna Bospoaxnemm. Ha py6e>Ke XIV—XV an. 3 I/ I'ra. rmn saponunacb Hoaan Kynyrypa. KOTODYIO co ape- HCK}/ CCTBO Menem Haaaami Bospoxcnenuem (q)parm. ~ Peneccanc). Bbl C O K 01.0 One y'n3ep>K11a. na Benmme qenoaexa, cmly ero paayxvxa BOWOZWEHW7 n 'rBoptxecKnx cnoco6Hoc're1.°1, Hacraunana Ha neo6xo- JIHMOCTPI IIBHPITI: qenonexa 3a nnqaue sacnym. a ne P,1]]ti_1 (7 rucl aa pononwrocrb mm 6ora'rc1;no, nponoamamana ero ~ ~ D - BHCOI-(O8 npnanaxme B aexvmon xcnauu. ‘-——H—~ -~ I-’ , ’r, ;g-’. ,;- _, ,._. _ , , Hoaufi mzean qeJ1oBeKa He cnytxafino Boaumc HMGHHO B I/ I1-aJmu. Bnecb rocnoncraonan Bonbnufi nyx KynelIec- Kux pecnyfimuc, uopimxn 13 nponsemlomnx ropo11ax- rocynapcuaax 6hI. TIH 11eMoKpa'mrmee, qeM 3 cwpanax c Monapxmzecxofi d)opMo1"1 npaanemm. Fnannyxo pom. B roponcxoii xcnsnn nrpamx Kynuu. éammphx K upennpw rmMa'reJm — mogm c KoMMepqecKox“4 xna'rKofi H 6OJlb1I]HM OIIBITOM senerma nanbaefi TODPOBJIFI n qmnauconbxx onepamm. OHH 6511114 xopomo ofipaaonauu, 3Ha. rm nam- Kn :4 nepemco Bunonnann 0'I‘BeTCTBeHHhIe , zmnJ1oMa'm- qecrme nopyuenrm. I/ I3 Hnx q>opMnpoBaJmcb améopnbxe opranm roponcxoro camoynpannemm, a conepanqecwno B 6opb6e 3a BJIaC'l‘b 1'pe6oBa. no CIl0C05BOCTK K eaeprntp Hum zzeiicrmmm, Kpacaopeqmt, Jm11epcKnx Kaqecws. Bce a'ro Cl'IOCO5CTBOB8JIO nonnnenmo nonoro qenosexa — >Kn3nec'roi«'1Koro, npennpmmqnnoro, cmenoro Pl pe- IIIHTGJIBHOPO. Hm: Hero Tepann npnnnexawenbnocn. cpe1meBeKo3L1e nzzeanm acKem3Ma H npespemm K aezvmomy cymgec-rnoaanmo; Ha cmeuy mu npnxozuma Tara K 6ora'rc'rny n panocmm xcnaau. Taopuamn nonoro normmaumt cmmcna n neanocrefi >Kx«mHu 651.711»! rymanncwm. B npownnonec 'rpa; umnoH- nomy mm Cpezmeaexonba yumxemuo qenonexa onu
  • 55. EBPOFIEHCKOE BO3PO)K11EH| /IE I Haéepexcnax Beaenun. I 570 2. C‘~lHTaJlPI ero nbxcmeii uennocwuo M uerrrpom Bcenennofi. I/ Ix H, z1ea.11oM crana ncecwopoune paasnwax nnqnocwh, rapmonntmo conmemasmaa nyxonnoe n qmavmecxoe coaepmeucnao. I‘yMaHnc'ru normmaam, ‘no co3,z1aBa'rr. HOBOPO rte- Jxoaexa Hyxcno aaqunan. c , ue'rc'r3a, M no'roMy oco6oe Bamaanne yzxemum 06- paaonaamo. OHM nacrauaann Ha socnm-anun y uonpacwazomero noxoneuua vecnioc-rn, nocrouncraa, nawpnownama M npenannocrn orettecnay. B neKo'ro- pbxx HT&Jlb5IHCKHX roponax OTKDBIJIHCB ZIBGDIII PYMBHHCTKWGCKHX IIIKOJI, xyna C’! -.se3)K&. TIIIICb y‘18I-[HI-(H I/ I3 pasnmx c'rpaH. XV a. M3 «)KMrMn BMrropMHo , ae Cbenbrpe» cbparwecxo Kacmnbone B 1e-+eHMe aocbMM net 9 HaX0fl, I/IIICS-I a Luxone BMTTODMHO M oéyuancn y Hero ofiuuasm M Hayn<aM. CaoMM Tpynomo6MeM M craparenbuocruo BMTTODMHO cHMcu<an 5OJ1bUJy|0 nonynnpnocrb Kan n. o6pbu71 uenoaex M nyHLuMI7I HacTaaHMI<. 22 rona on pa6o- Tan B Mamye, Bocnmuaan , o.eTeM npaamensi M , qpyrMx IoHoLueM. 5e. D.HblX voHouJeM, K0- Topbnx BMTTODMHO cuman CflOCO6Hb| MVl K y-+e6e, on conepxan 3a caofi c-«er, naaan MM npwor. nomoran xHMraMM. l'lp011yKTaMM, onexnofi. OH HMn<oma He cap. Mncn K ormo, naxe a owe: -ub xonom-ayoo 3MMy. M roaopMn. -no co- rpeaarbcn nyume <bM3M~«ecxMMM ynpaxu-aeMM9MM. qem aoane ouara. FloaToMy lOHOuJaM. ooywaaummcn y Hero. on npMI<a3uaa1I exennesno Mrparb 8 MM, Oerarb, npurarb. OH roaopMn. HTO ero ouem. cnocoécrayer He TOI| bKO Tpeompoaxe Tena M yxpennenmo anopoabn. HO M ofiocrpsaer yM. Ero y‘-IBHVIKOB HMI<orp, a He 6MnM MnM 6MnM pe. cu<o. a Tex. KTO npenefiperan HTBHMGM. HaKa3buaanM Tax: Mx 3acTaennnM nponomxarb aarmmn Toma, Koma . n.pyrMe nony-: anM pa3peLueHMe non7nM norynmb MnM paaaneubcsa. EcnM >o<e BWITODMHO Heox<MnaHHo o6Ha- pyxMsan cpe. qM y-+eMMxos nxeua, aopa. 3a6Msu<y MnM HenpMcToMHoro 3 cnoaax M Aenax. Toma HVIKTO He Mor cnacm aMHoaHMxa o1 Haxa3aHMsa. M3 ero mxonu BblXODMnM camue nyuume M oépaaoearmue y‘-IGHMKM, xoropue CTeK8J1MCb K Hemy co aoex o6nacTeM VI'ranMM. I‘yMaHuc'rm nponcxommn Ma paanux cnoen Haceneaml — rcyneqecrna, anawnbxx ceMe1‘»'xc'r3, roponcxofi cpenm. 0TJIl? I‘IaJIHCb 01m 14 no pony aaaawnfi. Cpenn aux KMBJIPICL nepennctmxn xrmr M 6n6Jmo'rezcapu, yuwrena :4 ynnnepcw 're'rcrme npocheccopa, éorocnonu M nonwrnxu, Bucoxue nonxcaocrnme mum n mom: ucrcycc-rsa. Ilmi rymanncroa cmucn xcnsxm aaxmoqanca n naytteana axrrmmofi xynyrypm :4 3 Jmtmom 1-nopqecnae. OHM nocmoanno oémwmcbz pe-
  • 56. n. _.. .. 1 I I I. -I‘ H’. -'—= . C Tb Rarmee Hosoe spawn (KoHeu XV — nepaaa nonosuna XVII a. ) rynapno ncwpeqanncb, ecnn xcmm 3 ozmom ropopge, n o6nsa'rem. Ho nepenncmnanncb, ecnn ax paanemmo paccwoanne. Bnaro11a- pa rymanucram HSMBHPIJIOCI: n omomenne x Kcxyccway. Ha Hero aoanaranacb aanaqa pacxpbm. nepen qenonexom nozmmmyro xcpa- co'ry K BbI3BaTb y Hero mry K npexpacuomy. Hcnnonncnen, CKYJII: -IITODOB, apxnrewropon naamnann « mozumm ncKycc'r3a. ~> n o1<py>xca- JIPI ynameanem. B rnaaax COBDBMGHHHKOB Taxofi Tnopen - a'ro JIPBIHOCTL, ncnonnenaaa rzyncrna CO5C'I‘BeHHOI‘0 nocwonncwaa, won- qennan u naucrcannaa. Xynoxcecwneanue Macrepcxne upenpamwmcb B aacronmue xny6r. x, me qacamx He y'ruxa. rm ryMa1mc'ru- txecxme nucnywm. Xapawrepumm npnanaxom anoxn c'ra. no MBIIGHETCTBO. Borarme :4 BHHHTGJIBHHG mo- zm — upanwrenn, nanu, auan. — npnmamann xyzxoxcmucoa K ce6e H8 c. rxy>x6y, aaxaaunwm mu xapmuu, coopymerme n ocpopmnerme zmopnoa, yc'rpo1"1c'rBo rrpaszmmcon. IJ. Le; zpoc'rx. Morymecwnennoro éamcnpcxcoro cemeficrna Mem-um npeaparnna Cbnopermmo 3 onmx H3 npercpacueiimnx roponos I/ I'raJum. Ilsopen; Megmrm c'ra. n nozmmmmm nempom rymaancmqecxofi Kynyrypm, a ero mac- Tmena aacnyxcermo xasmnann Jlopenno Bemnconennmm. Tanarrr nomrrmca 14 zxenoanwocn. coqeranucb y Jlopermo c nmcoxofi o6pa3o3aHHoc'rmo, anarmem HSLIKOB, noawuqecunm napom K ymermem ILCHPITB nczcyccrno. Hpocnannnn ce6a Me11eHa'rc'raoM n nexowopme pnmcxue nanm. l'IepBmM c n, z1emvm rymazmama nosaaxozvmnca Hnxonafi V, xo'ropbn"1 muporco pacnaxayn naepu Banmana nepen JIIOIIBMH ucxyccnaa. On 'rpa'mJ1 orpoxvmue cyxvnvxu Ha npnofipererme mm nepermcunanue nponasenennfi a1-rrmmbxx &B'I‘0p0B. 3m unn- ru cocraamm ocnoay snamemrrofi 3 6y11y1neM Barnxancxofi 6u6Jmo're1m, 0CHO- BaTeJ1CM 1<o'ropoi’1 cqwraerca nana Cmccw IV. C ero mvxenem casxaano Taxme B0888- nerme H yrcpamexme Hosoii nepxnn ~ Cmccruncxoii xanennu, me no Tpalllrllllrlli n ceromm co6npae'1-cs xomuxan Kapnnnanoa Ana nafipamm oqepennoro nauu. I‘J1asm.1M mm wnopuon Boapomnenna c'ra. r1o naofipaxcerme qenonexa PI ero snywpennero Mnpa. Orm nmmnn aa paxvnm penumoanofii 'reMa'm1cn H o6pa'rmmcL rc Mmpoxxormzecxnm H 3eMnmM c1o>xe'raM. Honynapnocn. npuofipenn Honue xcanpu — nefiaaxc n nopTpe'r. Boapoc mrrepec K xapmuam, nocaameaxbm ac- Topmxecmrm C05b! 'I‘HflM, a Taxxce K n3o6pa>1<eHmo 6bI'I'0Bb1X cu; eH. B apxwrex<'ry- pe Ha cmeny rowmce, rcoropylo peneccancame BDXHTEKTODBI ctm'ra.7m Bapnapcxofi, Taxxce npmnen nonuifx c'rm1b. OH ounpanca H8 arrrnquylo opxxepnyro cnc'reMy: BMec'ro crpenwawofi rornqecxofi aprm Haqama coopyxcan. pgyroofipaanyro pmvxcxyro apxy H rcononnm. c I 1 - - F I‘ep6 dmopeannu I‘yMaxm3M 3a npenenaxvm Hramm. C cepemmu XVI B. Hosaa xynyrypa auxomrr 3a npenenu I/ I'raJu«m :4 navmnaer paaaunarbcs B npyrux esponeficxcnx cwpanax - Pepmannu, Cbpanmm, Amvmn, Hnnepnanpgax, I/ Icnanxm. 3a AJIhIIa- Mn, H8 npocropax 5bIBUIeI‘0 «napaapcxoro xvmpa» , cnenu pumcxofi npennocwn 65mm He Tarcnmn myéorcnmn, Kax B I/ I'ra. rmn. Ty'r ryMarmc'rb1, nonofiao
  • 57. .. , 1: , J: .L.1‘ EBPOHEHCKOE BO3PO)1'I1EHHE TGMH uranbnanam, ramice yBJ1e1ca.1111cb ampmuocwbro, no 3H8‘{H'l'eJIbHO 6o:11.111e 131111- Marma oxm YJICJIHJIH co6c'rBe1moMy npoumomy — ncropxm repMaHc1<11x naponoa 11 Cpennenexonmo B 11e. r1oM. B xaxcnofi c'rpaHe 11e1‘/ '1cT13o13aJm y1m13epcp1'1'eTb1 - ~ ueH'1*- pm nayqamx saannfi. I/ I3o6pe'rem»1e zcuuroneqaranmx cnenano xrmry [‘JlaBHbIM 1»1c'rotmm<oM 311a1m1‘«'1 14 CI'IOCO6CTBOBaJIO STHM ycnemuomy pacr1pocTpa11e11111o nnefx I‘yM&HH3Ma. ['Io,11.1mHHmM no>1<z1eM rymaxncroa 3 11at1a. r1e XVI 3. c'ra. r1 Bpaau Po1~1~ep;1a. 1- clcuii (1469-1536) — caman Bbmaromaaca JIH'~IHOC'I‘b Cesepuoro Bo3po>1c;1e111m. Chm romranncxoro caamennmca, Bpnam (nacwonmee mvm — Fepxapn Xeprapuc) ponmxca 3 Po'r'1~ep11aMe. O11 pano nowepsm po1111'reJ1e1‘& 11 61.1.11 BbIHy>l{J. IeH ca1v1oc'1'os1- TeJIbH0 npoxnanmaawb ce6e nopory a >1<1131111. Hocne o1<o11r1a111m mrconm 3pa31v1 c'raJ1 Mouaxom, onuaxo co spemenem ocrazmn MOHaCTbXpb pazm yr1e61,1 3 _vm1Bepcu— we're. Moaapxu paaubxx cwpan Esponbr np1m1amam1 ero K cc-6e 11a c.1y;1<6y, no Bce. 1 HM Bpaazvx o'1'1<a3a. r1, He xcenaa 'repm~1, caoe1“1 He3aBHCH. 1OC'I‘H. OH c1m'1'a. n. two He npnnaanexcm 1<a1<oM_v-To omaomy napony. 11 H331-. ~I8a. ?1 cefis - rpa>1<;1aH11uo. 1 Mupa . I/ I neficwnnwenmo. 3pa3M xcnn, yqmxcn 11 rmcan cBo11 11po11313e, z1emm 13o MHOFHX crpanax EBDOIILI. Oco6y1o no1IyJ1s1p11oc'r1» upnofipeno upo- Kaaenenne Bpazma ~IIoxnaJ1a I‘. nyr1oc'r11-~ — campa, narmcannaa 3 cpopzvxe 6ece, z1b1 c tuna- 'reJ1eM. I‘J1ynoc'r1. mzew no caewy 1a conpoao>1c- nermn cnonx cnynmxon — Jlerm, JIec'm, _ Besymm, ‘lpenoyronmx 11 Henpoéymxoro cua. «C nomommo amx aepnmx cozoanmcon, — roaopwr I‘J1yr1oc'r1., — :1 nommnaro cefie secs pon moncxoii 11 o'r11a1o npmcaam name 111v111e- pa'ropa1v1». C'rpe. :1b1 campbt 3pa3Ma uemu111 npexcne ncero 3 aepxymxy o6mec'r13a. no on He manna n npoc'r1.1x J11o11e1‘»'1, cpezm 1<o'ro- pux waxxce ncwpeqanocb 1«1eMa. r1o Heymuux. 3paaM c'1'a. n npnanannmm rnanofx 1111Tep11a- uuoaanbaoro rymanncmtxecxcoro 6pa'rc1~aa — Tax Hasuaaemoii pecny6.r1m<11 yt1eH1.1x«», a cnoe npoxzxanezxerme nocasrrmx . nytm1e. 1y npyry — ToMacy Mopy. IIpe11c'ranJ1e1nm 06 1111ea.1n. uo1s1 o6u1ecrne 11 salconax pasnwma rocynapcrna. I/ IaBec'1'Hb11?1 nonnoncxufi amaoxcar To1v1ac Mop (1478— _ 1535) Gun qenonercom ucKJ11otm'reJ1bHo 110- 1;“ panotmmm, cnpaaezmunbxm 11 yBa>1<aeMb1M. - Jloxmoanm H36p8JI1d em = u1eHo: v1 napnamexrra, _ 11 co npezvxeaem rymauncw aansm sb1cu1y1o ro- 7? _ . . cynapcraenaym 110.71)! -CHOCTB rcanunepa. OH BIIJIOTHYIO c'rommyJ1ca c Heconepmencrsom rocynapcrnennoro ynpamenna 11 c'rpa, ua1m- axvm napona 11 non Bnusmnem pa3z1yM111”1 06 mom Hanncan c13o1o anamennryxo «- Yronn 1o r> . Mop mm B auoxy Be. r1111<11x reorpaq11.1t1ec1<11x o'n<p1>1'1'121i’1, xorzxa eBpo11e1“11u>1 y311a.1111 0 H0- . ./ Pane I‘(; .1b6m‘lu Mxzadumiz. 3paaM Po1‘1*ep11aMc1<m”1. 1523 2. Pam‘ l‘o. u,t, ‘«u‘u1 . I.1ad1uui1. Toxtuc . Iop. 1527 2.
  • 58. ~HACTb Coxpammacb Jxeremza o nepnofi Bcwpeqe Bpaama n Tomaca Mopa. 06a I'yMa1»mc'ra 6Lum npnr. nan1e- nu Ha oxmn us Jlormoncrcux 6a- non. Cnyqafino paaronopmmmcb, coéecennmcn Hacnaxcnanncb upe- xpacnofi JI8.TbIHbIO n txynecnmm ‘{yBC'I‘BOM 1oMopa npyr npyra. Haxcoueu 3pa3M Bocmpoicenno ‘ BocKm»n<Hy. n: «Tu 111460 1301', JIH- ~ i 60 JIBHBOJI, Jm6o ToMac Mopl». Ha wro Mop o'rne'm. n: «A TI-. -I — Jm6o nsaaon, M160 Bor, 111460 * Mofi 3pa3M». 310 3HaxoMc'rBo ‘ aaaepmnnocr. p; Jm'reJ1LHo1‘»'x nep- Hofi gxpyxcfioii. Hpoiimer apemi, H 3pa3M cxaxcew o Mope: «Ups- ‘MO-TBKK poxcneu u coanaa on Ra: -mee Hosoe Bpe/ ~12 (KoHeu XV - nepaas: nonosu: -ta XVII 5.) vanv-nzfii aux aemmx n Haponax, Roma KSMEHHJIOCL nx ownomenne K Mupy. Heypgnnwrenbno, trro caonx repoen I-yMarmc'r IIOMeCTHJI Ha OJIHOM H8 HOBOOTKpI>ITI: -IX ocwposon, paa6po- cannmx B oxeax-1crcoM npoc'rope. OT nmenu 6bIBaJIOI‘0 nywemecwnennmca Fnmozzea (3'ro BLIMLIIIIJICHHOE mm Mop coazzan 143 nnyx rpeqeczmx cnon - «6o. u'ronna» n «analo- mnfi») 14 Benercn nonecrsonanne. I‘n'r. IIo, ueI'»‘I paccrcaablnaer o xcecrorcnx nopxmcax 3 Aurmm 'I‘OI‘0 Bpemean K, B npowunonec, — o cqacmnsom ocrpone, me new qac'rHo1‘»'1 C06C'I‘BeHI-IOCTH n 6ennoc'rn, ace pa6o'ra1o'r 14 xcmayw 3 Mnpe 14 cornacnn. 311801: He cymec'rBye'r nener, Kaxcnmfi no- JIYV-138'! ‘ «ace no no'rpe6Hoc'm». Vmounfinm xcnnyw 60JIbI]IPIMH cemumn B oéycrpoennux aomax, rm'ra1o'rcx BMec're 3 o6I. nec'r-Bennmx . . 11.1151 npyxcfim. .. I€'ro mne'r coBep- . mennmfi o6pa3en; aacwoamefi} CTOJIOBBIX-, l1B0pIIaX. OZIHBJCO 3T0 COBCBM He oanaqaew IIDPIMPITHBHOPO o6n1ero ypaBHm3a- - :1‘ npyxcém, He aafiner Jryqmero, mm. Onapermaa MOJIO, lIe}KI> ocsoéoxcnaewcx " qem Mop» . or (bnanqecxoro Tpyna PI n:3yr{ae'r Hayrcn. Bce npotme nocne mecnmaconoro pafiotxero Ana Mory'r no xcenanmo yqwrbcn, 3a1mMa- Tbcfi cnop'roM, paannercarbcn. Ywonnfinbx yfiemnenm, trro cqacmbe qenonexa 3amno- qaewcn B ero rapmommecrcom pasnwmn, a Tarcuce B pasynmom conmememm Tpyna 1»: ommxa. I‘ocy11apc'rBoM ynpannsuow yBaa<a- emme yqemne, a saarcom nx Bnacmn nMec'ro rcoponu cnyxcnr nyqox xonocsea. «yrouna» nmena orpoMHLu'«’I ycnex y qn'ra're. ne1‘«'1. Bcmpeqanncb name Juonn, K0- Topme Bepmm B Hacrosmee cyn1ec'rnona- Hue cqac'rJmBo1'»'1 cwpanm H 6mm»: roronm ornpannwbca Ha ee noncrcn. P1 are BOIIDGKPI '1-omy, rrro name B Haanaann camofi cwpaam «Y'ron1m» (o'r rpeq. - Mec'ro, 1co'roporo He'r) Mop nomlepxnsan Bumumnennmfi xapaK- rep Mec'rHoc'm. V 1IJacy. uuo 6a Can I‘aJu: o. Bm1 n. z1ea. m.Horo ropona
  • 59. EBPOFIEHCKOE BO3PO)KflEHHE I < ‘.1 1 . I J. .4 BO CDDBHLIPIH M8‘I'! 'y 0 rapmounqecxn p&3BH'I‘OM ‘IGJIOBGKB Bl>ICRa38JI MBJIPIK ‘ ‘ 11 1111ca'reJ11. dipancya Pa6:1e (1494-1553). B 311aMe1111'1‘oM pomane « I‘apra11'r1oa ' . ‘ (Xe. » 13¢, 11 IIa11'rarp1o3J11.» on onucan a66a'rc'rno, 1cy11a He 61.1110 11oc'ryI1a J11111eMepa1v1 11 ‘lBaHJIIrIBI: IM 6oJrry11aM. Tam noanumanca npexpacnufi maopen, pac1<1111yJIcs1 y1o'rHb11‘1 napx 111111 nporynox, >1c11am1 Jxenaroxnux 1'111v111ac'rut1ec1c11e 11J1o111a111<11. Bce o611'ra'reJ1n a66a'rc'rBa IIOCGJIHJIHCL 11 Hem ]. I06pOBOJIbH0. 01111 ymemx corm- xmn. c'r11x11 11 111‘pa'r1. Ha paaabxx MYSBIKBJIBHHX m1c'rpyMe11'rax, roaopmm 11a nxm-mecru 5131.11<ax. l'Ipo113Bez1e111151 o coaepmennom o6111ec'r13e IIOJl'y‘IKJlH 11a3Ba1me y'ro111n1ec1c11x. I/ Ix noannenne cB1111e're. r11.c'rBoaaJ1o, I110 rymanncwos 13oJ111oBaJ111 He TOJILKO nonpocu HOBOPO rapMo1111t1ec1coro 3ocr111'ra111151 o'r11eJ11.11o1‘»'1 . r111t111oc'm, H0 11 11po6J1eMa co3,z1a11m1 coaepmeanoro o6111ec'rBa. { u 1 N L [/13 «yronma» Tomaca Mopa Flocne Heonuoxpan-aoro I/ I armmarenbuoro Haémoxzxenmz aa acewm npoueeTaoo- ummm rocynapcraamm 91 Mary r<ns1TeeHHo yraepxuarb. '-ITO ouvu nanmorcn saroaopom 6ora~aen7I. Koropue non MMeHeM M abuaecxofi rocynapcraa aafiormcn o caoefi co6craeHHoI7I K0pblCTV| . Bce am moan a6comoTHo Hmero He nenaror. .. >Km3Hb mx npo- xonm cpenu 6necn<a M pocxoum, 3 npaanuocm M nycmx 3aHs1ms1x. C npyrofi empo- Hbl, monefi ymeraer ceronnsa éecnnonnbufi. 6ecnone3Hbn?1 rpyn M yémeaer MblCflb o HVlu1el7l crapocm. 9! y6e>+<11eH. tno pacnpenenmb ace nopoany 11 cnpasennmao, a Tame cuacrnweo ynpaamm. nenamn nroncxmmn HeBO3M0>KHO m-«awe. HEM nonnocmo yHvmo>+<ma CO6CTBeHHOCTb. l‘yMa1111c'roa XVI 3. 1111'repecona:111 Tarcxce 3a1co111a1 paanwrns rocynapcwaa. B1>1,z1a1o11111Mcs1 HCTODHKOM 11 HOJIPITKKOM 61.1.11 a13'rop 311aMe1111'roro Tpaxrara «I‘ocy11ap1.» q). nope11'r11e11 Hmucono Ma1c11ane.11:n1 (1469—1527), 1<o'rop1,u"1 11e- oz111o1cpa'1'11o 11o3'rops1J1, trro ero J11o611Moe aaamrne <-pa3MI: -IIIIJISITL o rocy, z1ap- c'r11e1111o1v1 11c1<ycc'r13e»> — 11oJ111'r111<e. C'rpac'r111.11‘1 11a'rp1»1o1' cnoero oreqecma, Ma1c11a13eJu111 mm 3 anoxy, Kama I/ I'ra. n11s1 ocrananacb paaz1po6J1e1111o1‘»’1 11 11eo1111o- 1cpa'1'11o c'rpa11aJ1a 0'1‘ 3'rop>1<eH111}'1 t1y>1<e3eM- 1111111 apM111‘«'1. Cqnwan r. r1an111.1M r1pens1'rc'r1m- em 1c o6'1.e111111e11111o KOPLICTHYIO nom1'r111cy nancnsa, Marcnanemm He comaenanca, 1110 B 'ra1<11x ycnonnax cr1ac'r11 c'rpa11y 11 co311a'rb ez11111y1o Monmyro I/ I'ra. r1111o cI1oco6e11 TOJILKO c11.nbHb11‘»'1 rocynapb. 1'Ip11 3TOM palm , z1oc'm- >1<e1»11m 3e.11111<o1'1 11eJ111 on Mor z1e1‘»'1c'r13oBa'r1. aeponomno, 6e3>1caJ1oc'r11o 11 11et1ec'r11o. HeM&J'IO J11o, r1e1‘& 11yMaJ111 Tax me, no san- awrb o'r1<p1.1-ro ornaxcuncs nMe1111o Ma1<11a- 3eJ1.r111. 1'Ioa'roMy nepemco cqnraewcn, trro, nocxaanaa o*rp1111a1~eJ11.111=1e 1cat1ec'r13a 11 apa- 1111're. r1s1x, on 113621111111 11o. r111*r111<y o'r Mopa.1m. Bo311111u1o naxce no11s1'r11e «marcvranemmam» — noJ111'm'1ec1<a. s1 6eCIIpI4HIUriIIHOC'I‘b. Ha caMoM me nene, Ma1<11ane:1.rm nepnmm c1<a3aJ1, Irro nonwruxa 8BJ1fle1‘Cfi caMoc'ro:1'reJ11.11o1‘«‘1 cq1e- I pofi ILBRTBJIBHOCTH co cnomvm 3a1<o11aM11 C°""‘" 0" T“"1°- ‘V H upaanflnamm Ee Tpylmo c0BMema. rh C H111<1<o. r1o XIa1<11a13eJ1.1n. X176. . _j,
  • 60. / [J 7/ LIACTI: PaHHee Hosoe Bpemv (KoHeu XV — nepaasl nonoBuHa XVII B. ) " I'IOHfiTIrIflMPI MOpaJIPI, a PPOMKPIMPI M0paJIbHhIMH JIO3yHI‘8.MK IIOJIKTPIKPI Hepe, u- rco JII/ IIIIL npnxpmnaror Henpnnnercarenbnme nema. Maxnanemln Metxwan o enn- Hofi I/ I'raJ1I»m 14 I-1aMe'r1«m ny'rn n cpe,11c'rBa K JIOCTPDKGHPIIO awofi menu. Ero upo- nanenenne — He ywomm, a mmra o peanbamx nonwrmxecxnx neficwnnax. 1. 2 3. 4 5 Ifarcoeo uezzoeerca eymauucmu cuumaau ceown uaeanom? ‘Ian ux amne- zueuue x uemy omxzuuaxzocb om cpeaueeexoaozo? 3a6omu. .rzu Jlu zymauucmoe eonpocbz odpaaoeauwz u eocnumanua MOJlO- deaicu? Kan: zymanucmbt noenumzu na omnouzenue rc ucrcyccmay? Cnoco6cmao- aaxzo Jlu Meuenamcmeo paaeumuro tcyxtbmypw Boapootcaeuux? Earcue uoeue npodxzemw noauumaxzu 6 ceoem meopuecmee eymauucmu Ceeepnofz Eeponbz? 1'1 oueany npousaeaenue M arcuaeezuzu «1"ocy6apb» H€Jlb3fl cuumamb ymonueft? 3A, £1AHl/ I57 1. . «'Ieonapc3o Ba Bun-t. u. AB'ronop'rpe'r. On. 1515 2. Onwpancb Ha coaepxanne orpblaxa M3 nponaaegenm cbpal-mecxo Kac- mnbor-Ie, ab/ ncume, Mor / m ycmre/ vb Burropuuo , aa (De/ rbrpe crarb o6pa3- LIOM any ceowx y‘-IQHMKOB? Ha KaKOM OCHOBaHHM aerop yrsepxaaer, wro Bmropuuo — xopoLum71 we/1oaeK M nywwufi yvmenb? l7oqeMy e ary wxony npneaxca/ m ynmrbcn co scefi Mramm? Mcnonbayn ¢parMeHr M3 npoM3ae, aeHm1 ToMaca Mopa «Yronmt», onpeae1m- re omowenue anrnmficxoro rymarmcra K rocyaapcrsy M K reM, KTO aepxur 3 csoux pyxax rocy, aapcraeHHy: o anacrb. Vlmen nu Mop ocnoaarmn yraepx- garb, wro yuwrroxeuwe co6cr3eHHocm caenaer mo, aet71 cqacrxmabwu? PICKYCCTBO BBICOKOPO BO3PO}I€l[EHI/ I51 3noxa nrranon. B xolme XV — nepnofi 'rpe'm XVI B. 1'-Ia6.TII011aJICfi HeBm1aHmaIx‘»'1 Bauer mrreparypm, mnnonncn, apxrrrexrypu, 611a- ronapa qeMy 3'ro'r uepnon nonytnm H3388.- Hne Bblcoxoro Boapoxcnenna. OH nan Mnpy Honbxfi Tun Taopqecrcoro qenonexa - mm- HOCTL, onapennyro MHOPHMH 'ra. naH'raMn, CPIJIBHYIO JIYXOM, opurnuanbuoro MLICJIPITBJIH n Tsopna. 3’I'HX Jnoneii IIOTOMICPI He cnyqafino cpasunaamx c ztpennerpeqecxcnmn Trrranamn, He nofiosmummnca BCTYHKTL 13 coneprmqe- CTBO c cammvm oJmMnm‘»’1c1<I«IMu 6oraMn. B ucropxm tienoseqecma Henemco o'rL1c- xawb eme ozmoro Hacwonmco rennanbnoro qenonerca, Kan Jleonapno na Bmmn (1452— 1 5 1 9). Jleonapno o6J1a, z1aJx xoponmm xapa1c're- pom, 6mJ1 y, zmBn'reJn. Ho ICpaCI«iBbIM 14 cum. - HBIM — MOI‘ POJIBIMH pyxamn PHYTB IIOJIKOBLI
  • 61. ’ . !____. .4» 5. 3 n npenocxomm ncex 3 cbexwonannn. Ero mrrepecu He anann npepgenon. Jleonapno 0c'raJ3w1 14 TOMOB pyxonncefx, Ha cwpannnax xoropmx coxpanmmcz. pucymcn MHOXCGCTBG. n306pe'reHm‘«‘1: npoewru uonnonnofi Jrozucn, 3ep'roJ1e'ra, napamrowa, paasonnux MOCTOB, nynemera, Tamca, nnannnbnbrx neqefi, aJ3'r0- " v EBPOHEHCKOE BO3PO)K11EHHE Terwa Jleonapzxo pommca B He6OJIb- mom ropomce Bmma, pacnoJ10xce- anon nenanexo 0'r <IJ. u0peH1um. 3aMe'mn smnyzo cnoco6noc'rr. Ma- JIb‘IKKa K pnconanmo, o'reI1 o'maJ1 ero ytm'r1.ca x qmopenmficxomy xynoxcnmcy Anzzpea Beppoxxso. Cuycm mecn. new yrm're. ru. n0py- rmn Jleonapno Hanucan. Ha c30- efi Rap-rune anrena. Paccxa3m- Bann, Irro, ynmzen (pnrypy, H306- paxcennyro Jleonapno, yrm'reJn. nonan, nacrconmco yrzenmc upe- asomen em, :4 c roro Bpemerm He 6pa. n KHCTB 3' pyrcn. Mawrmecrcoro 'r1ca1.ucoro cramca H pgpyrne. Bce orm anaqnmenbno onepenmm caoe npema. JIe0Hap, z1o He IIOJIY‘IPIJI ynnnepcnwercrcoro 06paa0BaHmI, onnaxo 3T0 He nomemano eMy C'I‘8.TI> nommnnmm 06paan; oM BCGCTODOHHG paenrrroro qenonexa. OH ynnercanca Ma'reMa- Tmcofi, qwnanxofi, anaromuefi K 6o'raHmc0x‘FI, 65111 1coHc'rpy1c'r0p0M, n0e'r0M, Myabmanrom I/ I MLICJIHTBJIBM, a 0301»: annnmronennqecrcne analma npn06peJ1 Gnarozxapa He- ynepxcnmofi m0603Ha'reJ1bH0c'rn n OI‘pOMHOMy Tpyzxomofimo. Hepnootxepezmoe auaqenne Jleonapno npmxaxaax onhrry, cqprraa ero I‘JIaBHhIM nerotmmcom 3HaHm‘»'1 o qenonerce n Mnpe. OH Bepmr 3 crmy pa3yMa H 3HaHm71, B Taoprxecrcne B03MOJi(‘. - HOCTPI treaxonerca, cnoco6Horo 1101106110 Bory coananan. Honoe. Pnannmm 143 Bcex eanawnfi mm JIeoHapn0 Bcerna 0c'raBaJ1acL xcnnormcb. O, z:H0 K3 Jxyrnnnx nponsnenennfi xynoxcnmca — q)pec1ca «Tainan Berxepa» , Hann- canaaa H8. 6n6Jxeflcrcm‘& c10>! ce'r B o, u;HoM H8 Mnnancrcnx Monacwupefi. XDHCTOC npomaewca co ceomvm yrxenmcamn, on 3nae'r 0 npena'reJn. c'rBe I/ Iynm n 0 cxaonx 6yJJ; ynmx Myxax. I/ I306pa. >1ceH npamanmecxnfi M0MeH'r Tpanesbx, rcoma XpHCTOC nponsnec porconme cnonaz «Omm P13 sac npenacw Menu» . OHK Bmaunaxow y alIOC'I‘0JIOB 6ypHL1e qyncwna — owqaanne, ncnyr, ynnnneune, rues. Hexowopme aoamymenno BCKHICHBGIOT c Mecwa. ‘-I'r06u He coananam. Bnetxameuna Tonqen, xynomnnx o6'bem»nm. n nepconaaxn B qe-rmpe rpynnm no 'rpn qmrypm B 1cax<;1ox‘»'1 n paaMec'rn. u nx cnena PI cnpaaa 0'1‘ Xpncwa. Jleonapno 0'r1ca3a. ncsi 0'r 'rpa, z114n. n0H- noro naoépaxcenna I/ Iynm c np0'mBou0JI0x<H01‘«'1 c'I'0p0HhI c'r0.na, HO npenarena Jleonapao 6a Bunuu. ‘lepwexcn J1e'ra're. ub1Ioro armapawa JIeouap6o 0a Burwu. Hpercpacnasx xceua xyanena. Ox. 1495-1499 22.
  • 62. ;. ~ C 0/1 1» PaHHee Hoaoe ape/ ~12 (KoHeu XV — nepaasl I'IOI'lOBUHa X VII B. ) JIeouap0o 0a Buuuu. Han/1a c 10p110c'raeM. 1485-1490 22. JIeonap0o 0a Bunw. Mona JI113a («J1>1co1co11,z1a»). 1503-1506 22. . r1e11co y3Ha'rb: on 0'r1c1111yJ1ca Ha3a, z1, cy, z10po>1<11o c>1c11Mas1 B pyxe KOIIIGJII: c nJ1a'r01’1 3a npe11a'reJ1bc'1B0. JIe0Hap, z1o cosnan pan 3aMe‘{aTeJ1bHbIX nop'rpe1013, Ha116oJ1ee 1:1poc. r1aBJ1eH- HLIMPI 113 xcoropmx 51131151101051 113o6paxce111m '-1111111111111 I‘aJ1epa1111 («, IIaMa c 10p110c'rae1v1>>) 11 M01111 JI113m («L[31<01co11,z1a>>). B0 Bce BpeMeHa 3111 1cap'r11Hb1 BbI3bIBaJIPI B0c'1'op1 nepen yMe1111eM xy110>1c11111<a 11epe11a'11. CI/ IHHHG 1J1a3, 3a1a- 11o11Hy1o yJI1.161cy 11 xapawrep c13011x 11epco11a21ce1‘&. Bh111a10nJ;11Mca npe, z1c'raB11'1eJ1eM Bmcoxoro B03p0>1c11e1ma 611:1 MmceJ1a11,11- aceno Byonapporn (1475-1564) - a13'r0p 11er1pe13301‘»'1;1e11H1.1x 11p0113Be, z1e11111'1 CKYJIBIITYDBI, ;1c111301111c11, apx11're1c'rypL1 11 110331111. 1Ie1c'r13o 011 11p0BeJ1 B 1v1aJ1e111.- 1c0M ropoznce 11en0,z1aJ1e1<y 0'1 <I>J10pe1m1114, a r1o, z1p0c'r1c0M 11oc'1'yn11J1 y1111'r1.c:1 13 xyn0>1cec'rae11Hy10 1111c0.21y 11p11 msope JIope11110 Me11111111. Tyr 011 OTKDBIJI 111151 ce6a 1<pac0'ry a11T111111o1o 11c1cycc'rBa 11 IIOJIy"{PIJI B03M0>1c110cTb 06111a'rbcs1 c 11313ec'r- 111111111 1y1v1a1-111c'ra1v111. B 11Ba1111a'r11J1e'rHeM Boapacrre M111ce. r1a11z1>1ceJ10 noce'111J1 PPIM 11 co3na. n Tam oz111y 113 cB011x caM11x 31«1aMe1111'r1.1x CKyJII>1'ITyp — «IIbe'ra» (<< OnJ1a1<11BaH11e Xp11c'1a» ). C1cy. r1b11'rypa B1.13Ba. r1a 3oc'r0p1 y p111v1J1;111, 110 11111c10 113 max 11e 31121.11 M111ceJ1a11- m1ceJ10. 311a'101c11 c1t10p11J111, 1c'r0 xce a13'r0p 31010 11pe1cpac1101o 11p011313e11e1111s1, 11 11a3a113a. r111 11Me11a 1131aec'r11e1'111111x pmv1c1<11x cxynbnropos. Toma M111ceJ1a11m1ce- JIO 11011110 11p111neJ1 B neprconb, me 6111111 BL1c1a1a. r1e11a <<IIbe'ra>> , 11 B11ce1c 11a 11e1‘«‘1 rop11y1o 11311111105: «M111ceJIa11m1ceJ10 Byo11app0111, q)J10peH'r11e11, BI>II'I0.IIHHJ'l>>. Talc K M111ceJ1a11m1ceJ10 11p11111J1a cJ1aBa. Bepnysmncb BO CDJ10pe11111110, 011 c03- nan rconoccanbnylo (5,5 M B1.1c0'r0171) MpaM0p11y10 c'ra'ry10 I[aB1111a — 14011011010 nacwyxa, 1c0'ropb11‘&, no 6116J1e171c1<o1‘«'1 J1e1e11;1e, OLLOJIGJI BeJ1111<a1-1a I‘oJmaq)a. IIpe11L1- 11y1n11e OKYJILIITODLI BOCIIpKHPIMaJIH 11o6e11y 1011010 , IIaB11J1a Han 1py6o171 c11J10171 Kare pe3yJ11.'ra'r 6oJ1cec'rneHHo1'1 n0Mom11 11 110:-rr01v1y 113o6pa. >1caJ111 ero 11e6oJ1b11111M 14 C.7Ia5bIM. Mmcenanmiceno co3;1a. n c013ep111e11110 1111010 IIaB11,rLa - c11.71b11o10 a'rJ1e'ra, 11551 n06ez1a fiBJIiIe'I‘CH ero co6c'1'se111101’1 3acJ1y10131. Y M111ceJ1aH, z1>1ceJ10 I[aB1111 ' Bo11.11omae'r 6e3I'pa1111=1Hoe MOPYIIIBCTBO I1eJ10Be1<a. CIJ. r10pe11'r1117111b1 011e11b BBICOKO OIIGHPIJIH np0113Be11e1111e xyp;0>1c11111ca. OHM IIOMGCTI/ IJII/ I c1cyJI1>11'rypy r1epe;1 3118.-
  • 63. ~— ‘T EBPOFIEPICKOE BO3PO? K11EHHE TO . .I Hnem npanwrenbcwna qmopenrnficxoii pecrIy6Jmrcn. «, ZIaBm1» — nommanufi , ;-A ', ;‘? ‘’~ .1. 4"‘ rmvm txenonexy — c'raJ1 cnMao. noM ropona 3 6opb6e c aparami. " ,1. Mmcenannaxeno cqman ceéa Tonmco cxymarropom, no are He nomemano . , " emy, nommanomy wmaay Bospoxcnerma, 5bITb aemuum xynoxcumcom n ap- L L XPITBKTODOM. Ero rnannax xmnonncnan pa6o'ra — DOCIIHCB nnaqmaa (no'ro. n- xca) Cmccrnncxofi rcanemm 3 Pmvxe. Bnecb apxo npoanmtca xapamep xy;1o- axecwnennoro napa Muxenannmeno: ero upnnnexanu He '1-nxne PI cnoxoifmme cxoaceru, a coanarme éynryxonmx n repormecxnx ofipaaon. I x 321 qerupe rona hinxenaunmeno ogmn pacnncan nowonox nnomanmo oxcono 600 rcaanparuux Merpon. B 300 qmrypax on naoépaamx ncropmo qenoneqecma — 01* nepnmx nae? ! Tsopemm A0 Bcemnpnoro uowona. Mnxexxannnceno pa6o'ra. n 6e3 nomomamcon, B oqem. cnoxcumx ycnommx: npn nnoxom ocsememm, nexca Ha cause 88 cnenuanbao naroronnennom noMoc're. 310 65:11 uac'ro5m1m“: nomamn Pocnucb aaxaaan nana IOmu"1 II, Kowopmii nocrommo xowen ace BHJIQTL n oqem. Meman xynoxcnnxy pa6o'rarb. Haxconen, no apexvm oqepezmoro nnama nanoemxnnoro nanu, paaraeaanamii Mnxenanaxceno cfipocrm Ha Hero nocxn co csoero nomocwa. C Tex nop xynoxcnmc o6peJI noxcofi. Ilommnnbxmn mezzeapalvm c'raJm aoanenennme M nxenannxceno I‘p06HPII. Ibl nanm IOJms II 3 Pmvxe H cemeiicnaa Mezuxtm no <D. nopemmH. Feuuii BBJIHKOPO xynoxcnmca somronuxcx 3 co6ope Casrroro l'Ie'rpa 13 Puma. On sasepmnn a'ro crpoeane, Hauawoe zxpymm apxrrrewropom, H ynenqan ero Fpaflmdoanbm rcynonom, nanyrpn xaxcyummca nemcnm H npormaaunmm c3e'roM. Rynon Mmcenannxceno Boanumaerca nan Betxuum roponom 1<a1< nocwofinufi IIaMflTHPIK ero Taopuy. , -v——_ ‘ _ ___________ _. _ 9- H ‘ ‘ . V 1’ . ‘___K__ _ — ‘ ' ' “ V V ? I , . n M uxc.1an62x'c.1o Byouappomu. ., ‘ ' HBBT8. Kort. XV e. » ' " , 4' a. " . ,1’ '4 3" ‘1 - — '5‘ ’ - - ; .3 . . ‘ ‘ I’ l 3 3 ‘ ' ' 1 . ‘ " - ‘ _/ .. N ‘ A _' - . . x . - ' . / " A. ..‘ _ . .‘ M urceJLau6.»ceJLo Byonappomu. llamuz. M uxextamiarre/ to Byouappomu. H art. XVI a. Capxoqnar 1I; ~KyJmauo lflemmxx. XVI 6.
  • 64. r :7’ I L/ A CTID Parmee Hosoe ape/ +451 (KOHEU XV — nepaan nonosuna XVII 3.) ll, ‘ Pa¢m.9.1b Caumu. Cmccmncxan Manoaua. 1515-1519 22. A H XVI B. M3 BOCITOMI/ IHaHl4l7I, [1[. '))/ Fa c, _ - Mw<enaH, a>Keno Anrormo Kanguan PaCl'MCb| Ba$l CW-(CTMHCKVIO Kanenny, Mmxenanmxeno HaCTOI’lb| <O npmynun caou 52 rnaaa cmorpem aaepx Ha CBOD, bl. -no norom, xoma pa6oTa Guna 3axoHneHa I/ I on Hanan . uep>+: arb ronoay npswo, nonna Hvunero He amen. M xorna eMy npmxopnnocb nwrarb l‘MCbMa M 6yMarm, OH p. on>+<eH 6bU1 p. ep>+<aTb MX BblCOKO Han ronosofi. I1oHeMHory OH BHOBI: Hanan . npMBblKaTb nvnarb, rnsum npnMo nepen co6oF1 BHM3. 370 oécvonrenbcnao noxaabuaaer, 4’ c KaKOI71.. . craparenbnocrbvo Mmxenanwxeno pa6oTan Han pocnncbto Kanennbn.
  • 65. EBPOHEPICKOE BO3PO7K£lEHHE Team 3 CBETJILIM rermem Bospoxcnenua Hasbr- BaI0'I‘ Patbaaml Cairn: (1483-1520). Ero TBOD‘-IBCTBO - o6pa3en Bosnmmeanofi repa- co'ru, coaepmencwna H rapmomm. Chm xyzzoxcmnca n3 ropona Vp61mo, Patbaanb c ne'rc'rBa xcnn B a'rMocqJepe xcmaormcn. BHem- Hfifi Kpacowa, 11o6po'ra 14 Heoxnocrb xapa1c're- pa coqeranncb B Hem c 0I‘p0MHb1M 'rpyz1oJno- 6neM. Tana: -rr Paq)a3Jm npomamzca pano, K nana npnmacmx ero pacnucan. napannue aamn (C'I‘aH1IbI) Barmcancrcoro maopna. O11Ha us (bpecorc 310171 ceprm, Ha Kowopofi n3o6pa- xcenu npenaerpeqecxne qxnnocoqmx 14 yt1e- Hme, nonyunna Haanarme «Aqmncrcax unco- Jra». Herco'ropmM K3 nepconaaicefi Paqmanb npnnan qepwm caonx anameuwrbxx coBpe- Memnucoaz Bennqecwnennufi HJIaTOH - a'ro JIeoHapp; o, I‘JIy60K0 aanymanmnficn I‘epaK— ' ~ JIKT - Mmce. naH,11>xeJ1o, a onnn K3 yqenmcon — ' P“4’“""" C‘“‘”“‘- Hma caM Paqmamh 3 noxpunane. Ox. I513 2. JIro6nML1M o6pa3oM Macwepa 61.11121 Ma- gonna — Bonnomenne Mawepnucrcofi nepnocrn n Juo6Bn. Bepumnoii 'rBopqec'r- Ba c'ra. na «Cmccwnncrcaa Manonua» — naofipaxcerme npexpacaofi Mononofi xceanmuu c Mnanenuem Ha pyxax. I/ Icnonnennan crcop6u Mappm npemxyB- cT13ye'r Tparnqecxyro cyz1h6y cnoero pe6eHrca 14 Bee me Hece'r Jno, u;aM cbma xax ucxynnwenbnyxo >xep'rBy. n I e ' . .—. .. ... _-. . I Pa¢a3J1b CaMmu. AqmHcxas1 uucona. 1509-1511 22.
  • 66. ' 7. U 7 I I ’- Parmee Hoeoe spew? (KoHeu XV « nepeas nonosuua X VII 3.) Patbaanb nponcnn Bcero Tpmmarb ceM1:. new, no ycnen coanan. Tax MHOPO n OCTEBKJI Tarme Henpenaofinennme mepgenpu, trro ero caMoro Hasuaaxow Boxca- c'rBeHH2.1M, a nepnozz, Roma on mun n pa6o'raJ1, — anoxoifx Pacbaana. B ncwopmo ucxyccrna Bucorcoro Boapoxcnexna npxcylo crpaxmuy nnncana 6ora'raa xyneqecrcas Beaenmx - nommnnasx uapnna A. zxpua'rm<u: ->. B 3'roM HBOGBFIHOM, noc'rpoeHHoM Ha B0116 ropone aeneaonawbxe aomxm xananoa Haucrcanno cotxe'ra1o'rcn c ronyfibm IIBGTOM ne6a, 6eJIbIM Mpamopom msopnon PI cuexcnmmn mamcamn rop Ha ropnaorrre. Bce 3'ro, oaesmnoe Bnaxmofi Mope- xoii nhlmuofi, mvIee'r HBHOBTODHMO npexpacnufi BHJ1. Heynnswrenbno, Irro 'ry'r cnomnnacb opnrnnanbnaa mxona xcmaormcu. Benelmaxacxne xwzoxcxmxm oco6oe auaqenue npnnanann xonopwry: Ha nx Kaprnnax npeo6J1a1xa1o'r Hpxne, Hacmmennbxe Tona, rrro co3nae'r y apnremi Hacrpoerme npaazmmmocwn. Ka21ce'r- ca, Bee nsofipaxcennbte Ha nonomax Bemn >xmay'r»: c'rpym'cx memc, Mep11a1o'r nparonennme xcamm, noénecxuaaew napqa. Bbuxaromaxca pom. 3 tpopmnposamm xy- noncecmennmx oco6enHoc'rep"1 aeHe1maHc- rcofi xcmzomxcu npuaaanemana Ilmopzmcone (1477-1510). Kpacnnmii n o6am'eJ1LHLn‘»'1 ‘{6- nonerc, on 65m TaJIaHTJIHBbIM xcmaormcuem n ornmmum Myauxarrrom. Fepon ero Kap- nm ymyfinenbt 3 cnoii Bnywpenuufi Mnp, HCIIOJIHBHH mxnx pa3,zzyMm‘71. I/ Ix 11yme3Ho- My cocwoanmo coo'r3e'rc'rBye'r nefxaaxc, 1<o'ro~ poMy xynoxcnmc, yfiexcnennmfi 3 ezumorne txenoaexa n npnponm, npnnaaan oco6oe auaqexme. Ozma H3 rcapnm Ilxcopzuxone — <-IO, zmq)b» — nocnmneaa nommry 6n6J1ei&c- xofi repomm, cnacmefi ponnoii ropon 01' Ha- I11ec'rBns accnplifiuen. Oaa npoépajracb B c'ran Bpara H y6m1a nonxosozzua Onocpepna, lrro aacraamxo apaxcecrcoe Boficxo o'rc'rynm~b. I'IpeJIec'rHaH 14 Hexman IOz: m1)b BorIJIoI11ae'r 3 rcapwmxe Bmcmyxo cnpaaennnnocrb. Jlxcopfixcouc. Ioxmqm. d>paa. szeunz '5 — Bwrm. :.'mo Tuuucm. Bonne- Be-w.1.1uo Tuuuan. llama B 69.1031 cemxe Mapmx (-wAcv_vn'ra »)
  • 67. EBPOHEPICKOE BO3PO7KJ1EHl/ IE T6’I"w'8 1-V-‘ 1. / .___. ; PBCIIBGT neaennancxoiii }KPlBOIlHCK cssaan C KMGHGM 'I‘mmana Beqemmo ', ; (1477-1576). Xynoxcnnx coxpamm mm noromcoa o6pa3 npexpacnbxx sono- Tononocmx aenexmanox, ncnomiemimx qyBc'r13a co6c'r3em1oro zzoc-ronncrna. ._ B o6pa3e cnnbuofi, anepruquofi xcenmnnm naofipaxcena Boromarepb B ce1vm- * » Merpoaofi xaprnne «Boaaecexme Maprm» (éonbme nanecn-Ia Kan «Accyrrra» ). Oneran 3 'reMHo-xcpacnue O1Ie)K11bI Mapna mranno nonnnmaewca anepx B 30110- TPICTOM uororce Boanyxa. I"Jm, zm Ha ynepermbxx, pocrcoumo onewux, ymnux n czxepxcannmx xcemnnn Ha nonomax Tvnmana, MOJKHO COCTHBHTL npencwannenne o Morymecrae n senmmu camoii Beaemm. Hcxyccuzo Cenepnoro Boapoacnenua. KOJII: I5eJIbl0 ncxyccrna anoxn Boa- poxcnemm ae cnyqafino c'ra. r1a I/ I'raJmn, me axrrntmas xynyrypa Hanomnnana o ce6e Ha xaxcaom mary. I/ IT8JlbiIHI1b! xcwm cpezm arrrmmmx paanamm, xo. zmJm no Toii ace aezvute n m. m1a. rm 'reM me Boanyxom, rrro n npearme pmuxsme. B crpanax Cenepnoii Enponm - Pepmannu, Hnnepnannax PI npymx - He cymecwsoaano T&KOI‘0 Mxooxecrna aawuqnmx namamuxon, n no Haqana XVI 3. ronmco emana- nu nmenn npencrasnenne, Ran can BLlI‘JIH1Ifi'l'. Ho cy'rn, 'raM notrm neqero 651110 noapoacnawn. Roma Mb! ronoprm o Ceaepuom Boapoxczzemm, 1'0 mvxeem 3 Emmy ncrcyccwno cwpan Ceaepnofi Enpoum, cnoxcunmeeca non Bnnsmnem I/ I'ra. nm1. B Hem 110.11]: - me coxpausmncb cpezmenexonue Tpannnun: sneer. qenoaexc - ae uerrrp Bee- nennofi. xax B I/ Iwajrmx, a TOJIBKO ee qacrn, Tarcoe me Tnoperme Bora, rcarc PI oxpyxcaromaa cpena. I'Ioa'roMy npe, z1Me'roM Bmmamm ceaepoeaponeficxnx xynoxcamcoa cram: He6eca xx conneqamii cae-r, nona H rcarvum, pacrenna n JKKBOTHBIG, cam rxenonex, ero zxmmuxe H pesynmarbr ero Tpyna. Hau6oJIee apxmvx npe, z1c'ra3m'e. ueM ncxyccwna I‘epMamm 61.1.11 AJm6pex'r lhopep (1471—1528). OH pommcsx 3 cexvrbe Ionemtpa K 06y‘{8.JICfi omoncxomy pemecny, norca Tara rc xmnonncn He aacwamma Ionomy napymwrb cemefiayro wpammmo. llxopep c'ran npuanannum Mac're- pom neqamofi rpamopm - ormcxa c pncymca, Hanecexmoro Ha gxepensmnyxo mm Mezmyxo Aocxy H paamaoxcemioro c nomomuo ne- qawnoro npecca. Ilemenue rpamopu, Tax naabmaemue neryque J1PIC'I‘KM->, Koropme = I - fiponmme 'I‘OpI‘0BI1bI paanocmm no ncefi crpaue. cnenann xynoxcmxxa umporco na- aecmum. He MBHBIIIYIO cnany npmxecma eMy ' rcapwunm, nocnamenume pennmoanblm : '“_d_ c1ox<e'raM, a Taxxce nop'rpe'rb1 co3peMeHHu- T 7 7 ‘ “"“= « A ROB. Paanocwopoune ozxapennufi qenosex, ’ 7‘ llxopep cnaran cmxu H Harmcan HGCKOJIBKO , xrmr o cexperax xcmaormcuoro Macrepcma. ’ Honofmo m~a. rn. smc1<mu xynoxcmmam, on 1_ 651.11 yéexmeu a BbICOKOM npemxacmaqeaxm cnoero ucx<ycc'I‘Ba, ocoanaaan cefm mmsem xcmaormcuea » , xax ero H83bIB8JlH H8 pomme. 1Io1<a3aTe. r1bc'raoM 'roMy c. r1yxca'r ero aB'ro- . nop'rpe'rb1 — n3o6paxceHna qenoaexa, yBe- AJtb6pexm1Itopep. AJ3'ronop'rpe'r. pemxoro B cBoeM 'raJIaH're. 1498 3- 3 Bccmmpnau MCYODMR. 8 K11. . l
  • 68. 66 13*. ‘ ) Raunee Hosoe spew: (KoHeu XV — nepaan nonosuua X VII 5.) / ,1 LlACTb XVI 3. 3pa3M PorrepaaMc: <m7: o raopqecrae Anbépexra , £1Iopepa Hero TOl1bKO He MO>KeT oH Bblpa3V| Tb 3 OAHOM usere? TeHb, cae'r, 6necI<. emery- nu vn yrny6neHmn. 6narop. ap9 Hemy : <a>+<p. an aeuu. npenctaer nepen Haw: He onHou71 numb caoefi rpaumo. Ocrpo cxeamaaer oH npaawnmbue nponopumm H ux B3aV| MHOe cooraercreme. Hero TOnbK0 He vnaofipaxaer OH, naxe TO, ‘ITO HeB03M0)KHO H3o6pa- 3MTb, — OFOHb, fly‘-M. rpom, sapuuuu. MonHwo, aaeecy TyMaHa, ace oLuymeHmn. Hyecraa, Hau<oHeu acro nymy Henoaexa. Koropan nponannercn 3 £l8M>KeHWilX ero Tena, enaa nu He cam ronoc. Bce aro OH c ranmm Macrepcrsom nepenaer CaMblMM ro~4Hbn- MM un-pnxawm, M npmom TOIlbKO HepHb: Mu, H10 Tbl ocxopfiun 6b! npomaaenemae, ecnm 65: saxoren aHecm a Hero Kpacm. HpP!3H8HHbIM Mac'repoM nop'rpe'ra 651:1 Pane l‘oJn.6ei'm Mnanmnii (149 7- 1543), nesrrenbnocwb rcomporo npmexana 3 ocnonnom aa npezzenamn Pepzvxamm - 3 Hlaeiinapun H Anrmm. Hezcowopoe Bpemx on 61.1.11 npmmopnum xcnnonncnem anrnnficxoro xcopona Feupnxa VIII, man 3 Honnone n coanan uenyro ranepero noprpemux menenpon - caMoro Monapxa, npnmaopnofi 3Ha'm, nuocrpaanmx nocaxon, xyrmoa. Omemmyro rpynny cocwasnsnor nop'rpe'rm rymarmcros, c xoropmmn I"om.6eI‘»'u1 npyxcnn, — 3pa3Ma, Tomaca Mopa K npyrnx. Xynoxmmcy ynanoch 'l'O‘{H0 uepenawb cnoeo6pa3ne xapawrepa cnonx nepconancefi, o6wmo Jrmmoc'rex71 ueaaypazmmx. XVI 3. eaponefinu nc'rpetza. rm c Tpenoroii: 3 Cpezume nexa ywsepnunacs MBICJII: o TOM, trro Mnp 651:1 cosnan BoroM 3a cem: nueii 1?! npocymecrnyew Tonuco cemb TI-. ~IC5I‘I new. Cem. Moe Tmcaqenewne o'r cornopenns Mnpa sarcas- qmaanocs. B we mm no ncex xpncwnancxux crpanax omm oxcmxamz n<y'rxo- ro xonna cne'ra, a Ilpyrne - noéenu Ilapcnaa Boxcbero Ha 3eMJ1e. ,IIyx aroro Tpesoxcnoro, npornaopeqnaoro npemenn naofipasml onmex 143 Heofiuqaefb nmx xynoxcnmcon - nnnepnanneu Heponum Bocx (1460-1516). Ero 1<ap'rn- Eb! Hauonnenm (baH'rac'mqec1<nMu qmrypamx, nennnaanmmn pacrennamn, YIIPIBKTGJILHLIMPI axnnomsxmn PI H8.l1OMKH8IOT pe6yc, xoropmii Heofixommo pasranarb, trrofiu nponuxayn. B noraennufi cmsxcn npousneneaua. Hepemco 3hI50p c1o>1ce'ra mm xapwunm Bocxy noncxaamnamx crapnnume Hapozume nocnonnnm. Onaa n3 aux: Mnp — are 303 cena, xcaxuunfi T3381‘ H3 Hero CKOJIBKO Moxcer» crana ocnoaoii mm xaprnnu <1 Boa ceaa» . Ho aammcny Bocxa, ceno oaaaqaew nenonroseqnue 006118.31-ILI xmaau: nnacwb, 6ora'rc'rno, paamxeqeumx. B noromo an cnoefi oxanxofx amayrm npencranwremx paanux cocnosnfi. B 'ro. vme cpezm npocromommoa Menucaxor xoponencxne reope- au, nancxaa mapa, uapsmu aaam, nmemm aonaoa, ozzexcna Mouaxoa. Koneca 6ea>1<a. noc'rHo gxamrr aeocwopoxcnux neyngatmmcon. Ha Boay YCTDOHJIBCI: Becenaa xcomnax-um Ganonnefi cy11b6h1. OHM JIOCTKPJIH npenena caonx xcenauuix :4 name He aameqaxor. trro nos aanpsxceu Mepaxmmu cyuxecrnamx. xoropbre may? 11 em, Pl now many 8 an. C neéec 3a cye-1-ox”! Mupa na6mo, z1ae'r Xpncwoc. Bce npopxanenemaa Bocxa ncnonnenm Tpeaorn aa qenoneqecrno, norpsI3- mee B rpexax. Omaonpexvxeuao B aunepnauncxom ncxyccrne paaaunanacb H coBceM uuaa xcmzonncnaa Manepa — Hawypanncwnqecxaa. Ee npencranmenn coxpaumm
  • 69. '5' EBPODEHCKOE BO3PO)K£lEHME 7-€’M3 nepnocwh Hawype, 'r. e. T0‘IHO nepenasann nop'rpe'rHoe cxoncmo, z1e'raJm 6b1'ra Q0 5.-_; "._"-I-’~. ~x H onemnm. Honynapnocwmo nonbaonanucs xapwnnm co cngemcamn K3 ncnsnu “ U L npocromonnuoa, a Taxme neifxaaxm. 3'm nonme 'l‘eMbI Hanum oroépancenue B V); "P 'r3optxec'rBe Hnrepa Bpeiiremx Crapmero (1525-1569), npoazannoro My3KHIl- 1 mm aa nocxoaanbnoe anaxme Haponnux ofipanoa, ofibmaen, nocnomm. Orm coc'raBJmJm croxcernylo ocuony ero xcapwnn, repomsm xcoropmx 6mm»! ofibmnbte Hnnepnannnm 3 qepene npaannmcon H 6ynHe1‘«’1. 4‘ . A L A x . 4 Haponunz Boar. Boa cena. 1500-1502 22.
  • 70. L/ A C Tb PaHHee Hosoe BPEMR (KoHeu XV ~ nepaan nonoaur-Ia XVII B. ) . J. ¢ / , .3‘ 3 V Humep Bpefteexw Cmaptuua. Huxxepnamxcxne nocnoannm. 1559 2. Omsia H3 Kapnm Bpefirena nasusaewcs Hunepnaancxne nocnoannm». Bro cnoeoépaanaa annnxnonenna nnnepnanncxoro qaonmcnopa. Ha nonowne upen- cranneabl cxoxcembr 119 Hapozmbxx nocnonnu, éacen, noronopox. Hepconaxm Bpeirrena m. rra1o'rca cecrb MGJKJIY nayx cryzxbea, 6mo'rcn ronoaofi o creny, Ha1<pu- B8101‘ 6Jmaa: vm Kpumy, 6poca1o'r nenbru H8 aewep H coaepxnaxor npyme 6eccM1.~.1c- Jnmu. Bce oun neneno H aanpacuo 'rpa'rsrr cmm n cpencwna. Pnynocrb n3o6pa2xe- Ha xynoommxom Kare noacennenaaa npnsbmxa. Kaxcerca, neck Mnp nepenepnyncst naepx norazvm. Ilna Bpeiirejm qenonex — HeOT'beM. TIeM&5! qacrb npuponm. Ero oxonxmcn, naxapn, xcneuu Hepaapbmao coezmaenm c uefisaxcem — 1Ipnne'rJmaox‘«'x 3eMJIex‘& Hunepnannoa, H8.p0,l1 KOT0pI: -IX Jxyrune npymx ocnaunan orcpyxcaxornylo cpe- ny, He npmmnsm ex": apena. Xynoxmmc He nneannanpyer cnoux KDGCTBHK. Hao6opo'r - oun aenomcne, a nopofi name ypozumnue, He aHa1o'r aoanbxmeumax qyBc'rB, no ovens nemrr o6LIrmb1e Berrm: rmcwoe yxomoe mmmme, Tennufx ouar, cxpomnyxo, no Bxycnyro rmmy. Bpefirenb 5I: IJI nanenen oco6uM J. I8.p0M - n3o6pax<a'rb ofiuqnme seam max nozzmmnoe qyzzo. Hponaneneaux enponeficxnx Macrepon anoxn Bmcoxoro Boapoxcnenmx — coxposnmnuua MPIp0B0l‘O ncxyccraa.
  • 71. EBPOFIEFICKOE eo3Po>KnEHME TOMS 1. Mcnonbayn nononuurenbuyno / wrreparypy, nonroroebre paccxaa 06 canon us aanaauoeaponeficxux xygoxuuxoa mm apxurexmpoe XVI 3. 2. Bumuarenbuo npovmafire npnaeae: -mue 3 rexcre orpusxu us socnoMn- Hamm AHTOHMO Karuzuan u 3pa3Ma Porrepaamcxoro. I4cxo. an us ux rexcra, =n’o Eb! Moxere cxaaarb 06 OTHOUJGHMM Muxenaruvxeno M Luopepa K caoeMy rpy. ay n 06 ux rpedoaarmnx K codcrsermum npouaseaeuunu? ‘-Iyacrsyer- cu / m ysaxenue K armw aenmmu xyaoxa-mKaM co cropouu asropoa aocno- Munaunfi? 69
  • 72. "'/ AC Tb Parmee Hosoe ape/ ~12 (KoHeu XV - nepean nonoauna XVII B. ) ! I ' PECDOPMALU/ IS! I/ I ' KOHTPPE<DOP- ' MALJMFI I B EBPOHE ' 8 » i _ o PECIJOPMAIII/ IH B FEPMAHI/ II/ I § 8 _ PEq>oPMAu/457 " In Hplmnnu Peqropmamm. 3a nonme c'roJIe'ma cno- I I " B I‘ EPMAHHI4 ero cymecmonanna rcaronuuecxau uepxoab Harconmla _ M orpomnme 6ora'rc'rna Ia cocpe11o'roru«ma B csonx pyxax 3 § 9 PACFIPOCWAHEHHE HeMa. no 3eM. rm. Co Bcefi rcawonnqecxofi Eaponu CTeK8Jl- PEGJOPMALIHI4 ca B Pun aecxonqaemuii no'rox 3oJ1o'ra B mane ;1eca'm- | /4 KATOTIWIECKAS7 I-[bl — necsrrofi qacwu noxozza o'r ypoxcas mm nenexcnofi . PE¢’0P/ WA npufiuma, a Tarcxce B Mme IXJIa'I‘bI 3a nonytxenne nep- Kormmx nonmaocrefi H cosepmexme oépnnon. Jlaxce y myéoxco aepyxomnx Juonefi nusunamx pa3oqapona- une n Boamymenne xcannocrb nan u xapnuuanoa :4 Ta DOCICOIIIL, xaxofi orm ce6a oxpymann. I/ Ix peammasx xcnam. uma npaapea c npnauaamu ngepxan K Hel'IpH'I‘5I- aarenbnocm H aoanepxcanmo o'r nannmecrn, 61.1113 cmmucom uanexa o'r uneanon pannero xpncmancraa. Hancxcaa rcyppm rxpommsma Hemanyxo n3o6pe'ra'reJu. - HOCTL, neywoxvmmo nonommn cnoro coxposvuunnuy. '-I'ro6u oéecneqwn. IIDHIIJILIB 3 Pmvx nanomnmcoa H umpoxyro npozzaxcy um pennxsufi, pmvxcxne nepB0cB5I- meunmm yc'rpam3a. rm ueprcoauue «ro6nJ1eu» u npa3,z1- mum camux. BOJIBIIIKC npufiunn npmmcmro Tamxce yqacrne 3 pocwosmnqecxnx onepanunx. Bce aro nonpmnano aB'ropm*eT uepxcan, omywnmufi apen xo'ropoMy Haaocmm T81-CJKC rymanncwu. OHM x<pn- 'rm<oBaJm onopy rcaronuunama - cxonacmxy. Bmc'ryrxa- JIM IIDOTHB LIGDKOBHBIX 05p5IlIOB PI HbIl]]HOI‘0 rcymrra, nmcmenaann Henexcecwso u mannocwb zxyxonencma. Fymanncwbx owpnuann acxemam, npnaunanu rc ayxo3- nomy ocsofiongzxenmo qenonexa, 6511114 ncnonneuu aepbx B éearparmqame B03M0)KHOC'I‘Id qenoseqecxoro paayma. Ha py6e>i<e XV—XVI as. Henononbcrno nanamn 14 pix oxcpyxcermem c'raJxo 3ceo6nmM, a oéannemm 3 anpec Puma aayqajm ace name :4 cmenee. Ozm paanasanncb 3
  • 73. 7 PECDOPMALIHSI 14 KOHTPPECDOPMAUHSI 13 EBPOFIE TOME? pa3111.1x c11011x o6n1ec113a, 1ca>1c111.11‘1 113 1c010- pmx 111v1e11 c3011 11pe1e1131111 11 nanaxvx 11 131c11a- 111113a11 c06c113e11111.11‘»‘1 CMBICJI 13 o6111ee pon- 1a1111e. K0p01111 11 1111ops111e 1100511111111 11a 11e11c1111c1111Mb1e 1311az1e111111 11ep1c1z11 11 131,1c1y- 11a1111 3a ce1<y11:1p113a111110 — 11epe11a11y 11ep1<o3~ 1-111x 3eMe111. 13 py1<11 cBe1c1<o1?1 1a11ac111. Pac11e1- 111113oe 11 6epe>1<1111a0e 610prepc1130, a 1a1c>1ce 11pe, z111p1111111v1a1e1111 1103010 11111a c11111a1111, 1110 M110r01111c11e111111e pe1111r1103111.1e 11pa31111111c11 ~ ; 11 r11.111111b1e o6p11.z11.1 010511 1111 c11111.111<01v1 110- b ‘ 1 poro. 01111 1pe60Ba1111 11x y11p0111e111111 11 <«11e- ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ « u1e1a01‘«’1 11ep1<1311»>, 1110611 km: 1110211110 60111111e ’ M v ,11e11er 0c1a111111. 3 c06c13e1111b1x rcapmanax. ' M110r11x 11e yc1pa1113a110 cy1.11ec1a013a1111e 11ep1<013H0i’1 11epapx1111 11 2v1011a111ec13a, 1101111- 1a1111e 111c011 11 1101110131. Oc061.1e 11ape1<a1111s1 31>1a1>113a110 6010c11y>1<e1111e 11a 111111111111, sear. 111151 001101311011 Maccu fnponefinea 011a 0c- Paq)a3_7bCaumu_ Ham Hen x_ 1ana11ac1. 11en011s1111o11. Ten/1 Bpezvrenem 13 1518 A yc110n1151x pacr1poc1pa11e1111a 06pa3o13a111151 p0c110 11110110 I'p8M0'I‘HbIX 111011e1}’1, yc1111113a110c1 11x >1<e11a1111e 0c0311a11a11. see. 1110 11p011cx01111110 3 11ep1<1311, 11 ca1v10c10111e111.110 11111-a'r1. B116111110. 01111 n11J11111raJ111 1pe60na1111e 131390111 60r0c11y>1<e1111e Ha 11a1.11101-.1a111.111>1x asmcax 11 11epenec111 11a 1111x CBs1me11110e H11ca1111e. O11;1101"1 113 r11a1311b1x 311601 m0z1e1'1 1010 13pe1~1e1111 611110 c11ace1111e 11y1n11. ICa101111- ' 11ec1<as1 uepxoab y111111a, 1110 06pec111 e10 110211110, 1111u11. 06113a1e111.110 31111101111113 ’ uepxonuue 1a1111c11aa — 1<pe111e1111e, up1111ac111e, no1<a511111e 11 ;1py111e. Ocyn1ec111- 11:111. 1111 c11e11013a110 10.11110 11epe3 cns1111e1111111<a, 131.1c1y11aB111e1'0 11e06x01111Mb1M I 3 I u0cpe1111111<01v1 Me>1c;1y B01011 11 11e11011e1c01v1. C11111a110c1., 1110 10111110 11epe3 Hero 1aepy101ne1~1y . v1o1'11a 11epe11a11.cs1 c11ac111e111.11as1 60>1<ec1ne1111a11 611ar0z1a11.. Y13ep>1<,11a51, 1110 npaao pac110ps1>1<a1bc:1 611a1‘011a'1'b10 npe110c'ra1311e110 11ep1<:311 ca1v1111v1 B01011, p11Mc1c11e 11111111, Kan ee « xpa1111're1111»> , 30311021011111 Ha ce61'1 1a1c>1<e ; 06$I38TeJIbC'l‘B0 0111yc1ca11. rpex11. 01111 11111p01c0 pa3nep11y1111 1opr0B1110 cIIeIIK8Jlb- ’ 1111111111 1paM01a1v111 — 111111y111re1m11111v111 (01 11a1. — Mu. /lOCInb, npomenue). 3a or1pe- , z1e11e1my10 c_v: ~1My 1111.z1y111.1*e11111111 00130601111151.1111 01 111e111111 1101111111, c061110,11e111151 110c1a 111111 c013ep111e111111 11a110.~1111111ec111a B 1311110 pac1<a111111s1 3a rpex11, 06ecne1111na- 1111 11x 110111100 111111 11ac11111110e o111y111e1111e. Becc1b11111a11 11p011a21<a 111111y11Lre1111,111‘»'1 BbI3B8.7Ia B03My111eH11e 11c1cpe1111e 13epy1011111x 1ca1011111<013. 01111 He 11011111 He n1111e11. 1<p1111a111er0 r1p0111B0pe111111 1v1e>1c11y HBCTOHIIIHM xp11c111a11c1c11M y11e1=111eM 11 r1013e, z1e1111e1~1 11a11c1<01"1 1<yp1111. He1v11111yeM0 130311111<a11 11o11p0c: 1110 6011ee Ba, >1c11o - c061110,c1a1b 06p;1.z11.1 111111 c11e, z1011a1b z1yxy xp11c111aHc1<0r0 y11e111111? B 11a11a11e XVI 13. 11e110130111.c1130 11ep1<0a1=10 11 11e110Mep111;11v111 11p111s13a1m11M11 nan 11eI1pep1;1B110 p0c110. B E13p011e 11a3pena11a Petbopmarmsr (01 11111. - npe06- pa. -zoeauue. nepecmpoiz xa) — 11111p01c0e , z11111xce1111e aa peq)0pMy 11 06110n11e1111e 1<a10111111ec1<01i 11ep1<1311. Ha11a11acb 011a 13 I‘epMa111111. Map111n JI101ep 11p01113 11a11c1t0r0 Puma. B pa311e11e11110171 H8 11ec1111<11 Me111<11x (lg r0cy, z1apc113 I‘epMa111111 11e cy111ec1n011a110 1<pe111<0171 1c0po11e13c1<o1'1 1111110111, cI10c06- ‘ " 110171 3an1111111b ee 01 11ep1<01a11111coB. 910 , z1e11a110 c1pa11y >1cep11101'1 6e3r'pa111r11110r0 5 » x0pb1c1'o11106m1 r1a11c1c0171 1<yp1111. E01111 13 11e111pa11113oBa1111b1x c1pa11ax(<1>pa111111:1,
  • 74. ‘IAC Tb Parmee Hosoe ape/ ~45: (KoHeu X V — nepsasv nonoauua X VII 3.) A1ar. m«1s1)Mo11apxn MOPJIPI npo'rm3oc'ros'r1. npe'ren3m1M nan, TO 113 pa3'bem«meH- Hofi Pepuannn B nancxcne cy11z1y1c1»1 perynapno neperexanu orpomuue cymmu nener. Crpany 6yKB8JIbH0 Hanonmum nancxme upoaaanm nunynbrennufi. B 11101:- Hux MeC'l‘8.X mm Beam 6o1‘»'my1o nponaxcy 1'paMo'r, acsmecrm pacxaanunaa c3o1‘»‘1 z Toaap. ‘-Ienonexom, 143 yc'r 1<o'roporo nposnyqan npnamn upercparwrb uuanqayxo I 'I‘OpI‘OBJlI0, c'raJ1 Map’: -nu Jlrorep (1483-1546). n. J1yxac_1:p*a'uax grnapami. ' _1Iop'rperTMapr1lnJI1nr1-epa. 1532 a. . 31 o1c'ts6pa 1517 r. JI1o'rep 1Ipn6n. r1 K maepmvx 3aM1conoi'1 neprcnn B Bwr'reH6epr'e e95 Tesncoa rxpormz nanynbrenuufi» . 3'10 61.1111»: 95 sospaxceuufi MOJIOJIOPO npotpeccopa npo'rma npana nan npoman. rpeummcoa, Icy- nnnmux ornymenne rpexoa. I1po'r1»11a 1m, z1y: u.- renunfi Toma BHCTYIIBJIO ueMa. no 50I‘0CJIOBOB, no JI1o'rep cnenan 3'ro oco6em1o pesxo :1 cMe- J1o. B cqwrax-xnue mm on c'ra. n uaaecreu Bcefi Fepmamm. Boxcpyr JI1o'1~epa CHJIOTKJIHCL ema- Hommmnennnxn, K0'I‘OpbIX no ero PIMCHK aaaunanu cmapmnancramn» . O'r xcpwrmcu nH11ym. ren11m}’1 can nepemma K ocyxcnennxo nancu-Ba H xawonnqecxofi nepxnn B ueJ1oM. Han JI1o'repoM nanncna yrposa oénmiemm n epecn, no on aerconefixmo c'roa. n Ha cnoem. B 1520 1*. Hana Hanan 6y. n.ny 06 0TJIy‘le! -IIIH Gyxrronnmxca 01' uepxan. JI1o'rep npnmogmo cmer ee BO nnope y1m3epcu're'ra. 3'1-o osnaqano oxonqarenbuufi paapua c Pn- MOM. Bmmmo, nmcro Toma He comuenanca, rrro JI1o'repa xc, z1e'r 1coc'rep, no on v136e>1ca. n pacupanm. Ero nonyjmpnocn. Ha pozmae 6w1a Heneponmoifx. Hancuuifx nocon coo6ma. n 3 Pnm: cllennwb necmux 3 Fepmanmx 1<pm1a'r “JI1o'rep”, a onna Aecsrraa, no Kpafinefi Mepe, “CMep'rb pmvxcuomy nBopy! ”» .
  • 75. TeMa 4 Bee rcwromucn 3naJm, trro mm cnacenna um neoéxozmmm myfioxaa Bepa, noépme zzena :4 nocpennmtecrno nepxnu. Fnannax nnea JI1o'repa aaxcmoqwxacb 3 mm, trro qenoaerc cnacae-1-ca TOJILKO nepofi 3 Born. On He orpnnan an noépmx nen, an neprum, no npmmny cnacenna annex He 3 HKX, a TOJILKO 3 «nmmoii aepe» . IIo y6excnenmo Jlrorepa, aepytomne ncerna npamo caaaanu c Xpncwom, neoéxonnmocm 3 nocpennuqecrne canmennmca ae cynxecrnyew. Kaxmmfi xpncrnanun mvxeer npano cam cnoéozmo npencram. nepen Borom. Bosanrcan aonpoc: ecma cnacerme aanucm TOJIBKO or Boxcbero Mrmoceppgxm, TO ae Jmmmm Jm cranonrrrca Toma nocpemnmecu-no cnamenaocnyaxurenefi n saqem HYJKBLI uana, enncxcouu, Monaxn, nepxonnue nnazzemm, Aecaruna? Cnenonawenbno, xawonuqecxufi rump neoéxozmmo ynpaannmrb, 6ora'rc'r3a neprcrm cercynapm 3o3a'1-1., mouacrupn aazcpbrrh, a Monamecrcne opneam pacnyc-rwrb. Bmecre c rem am nmcax He oanatxano yrmtrrooxenna neprcnn. Ona numb nonxcaa Gwra cram npyroii, 6oJree npocwofi. B owmtme or xamnnqecxofi, Mem- zxy cnamemmxamn u oémmumn nepyrommm He JIOJDKHO cymecrnonarh neupo- xoxmmofi cream. Cnamennmcn norm»: xcemrrncs, nocnm. oémmylo onexuxy, nommmrrbcn oénmm mm acex aaxonam. Jlrarepancrcaa uepxons ocnofioxczxanacb o'r mcon n CI-CYJIBIITYDELIX naoépaxcennfi Xpucwa u Boromawepn. I/ Ix noqrrraune, a Tarcxce uoruronenne xcpecry, Momam n npyrmu CBflTbIH5!M Jlxorep oémnm Imo- nonoxnoncrnom, JIIIIIIL 0'1-anercaxonmu om uommanoii nepu. OH ocyzum numnoe y6paHc'r3o cnxnzennmcon u cnoaxnue ofipanu. Ilpennoxcun us cemx Tanners OCT8BHTI> -ronuco Ana, onncarme xowopux conepxcwrca 3 Bnfimm, — rcpemezme n npnqacme, a ace npotme ctm'ra. u noannefimnmn abuxymcaxvux nepxcau. JI1o-rep nmcwynnn ramxe npomn ywaepxcnenns xaronnqecxofx uepxnn, rrro Cnsrroe Ilacanue — am Jmms ozmn as nepxonnmx anropmeron napsmy c noc'ra- uoxmeanaun co6opon, nancxmm nocnannamu n 'r. n. On ornacmt Bnénmo emin- cwneannm aa'roprrre'roM mm xpucrnan max 3 neprconnoii, Tax H 3 noacexmennofi xmann. I10 em Mnenmo, xaxcnmfi nepyxonmfi nomacen 6w: perymzpno ee qmawb H paammmnawb H811 nefi. Kyrmy n npennpnnnmaremo. c'ryzJ; en'ry n npocpeccopy, xynoxcamcy n noawy yxce ae Hyxcau Gwm nomomnnxn-nocpennmcu n nx arso- mennsrx c Borom. B XVI B. enponeen c'rano- , nmrca JIYFIHOCTBIO c qyncmom co6c'r3eH1-xoro nocrouncwna H noaromy naqnaan nocnpmzm- Mam. ycranoanemm xaronvmecxofi neprcnn rcax npxrrasarma Ha cnoxo cnoéony. JI1o'rep cymen 3'ro nomm. n crpeumzcs cnorm wean- em npmaupn-rz. qyncrno nnnnnunyanbnocrn c nomnmnofi penmwtoanofi Bepofi. ‘-I'ro6LI cnenarb Bn6.nmo nocwynnofi xaxcnomy, JI1o'rep nepenen ee Ha Hemeuxufi PEOOPMNJH‘/ "I H KOHTPPEOOPMAIJHS! B EBPOUE ".1 23I'blta/ oa6t| 't/ vie % _ eficfltgc Sci)» rttscuoftb. mart. Eutb. sssittcmbcrg. 25cgnaoet mttflav aamc. IIHIIIHOG, no Manonomrmoe ofiuqrmm furMicb': t_3u gbacbrcn npnxoacanam éomcnyxceuue H8 Jzaruaxa on fiwmdu mwrtbam‘ "81 um. npennoxcnn aamenrrrb npononenmo Ha pon- HOM namrce. Tpynu JI1o'repa, 1-Iarmcaanme no-nememm, neqawanncb fionsmmuu napa- xcamn n Mommenocuo pacxonmmcx. no nceii crpane, 11 em cnona u neficraua nonyrnum nmporcyxo nozmepxcxy. B 1519-1521 rr. 651110 nazxano 500 THC. axsemmmpon pa6o'r peqJopMa'ropa. Cnenanuuii mu nepenon EH5- [‘ . (. - 23. D. xxxnn. ‘
  • 76. I 3 I r 1 , L1’/ CTb Raunee Hoeoe ape/ vm(KoHeu XV nepsas nonosuna XVII 5.) ’" W 1 t ‘l 1! ‘ . 7-. ‘ I 5- -» ', ‘ 5'3 31 K A. , I g X » 2 E‘ I‘ I, 1 » ) V‘ L‘ ‘ ‘ A 3 N‘ A. ;_ _')_-‘V ‘ I 3 I4’-'7-'¢-v‘ ' ‘Y1 ! L.“; l (gr , I In “ I ‘ “I , l‘ ’ "- ‘, [.| > : ‘V ‘ V ¢ I J / ' . 3 . . » 4 ' .1 ! ' I ’ ‘ , . . ‘ M. ’ W ‘ 1 _. ‘ $ 4'. /4 '/ E-; ,‘-H! }v / !'/ ,’‘, .f. ‘ I . _: ' J 5 j' ‘ ’ . ‘a>v. £3“ 3 i m. if’ :9’, . 1 _ “ ‘G, ’ I . ‘_. ... - .5 , . _ '. .’. ".J . ,w«“T' -"' ~“ 1. C47,. 4» Mapnm JIxo'rep Ha pefxxcware 3 Bopmce. Fpasropa. 155 7 mm TOJIbKO npn ero nmann BBIXOJIPIJI 430 pas. I/ I ceromm on nonbayewcs 6om. moi& nonynxpnocwmo 3 I‘epMamm. l'Ipo'rec'rhI n anpec nanm Bce rpomqe anyqann no acefi Pepmannn. PeBnoc'r- mm xaronnx, nMnepa'rop Rapn V penmn amemawbcs 3 neno. B 1521 r. on amanan JI1o'repa Ha pefixcrar 3 ropon Bopmc. Tam « epe'rm<y~> IIpe, Z[Jl0}KHJIH o'r- peqbca or caonx samsmon, no JIxo'rep orxaaanca 3'ro cnenarb. OH He xcenan mrm npornn co6c'rBeHHo1‘& coBec'm, a cnoro ne1coJ1e6nMoc1'b abtpaann <1)pa3ox}‘1: « Ha TOM c'ro1o 14 He Mory nnaqe». I/ Imneptrrop, nomxepxmnan nany, nacwosm Ha nprmsrmu pememm o npe- cnezxonarum noéopnmcoe 1-1030171 epecn. Han JI1o'repoM nasncna cMep'reJn~. Han yrposa. Hpanna, uMnepa'rop noofieman eMy 6e3onacHbn71 npoean B Bopxwc, no- a'roMy Jlxorepy paapemmm Bepnyrbcn , z1oMo1"x. Ho no nopore on neomunanno nctxes. HeMa.1Io . mo, uex‘«'1 C‘{PITaJIPI axxorcropa Mapwnna» nom6umM 14 onnaxnaann ero. Ha C8MOM ace gene, cnacan pec1>opMa'ropa or apecwa, xypqnopcr Caxconcnnix cnpawan JIxo'repa 3 onnom no cnonx aaxvncos. O1-cy'rc'rnne JIro'repa He ocranosnno paamrrna Peqmpmamm, o6pe'rn1ei'1 yxce Muoacecwao croponnmcos. R nefi npncoezmmumcb Bce cnou Hemenuoro nacenenna - nnopancwao, 6Ioprepc'rBo, KDGCTBKHCTBO. Ho cwpane npoxa'm- Jxacb nonna roponcxnx eoccwannfi, 3 xone rcowopmx rpommm nepmm n MOH8C- Tmpn, ynntxwoxcann mconu H c'ra'ryn, Hananamx H8 Monaxos n csmnennmcos. Hanan c pecpopmm nepxnn, roponcrcaa 6ex1Ho'ra n 1cpec1'1.smc'rBo naxxesmncb O6HOBH'I‘b Mnp n ycranosmt. B HEM cnpaaennnsocwb. B nnamexm xpecrsnncxoii 6opb6u. 3'm nnen BCTpeTIUII—I ropsmyxo nozuxepxucy npononennmca Tomaca Mxolmepa (on. 1489-1525) ~ 61.n3mero npmaepmerma, a nnocnencwnnn nenpnmnpmvxoro npornanmca JI1o'repa. « BSSITB Mo. no'r 3 pyxu Pl ynapwrb no c'rapoMy Mnpy» — Taxnmn cnosaxvm Tomac Blrounep npnsbman conepmwrb nepeaopow M ycranoenrb enacn. napona. Ilponoeennmc ronopnn, trro cnamennmcn c6nBa1o'r c Tomcy npocwbrx monefi, a «fieafioxcnme Tnpanm» — I-(H8355! H rocnona — paaopmor n rpa6x'r nx. Jmnemepno Tnepna npn a'roM: «He
  • 77. PECDOPMAUHH H KOHTPPEGOPMALIHQ B EBPOHE l<lopncru: < 8 -02:40 Km». (.3 All mm: § 45”‘! -X¢— nu. InK(n»: Emumgar H K H :1 >4; +: c1‘no -I10 5F€°’. :uH~oucKoE ‘ ~ .75 Oflracm. --4 Kueao _’~"8_‘”°+° Y K P A M H A / ‘xi ‘. /’_‘4'Orr4{T D ' - '' KO _. ‘r-Jr. u)1__3.¢1r1-,3,.5,. ¢;: * . _ P ~ . - pimgnmyaen ' (b; ..mI'r: .ypvr, ¥.1P«'>: mg? ay3ep - " A - ' . ~ r . ..D. f<; 'u_‘-‘y vj ; _fip‘-. r< ' ' » ¥"x’”°”9'%EXLei ‘b: 4» ' ' ~ . . . . . . 5.w: uu"‘ an _ _. . ‘ vr flfu-y. f; ‘)o. «u / ~_ - I_) , ‘.. :' J - .1 a_-, '’- . . ‘ ‘nu m PAH uuM$i7,""‘—"' V , Chi! -HPHB ‘Em-non . . K(| m:n, v (:3 . %_’ '3 Ezacarom ‘ ' ‘W Fguoyxa ‘ Q . / IlA. lICKOE n “ roc. 0nOD9~ul. :s5 has 0 Mapcem. 0 Kopcu-.2 , .; 0.C. ?{1fl>'-«.42 I'M» OC. Vl; .HCKAfl lIMHEI’l15l O (‘ Mug »'<lDt0r4‘-I ! I: POKKO%n. I ; u . | -- n u 51 ‘ uwuepuu 'ly'v«.4r; 0 Ocnuucxuu Peibopmamm n Enpone n XVII 15. Kpemmsncuaa aoiiua B Fepuanmt Fparmuu Casau1eHHoL71 Pnmcxgfi mmnepma M ppymx rocynapcns no BTODOM nonoavme XVI B. Fnaeuue uempu pe<1>opMauuom-aoro mzmocen-ma Teppmopvm pacnpocrpanermfi _ nporectamcxux ueponcnoaenanvmz ‘ noorepancraa T7 _‘ xamaammama anrnnxanctaa Panonu. coxparmaume eepnocn. xaronwaecxofi l. |eDK8VI T‘. Pafionu pacnpocrpaneuwa npaaocnaavm Pafionu pacnpocrpaneomn ncnama Pafionu co cmewanuum aeponcnosenauuem Fnaanue uempu KoH‘rppe¢>OpMaum4 _ Pafion K ecrbsmcxoui aoimu a Fepuamm ' ~~~~~~ (15244 25 N. ) yxpamxl» Ilnopan He éecnorcowr uonoxcenne Hapona, om: ne1‘»'Ic'1*nyro'r npownn xpncrnancxoifx Bepbx H canm noc'ryna1o'r Tax, trro 6eJnn. n‘& qenoaexc c'rano1m'r- ca nx nparom. IIoa'roMy Mxonnep npnsunan ycranomrrb I. Iapc'rBo Boxcbe, rne 3oc1~opx<ec'rnye'r cnpaaepgnnnocwb, a nnacrb 6y, ne'r npnnannexcan. caMoMy na- pony. B 'ra1coM nneanbnou o6mec'rne uaiimercx MCCTO Tonbxo mm Tex nsopsm, no-ropme He 6yny'r yrne'ra'rb napon. Bcex npoqnx neoéxommo rcaanwrb, a nx aaxvum — cponusrrb c 3eMJ1ei'1. Tonbxo Toma Bonapsrrcn comacne 14 11106035. Hamepemm «npnmenwn. rcynarc». OH cpanannan éyrrroammcon c éemenbmn {( v~. ’. 75 JI1o'rep nanno npenynpemnan rcnasefi o «msrreazcuom Ayxe» Mxonuepa, o era (4,, _; . ncamn n ctm'ra. n aeofixoxmmbm 6ea>xa. noc'rHo nx ynnwroxcan. Hym JI1o'repa ; I" H ;1ea'reJ1ei’x Haponnoii Peqmpmamm nonnocwmo paaoxmmcb. 0co6e1mo scno cg ' a'ro oéaapyxmnocb, Roma ne'roM 1524 1'. Ha lore I‘epMamm Bcnmxnyna Epc- E v I I‘
  • 78. "IACTb Rannee Hoaoe spemz (KoHeu XV — nepaaa nonoauna XVII B. ) . * ‘ ~ M l V i ‘ - V l V . “ I KPucm0¢¢ubcau3uxeu. 53"" "" - ‘ ‘- ‘"““"‘ ' ‘- Touac Mmmep I )1 x06 M ypep. Kpecrsancxaa noihaa _lp » A. cwbancxaa Bofina. Ilpuqnnofi ee c'raJ1o yxymnenne nonoxceana xpecwban, nuanannoe Ten, ‘rm 3 Haqane XVI 3. B Banannofi Eapone uoaucmrca cnpoc Ha x. ue6, n Fepmarma peaxo ynemmnna ero nunoa. CTDGMHCB 3apa6o'ra'1'b xax Mom- no éonbme zxener aa Topronne sepaom, nnopancwno pacnmpsmo coficraermyto aananncy sa cqe'r crona c senum rcpecwmn. ‘I'ro6m aacwannn ax pa6o'ra'r1. Ha ce- 6:1, mzopnae nepenommn rcpecrbsm Ha Gapmnny n orpannqnnann ux Jmtmyxo caoéony. 9m snnexme nonyvmno Haanarme cB'ropoe nsnarme xpenocwmmecmao . Ocoéeuno Tmicenoii oxcaaanacs cmyanna Ha rore Fepmannn. Pesxoe no3Myme- rme rcpecwban Busunanu Jmrmme noannnocwx, npexcne ncero cnocmeprnmfi no6opo , xowopufi nanmaml npn nepenaqe aewm 3 nacnencrao. On cocranmm rpewb nmymecrna xpecrbannna, nprmem y Hero aaénpann ace camoe nennoe - nyqmyro onemny, Jzytmmfi cxo'r. Cnyuanocb, wro c xpecwumcxoro maopa y3o- mum ennacwneanyxo xopony. B o'rne'r rcpecrbane coénpanncb 3 noopyxcename orpanu. nrrypmom 6paJm aamcn n Monacrmpn, paapymann n pasopsum ax. llnmrceane 6uc'rpo mnpn- noes, xc noncranuam upncoemmanocb Hacenerme He6OJIbIIIHX ropozzon, a Tax- xce Memme pmnapn. Om; nomorvm cocmnn-rt. nporpanmu xpecrmncxux 'rpe- Gonarmfi. Han6oJIee nanecruofi cpenn max CTaJI& nporpalvma c 12 c'ra'rei‘n . 3a mam nofinu ona naaazanacb 24 paaa n 6Lma otleub nonynapnofi. B Hefi 1cpec'rb- axe 'rpe6ona.1m BGDHYTI: aaxnaqename nnopsmamn aemm n nac'r6mna, corcpa- TKTB Gapuumy K oéporc, ynuwroncwrb nmmyro sanncmnoc-rs, cnnawrb nanorn. Ouu 3uc'rynaJm Taxace nporma ynnaru neprconnoii necsrmnu. Hac'ram3aJm na npane cammu BbI5Plp8TI> cnameanmca. XVI 3. M3 Kpecrbm-Icxofi I1pOI'paMMbl « 12 crarefi» Bo-nepsux, name cwmpennoe npomerme M xenarme — MMGTI: npaao aceii 06- umuofi auémparb ce6e canmenuuxa M cMeu1,aTb ero. Bo-sropux. Mbl oornacuu mean: cnpaaewmayno aepuoayoo Aecsrmny, no IWl| .lJb Tax, K3.K nonaraetcn. Bnpem. Mbl xenaem, -+1065: arry necsrmuy cofiupanm Haum uepxoanble GT3- pocm VI M3 co6paHHoro naaama 65: Aocravo-moe conepxarme canmeuuuxy, vI36paHHo- My acefi ofiuuauofi. B-Tpemnx. no cnx nop 5bU'lO a o6bHae C‘MTaTb Hac «oo6cTaeHHuMw- nnonwn. Flpvmw Man so armmauue, taro Xpncroc nponvumem caoefl nparouennofi KDOBM ocaoéonmn M ucxynvm Hac acex. .. noaromy cooraercrayer nmcaamo, '-iTO5b| Mbl Guma M xomm 6am. caoéonuumu. ..
  • 79. ‘ PBDOPMALLHSH HKOHTPPEIDOPMALLHH B EBPOFIE Teivia ’—-4.4’ B-nmbux, Haum rocnop, a npnceomm ace neca. B07 Hawe MHGHMB1 neca J10J'l>KHbl R _ »/ _. cnoea nepefim a pyxvl ace»? oéumnbu. ‘ T: -‘ 3’ B-uJecmx, Mbl Tepnvw 50J1bl. U0e omromenvle or Gapumn, Koropbue pacryr vu yMHO- 5 5. xarorcn co mm Ha [lei-lb. Mb! >KenaeM, -+7065: Hac He omromanm Tax CVIl'| bHO. ‘ B-necnmx. Hexoropbue npucaomnu ce6e npMHa. w1e>a<au. une o6umHe nyra, a Tame VI ‘ naumm. Sm aemnm MblXOT| /1M cuoaa aepHyTb 3 name o6Lu. ee nonbaoaarme. B xone Kpecwaxncxofi Boixuu csoxo upo- rpamxvxy nozzroronmm -raxcme npe. z1Bo, zu»1'reJm gm Q5,u, ,a, (,¢; n.~1)na, -“g. Tofi '~laC'I‘H 61oprepc'r3a H . z1Bopsmc'rBa, KO'l‘O- cm6anpt$? {ra(fi. alfh"Q§aurr pan upncoemmmiach IC noacramxam. Bro 65111 l'cf2'afl't| m3 £5Df| °€TI? l?tn Du’ npoewr umnepcxoii pequopmu, Hanpa3J1eH- Qficlllilldimnnajficlclu Hmfi I-I8 nenrpannaamno cwpanu. IIpe1zycMa- ‘f5i')‘6‘: ,‘%“f“"2‘: !§‘°“ rpuaanocb, qwo Bca BJIaCTh 3 rocynapcrse bd-c5$““o: ,,’ cocpenoroqwrca 3 pyxax nmnepwropa, ace- BJIBCTPIIO xnsaefi 6yp; e'r nonoxcen xoaen, a caxvm orm npenpawsrrca B rocynapcwaennmx nonxcuocrnmx mm. Ilyxoaeucwno o'rc'rpa- Hsmocb o'r cne-rcrcoiix nnacwn, ueprconnoe nmymecwno noxuxemano cexcynnpnaannu. I/ I3 a'roro qaonna nnannposanocb npenocraann, aewno pbII18p5IM, rcompme naamea éwm 06:2- aanu HBCTH noermyro cJxy>1c6y rocynapcwny. BOJIBIHOE Bmmanne ynemmocb mrrepecam ropoxcaa. J'. I.rm coneficwnna paanwrmo pe- Mecna. TODPOBJIH H npennpnnnmawenbcrna npelmaramm PM Mep: ("M838 nomjmu Mex’ Tnwynbabxfi : mc'r <- 12 crareii». 11y O'l‘1IeJIbl-IBIMH nememcnmn xnnxcecwnamn, XV, 6_ anenenne ezmnmx Mepm, neca :4 Monewnofi cncwemu. Cqnranocb, trro 61oprepc'rBo Irony- rmw npano npnnnmawb yqacme 3 paapaéonce rocyzxapcwaennmx aaxonos. ‘Iasuma x<pe- CTBHH Taxmce yqwrsxnaamcb. I/ IM nporpaM- Ma oéemana o-meny Jmtmofi aasncnmocwn PI ocnofioxcnenne o'r nonnnaocrefi, npaana, TOJIBKO npn ycnonun Bunnawm 60JIbIIIOI‘0 Bbucyna. Bnecrn ero éwm B cocwoxmm TOJIb- rco saacwroqnme xpecrbane. Coanasaa npoewr mwnepcxofi peq)opML1, em anropu Hanemmcb ofimemmmb nememcoe o6u1ec'r3o Ha ocnoae ofinxerocyzzapcwsenumx mm-epecon. Onnaxo pacxoxcnennn 3 psmax noacranuea n pasrpom qacrn xpecwbam cxux o'rpsu1on cnenann 31-0 nenoaMox<Hb1M. Bnpoqem, nepnme Heynatm ae ocraaonmm mmoxenue. Hon anamena noacwaunen upo- nonxcanu cxomrrbcx mcnqn Juoneia. Ilezrrp Boiinu nepeMec'rx«I. ucx 3 Tropmxrmo; me Haxommcx Mrormep. OH anoxnoaenno A-’lb6P€xm I1'0P¢’P- TPH npmsmsan rcpecwbxn rc 6opb6e, npopoqmx *‘Pe°'””“"“‘“- 14974500 “-
  • 80. I V 1 V | I / N '4/-C7-b Pam-lee Hosoe Bpemsz (KOHEU XV —- nepaasz FIOl‘IOBUHa XVII B. ) Koneu Kpecrmncxofi nofmbl. Fpamopa. XVI o. 61.1c'rp1,1i'1 xoneu <«6e360>1<n1.1M 'r11pa11aM»> 11 uepexon 311ac'r11 1< IJp0CTOMy napo- 11y. Peu1a10111as1 611'rBa nponaomna 1303113 1'0p0;11<a tbpanxexaysen. Hepen ee 11a11aJ10M 1111513511 nc'1y1111J111 B 11epe1*0130p1.1 c 110Bc'ra1111aM11, 11006e111a3, 1110 110311011511‘ 11M pa301‘i'1'11c1. 110 110MaM, ecmx 01111 n1.u1a,11y'r Mronuepa. Cpezxn 1cpec'rb- 1111 nat1aJ10c1. 3aMe111a'reJ11.c'r130, no Kan pas 11 3101 MOMGHT na ne6e 11o51311J1ac1. paayra. M10n11ep y6e111u1 1<pec'rb11n, 1110 3'10 1106p1.n‘1 3na1< — cm*11a.1 0 11011,z1ep>1<1<e co c'r0p0n1.1 ne6ec111.1x 01111. Benn panyra, c0e111111s13111an ne60 11 3eMm0, 61111111 11306pa>1cena 11 Ha anamenax noncwanuea. l'I01ca xpecwbane cJ1y111a. r111 np011ose111. M10n11epa, spar oxpyxcnn 11x. Y11ap11.r111 11y1111c1/1, 11ocJ1e 1IepBbIX BhICTpeJIOB naqanacb 1:1an111ca. Becnomomnoe 1cpec1'1.:111- c1<0e noi'1c1<0 pa36e>1<aJ10c1. B pa3n1.1e croponm 11 6111110 6c3>1<a.110c'rn0 y1-111t1'r0>1ce110. Panenoro M10n11epa cx1aa'1'1u111 11, nonneprnyn nbmcam, 1ca31111J111. Bcrcope 61111111 . r1111<n111111p0na111.1 oc'ra. m.111.1e 0t1a1'11 COHDOTKBJIGHIIH. Yr1ac'rn111c11 n.21ox0 1100py- xcennmx 11 ne0pran1130nannL1x xpecwbancxnx 01'p51,uoa ne 11MeJm ne06x0,z111Mo1“1 noennoix 110z1r0'r0111<11 11 ne 11011111 IIDOTPIBOCTOHTB Tnmenofi apTIUl. IIepPIH, K0111111- ne 11 13nIMy111'1'ponann0i'1 11ex0're 1<n11ae1"1. Pa31'p0M 110cc'1an11s1 conponoxcxxanca ne- 11cr111c. n11M1.11v111 >1cep'rBaM11. II01111y10 nomxepxcxy 11e171c1111mM 1c11113e1‘1 ab1c1ca3a.11 JI10'rep. On 1111ca.11, 1110 6y11'r0n111111<013 11e06x0,z111M0 6e3>1<a. n0c'rn0 ynnqroxcarb, nnaqe 01111 1101'y6a'1' nepxcany. C 31010 Momenra JI10'rep c1m3aJ1 c3010 cy11b6y c 111151- xcecrcoii nJ1ac'r1.10. ICoe—1‘11e nanyrannoe maopsmcrno 110111.110 1<pec'r1>anaM Ha yc1'ym<11, 110 13 11,eJ10M 11x 110J1o11ce1111e yxyz111111J1ocb. He 0cy111ec'r1311J111cb 'ra1c>1~: e txannnn Tex, 1110 na;1e- smca na 11p0ne11en11e 1101u1'r11t1ec1c0171 peq)0p: v1L1 11 c0311an11e em11101“1 I‘epMa1m11. II06e, z111're. r1mv111 13 60pb6e 11111111111 11115131111. 1'I0c11e 11o11a11J1en11s1 1<pec'r1.m1c1<11x 31.1c'ry1111en111'1 11 11x pyxax oxaaanacb ne 'r0J11.1c0 cy111.6a 11ep1<1311. no 11 cy, z1b6a I‘epMan1m B I1eJIOM. 0'1‘ 11p0'1'11noc'ro51n1m K peJm1'11o3n0My zvmpy. Hoxontmn c ICpecTb11nc1<01”1 aoiinoii, xnnabn, 11p113ep>1<en11b1 JI101'epa, 11p0110m1cm111 Pe(p0pMa111110. B 0110- 11x aeMJ151x 01111 13o3rJ1aB11J111 11ep1<0111. 11 'rer1epb carvm pe111aJ111, Ka1<y10 penn- rmo 6y11e'r ncnonenonarb nonrmacrnoe HM nace11e1111e. Cne1'c1<11e 11pan11're:111 ce1<yJ1s1p11aonaJ111 neprconnble 3eMJ111 11 11p11cn011J111 60ra'rc'r1=. a Monacrmpefi. B co0'rae'rc'rB1111 c 'rpe60aa1111s1M11 Pe(1)0pMa111111 11 1111 13;1a11e11m1x npeo6pa30n1.1- 88.7100]: n11<0.11bnoe 11 yn11nepc111'e'rc1<oe o6pa30Ba1111e. Bce 3'10 01111111-10 y1cpe11J1s1J10 BJ'I8CTI> 1cnn3e1”1. O6ec1101<0e11n1.n¥1 11M11epa'r0p ’ , Kapn V y6e1111J1 pei'1xc'ra1' IIDPIHHTB pemexme 0 n0BceMec'rnoM Boccranonnennu 1ca'r0J11111ec1coro 6orocJ1y>1ce1111a. B 0'rBe'1' 5 1<n513e171 11 14 roponon 111.1pa311.n11 cnofi 11p0'rec'r. C 31010 MoMe11'ra cmponnmcon Pe(1)0pMa111m c'ra:111 na31.111a'r1. 11po'rec'ran'1'aM11. Tax 11p01130n1J10 po>1<,11en11e 11p0'rec1~aH'r113:v1a. (Cerozzna 11p0'rec-
  • 81. PECDOPMALIHSI H KOHTPPEOOPMALLHSI B EBPOFIE Tema 'I‘&HT8.Mfl cq1»n'a1o'r Bcex npnnepxcennen Peq>opMa- mm, a Haxmoaanbume ueprcnn, He npnsnaxomne nnacm nanm pmwcxoro, nocar aasnanue upo- Tecranwcrmx). B 1530 r. as. pefixcware B ropone Ayrc6ypre 6Jmx<ai«’unm'& coparnmc JI1o'repa — lbmmnn Menanxron (1497-1560) Bpytmn nmneparopy noxymerrr, nanecwnmii non Hasnannem Ayrc- 6yprc1<oe neponcnonexxamre». B HBM éhum nano- menm ocuosm Jno'repaHc'rna. Pnanofi uepzcnn nMec'ro nanm cwaaosnnca xaasb. Bamerno ynpomanncb 061331151: coxpaammcb Tonuco msa 'ram1c'raa — xpexnerme n npnqacwne, a nmmnaa —' rcaronnqecxaa Mecca aameusmacn npouonenmo cnameumnca. Hponoaenn o'rno1m. nacb I1eH'I‘p8JIb- naa pom. 3 nepxonnoix cJryx<6e. B morepancxoii nepxan ocwananca rump, no cama oaa cranonnnacb <«neme3o1‘&»: o'n<a31.n3a- Jxacb 01' qpeamepnoro yxcpamawenbcrna, pocxonmoro y6paHc'1-na, noxnoaemm mconam PI cnn'r1.msM. Kapn V owxnounn npennoxcenne BCTYIIHTB 3 neperonopm OTHOCHTGJIBHO <= .Ayrc6yprcxcoro aeponcnonenanna» n mvrecre c xaronnqecxnmn }€Hfl3l:5!MK Hanan aoifmy npo'rm3 Jnowepan. Pepmanns pacrcononacr. na Asa Bpaxcnefinmx peamrnosnmx nareps. I/ Ianypnrenbnaa 6opL6a aarconqmlacb TOJILKO B 1555 I‘. nommcaanem Ayrcéyprcxoro pemnnosnoro Mnpa. I/ IMnepa'rop 65111 BbIHY}R- nen npnanawb pannonpanne xaronnxon n morepaa. Kapn V noasomm K&JK1IO- My K3 xmxsefi snogmn. 3 cnoux aexvmax Ty pennrmo, 1co'ropox‘«‘1 npnz(epxmna. n- ca cam Mecwaufi npanwrenb. B )KK3Hb nomen npmumn: «qbfi anacwb, TOPO PI aepa». ‘iacn. xuaxcecrn, pacnononcenuux npenmymecwnenno B uerrrpe 14 na nocwoxe Pepmamm (Czmcomm, Hpyccxm, Bpannenéypr n npyme), c'ra.7m upo- Tecwamcxnmn, ocranbnue oc'ra. rmca xaronnqecxumn. Bro oxonqarenbno aaxpenmxo pasnpoénennocwb I‘epMaHm1 vx aanonro noxopommo aanexcnm Ha ee nonuruqecxoe ofimennnenne. Jlyrcac Kpauax Cmapwufi. dlmmnn Menanxmn. 1523 e. L: 1.1.? '3 .31.: Pefixcrar 3 Ayrcfiypre. Fpaeropa. I 650 e.
  • 82. I / / LI/ -‘K C Tb PaHHee Hoeoe apemn (KoHeu XV nepsaz I'lOI1OBUHa XVII 5.) 1. Houemy Petpopmauun nauanacb umenuo 8 Fepmanuu? Moncno nu cw- mamb ee cny-4aL'mbz. u : ze.1euue. u, no-tano I<'0mopo. uy nononcun u mesucbt npomue uudynbaeuuutt? 2. Uouemy yueuue Jhomepa, nony-Luezuee uaasanue «onpaadamw aepoa», npeacmaannno yzpo3y (3.111 xamonuuecxofl uepxeu? 3. ‘Jean omnurtanocb nouumauue Perpopmauuu M IOHUCPOM om ee mo. rucoea- nun JItomepo. u? 4. Ifaxue nocneacmewz u. mr. 'z am I‘ep. xmHuu Ayecdypecxuiz pe. r1uzuo. mbu’1 Map? 3A, ZIAHI/ IFI 1. Onwpancb Ha rexcr naparpa¢a. sbmcrmre npwmuu, camzerenbcrsoaaswue o Haapeaamm s Eapone Pecbopmauuu. 2. Mcnonbayn ¢parMeHr M3 KpecrbnHcxot71 I'IpOI'paMMbI « 12 crareiv», onpe, ae- / mre, Kax orpaswmcb 3 ee no/1o>KeHm7x MAQM Pe¢opMaum4. flpome Hapy- wermn xamx npaa aucryna/ m Kpecrbnue? Kax orm O5b$7CHFll7M aaxormocrb rpe6oBaHm1 o Boaspatuerwm MM nw4Hot71 cso6o, au? PACIIPOCTPAHEHHE PE<1)OPMAI1,I'II/ I H ICATOJII/ I‘{ECKA$I PECDOPMA mas Kansans s Pecbopmausa s Hiesese. Bonsbl Pecbopmamm paaornnucb no nceii Eapone. B cepensse 30~x ronos XVI 13. ee Bamsmm nes'rpoM c'rana Illnefinapmz. B ornnsne or Pepmasns, one He asana nasnesnx nmneparopcsofi n xsnxcecxoii snacrn n asaqmenbso cna6ee qyacrsonana snmnme xa'rons- qecxcoii nepxnn. Bro noasonnno mnefinapcxnm peq)opMa'ropaM neficrnonan. pemwrenbsee n1o'repas. Paasrrme Petbopmanns 3 Illseiinapnn csaaaso c mwesem }ICasa Kansnssa (1509-1564). ~.3.« mas Kansans ponsncn so Cbpasnrm 3 cembe K’ . xopncwa. B 14 new noc'rynun 3 yl-mnepcwrer, no- “ ' nyrmn npespacsoe rymassrapsoe s npasosoe ofipaaosasne. Hocne 'I‘OI‘O xax so <Dpasuus nasa- JIPICB xcecwoxse rxpecnenosasmx cropossmcos Pecpopmanmr, Kansans 6un susyxmes norm- syn. pommy. Ho npnrnanxesmo Mamcwpawa Difiesesm on cwan nponosensmcom s 3'l‘OM r<pyn- som Toproso-éasxoscxom u. es'rpe. Cyposufi ac1<e'r c meneanoii cnnofi BOJIK, Kans- ans 6un senonesom penxocrsofi 'rpynocnoco6soc— TH: nonsoe cofipasue ero coqssessiix cocmnnner mas Kansans 59 T°M°B' Fnassmfi TPYJI Ranbsssa — <«Hac'raBne1me B xpncmascxofi sepe» — conepxcm c'rpo1“myro csc'reMy pensrnossmx sarnnnos, aanoxcnsmyxo ocsony nonoro _ sanpasnesss s npo'recTas'maMe. Kansans ywsepxcnan, trro qenosex se cac- « 6o, qes 3 nméope csoero ncnanessoro ny'm. Ero cynbfia aapasee npenonpenenesa Boromz onsn o6peqesb1 sa sessoe nporcnsrrse n crcopfib, npyrnm naponasm
  • 83. PE®OPMALu/ [SI H KOHTPPEOOPMAUHSI B EBPOFIE TOM. 4 cnacenne n aetmoe 6na>xeHc'r3o. I/ Ismeuvm. a'ro'r npnronop mm n36exca'rb ero amcro He B cxmax. Onnaxo, ecnn txenosex IIDEBFIJILHO shmomnrr caoe xcnanennoe npnaaamxe, on MOXCBT aanesrrbcs Ha cnacenne. IIo3'roMy neoéxonmao 6!-JTL awrnnnmm, ynopnsm. Mnoro pa6o'ra'rb K He o'rc'ryna'rL nepen Tpynnocmun. Raxcmnfi qenonerc - or npaawrens rocynapcwna no ofihmnoro cnyrn - aonxcen nposmvm. cnon cnocoéaoc-m, aanoxceunue 3 Hero Boron, n cwpemmbca nocruqn ycuexa 3 -rom gene. KOT0pbIM aannmaercn. I/ Imenno 3 a-rom sarcnroqaewca ero rnannoe cuyxcenne Bory 14 aepa 3 Hero. JIBHOCTB - camufi 6oJ1bmo1‘& nenocwarox, I I L I a sacnym, 6ora'rc'rBo, ycnex 14 game ofimtman finaronapnocwb - upommenne fioxcecwaeunofi Gnarocxnonaocwu, snare éynymero cnacerma nynm. Yqeane Ka: u.3nna y6e>xna. no 3 Heo6xo1mMoc'm c'rapa'reJn. ao n nnonoraopno pa6o'ra'n. , nanennnano Ha Bocnwranne 3 qenonexe Ancnnnnnnu, co6pa1-moc'm, nonenbxx xaqecrn. Ono Hanmo normmanne H nonnepaxxy co croponm 6epexc- Jmaoro 6xoprepc'1-Ba H pananx npennpnnumarenefi. Hacranneann xcenencrcoro nponoaenamca Hamtyqmma o6pa3oM coo'rne'rc'r3ona. nn nyxy H no'rpe6noc'rsm npemetm - anoxe aapoxcnenmi xannwannama. BMec're c 'reM Kansans 'rpe6osa. n o'r nepyronmx ymepennocru B 'rpa're nener Ha nprranne, onexcny, yrcpamexme ncmmma. OH ctm'raJI, trro ttenonex pa6o'rae*r u norm-r aenbrn He mm TOP0, trro6u fieanymno pasnnexawbcs, a ma o6pe'reImn I. Iapc'r3a Heéecnoro. B Jlfieneae pesxo coxpamnocb xonnqecrno npasnnmmux nnefi H ycrauoannca xcecncnfi xowrponb aa noaenexmem xcmenefi. HM 3anpeIn; a- JIOCB He TOJIBKO nrpam. B aaapmnue nrpm H Tannenan Ha nnpax, no u ‘WITRTL paaanexawenbuyxo nureparypy, CMOTpe’I‘b cnewrarcnn, conponoaqxawb Myawcofi nponeccnu. Jicenennam npumnocr. HOCHTB cxcpommyxo Temnyro onencny n outa- aawbca o'r npm-onennocrefi. Ocofienno crporo nananpann aa nocemennem nep- xonaux cnyxcfi, noompsm nonocm cocenefi Ha Hapymwrenefi aworo npanmla. Henocnymaux narommn us ropona, a nopofi name xaammn. 3a cnoro cyponocrh H nenpnmnpnmocw-L Kansans nonyrum npoanmne cxcenencxnfi nanao. Eme nenanno necenaa H panocmaa Hcenena, me runoqom 6mm amass, upe- npamnacb B xmypmfi ropon c nacropoxcennmmn n HOJIOSDHTEJILHLIMPI xcu'reJumm. HBYAHBHTGJIBHO, trro nponxanmcn Ransauua cnenann ace, trrofim noéwrbca ero narnarma. Onaaxco qepes Ana rona, xorna x nnac-m 3 Marne-rpa're npmmm croponnmcu Ranbnuua, npononemmxa noanama naaaa. Bepaynmncb, on news- MYTHMO npononxcnn cnoro npononem. c roro camoro cnona, Ha rcoropou oc'ra- Hoannca, rcorna 6hIJ'I nhmyxcnen IIOKPIHYTB Diceneny. M l I O I ICaJu. Inmnc-rcrcaa uepncons. Ycwpoficwno xanbnuuncrcxoix nepxnn aauerno ; omnqanocb ne Tonuco o'r xawonaqecxoii. no n or nmepancxofi. B nefi o1-cy'r- crnonana neprconnaa nepapxna. Bce nena pemana oénmaa, 05'beJIKHflBl1I8.5I HGCKOJIBKO necawxon nepylomux. OHM naénpamx pyxononwrenn oénmau - npecmrrepa. Kaxcnan oénuma 6Lu1a camocrosnenbnofi n neaanncmaofi 01' npymx, no Mexcny co6ofi can nonnepaxnnann canon mm o6Mena OIIHTOM, a 3 cnyqae aeoéxozmmocna — H mm conmecwnux neficrnufi. Hpecnxrrepm maenn naxaamnarb nx. Bpema or npemenu cyponmfi KOBTDOJIB n noompenne nonocon 81 npaso nmemunarbca 3 cemeifmyxo PI JIM‘-II-IYIO )KH3Hb‘ Imenon oémmiu n name an cocenefi aaxanqunanucb ocrpmmn rcoaqmmwaun uexcny ropoxcanana. He cymecrnonano y xammnunc-roa n noanenennoro 3 can nyxonencnaa. O'rnpanJmJ1 cnyacfiy :4 qwra. n npononezxb nacrop, rcoroporo nafinpann K3 Imcna Juonefi oépaaoaannux H rcpacnopetwnux. Hepnommecrcu npecnrrrepm n nacropu npononmm o6mee coépanne. Ono H83hIB8.JIOCI> nconcncropua n 651.110 aucmma opraaom pyxosoncraa nyxonabmn 14 caercxumn nenamn ofiunmu. ICa. m.nnnnc'r-
  • 84. ‘(A C Tb PaHHee Hoeoe ape/ ~49 (KOH€u XV — nepsast nonoeuna XVII 5.) . emu": u; eprcoBHsn‘»'1 rcymyr 'rpe6oBa. n ncrcmoqwrensnofi npoc'ro'rs1 14 crporocrn. H3 xpaMoB yzzannnn amrapn, pacnsrrna, ceetm, pocxcomnoe y6panc'rBo 11 yxpa- meumx. O'rpm1a. nocs norcnonenne mcoaam n peJm1cB1mM, ncnonsaonanne opra11- Hofi Myasum. Hnrrro He nomicno fismo o'rB. nexa'rs o'r cocpenoroqennofi Mo. nn'rBs1. Kansnunucrcxaa nepxons omnqanacs 6o. uee nemoxparnqnofi, ‘mm B npyrnx uepxeax, oprannaannefi, H are BbI8I>IBaJIO cnMna'rm1 K Heir upoc'rs1x .1no, z:e1'«’x. ‘-Iac'1‘s Jmopancwna, nenononsnyro YCHJICHPIBM xoponescxofi Bnacrn, npm3JIe1ca- no T0, rrro Kanssnn npnanasan 3a no, zmaHHs1MI«x npano H8. caepxcerme npamrrena. ?ICeHeBc1cm‘«’I peq)opMaTop y'rBepxc, na. n: ecma npaB1»rreJIs Memaew neny Bepsr, conpownnnelme eMy — csamennsxfi , z1oJ1r. IIe. noBs1e rcpyrn 11oc'roI‘»'IHo oneamm nneaalsr Tpyzza, Harconnenna PI 6epe>1cJmBoc'm, sanoxcennste B ytxemm Kansan- Ha. Bce 3'ro o6ecnetm. no 1ca. nsBmm3My Mnoxcecwno npmaepxcennea. Hapsmy c Jno'repanc'rBoM on pacnpocrpammcsx Ha 3Harm'reJ1sHs1e 'reppwrop1m. K Kans- Bmmsmy upnmxnyna qacws Hacenexma Anrmm, Cbpannma, HK)IepJIaH, D;OB, I‘epMaH1m, Cxanjmnancxnx c'rpaa, U. IOTJIaH11PIPI, Benrpmr, ‘-Iexlm, Honsmu. Co BpeMeHeM Te e13por1e1‘»’m; sI, r<oMy H3-3a pennrnoanslx y6excz1eHm‘»'1 npumnocs cnacarscsx o'r npecnezzonannfi Bnacrefi PI amnrpnposaws, npnnecmx mzen Kansnnnnama B Amepmcy. Hacrynnenne na Peqaopmanmo. 3a BCIO caoro aonryro ncwopmo 1caTo.7m- qecrcaa uepxoes He ncns1'ra. ua T8.KOI‘0 I‘JIy50KOI‘O norpacenna, rcaxnm c'ra. na 111151 Hee Peq)opMa11m1. l'Ipn nomxepxcxe npaswrenefi xawonnqecrcnx c'rpaH nanc1<m'»’1 PPIM Hanan awrnnnyro 6ops6y c <<11po'rec'ra1»rrcKoI‘»’I epecsro». CKCTGMB Mep, Hanpaanennsrx Ha npecetlerme 14 ncxopenenne pecpopmannonnslx mzefi PI nenxcennfi, nonyqnna Hasnanne Konrppecbopmannn. Hatxano Hacwyrmenna Ha Peqmpmaumo osnamenonanocs Boapoxcnennem cpezmenercoeofi nmuanannmt, B rcocwpax Kowopofi nom6Jm coma «npo'rec'raH'r- crcnx epe'rmcoB>>. I/ Iaxnnsprropsz 33mm 11011 cnofi KOHTPOJIL rcrmronapganne. Bea nx paspememm Hensan 6smo aaneqa'ra'rs rm onno nponaeezzelme, a «npezxnam Jm'repa'rypa nnocrmacs B cnennansnsxfi «I/ Innezcc sanpemennsrx rcnnr» PI non- nexcana comxcenmo. Hapgexcnsxm nponomzmcom IIOJIHTKICH Ronrppecbopmannn B xcnaas c'raJIo <«O6n1ec'rBo I/ Incyca» , mm Op, z1eH neaywros, ocHoBaHHsn'»'1 B 1540 r. I/ Irna'meM JIoi'Io. noi'1 (1491-1556). I/ Irnarnfi JIo1‘»'1oJ1a nponcxonnn as snawnoro KC- rrancxoro pona 14 3 IOHOCTH Ben nononsno . r1er1<o- £4 » A Mszcnennyro xcuans Mononoro npnnsopnoro. Oran Y’ 1 ‘ -A oqmuepom, Gsuamufi mam nposmmx Hacromnne qy, z1e- 54. 3 ca xpa6poc'm, 80 B ozmofi H3 61/ITB noJIy= m.n Tame- >= e- ‘H 3108 yneqse, Hanonro npnxonanmee ero rc IIOCTBJIK. —a B aamce 6pa'ra, r, u;e JIo1‘»'IoJIa JIe‘~IHJICiI, He Hanmocs ‘Q ~ ,3 rm ozmoro us moémvxsxx KM psmapcxmx pomanon, Q. ‘ 4 trro Bsmymmo ero rm'ra'rs «9ICwrua cnsrrslx». mg Home ncex nepeaecennsxx c'rpa. z1aHm71 mwrna ‘Z, 3,’ nponanemx Ha Jlofiony orporvmoe nneqa'rJ1eHne. OH ‘<’}; . A hgx” Harlan Hoayro nmansz owrcaaanca or pocrconm :4 4/‘ : -.. C}° nocw mm B Hmae cm'e'r, me we nennso cnocnn _. Y nacmermcn crynerrroa Han cnoefi wremnorofi» 11 co- muuisxm no3pac'roM. Bcxope JIo1‘»'xoJ1a penmn ocno- I/ Ir'Ha'rm‘«'I JIo1“IoJIa . , Ba'rs I-Ioasm opnen.
  • 85. if PBDOPMALIHR I/ I KOHTPPEQOPMAUHSI B EBPOFIE TCA . ' (.7 _. __s_! Fnannaa aanaqa <«O6mec'r3a I/ Incyca» — yxpermenne Karonzmecxoix nepxan B 6opb6e c epecbxo. B omntme or qnenon npymx Monamecxux opnenon, uesynwbx He mvrenn Mox=1ac'rLIpe1‘»’1 n xcmm pnnom c ofibmammn monbmn. Ozm MOPJIH ma- zxerb umymecraom H nonnocrmo nontmnsumcb nnacrn nanm, éecnpercocnonno nmnonuann Bce em pacnopsmcerma. B Opnene mcnoncmonana xcecrxcax, cyponas nncnnnnuna, BOSPJIBBJIHJI ero uomnanenno n36paHm. u‘& renepan. 1549 r. [/13 npomsaeneumr I/ IrHaTm1 1701710115: «, £lyxoaHb/ e ynpa>KHe1-Mn» Xom aecbma | ’lOXB8J'lbHO cnyxmrb Sory VI3 -mcrofi mo6em, rem He MeHee Hy)KHO ycepnHo peo<oMeHp. o3an. ranoxe M crpax nepe. q 50>KeCTBeHHblM aenmecraom. M He TOl'IbKO TOT ctpax, KoTopbu71 Mbl 3oaeM CblHOBl-MM, HO M TOT crpax. KOT0pbll71 Ha3bl8aeT- ca pa6CKMM. Heofixonvwo, ‘-lT05bl aepa a Bora 6bma HaCTOJ'| bKO eenmxa. HTO5bl Henoaex, He KO- neénncb. nycmncn B Mope Ha nocxe. ecnn y Hero Her Kopafinn! Ecnu uepxoab ywsepxnaer, -no TO, Hro Ham Kaxercn 6eJ'| b|M, ecu: HepHoe, — Mbl . £1OI1>KHbI HeMe, u.neHHo npmsuarb 370! Hy>KHO orpewmbcn or Hamefi CO6CTBeHHOl7l BOIWI ma TOI"O. HT05bl l'lpOHV| KHyTbC'i-I 5o>o<ecTaeHHoL71 aonefi. BbUpa)KeHHOt71 HaHanbHm<oM. .. B STOM aaxmoqaercn abacwasu creneub nosvmoaenvm: Hy)KHO He TOl'lbKO XOTeTb Tax, Kan X0‘-| eT HaHanbHm<, Hy)KHO Hyacreoaan. Tax >Ke, Kax oH. nane Heo6xo; .1mMo noavmoaarbcn 6e3 acsumx paaroaopoa, p. a>+<e pann rpexa. M Ha- no coaepmsm. rpex, CMepTHbIl7| mm npocrofi. ecnn HaHanbHm< roro Tpe6yeT so mm: Focnona Hawero Vlwcyca Xpvucra. | 'loA«mHeHHbw'1 o69I3aH CMOTDBTI: Ha crapmero, Kax Ha caMoro XpvIcTa. OH non>+<eH noxopmbcn crapmemy. .. Kan nanxa. xoropaa H011‘-WlHFleTC$<l acnxomy p. av1>+<eHwo, KaK uJapw< M3 aocxa, KoTopbu71 MO)! -(H0 m3MeHmb M pacmrmean: so ecex HanpaeneHvmx. .. B 6opL6e aa zxymn H yMbI nepyxonmx Baxcxmm Hanpannenuem nesrrensnocwn Opnena c'ra. no oépaaonaxme. I/ Ieaywrcrcne mxonu OTKDBIBGJIPICB no Bcefi Espone. I/ Ix nonynapnocn: O6'bHCHHJIaCb Bucoxnm rcar{ec'r3oM ofiytxemm, K 'roMy me 6ec1ma'moro. «Bomiu Xpncroam» awmnno aaanmanncb Taxme 1vmccnoHep- CTBOM. B XVI-XVII BB. oxm npoaumm B I/ Irmmo, flnomuo, Kurafi, IO>imy1o Amepmcy n npyme paiiouu, me npono- nenonanu rcawonuqecrno cpemx Mec'r- HOI‘0 nacenemm. BOJILIIIOB BHHMHHPXG <- Opneu ynenan 6J1aro1'nopn'rem. Hoc'm. 3a6o'racb o 5OJIbl-‘(LIX n oéeanonennux, on coanan cerb Gonbnnn 14 upmomn mm cwapmcoa Pl newefi-cnpow. Heaywron o'r. rmqa. rm o6paao3aH- HOCTE, namcxarmsxe Manepm, cnoco6- uocn. abxnonnan. Tafiume uopyqemm. Orm npoamcanu B oxpyxcemxe MOH8p- xon H 3 mrrepecax nancraa orcaamnajm mmarme Ha nomrrmcy rocyzxapcnz. Hx JIOBKOCTI: n ymerme nommnmb mo, z1e1‘«'1 cnoefi none c, u;eJ1a. vm caMo nonsrrue _ <«He3yH'r>> CKMBOJIOM XHTPOCTPI H 6ec- Hana Hanan III 6naroc. noBJme1' npnnunnnocwn. He spa cwapnauaa <<06II1ec'rB0 Plflcyca»
  • 86. '4ACTb Rarmee Hoeoe apemsr (KoHeu XV — nepaas nonosuna XVII a) I Ilepxonb neaymoa 3 Beae. I 626 2. nocnonuua rosopmra 06 neaywrax: «Men Ha aamce, MOJIOKO Ha cnoaax, means 3 cepxme, o6MaH Ha gene» . Karommecxcaa pexbopma. Peqaopmamm pacxonona 1<a'ro. rmqec1<m}’x mxp no- no. naM, H0 B cepezmne XVI 3. HeMa. no enponefiuen Haneanncb, two cwryanmo eme Moxuio ncnpaswrb. Heofixom/ {Mo JIPIIIIB, ‘{'l'05bI B noncxcax npnmnpemm o6e c'ropoHu cnenann mar Hancwpeqy npyr npyry. Tax nymamx He TOJIBKO ofiwmue Bepyromne, no H qacn. xappgunanon PI exmcxonon. I/ I3 nx cpenu ace aacrofitmnee snyuann ronoca Tex, wro npnsmnan cssrroifx npec'ro. u 1c nponeneumo petpopmbx uepxnn. P1/Imcxcne nanm nonro KOJ1e58JIPlCb, upeaxne qem comacwrbca Ha npeo6pa3o- sauna. Haxonen 3 1545 1'. name IIaBe. u III cosnan B ropone TpeH'ro (J1a'mrm- anponannoe Hasnaxme Tpnnewr) aceneucxnfi Tpnnenrcxuii co6op, xoropmfi c nepepmnamn aacezzan no 1563 r. , 'r. e. nenmx 18 new. C camoro Hatlana ytxacrmucn co6opa pacxononncb Ha nae rpyrmu — npnBep- xcenuen rcammmecrcofi petbopmu n e upomnunxoa. B oacecwoqennmx 1mc1cyc- cmxx noéepgmm nocnenune. Hon nx nannennem 65mm aaxpennenm ocnoanme nonoxcerma xammmecxofi Bepbr, xowopue xorema ynmrroxcnrb npowecramuz
  • 87. HBPYUIPIMOCTB neprconnofi nepapxmr, Mec- cm 14 ncnoaezm; coxpaaenne cezvm Tanners, norcnonerme can-rum 14 mconam; noJrrBepxc- nenne nocpenmmecrcofi ponn ngeprcnn 14 sep- xosuofi Bnacwn nanm nnyrpn nee. BMec're c 'reM nancmy npnmnoch o'rMeH1»m. nponaxcy Hnnynsreunnfi, a Ana ofiecneuemm 6yny- mero xawonnqecxofi ueprcnn coanawb cen. nyxonnmx cemnuapnfi. B ux c'reHax nonm- Hbl 6mm POTOBPITB xawommecxnx CBfiII1eH- HI/ II-(OB HOBOPO 'I‘PIII8., zcowopme no cBoeMy o6pa- soaanmo He ycwynann 6m npo'rec'ran'rc1cnM npononegmmcam. Tpm1eHTc1cm‘»'1 co6op aanoxcmx ocnolay mm O6HOBJIeHPI5{ 1ca'roJm1m3Ma n yxpermenux nepxonnofi nncnnnnnnbl. OH 1Io1ca3a. n, Irro paspun c npo'rec'raH'm3MoM c'raJ1 o1coHqa- TGJIBHBIM. PECDOPMALMH H KOHTPPECDOPMALU/15! B EBPOFIE Telwa Tpnnemcxnfx co6op. XVI 8. Elle U3 €20 HGCIHGGJIQHUL2 He mepmom 3H(l‘l. €HU. fl U CCZOGHJI? Hucmcrcoa? 3A, lIAHl/ IF! Hortexny u rcarcue cJzou uacezzeuua noaaepalcaau ylteuue Kanbeuna? Ka- . ‘lem nzamommecrcaa ueprcoeb omnuuaaacb om Juomepancrcozi u rcaJLbeu- Houemy nancmey npuuuzocb npoeecmu peqaopuy rcamoxtuuecrcozi ueprceu? M OJICHO Jzu craumamb, umo Tpuaeumcrcuzi codop yrcpenwt anacmb nanu? 1. Cpasrmre ywerme flrorepa M Kanbauma. Hafiame B HMX o6Luue weprbl M or- HM‘-IM9. 2. Onupancb Ha coaepxar-me «, l1yxosHbIx ynpa>KHeHm71» Mrnarmv flofionbt, pac- cxaxmre o Baanmoomoweuunx Mexazy ‘me: -Iamu Op, aeHa ueayuroa. HOMO- ralm nu yCTaHOBJ1eHHbIe 1701710/10171 HOpMbI I1OBe, l1eHMfl , aocrux<eHmo masnofi uenn Mesymos — yxpennenmo Karonmecxofi uepxau B 6opb6e c epecblo?
  • 88. ‘ H‘. SH Te/ ‘vi E? 5 EBPOHEPICKHE FOCYHAPCT BA B XVI — FIEPBOP1 FIOTIOBI/1HE XVII B. CDPAHLIHFI HA FIVTH K , -KECOIIIOTHBMY MOFYLUE C TBO I4 YFIAZIOK HCFIAHHI4 HHUEPJ'Z»HflbI B 5OPb5E 3A CBOEOIIV AHl77I/153/ B 3l7OXY TVOHOPOB ME}f'H. VHAPOflI"Ib/ E OTHOLIJEHI/157: HA /70/79X CPA)f’EHHI; I H BO IIBOPLI/ X MOHAPXOB Parmee Hosoe BpeMs1(KoHeu XV — nepaan nonoauna XVII B. ) ( " (DPAHLII/ Ifl HA IIYTH K ABCOJIIOTHBMY }—~s- Pomzxerme a6como'r113Ma. Ha py6e>1<e XV-XVI 1313. c'rpam.1 3ana, z1no1"1 Eaponm 13c'ryn11.n1«1 3 110131.11’: swan cnoero paannrna. B mxx nponcxozmno cpopmnpoaanne a6coJ11o'r11oi'1 Moaapxnn — 'ra1co1"1 q)opMb1 rocy11apc'rne11- 110171 3J1ac'rn, 1cor, z1a mumoe npaxmeune rocyzxapa c'ra- 11o1m'1'c51 r1pa1<T11=1ec1<n Heorpaunqennbxm. Ycnemuo npeononea nocnennne IIOTILITI-CH (peo- 11a. r11,111,1x Maraaron coxpamrrr. cnoxo He38BHCKMOCTb, upaaxrremx nearpamxaonannmx crpaa Hepemco r1pe1<pa- mamx CO3bIB opranon cocnonaoro npencranwrenscrsa. 01111 nepexomum 1c PlCIIOJIb3OBaHIdl0 uosmx psmaron ynpaanenna rocyzxapcwsom. I‘J1aBHL1M cpezm max 61,111 61opo1<pa'mt1ec1<1«11‘«'1 annapzrr — Mnorotmcnenuoe ‘IPIHOB- 1u1r1ec1'13o. 3a c1ao1o cny>1<6y 0110 nonyqano nJ1a'ry 113 1<opo. r1e1ac1coi‘1 1<a3111.1 11 no1'oMy 651110 npezxarmo Tpony. Kpome 'I'OI‘O, Monapx omxpancsx y>1ce 1112 H8 noz111ep>1c1<y Baccanon, 1<a1< panbme. a H8 nocrommoe Bo1“1c1<o. 3a1<o- 11o,11aTe. r11.c'r13o, nanoroaaa 11 311911135151 nom»1'rm<a 'ra1c>1ce cocpe;1o1'o1mJmcb B pyxax 1copoJIe13c1<o1‘«’1 BJI&C'I'PI. Plaorna ona no, z1tm1mJ1a ce6e eme 11 uepxosb. A6como'r113M CJIO)KH. IIcfi 13 rcpynnmx 11e11'rpa.1m3o13a11- aux rocynapcmax — <Dpa11u1111, A111'. n1m 11 Idcuanmx. B J_Ia1mu 11 I1I13emm ero c'raHo13J1e1111e 61,1110 88Me1IJIeH- 111.111 11 Heonnoxpamo r1pep1.113aJ1oc1. acnmmxamn (peo- 11aJ1b11o1”1 BOJIBHPXIIM. B I/1'ra. r11m 14 I‘epMa1m11 cq)opMn- ponanca 1<11a>1cec1<m‘«’1 &5COJIIO'l'H3M. Tam y1cpem1e1me Mo11apx1»1t1ec1<o1“1 1mac'm npoucxozumo 13 npeuenax OT- J1eJ'IbHbIX 'reppn'rop11a. r1b11mx Bnaneanfi, wro upen:1'r- cwaoaano uannoaanbnomy o6'be111111e1m1o 3'r11x cwpan. Ha1116o. r1ee 3a3ep111em1y1o tbopzvxy a6coJ11o'rH31vt IIpH05pe.7X no tbpamxxm.
  • 89. EBPOFIEPICKHE FOCYLIAPCTBA B XVI — HEPBOP1 FIOHOBI/ IHE XVII B. .](": ’«. '/«'1' 1 Z‘: B XVI B. Cbpamma acwynnna cmxbnum O6’b€lIHI-IGHHLIM rocy, zxapc'rBoM. Ee nacenerme cocraanano 6o. nee 15 M)! !! rxenonexc, npwxem 300 THC. xcmm 3 c'rommHoM Hapuxce - onaom us Kpynnefimux roponon Bananuoifx Enpouu. Ofimennnun crpany 'reppu'ropuaJIL- H0, xoponencxaa BJ'l8C'I'b cwpemnnacb nocwuttb nomrrxmecxoii newrpannsannn — oxaamrb , . . _ « caon ananemm exmnofi cnc'reMoi«'1 ynpa3J1e- - T: _ 7 ". . _ mm, a ncex noxmannmx no, z:tn«mn'rL Monapxy. “K _ 7 I , 3aMe'rnoe yxpermerme rcopoJ1encxox'»'x nJ1ac- ; * , ~. ‘ " , TH cansano c KMeHeM ozxapennoro, o6pa3o3aH- uoro H aneprmmoro Monapxa tbpammcxa I 1 (1515-1547). OH nnxorna He coaunan ' 1 ~ Penepanbnue m-ran»: H B nponenemm rocy- _ Aapcrnenaofi uonwruxn ounpanca Ha Kopo- — nencxufi coBe'r, Kowopuii nepxcan non Hey- ’ . cmrmum KOHTp0J'IeM. Camue Baxcume Aena " ‘ 1 ' Monapx peman 3 yaxom xpyry npu6JmxceH- i’: ‘;'; ff; ?_§bn°mp" ¢pa"”’"°Ka 1' max :1 nepnsm men 3 caon yxaar-.1 tppaay: 23' <= .Ta1<oBa M051 z1o6paa sons». (Dpanuyau mofimm tbpaamicxa I, no'roMy Inc on coo'rne'rc'raoBa. r1 aceM Tpannnuonnmm npencrannemmm o xopone: 651:1 aa- c'roaumM pbmapem, CIIOC05HbIM Boeuaqanbnnxom n ownaxcamm repoem. B npannerme Cbpammcrca I 3 xcmzonucubxx orcpecwuocmx Hapmxa n Ha 6epe- rax Jlyapm nozzmumcb npercpacnbxe npocropame aaxvnm. Roponencxne pe3m1en~ mm IIIaM6op H <Dou'reH6J1o, nocwpoeanue B nonom, peneccancnom, c'rn. rIe PI ofiaecennme pocxoumumu napxawm n ca, z1az~m, Bormomann semmue :1 Moms Moaapmefi 3.r1ac'm. Ywormennmm n 6.nec'r: mmM c'raJ1 xoponencmxfi zmop. K new a noucxax aonxcaocreii, cnasbr n neuer C'I‘eKaJXOCb Muorouncnennoe msopancrao. Tpoa oxpyxcann noroxvncn 3H8THbIX cemeficrn n poncrsenunxn npannmeifx gm- aacnm — npmmm n repuorn, rcowopbxe npeo6Jxa, naJm 3 Koponencxom cone-re, ynpanmum npomwumnvm, xomannonanu aoficrcom M qmo'roM. 3a «xoponeacxw Mn Mu. rIoc'ra1vm» B c'rommy O’I‘IIpaB. Tl5IJIOCb Taxxce cpezmee n Memcoe maopxncwso - / V‘ 3a. 1ox IIIa. 16op. tbpanuzm. XVI 6.
  • 90. ‘MCTb Pawnee Hoaoe Bpem: (xoneu XV — nepaaz l'IO)"IOBUHa XVII 5.) «miopancwno mnarm . Ero npmamrernefi oc'raBaJ1acL Boemxaa cnymfia, Hecenne 1co'ropo1‘«'1 0CB060)K, lI8.JIO ow Hanoron. 1111:: Mnornx «msopaa mnam» oqnmepcrcoe acanonanbe coc'ranJI: =mo ezma ma He e,1mHc'rBeHH1.n‘«'1 ucwormmc cymecrnoaanxm. Onn xcenann, trro6L1 rcopom. xcaxc Moxcno name Bonmx nx B noennue noxonm K menpo Harpaxcnan 11o61.1t1e1‘»'1. Ho nonnnnnofi onopoifl K0p0JIH 61.1.7: Mnomqncnennufi 61oporcpa'mqecrcm‘«’I an- napa'r. Hume B Enpone on He poc Tax c'rpeMm*eJIbHo, rcaxc no Cbpamumz B Haqane XVI B. B cwpane Hacqnrmsanocb 8 TI-. aIC. , a B cepemme XVII B. —- yxce 46 mo. qu- Honamcos. B Harpany 3a Bepnyxo 14 pennocrayro cJryxc6y txac'rL H3 Hnx nonyqmxa maopancrcoe anaxme. Tax Boanmcno «, zn3opsmc'rBo Maxrnm». B caMoM ero H8338- Hrm Rpl. -JJICE Hamerc Ha T0, trro B npomnom awn mom: nocmm Marrrmo, T. e. pa6o- 'raJm 1opnc'raMn mm cexpewapxmn. «C-rapoe» pononmoe maopancwno ownocnnocb rc BBIXOJIII/ HM K8 «ne6JIar*opoz: m.Ix» cocJIoBm‘«'I c npeapexmem, HO 651.710 Bhmyxczzeno ctnrrawbca c nx mmxnnem n Baxcnoix ponmo B mcynapcmeanmx nenax. Cbpammcrc I pemmensno nmemanca B nonwmxy uepmm n noénnca o'r Ba'm- rcana nepenarm eMy npaaa naanaqan. enncxonon. Ropom. omanan neprconnme , z1oJ1>1cHoc'ru CBOKM IIpH5JIPDi<'. eHHbIM mm nononry ocrannan nx Heaamrrmmn, a Bee noxonu or mix npncnamzan. Tax qrpannyscxaa ueprcons oxaaanacb non ! "Pfiv: tcya'Ké‘i1i,9e. ynarmo. Paanpaxceanme prroramn Bofinm, Tmcaqn msopan nepnymrcb B cnon yfiorne samcn, cocpezzowoqennue B OCHOBHOM H8. lore cwpanm. I/ Ix HGZIOBOJIBCTBO MOPJIO npopnawbca B 111060171 MoMeH'r. KOH'I‘p0JIeM xopona, trro Taxxce cone1‘»'1c'rno- Bano ycpmeamo ero Bnacwn. CLIH Cbpanngncxa I, Fenpnx II (1547- 1559), acne}: 3a OTIIOM o'r1ca3aJ1ca 0'1‘ cosm- Ba Feuepanbumx nrra'roB. OH c'raJ1 nepnbxm qaparmyacxnm xoponem, K xo'ropoMy yxce Haqann o6pan1a'rLca «Bame Bennqecrno». Panbme Taxcofi qecwn ynocrannanncb TOJILKO nmneparopu. Yxpemlenne a6como'mc'rc1coi»'1 BJ1ac'ru qwpanuyacxnx Monapxon conponoxcaanocb axrnnnaannefi Bnemnefi noJm'rmm. O1cpy- xcenaaa co Bcex CTODOH Bnaxxemmmn Fa6c- 6yproB, Cbpamxmi c'rpeMmIacL Bmpnawbca n3 3-mx TPICKOB n npncoennnnrb K cnomvr 'I'eppIrITOpPIHM Cenepnylo I/ Iwamauo. B Tene- Hne 1494-1559 rr. ona BeJI8. I/ Iwanbancrcne Bofinm, rcoropue ofiecnetmnamx nocroannoe aanmrne 14 ocnosnofi ncrotmmc IIpPl5hIJIPI He onnomy noxonenmo emsopnncwna nmarm , H0 B wrore aarconrxmmcr. mm Cbpauumx He- Pennmoanme nofnna. B nepsofi nonosnne XVI 13. no <DpaHn; mo arcrnsno IIp0HHKaJIK pecbopmannonnue mzen, I‘JIaBHLIM o6pa3oM na cocennefi IIIBeI‘«'1- napnn. Hanfionhmyro nonynnpnocwb npHo6pe. n xa. nLBmm3M. Cbpannyscxnx rcanbnnnncwon Haamnann ryrenoramn (or ncxcaxcennoro Hem. aaaeeuocce — corosapmn). I/ IMM cwanonmmcb npenmymecmnenno ropoxcane — o-r aaarcwrormmx 61oprepoB no Memcnx pemecnennmcon H Toproanen. KaJIbBPIHPICTCKyI0 Bepy ' IIDPIHKMRJIK Tarcxce KPBCTLHHG I/ I HeMaJ'IO JIBODHI-I, 0C'I‘8.BIIIKXC. iI 683 116.718 IXOCJIG oxonqamm I/ ITaJII>5IHCKKX B0171!-I. 0CO6eHHO HaIIp5DKeHH85I cwryanua cnoncunach
  • 91. EBPOHEHCKHE FOCYDAPCTBA B XVI - FIEPBOV1 HOHOBHHE XVII 8. Tone 5 Ha uenoxopnom lore, me coxpausmacb namrrb 06 anbfinroficxofi epecu I4 npexc- nefi CaMOCTOfi'I‘eJIbHOC'I'ld xcpan, a nnopnncwno npefimnano B onnosmmn x nomy Bauya. Ee npnauaaahmu aoxcnamu c'ra. rm IIpe11c'ra3wreJm noéoqnofi JIPIHHH npaaamefi nnaacrun — l(0pOJlb Hanappm Arrryan Bypéoa c cuuom Feupnxom. Oxonrxaz-me I/ I'ra. ru. :mcxnx Bofin connano co cmenanm H8. qwpanuyacxom upe- c'ro. ue. OT cmeprenbaoro paneling I-Ia phmapcrcom Typanpe yMep Fenpux II. Tpon or K0pOJIfi-BOPIH8. nepemen K ero c'rapu1eMy chmy - Gonesuenuomy 15-ne'r- Henry tbpanuucxy II. tbaxwnqecxn BJl8C'I‘b oqyrunacb B pyrcax Tpex 6pa'n. e3 — norapnarcxux repnoron Fnaon, 1<o'ropb1M xcena Moaapxa, Ionaa momamzcxaa xoponena Mapna C'rIoap'r, npnxonnnacb rulemmnnueii. Fepuoru nonbaonanucb éearpammnbxm Bnuannem upu maope PI cquwann ce6n aammmmamn cucrmax-Iofio Kammmecxofi sepu. B 1560 r. fbpammcx II Heoxcxmanno yMep. Em M. nan, nmi’1 6pa'r - K0p0JIl> Rap): IX (1 560- 1574) 14 xoponeaa-Man. Elcarepnna Memuu-I nuranncb npvuzepxmnwrbca nonuwuxn Be- po'rep1mMoc'rn. I‘yreHo'raM 651110 paapemeao IIDOBOJIKTL éorocnyxcenmt, npanna, TOJIBKO nae ropopgcxnx CTGH. 310 He MOFJIO yuan- nernopmb ryreuorma, gem. cpenu HKX upeo6- nananu ropoxcane. Bmecre c TBM ycrynxa aussana nosmymerme xawonuuon. B Taxofi anuocdzepe o6u1ero uenoaonbcrsa paaurpa- Jlldcb Tpamuecxue cofiumn B uxamnancrcom Mecretuce Baccu. dlpaacya FH3, upoeaxcaa qepea Hero (2 Hefionbmnm orpanom, yqmum peamo Mupuux ryreuoroa, coépannmxca zum o6n1e1‘»'I Monwmbl BHy'rpu ropozza. B o'rBe'r npo'rec'ran'rb1 nepeuum K He Menee 6e3xcanoc'r1u.1M pacnpanam c Karonnxamu. Haqanncb pennruoanbre aofiau (1562-1598), xompue Haaunalor Tarotce rpax<- naactcumn. nocxonbxy 3 nx orue 6pa'r men Ha 6pa'ra, a CBIH — ua owua. Crpana norpyamxacb B 'I‘bMy‘ nacmum. Pam»: Bceoémero npnmnpeupm 6h1.no pemeno 3a1<Juotm'rb 6pa}c Mexcny cecrpofi rcopomz M aprapwrofi Banya M Bomnem ryrenoron Fenpnxom Hanappcmm. Llns yqacwua B upasmioaaxum c3a1u.6m 3 Hapmx c'b8XaJIHCb cowuu ,113opsm- ryreuoron. (hm PI npencraauwb He MOPJIK, rrro nocne aecrconmmx zmefi num- uux 'I‘0p)KeCTB ux acne? opraauaonaxmaa Fnaanm mecwoxas pacnpana. B HO‘lb H8 24 anrycra 1572 r. , B npasxmmc Cnaroro Bapd)o. noMe5I, c Konoxconea Bcex napmicclmx ueprcaefi saanyrmn H8681‘ - cnrnan rc neficwnuam. Haqanocb zmxoe u Geaxcanocwuoe uaéueune aenoopyxceanbxx ryrenowon, noma KOTODBIX aapanee IIOMGTPUIH éenumu Kpecwamu. Hecqacraux aacwnrann Bpacunox H y6m3a. nn npsmo B nocrrejmx. Peann upononxcanacb Hecxonuco zuxefi u uepeépocwlach 3 nposumum. Ona conposoxcnanacb npawrxmecxn Maccosmmn rpaéeacamn: y pa- 6o'rnuJ; nx saxmwoqnux ryrenowon 6hIJIO trro B3H'I‘b, a OXOTHHKOB 3ocuom.3o- nawbca rmonamn qyxcoro Tpyna xBa'ra. r1o. Bcero nomfino oxono 30 THC. qenosex, cpezm max o, u.uH us Jmnepon ryrenoroa - ornaacamix anmnpan Iconnmm. Peupux Bypéon 5hlJl nhmyxcnen npuusrrb xa'roJmqec'rBo, no cymen 6ex<a'rb n anon}. CIIJIOTHTL Boxcpyr ce6a ryrenowon. Hotrrn sect. nor tbpanuma nocc'ra. rx. Fuau Tamxe aurnsusnponann csou nex‘«'1c'1-amt 14 cosnann Macconyzo Boopyxcew I-IYIO opraxmaaumo — Ra'roJ1w1ec1<y1o Jmry. C ee nomommo onu aaneanncb He . i“'d_>g_{mcya 1%‘. ¢ya. ‘Ex. a'repnna Menu . ;—a'. ._ . . 89
  • 92. ' Rarmee Hosoe ape/ vm (KoHeu XV — nepsast nonosuna XVII B. ) . ... ... ... ... _.. . . — 'rom,1<o pacnpaawrbcn c ryreHo'raMn, H0 14 onnanem upec'roJ1oM. 3'ro xopomo normman Honmfi KOp0JII> - Feupnx III (1574-1589). Monapx npoaoarnacnn ce6a rnasofi Rawonnqecxofi Jmrn H nepe1»1MeHoBaJI ee B Koponencxyro Jmry. Toma Fenpux Fm, qpeaamqaffmo nonynapamfi cpezm napnxcan, OCHOBaJI 14 Boopyxmn Hapmiccxyro Jmry. KODOJII: nonmwanca ee paaornawb, HO Hapnnc OTBBTPIJI Boccwannem. Fenpnx III 6excaJI H3 c'roJmm.1 14 oprannaonan y6m‘«’xc'rBo Fenpuxa I‘n3a 14 em 6pa'ra xcap, u;I»1Ha. na. B Hapmice nozmsmcsi mxBa11 Bo3Myme- Hna. Hoxoponm I‘n3oB npenparnnncb B rpanzuaosnoe mecrnue, yqacrnmcn Icoroporo no cnrnany racwm cnetm PI rcpnqanuz «Tax xce uoracmr Focnopgb ma- Hacwmo Banya! » Bcrcope Haprmccrcaa nura pa36n. na o'rpa, z(L1 Kopona. Omionpemenno c Iora Ha Hero Han- Bnranacb 5OJ1bI. I1a. fI apMmI Fenpnxa Hanappcxoro. Y I‘eHpI»1xa III He oc'raJ1ocb nnoro Bmfiopa, Kale aa- KJIIOV-{PIT}: c Byp6oHoM co1o3. BMec're om: BLICTYHPIJIH Ha Hapmzc, HO B 3'ro'r MOMeI-IT rcopom. norn6 o'r pyxn q)aHa'mtmoro Monaxa-nomnnmcauua. 38.I<'. OHHbIM Hacnexuimcom npec'ro. r1a C'I‘aJI I‘eHpux Byp6oH. EMy npnmnocb eme HeMa. no II060pO'I‘bCfi 3a icopony, npexcne qem B 1598 1*. on Haqan ocany Ha- pmrca. He xcenan paspymarb ropopg, Fenpnx cxcer Bce orcpecrnme MGJIBHPIIIBI PI pa3o6pa. n MOCTLI. 3'1-o napannaonano cHa6xceHne CTOJIPILIBI nponyxcramn, ozmarco Hapnxc ace panno o'rKa3aJ1ca 0TKpI: ITb Bopora nepen I'yI‘eHOTOM. Toma Fenpnx C11eJIaJI 6.71ec'ramm‘«'1 uonnmqecxnfi mar: aaaswl, trro «Hapnm c'ron'r Mec- cu» , 14 npnmm KaTOJIK‘IeCTBO. He Bc'rpe'rm3 coupo- Tunnenna, on BOHIBJI B c'roJmu; y 14 cTa. n Koponem Cbpammn non KMeHeM Fenpnxa IV (1589-1610). ' ‘PPGHC I70yP5'0¢' —Ha q)paHI1y3cIcoM Tpone y'rBep, zm. nacr. zmnacum M Jtaétuuzi. Fenpnx IV Bypfionom I d>pancya , £I: o6ya. Bapqumlomeencicasi BOWL. 1572-1584 22.
  • 93. EBPOHEHCKHE FOCYDAPCTBA B XVI - FIEPBOP1 FIOHOBHHE XVII B. I'IocJ1e 1nec'mJ1e'r11ero 6eanJ1ac'rm1 npec'ro. r1 oxasanca 3 xpemcux pyxax yMHO~ ro K ocropoxcnoro npannrenn. Feupnx IV cpasy axe Hanan Hanrcxnii amncr, no xorropomy xawonmxecxax aepa 61.1.1111 npnanana oq)m1naJ1bHoi&, a 1<a'roJmv1ec1<oMy nyxonencmy Bepnynn ace ero npexume npana 14 nmymecrao. Ozmospemenno ryreaoram paapemmm npoaonmb éorocnyaxemm no Bceifx crpane, 3a HCI<. JIIO‘Ie- rmem Hapmica 11 11e1co'ropb1x xpynubxx roponon, a Tamxe napaane c 1<a'roJ11»11<aM1»1 3aH14Ma'1-1. rocynapcwnennbxe , z1om1c1-1oc'm. ‘{'ro6u rapanrnponan. ncnonnenne 3'rnx ycnoanfi, xopom. nepenan ryreaomam oxono nnyxcor 1<per1oc're1}’1 11 aamcon, 3 TOM queue JIa-Pomem. - 11op'r Ha aanamaom 11o6epe>Kbe tbparmmx. Iloifum Ha ycwynrcn ryreHo'raM, Peupnx IV nan crpane nepenumxy 14 oc'ra- HOBPIJI ee paaopemae. Crpemncb BO3pO1[HTb <I>pan11mo, xoponb 11 ero nepauii MKHPICTD Cxonuu nocnenoaarenbno npoaoxnum nporexuuonnam — nonnruxy, aanpawxennyxo Ha nozmepxucy Haunoaanbaoro npouanoncrna n TOpI‘0BJIH. 01111 noo111,pium paasrrrne Manyqzawryp no PISPOTOBJIGHPIIO memca, no. no'r11a, 1*o6eJ1e- noa, tbaxucoaux uaaennfi, 05088. Feapux IV c11x«131«1J1 Hanorn 1: Tem yJ1y1111mJ1 nonoaxenne 1<pec'r1.aH. O11 IIOCTEBPIJI ce6e nenmo, tn*o61.1 B ero «xoponencrne He namnocb 'ra1coro 6e11Horo xpecrbnnnna, B ropmxe y KOT0pOI‘0 He B8pPI. TIaCb 61.1 Kypnna K nocxpecaomy o6e, t1y». B Haponaofi uamrm n cerozum coxpanaewcn o6paa caofiporo rcopomz Anpm , He oqem. IIDPITGCHHBLIIGPO Hapon, omaxcnoro. necenoro 11 >1cn3aemo6nnoro qenoaerca. Penpux Hasappcxufi, omm H3 nyqmnx nomconozuxea Eaponu, o1n.1'r1a1.11”1 nonmux 14 nposopmxnmii nnnnomaw. cymen uamexmn, cy111.6y uenofx CTpaHI>I. Ozmaxo B 1610 r. em musm o6opna. n Km1x<a. n (bar-1a'rwmoro 1<a'roJm1<a. tbpamum npu Pumenne. Cuny I‘e11p11xa IV 6bIJIO ncero 9 new, Roma on c'ra. r1 1<opo- J1eM Jlrononmcom XIII. BOCI‘IOJIb8OBaBIIIHCb MaJIOJIe'I‘CTBOM xopom"-1 14 Hec11oco6Hoc'rmo ero Mawepn, xoponeam-perenwa Mapmx Menu-nu, ynpannawb rocynapcwnom, (japan- uyacxoe zznopanc-mo 11oJ1Hoc'rb1o Bumno as- non K01-1'rpo. na Bnacrn. B crpaae Bouapmxca 11oJm'r1«mec1mi'1 npouason. Hopanox 1-1aBeJ1 uepaufi MHHHC'l‘p H10- noamca XIII xapnnaan Pnmenbe (1585- l642). Heaanpaa Ha rpomxne 'l‘PI’I‘yJIbI, on 6e: m<aJ1oc'rHo pacnpanmrcsx c 6y1—1'ro31m«11<a- Mn. Mwrexcnme ap1«1c'ro1cpa'r1.1 nenannnenn xapnm-1a. na, H0 Pumenbe HeKoJ1e6nMo cwosm Ha crpaxce mcynapcwnennux nmepecoa. Be- menoe Boamymeune anarn amanan 14 nuan- aufi MHHPICTDOM 38.KOH o 3anpe're z1y3:1e1‘»'1 — Macconoro annennx cpezm nnopancxofi Mononeam, crpemnameiica Taxum o6pa3oM npo11eMoHc'rpupo3a'r1. cnoe My>1<ec'rno, 6J1aro- poncwno H rxecrb. TOJIBKO 3a 20 new npaaJ1e- mm Fenpnxa IV Ha nyanax 11om6.no orcono 12 Tue. zmopsm. Rapnnnan Pumenbe aasmxm, vrro o6aaa1moc'r1. nonnaaubrx — He ynnqroxcaws ,11pyr npyra, a nponunarb caoxo Kp0Bb 3a xopona :1 o'reqec'rBo. Bancuofi 3a, z1at1e1‘»'1 rcapgmnana 61,1110 Taxxce ycmnperme ryreuoron. BOCl'IOJIb- aoaanmncb ocJ1a6J1e1meM uoponeacxofi 3J1ac'r11, can coazzann Ha rore d>paH1um I <Pzmunn de lflaxneub. IIop'rpe'r Kapnnnana Pn111e. n1.e. 1635 3. Tem I !
  • 94. I I / V ‘ / /1 C Tb PaHHee Hosoe Bpemt (KoHeu XV — nepsasa nonosur-Ia X VII B. ) / A 1 "N K, nacroamee <<rocy, uapc'rBo B rocy, u;apc'rne>> c co6c'rBeHHox‘»'1 cnc'reMo1‘»’I o6opoH1.1 u ‘ name (1mo'roM, IIOJII>30BaJIHcI: nomepmxofi Anrunm n 1‘o. rman, zu»m. Roma 3 onnorre ryrenoron JIa-Pomenn nommnca Msrrexc, PKIJIBJILG orcpyxcmx xpenocn. 14 Ana rona , u;ep>xa. n ee 3 nnomofi ocane. 1'IocJ1e xannwynaxmn aannrrnmcon JIa-Pomenn KOPOJIB, no coBe'ry PFIIHGJIBG, coxpamm mu xcnam, n npano ncnonenonan. npo'rec- -rarrrcrcyro nepy. Baamen y ryrenowon o'ro6paJm Bce Kpenocm 14 nnmnnn nx nonn- Tnqecrcnx npnnnnernfi, npenocwannennmx Han'rc1cnM azzmcrom. Fyrenorcrcoe «rocynapcmo B rocynapcwne» npexpawrmo cymecmonanne, ozmarco pennrnosnme ronemm He nponommncb. PHIIIGJIBB nmen Bce ocnonamm I‘0BOpPI'I'bZ «C amro spe- Menn pemarnoanme o'rm»I= n»m nmcorna ne Memann Mne oxasbman. paanme noépue ycnym ryrenoram. H paamarqan mpannyaon TOJIBICO no crenenn nx Bepnocm». Ilepamfi MPIHPIC'l‘p HOJ. I‘{PIHI4JI KODOJIIO Mecwnoe ynpannenne, coanaa nonyro naxcnyxo nomxnoc-rb — nn-rennanwon. I/ Imn cm-anoammcr. ofipaaonannme moan neanawnoro nponcxoxcnennx, rcowopme 1coH'rpoJmpona. nu nearenbnocwb opranon nJ1ac'm 14 nmenmsamxcr. no ace cqnepm xcnann 3 nponnnnnax. Onn nonyqann nasnaqenne or npannrenbcwsa, nonnocwmo or nero sasncenn n 6mm 110CJIyI1I- nmvm ncnonnnrenamn pacnopancermfi xapnnnana-Mnnncwpa. C npnxonom PHHIGJIBG 1c Bnacrn nponaonum cepbeanme namenenns no nHe_n1- next‘: nonmrmce qipannnn. Kapzxnnan o'rc'ram3a. u mzero «enponeficxoro paBnoBe- cum :4 nbrcwynan nporma c-rpexvmenna I‘a6c6ypro3 rnaaencwnonawb 3 Eapone. Bnaronapa nnnnomawnqecxomy, a 3a'reM n Boennoxvry BMema'rem, c'rBy Cbpannxm Tpnnnamnemnaa nofina (1618-1648) sanepmmxacb IIOJIHBIM rcpaxom Ancwpnn PI I/ Icnamm. Cbpamma npncoennnmxa 1c cnomvx Bnanennam JIo'x-apnnrmo, 3JII>38.C n npyrne aemm, ee nmmnne na Mexcnynaponnoix apene qpesasmafino B03pOCJIO. Pmnenbe cqnwan, rrro <<06p8.30B8.HHOcTb — nyrnnee ynpamenne rocynap- c'rBa>> . B 1635 r. on ocnonan anamenprryzo Cbpannyacxcyro a1ca, z1eMmo, Bc5mec- KM nonnepxmnaa nnca'reJ1ex‘»'1, xynoxcnmcoa n ytxenmx. Kapnnnan n caM nncan cmxn, a ero nhecbr c ycnexoM Imm Ha cnene. Hpn co, u;efic'rBm»I Pnmenbe Haqana BBIXOILPITB nepnax cppannyscrcaa ra3e'ra, rcowopyro Mnnncwp ncnonbaonan mm nponarannm cnoefi nomrrmcn. Ornomenna Mexcny JI1onoBm<oM XIII I/ I ero nepnbm Mmmc'rpoM 6L1Jm Henpoc'rm- Mn. Onnaxcnm om»: BMec're Buxomum 143 KODOJIBBCICOFO 1ca6m1eTa. Boane camoro no- pora K0p0JIh Bnpyr ocwaaonunca PI, ofipanzaacb 1c Pnmemse, sannwenbno crcaaan: <«l'Ipoxonn're nepnbm, ace K Tax ronopsrr, q'ro nmermo BLI — Hacronmnfi rcopo. rn; ». Hpymfi 61.1 pacrepanca, H0 He PKIIIGJILG. OH no11xBa'rmI noncaeqnmc H ynepeuuo pgamiynca z1am. me co cnonamn: «I_[a, cup, 5; any Bnepezm, rrroém ocnemawb Bam nym. s> . XVII B. M3 «I'Io1mTwIecKoro 3aBeLuaHm1» Pmuenbe 9! o6euJ. an Bamemy Benmqecrsy ace ceoe mcxyccrao M Becb aaropmer, '-iTO5bl coxpyumrb napwno ryrenoros, CJ'lOMV| Tb cnecb Bent-M0)K, npmaecm scex l'I0,DJJ. aHHblX K VICHOITHGHI/ IIO vnx o6n3aHHocTex71 M F| O.fl. HQTb BaLue mm Cpem/1 I/ lHOCTpaHHbIX Haumfi Ha Ty cryneub, Ha Koropofi ono p. on>a<Ho HaXOAMTbC9I. lleopsmcrao Heo6xonmMo paccmarpmaan. Kax onvm ma CaMblX CJ'| aBHblX HGDBOB ro- cynapcraa, Cl'IOCO6Hb| X BO MHOFOM coneficraoaarb ero coxpauemmo I/1 yxpenneuwo. Te naopnue, Koropue. .. yxnousuorcn or Tom, ‘-iTO5bl CI1y)Kl/1Tb KODOHB LurIaI'0l7l M )KM3Hbl0, aacnyxmaaror 65m; m4u. ueHHb: Mm npemmymecra caoero npomcxoxneuvm M 05$'l3aHHbIMVI Hecm HaCTb 6peMeHm Hapona. A Ecnm 5bI Hapon cnmmxom énaronencreoaan, ero He}1b3FI 6b| I1O 61;: ynepxarb B rpa- Hmuax ero 06Fl3aHHOCTel7l. Ero cnenyer cpasnmaam c Mynom, :<o'ropbu71, npmsbmnya K Tsmcecm, nopmrcn or l1pOD, OJ'l)KVlTeJ1bHOl'O ombuxa cmnbnee, Hem OT paoom.
  • 95. EBPOHEPICKHE FOCYLIAPCTBA - B XVI - FIEPBOH HOHOBHHE XVII B. I . :7.»/ £7 Jhononmcy XIII sbxnana crcpowmax pom. ébrrb xoponem rrpn cBoeM BCBCHJIBHOM " ’ Mmmc'rpe. Kapmman Pumenbe Jryqme Monapxa normman mrrepecu tbpanmm, na Pl can/ Ioii xoponeacnofx nnacwn. 18 new on zzepxcan B caonx pyxax nonwmrcy <I7paHn, uu PI cnyamm rnasaofi nenn — 6J1ary K nenmmro nepmasm. Hpn neM <DpaH- mm naqana npenpamawbca 3 camoe Morymecwnennoe rocynapcrno Eaponm. 1. 2. Kaxue xapaxmepuue uepmu npucyzuu a6co. uomuo1'1 Jzonapxuu? Honesty unzeuuo qrpauuyacxua. I02 cmaxz pafxouoan arcmuenoeo pacnpo- cmpanenux xanbauuusnza? ‘Imo cma. /zo noeoaou 6.11:1 pacnpaau, yuuueuuoa fbpa ncya I‘u3oM e Baccu? Ho-temy amu co6umu. >z noxzoxcuxzu Havana peaueuosubm aofmam u lama aaem ocuoeauue ctzumamb eoimbz zpaxcaanctcumu? Cnpaeedaueo .1u zoaopxm o Fenpuxe IV , -tmo e. szy yaanocb uaatcuumb cydbdy tbpanuuu? 3. 4. SAAAHMFI 1. Llafire onpe, aeneHMe raKMM noHnrMnM: a6comorM3M, «ABODSIHCTBO Luna- rM», «zzsopmvcrao MaHTMM», ryrenoru. 2. Cpasrmre no/1MrMKy no OTHOLUBHMIO K ryreHoraM, nposo. aMaLuyrocn so d>paHuMM ao apemena I'eHpMxa IV M Pmue/ Ibe, ycraHoeMre l7pM‘4MHbI M xa- paxrep ee M3MeHeHM:71. 3. BHMMaTel1bH0 npomrafire OTpblBOK M3 <<nOl1MTM'-IeCKOI'O 3aBeLuaHMn» PM- wenbe. O5bflCHMTe, 8 ‘-IBM xap, aMHa/ I ycmarpnaan caoM sac/1yrM nepea <DpaHuMeM M Kopo/1eM. Kaxyio ponb B )KM3HM rocyxzapcraa orao, aM11 PM- wenbe aaopm/ aM M xaxyro — npocromy Hapozzy? MOFYIIIECTBO H ZYIIAHOK. IICIIAHI/ II’I I/ Icnamm na pyfieme XV—XVI 33.: nnacn u nepa. B xcorme XV B. 6Lma o'rBoe- Bana nocnezxnsm TBCDJIBIHH Mycynbmau Ha Hupeneficxom nonyocwpoae — I‘paHa1x- crmfi amnpar. I/ Icnamm O6"be1I‘I/ IHHJIBCI3 non BJI8.CTb! O I/ I3a6eJu1m Kacwnnbcxofi n <DepHan11o Aparoncxoro 14 npeaparmxacb B onny ma aenyumx crpan Enponu. B pesynyrare ycneumux Boiin ncnancxaa uopona npncoemmwra IOJKHYIO Pha- muo. a opraxmsamm axcnezmnnn KoJryM6a Irplmecna ex“: orpomnme nnaxzeann 3a oxeanoxvr n uocwoanabxe nocryunenna 60J'IbI1IOI‘O Konnqecraa sonora n cepe6pa. Cpexm nonnannmx <<1ca'roJn«mecrcoi& qe'r1.1» 6mm He TOJIbK0 xpncmaue, no u Mnorormcnennbxe Mycynbmane n uyneu. O6'r. em»um3 cwpany 1'eppu'ropuaJu. - HO, tbepnaano n Msafiemla pemmm aoccraaonnn. 3 Her"! penumozmoe enun- cwno. Haqanocb aac'ryn. r1em»1e Ha xmonepuen. Ero ynapaofi cmrofx abxcryuuna nmumammx. Ona ycrpannana pacnpaau Han pmoaepuamn PI epemxamn, npmcpbxnaacr. npu 3TOM Jloaynrazvm 60pb6bI 3a *mc'ro-ry xpucwnancxofi nepu. Hepsoii >Kep'rBox‘»'x c'ra. rm enpen. B coo'rBe'rc'rBm1 c Koponencrmm yrcaaom 1492 1'. 01m nonxcnm 65mm JIPI60 nepeifrrn B Kawommecrao, Jm6o IIOKPIHYTL cwpany. l'Io- ”; ) -. ..-- xzaamuonxee 5OJ'IbII1HHC’I'B0 uyueen He OTDGKJIOCL o'r Bepw o'ruoB I/ I n36pa. no n3r'Ha- ’. Hue. K 'reM xce, KTO Kpecrnnca, OTHOCHJIIICB npeneépexcwrcnbno :1 Haamsann Hx «mapauamn» (cmmbsxmn). B. nac'm uocrosumo Bbmnnramx uporms mix o6Bvme- H14}! 3 Tafiaom ucnosenaunu 1Ipe>xHei'1 Bepbl H nozmepramx xcecrorcnm roneumm. '4 [' / _. .
  • 96. LIAC Tb Pannee Hosoe ape/ vm (KoHeu XV — nepsas nonoauna XVII B. ) . .1._, ._ . _, _ ’— ’ " ""’ "“““’ ”““’"'*’ HeM3BecrHbu71 aarop 06 M3rHaHm4 eapeea / Bawe peu. IeHme M3FHaTb eapeea npmaener K l'laFy6Hb| M nocne, o.cTaw; IM! r1o11y- Mame, Hero OHO aaM 6y;1eT CTOV| Tb. KTO nan TypI<aM Taxyro MOLLlb VI me OHM 0Tb| CKaJ'IV| TaKV| X ymenbax MacTepoa Ann waroroanermn nywex, nyxoe, nnep, Meuefi, Gonbumx VI Manbux umroa, noaaonmoumx VIM Mepmbcsa cwnawm C JIDYWIMV1 Haponamm, ecnw He cpenm eepeea, or KOTOpblX Mcnaucxme Koponvl otmcmnm caono cTpaHy? ! Cnepgyxomnfi ynap ofipympmcn H8. Te oc'raTxn nofiexczxennmx Mycymaman, 1co'ro- | pale eme o6m*aJm B I/ Icnamm. I/ Ix Tarcxce Hacnnbcrnenno Bbxnyzmrm nepefrrn B Ica- t Tonprqecrcyro Bepy. Ozma1co'a'ro He cnacno Mopncxon (Tare Haablnann ofipameanmx I B xpncmancwno apa6oB) o'r 1»x3z1eBa'reJ11.c'rB, npecJ1e, z1oBaHm‘»'1 PI oKoHqa'reJILHoro 31.1- ‘ cejremm B Haqane XVII B. I/ Iarnarme espeen 11 MODPICKOB 05epHy.7IOCb mm I/ Icnanm/ I norepefi yqenux 14 noa'roB, Bpaqeiix PI q)nHaHcnc'ro3, ymenmx pemecnennmcon 14 aemnezzenbues. Brconommce PI nyxoanofi xmann CTpaHbI 651.71 Hanecen orpomnmfi ypoa. B a'rMocq)epe pennmoanofi He'rep1:mMoc'rn xarommecxne q)aHa'rb1 6e3>1ca. no- CTHO ynnwrooxann 6ec11eHHoe xynbrypnoe Hacnenue apa6cKoI‘«': I/ Icnamm. ' l 1 Hcnanua non n. uac'ruo mvmepwropa Kap- na V. B Tarcnx ycnonnax K B. rIac'rn B Hana- KKK npnmen Kapu I‘a6c6ypr (1516-1556). OI-I 61.111 BHYKOM CDepHaH, z1o H I/ I3a6eJIJIb1 no Mawepnncxofi Jummt n ynacnenonan or HPIX I/ Icnanmo, Bnanennn B I/ I'ra. rnm H HOBOM C3e're, a or , z1e, z1a c o'rn. oBcKoI‘»‘1 cwoponm — nemeuxoro nMnepa'ropa Marccnmmmana I — ABc'rpmo, Hnnepnannm 14 I-IeMaJIyI0 qacrb Hememcnx PI txemcxux 3eMeJII>. B 1519 1‘. c nomommo nomcyna Kapn I nofinnca cnoero nafipamm mvmepa'ropoM. OTHBIHO Imman- crcufi KODOJII: c'ra. n mvmepa'ropoM KapJ1oM V. O ero Bnanennsx, pacnonoxcennmx B Enpone 14 Amepmce, ronopmm, Wm B max «rumo- mxa He 3axo, zu»x'r comme» . Ynpammwb Taxofi rnrarrrcrcofi nepxcanofi M zxepxcaws non mom‘- poJ1eM ee pa36pocaHHbIe Teppnwopmx 6bIJIO nenpoc'ro. -, ,, ___ _ , ,,. ... . A . .._. ... ¢*, -. . ._ XVI B. 1/13 «A3To6Morpa¢m4» Ml4HMCTpa I'aTTMHapM h /1 B 1519 r. noaenocb MHe xnonorarb nepen Kypcbvopcrawm 06 yBeH~4aHm4 KODOIISI ’ Kapna vIMnepaTopcKo171 Koponofi. VI cKa3an 9 MM, -470 vIMnepaTopcKan anacrb vwleer npaao npereunosarb Ha rocno, u.cTao Hap. acem Mmpom, M60 Tax noeenen cam Focnonb Haw. Ecnm mmneparopcxan BIlaCTb on<a>o<eTcn 3 pyKax cnaéocmnbnoro KH$l35I, T0 or am- ro rm-+ero, Kpome apena, He abu71p, eT. Mexny TeM. coacem m-Ioro peaynbrara cnenyer 0)KM, D,aTb B cnyuae nepexona vIMnepaTopcKoro Tvnyna K Morymecnaennomy Kopomo, ocnoay anacm KOTOpOl'O COCTaBJ1'r'HOT 6oraTbue crpar-«bx. OH He TpJ1bK0 CTaHeT 3a6o- Tl/ lTbC‘r'I M acswecxvu o6eperaTb caom HaCIle11CT8eHHbIe aewm, H0, npmcoenmnms K HMM HOBble. CTO}1b ysenwmr ananemm wmnepwn, «no p. ocmrHeT Mmposoro rocnop, cTea.
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  • 98. ‘-/ ACTb Ram-tee Hoeoe Bpema (KoHeu XV — nepaas nonoauna X VII 5.) . ___. . . Hanpanmm newnunro rcopomo. Orm 'rpe6onaJm, trroém Rapn nocemmca B Ide- nannn, perymzpno coaunan xopwecm, Been H8.JIOI‘P! mm maopan n ymenbnmn ux mm npyrnx cocnonnfi, ycrpamm c rocynapcwneanmx nonxcuocwefi Imo- cwpannen. 113a rona cnycm noccramxe ynanocb nonanwrb. Mononofi Moaapx npononxum cnoifx UYTI: K a6como1-Hot‘: nnac-ru 3 Idcnamm, ocraaaacb, no cy'rn, rryxmm ma cwpaau. BOJIBIIIYIO qacn ILJIPITGJIBHOPO npannexms on nponen 3 9 noennmx noxonax H Heqacro aarnanhxnan a caoe xoponencwno. Orpomaux ycmmii 'rpe6ona. no or Rapna V npornnocrosmne BHCIIIHKM apa- ram. I‘. na3nmM cpema max Gbma Cbpammx. Ona c'rpeMm1acb npeo6JIa, z1a'rL B Enpone 14 He menana MPIpWI‘bCfi c 'reM, trro notrm co Bcex c'ropoH ee aemm oxa- ' 38.JIHCL aaxcarm Bnanennamn I‘a6c6yproB. IIpopBa'rb ncnancxoe oxpymenne - Taxofi 6b1.na uenb q)paau, yacrcoi'I xopoubx. Ilpyryro cepbeaayxo onacnocws npencranmmn TYDKH. Om: 3n. no'my1o npn6.rmanJmcb K Bnanemmm Kapna V n Llenrpanbuofi Eapone n yrpoxcann nanbneiimnm npozuamxennem Ha aanan. I/ IMnepa'rop, Kare npnaaannufi cnewcxnfi Jmnep xpucwnan, aoamanmt aaxmrry enponeficxnx aapozzos o'r ocmancrcoro Hamecrana. Haxoaen, 'rpe'rbuM Bparom Kapna V cwana Peqaopmanmz. J10 Korma xmanu on ncwono aamnman xa'roJmt1ec- I xyro nepy PI 6opo. nc51 c nporecwaaramu. I Boenume Hyxcnhl nornomwm orpomme cpencwaa. I/ Ix Bmnmnann as mace- Jxemm I/ Icnamm, xoropoe enaa ahmepxcnaano HBIIOCPIJIBBYIO uougy nocroamio pacrymnx nanoron. 3'ro He Momo He HO1I0pB8'I‘b cxmu crpama. HCJIOBOJIBCTBO Kapnom YCPUIHBRJIOCB. B nenpepmanslx Boiinax H8. ero nomo ueonnoxparno Bhmanann uo6e, zn.1, no pgocnmb rnasnofi nenn — coanarb Mnponyro xawommecxyro 3 mvmepmo - nMnepa'ropy He ynanocb. Hoc'rapeBumfi H cJIoMJ1eHHbu“4 ueyaattamu, Kapn V orperccs o'r a. nac'm. Ero Mmuunnfi 6pa'r Cbepmmamx ynacnenonan Ancrpwo, ‘iexmo, txacu. aenrep- cxnx n aememcux aemenb, a Taxme nmnepampcxnfi mwyn. CBIH Cbmmnn uo: xy- Imn I/ Icnamno c ee lmanemmmu 3 Amepmce, éonbmyxo qacm. I/ Iwamm n Hn, z1ep- ‘ JIaB,1IhI. P011 1‘a6c6ypro3 pacnanca Ha , z1Be BGTBH — ancrpuficxyro n ucnancxyxo. r «0c1'opoacm. n‘«'I Icopom» tblumnn II. Eme npn ncnann oma tbmmnn II (1555- 1598) npno6pe. n HeMam. n‘»‘I nonuruqecxnfi 0IIbI'l‘, ynpanmm I/ Icnannefi B o'rcy'r- c'rBne Rapna V. «Ocropoxcnufi xopom. » (Tax 3a MeJJ, JIK'l‘e. JIbHOCTb 3 npnasrmn i pemennfi Haaunanu <1>uJmnna conpemermmm) ynacnenoaan camoe Moryme- I Xyau Haumoxa 09 J10 Kpyc. fbiumnn 11. XVI a. crnennoe rocynapcwno 3anaJ1noi‘x Eaponm. Cbmmrm He moéml cyeru GOJIBIIIHX roponon u cne. na. n cwonuuefi I/ Icnaaml Manenbxuii Manpun, pacnonoxcennufi B uem-pe c-rpaabx. Ho crcopo a ram mu: Monapxa c'ra. no cnnmxom myuno. Emy nonucxann yenuueuuyxo xcmaonucuyro MOCTHOCTB 3 ropax IIo6Jmaoc'rn 01' Manpnna H noc'rponJm Tam 3cx<opna. r1. 310 caewxoe n c'rporoe coopy>xe- nae aepemco naauaann CBOCBMHM qynom cse-ra». Ono cnyamno ozxuonpemenno nnopuom, ycunamr xmnefi n Moaacwmpem. Hm: yxcpamemm 3c1<opn- ana Cbmmnn II co6pa. u orponvmyro xonnercnnro nponaaenennfi ncKycc'rna, ~ 3 TOM tmcne meneapu Tmmana, Bepoaeae, Bocxa. Kopom. ouem. topaz! - Jlca cnoefi xoxmexmxeii reorpaqmqecxnx Ram 91 6ora'roii 6n6.rmo'reKofi, me xparmnocb Mnox<ec'rno Gecnezmux CTBPHHHNX pyxcormcefi.
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  • 100. I Bmna y Jleuamo pemecneuume Toaapm n cenbcxoxosaficraeunme nponyxriax, a o'r'ry, z1a mnpomm noworcom aunosmxa nparonenuue Meramxm 14 cmpbe. Bce a'ro coapganano yCJIO- mm mm axonomrmecrcoro rIo11'1.eMa I/ Icnamm, me ycneumo pasnnnanocb cenbcrcoe xoaaficmo, B roponax Boaamcaam nepaue Manyqxaxrypm, nponaewana xononnanbnaa Toprosna. Ee Bezxyumm I1eH'I‘pOM Gbma Cenmma, cwasmaa ommm na Kpynneifrmnx ropo, z1oB Enponbx. Jlenonan JKPIBHB 'ry'r npoc'ro 6ypJm. r1a! Mexcny 'reM npoumo Bcero Hecrconbrco neca'rmIe'rm‘«’1, I/ I Kapmna pa31»rre. n1.- no n3MeHHJIacI~. . Ilommenne B I/ Icnanrm 60JIbIJ. IOI‘0 Konnqecrna nparouennmx MeTaJIJIOB, Henpepmnnaa qexamca 3o. no'ro17I 14 cepe6paHo1‘«’x M01’-IeTbI BhI3B8JIId cpenomonmo men» - pearcoe yzxopomaxme xIpo, u;oBoJ1bc'rB1»m n npe, z1Me'roB nep- nofi Heo6xo, zmMocm. Bonpercn 3'roMy 11paB1«1'rem. c'r13o sanpermro 1<pec'r1.aHaM no, zumMa'rb menu Ha aepno. Bmpammaanne nmennum crano HGBBIPOAHBIM. Ee nocenu COKp&TI/ IJIHCL, aepnonoe xo3m‘»'1c'rBo nepexcnsano xpnsnc. I/ Icnamm He Morna 06eCIIe‘{PIBa'l‘b ce651 xJ1e6oM 14 6mm BI: -IHy)K, l1eHa BBOSKTL ero 143-3a rpa- nnnm. Ilenm Ha xJ1e6 nozncrcoqmm, a ncnaucxaa axouommca Haqana nona, z1a'r1. 3 sasncnmocrb o'r npyrnx c'rpaH. OrpoMm. n'«’1 Bpe, z1 cenbcxomy xoaaiicrny Hanecno Taxxce narnanne nonymnmrnona MOPPICKOB. Coanannme nx 'rpyz1oM uppnrauw onmne CPICTBMLI, cbpywronbxe camax, onnsuonme poum H nnanraunn caxapuoro 'rpoc'rHmca npnmam B ynazzox. I/ Icnax-Icxue rcopoam He no}mMaJm 'roro, wro npmmro Bpema npnmenwrh Honme Mewonm 3 axonommce, 14 He ncnonbaoaann nonwrmcy nporemmonnama. B cwpane narowannnnanocb MHOPO oneqbefi mepcrn, HO c paspemezma KOpOJIfi ee Bhxnoamm aa rpammy: Tam ncnancrcne ZIBOPHHC-OBILCBOIIBI nponasann ee nope- me, '-XGM Ha pomme. ,II. ns co6c'rBermoro cyxnonenns Cblpbfl He xBaTa. no, noa'roMy ncnancrcne ucann cromm pgopoxce naocwpanumx. Mecwnme Manytbaxwypu He nunepncunann rcomcypeunmx Id saxpmsanncb, a I/ Icnamruo 3anom«mJm nemenme 'r1ca1~m H3 Hnnepnarmcxnx nposnnnnfi. Tax ncnancrcne rcdponn caxvm yHHt1'ro- oxmxn ycnomm mm paaawrna o'ret1ec'r3eHHo17z 'rercc'r1»mLHo1‘»‘I npommmnennocrn. Xo'm I/ I3 Amepmm noc'1-ynano MHOPO 3oJ1o'ra M cepe6pa, nenbm He BKJIa,1IbI- Banach 13 nponanoncrno. I/ Icnancxcoe zmopaucrao ucnonbaonano xx mm co6c'r13eH- aux Hymn 14 pacnnaqusaaxocb mvm 3a unocwpaname Tonapm. I/ I3 maopsmcxnx
  • 101. EBPOFIEHCKPIE FOCYDAPCTBA B XVI - FIEPBOF1 FIOHOBHHE XVII B. xomenmcoa ucnancxue xcamrranu ueperexaxm 13 npyme c-rpanu. Hemano nener wpa-mnocb ua oficnyxcunanne xoponencxoro maopa, c-rpoa-reJxsc'r3o nnopnon u nepxonumx coopyxcemm. Onnaxo ocaonnue cpenc-rna nomomano conepxcanne apmm. He npomaemrme co6c'r3e1-more rocyzxapcrna, a nenpepunaaa 6opL6a c npo'rec'ran'raMu no ncefi Enpone c'ra. na mannofi nenmo ncnancxcnx Monapxon. Ona 'rpe6osa. ua ace Hoaux 3a'rpa'r H Benn K Henmxannomy pocwy nanoron. Hmenno a'ro éonee ncero paapymano npomumneuuocn. u cenbcxoe xoaaficrno I/ Icnannn. 3KoHoMw~1ec1<m‘»‘x ynanoxc auanan ofimee ocnaénenne crpaum. B cepezmne XVII a. I/ Icnamm npeapamnacb no 31-opopaapsmnoe enponeficxoe rocynapcrno. 1. II o-Lexy Ifapa Vocmaaaaca -ayxcux an Hcnauuu? M oxuo an c-uamamb. Ranch cxuca axaaaueaa d>u. wnn I I a canon: «H xuu du ayvuue cos- ‘ / -mm eeo noeeaenue noeauauo no mpedoaauua xouyuepoc? 20 ceu ne uacema naaaauuux. vex uuemb ux a rcauecmae epemuxoa»? 3. ‘Imo uoaoao auec so aueuuumo noaumuxy Hcnauuu d>u. wnn II no epoc- neuuro c Kapuoac V? 4. Kaxue npuuunu euaaaau axonouuuecnua ynafion Hcnauuu a rcouue XVI -XVII 8.? 3A, l1AHM$? 1. Floxaxcme Ha xapre rparmuu rex reppuropmfv, xoropue nocne ome-veuun Kapna V orow/ m K ucnancxam, a xaxne - K aecrpnficxuu I'a6c6ypraM. 2. Mcnonbayn aoxyuenr o6 naruamm espeea M3 Mcnamm, nopaauucnnre, xame nocneacrsun mwenu Ann Mona: -wm pacnpaau c nnoaepuauu. 3. C nomouwo <1>parMeHra M3 «Asroduorpacbuu» ucnancxoro Mmmcrpa I’ ar- muapu onpegennre maauyio nonnruqecxyto uenb Kapna V. I'Io~: eMy MHHM- crpy I'1pMlLlJ1OCb aecm neperoaopu c xypcpiopcramn? Moxno / m qaenarb Kama-ro BbIBO, l1bI us ero once 0 Hexenarenbuocm uadparmn uMneparo- pom ac/ zadocunbuoro mean»? HI/ I,HEPJIAH1IhI B BOPBBE 0 3A CBOBOIIY Hmzepnannu 3 cocrase nuvmepun Kapna V. Hnnepnannu (nocnonno - cnnaonue aemmo) pacxunynncb 3 nmxaem Teqemm Pefina, Maaca n IIIem. - zm. Ty'r mmm HGYTOMHMBIG Tpyxceamm. I/ I3 noxoneana n norconenue oan ocymann 6ono'ra, Bmpyfiann Jxecame qaum, a Ha ax Mecwe paaénnaun EH35! n uacwéuma. Hnzxepnannum uocwponnu namém, rrrofiu aacwanwrb Mope o'rc'ry- nms n ocrannn. monmu nnonoponuyxo notmy. Ha npnfipeacamx pammnax om: coopyxcmm Be-rpmm, nocpencuaom xou-opux nenpepunnufi nerep c Mops orrzzantux qacn. cnoeii aueprnn Menbuanam H Hacocau. Vnopnhdi wpyzz npenpamn éenxbm xpafi 8 0mm H3 camux npouaerammnx yromcon Enponu. Ilempansuue pafionu cwpanu - Bpaéarrr n Cbnannpaa - cnanwmcb cnonn cyxaoaennem. I/ Ia ncnaacrcoii H anrmxficxcoifx mepcm Ha Mecramc Manyqxaxcrypax nsrowoananu xaqecrnenuue n nemenme -rrcann, pacxozmnmneca nanexco aa npenenamn cwpaabx. 9Kwre. un cenepnux aemema - Pomannnn n Benanzxnn - sa- HHMBJIPICL xopaénecrpoenuem H pbI5OJIOBC'l'BOM. Hacenenne loacuux uponnmmfi nocwaammo cenbcnoxoaaficraenuym nponyxnmo. B roponcxom nponsnoncrne H B411€peB! -[E ycneumo paaamaamicb noaue xanmanucwnqecxne omomenns. 99
  • 102. qA C RBHHEE Hosoe BpeM5l (KoHeu XV — nepaast nonoBuHa XVII 5.) ~ , _ _“_ g ; _ 43; ‘-. ; ff; _ I Hponsaoncwno caxapa. H uaepnauflcxan zpaeropa. XVII a. paaawrmo Mexcnynaponnofi 'roproBm»I. B c'rpaHe 11e1‘»'1c'r3ona. na I-IaJIa}KeHHa5I cnc're- Ma owrnqno o6opy, u;oBaHH1.1x nop'roB. Ho percam ocymecrnmurca 'ro13apoo6MeH c I‘epMaH1«IeI'»'1 PI <I>paH1me1'«‘1, a no MOpI0 — c AHr. rme17I, c'rpaHaMn Bmrmn PI MOCKOBK- efi. B Gonbnmx roponax mvxenocxs HeMa. no éamcos 14 énpm, a xpynnefimnfi mump- I Ynofinoe reorpaqmqecxoe pacnonoxcemde Hnnepnannon 6JI8.I‘0IIpPIH'I‘CTBOBaJIO ’ rm Eaponm. Ha ero ymmax Momno 6bIJIO YCJIBIIIIBTB pasnme asmxn I/ I BCTDGTPITB KOMMepCa. HTOB 143 cambxx nanbnux c'rpaH. 17 rIpoBmm, m‘& Hmxepnannon no npaBy cqnwanncb fiorarefimefi qacrmo I/ Icnancxoro 1<opoJ1eBc'rBa. Hanom c max np1mo- cmm I/ Icnamm B 7 pas Gonbme upu6bum, t1eM 301101-o PI cepe6po HOBOPO CBe'ra. Rapn V ynpannnn Hunepnannamu qepes caoero Hamecrnmca. Koponb upe- , z1ycMo'rpn'reJu. Ho coxpamm BOJILHOCTK ropopgon n npencranurenbnmfi opran crpanm — Fenepanbume m'ra'r1.1, o6ecnermJ1 Hmzepnamxcxomy xyneqecmay mnporcne Boamoxcnocrn mm TODPOBJIPI B I/ Icnamm PI HOBOM CBe're. Tarcasr noma- 'rmca nosaonana Rapny V I1o1mep>ic1»1Ba'r1: B Hmxepnannax cno1co1'»’xc'rBne, ozmarco B rcomxe ero npannenna cnjryanna Haqana Memrrbcx. Yaemmeune Hanoroa ace name Ha'raJi1<m3a. nocb Ha Bosmymerme Hacenenna. 1IBopxHc'rBo pasnpamano T0, wro nnocrpannm OTTBCHI/ IJII/ I ero o'r pyxonozxcma c'rpaHo1‘»'1. K 'roMy _x<e B JIaH11c1<m‘»'I nop'r AH'rBepneH c'raJ1 Baxcnmm x1eH'rpoM Toprosofi 14 q)I»maHcoBo1‘»'1 xcn3-
  • 103. Hmzepnannax, me 11po>1<m3a. r1o 1v111oro 11po'réc'1a11*1'o1a (11pe111v1y111ec'r1ae1111o 1<aJ1bB111111c'roB), 651113 133e11eHa PIHKBH3HI1Id5I 11 Ha11a.1111cb 1‘o11e111«1s1 Ha epe'm1<o11. Bce 3'r11 11po6.r1e1v1b1 o6oc'rp1u111cb 11ocJ1e 11p11xo11a 1< BJ1ac'r1«1 <I>p1J11»1n11a II. Hattano oc11o6om11‘e.111.Horo 1111m1cem151. (D11- ;1111111 II y11paB:1s1.11 c11o111v111 BJ1az1e111151M1«1 113 Man- p1111a. Koponb r1.r1oxo 31111.11 H1»1,11ep.11a1111b1 11 32160- 1'11.r1cs1 TOJIBKO o TOM. 11106111 11313119111, 113 max Kart Mo>1<11o 6oJ11.111e cpe11c'r13 Ha Hy‘rK11H I/ lc11a111»11»1. O11 6e3>1<aJ1oc'r11o pasopml c'rpa11y: 11epeJ1o>1<m1 Ha Hee co,11ep>1ca1111e 11c11a11c1<o1‘/1 apM1111, OTMGHPUI JIb[‘O'! ‘bI 1111,11epJ1a1111c1<1»1x 1<y1111,o13. 6pa. r1 B 110111‘ 11 He Bo3Bpa1na.11 11e11br11 1111,11epnaH11c1<11M 6a111<aM. C1'peMflCb 11c1<ope1111'r1. 1<a. r11.1311111131v1, <1>11.r1111111 pas- 11ep11y. r1 Maccosoe 11pec. r1e11o13an11e 11po'rec'ra11'roB. H1111epJ1aH;111,b1 pac11e1111Ba.1111 ,11e1“1c'r13m1 1<opo- J1s1-ucnauna xax 11oJ111'r111cy, Har1pa13.11e1111y1o Ha 11x 11a1111oHa.11b11oe yr11eTe1111e. CTpa11y OXBBTPIJIPI Maccoame 13o31v1y1ue1111;1. Cpezm 11e,11o13oJ11,11b1x 651.110 11e1v1aJ1o 11130111111, :111;1epaM11 l<0T0pbIX c'raJ114 11p111111 B11.111»re:1b. 1 Opa11c1c111"1. rpaq) 31‘M011'r 11 a11M11pa. J I‘op11. 01111 ub1c'ryna. u11 3a r1pe1<pau1e1»111e pe. r1111‘11o3111.1x 1*011e11111'1 11 Bo3Bpa1ue1111e cTap1u1- 111,111 3oJ1bHocTe1”1, a CBOH 'rpe6o13a1111s1 11epe,11a.1111 11aMecT111411.e 1<opo.1111 Map1‘ap1»1'1‘e H-apMc1<o1‘&. ‘ITO- 6bI 11o1<a3a1'b, 110 1<a1<oro 6ez1c'r11e1111oro 110110- >1<e1111;1 Ll0B€, Z1€Hhl 1111,r1ep11a11,11ub1, 1111op;111e 11p11 L BPOI lE; HCKHE I’OCVI1r'PCTBA B . ‘(‘. 'l — HEPBOH HOHOBHHE XH B I Anrmmuc Mop flacxopcm. BH. ’lbI‘€‘. '1bM I Opa11c1<11ii
  • 104. Par-1Hee Hoaoe ape/ vm (KoHeu XV « nepsast FlOl'IOBUHa XVII B. ) Bpyqeuxm noxymexrra Hamepenno oépamumcb B 6e11m,1e o, z1e: »1<m>1. 0.111411 143 npnzznopnmx upe- 3pwreJu>Ho 060338.11 nx ré3aMu - Hnmnmn, H0 Te, 1<oMy anpeconanocb ocxopfinenne, nonxsarnnn CJIOB0 n ncnonbsoaann ero Ha cBox71 nan. Bcrcope Tax c ropxxocnxo Hasbmann ce6n Bce 60pI1bI 3a Heaaancnmocn. Hnnepnaruxos. OCB060}IHTeJIbHOe nsnxcenue Haqanocb ne- TOM 1566 1". . Icorna c'rpaHy oxBa'mJ1o Boccrarme mcoHo6opueB (npownnnmcos mcon). Hon 1'IpPI3bI- 132.1 KaJII>BI/ IHPICTOB onn rpommm rcawommecxne neprcsu, ynnqroxcann mconm 14 c'raTyn cnsnmxz Bcero r1oc'rpap; a.no 6oJ1ee 5 Tmc. uepxnefi. Bocc'ra- Hne ynanocb noaaanm, H0 ono Bbmymuxo Ha- Mecwnnny cmarqwrb saxonm IIpO'I‘PIB epermcos. Taxoe pemeuue He ycwpamzano Cbmmrma. OH cMec'rmI Maprapury, a Ha ee MECTO noc'raBm1 repuora AJ1L6y - xcecroxoro q)aHa'rmca, 06e- masmero orHeM PI Me=1oM ncxopennrb epecb M npmsecm HmJ; epJ1aHp; b1 K nonnofi noxopnocm cBoeMy Mouapxy. ‘ Pepuor A. nb6a nponm réaon. JIe'roM 1567 I‘. 'I3Anmouuc Mopflacxobcm. xcapawenbnoe Boficrco repuora AJIb6I>I BOIIIJIO B HOPTPGT P991101? A-V1355! Hunepnannbr, me ncnancxne COJI1Ia'I‘bI Benn ce- 651 Kan B 3aBoeBax-morii c'rpaHe. Ilmi pacnpanbx c nenononbnmmn 61.13 co3z1aH «Coaer no 11e. uaM 0 M. 'r'{'I‘e)Ke>>, KOTOpbIfi B Hapone Haamnann «rcponanmm». OH Tucauamu BBIHOCPIJI CMepTHbIe npnrosopm. 3rMoH'r :4 I‘opH noI'1»16Jm Ha amaqaowe, a BPIJILFBJIBM Opanctcufi 14 uacrb em cwopounmcon 6e>rcaJ1n 3a rpannuy. Bce, rcro xo'reJ1 cnacwucb, norcmxann crpany. I/ IMymecTBo xcepwn Kponanmx pacnpaa 111110 B nonbay rcopoam, 3 Hnnepnannax pocno que- no pasopennmx n 6e3pa6o'rHb1x. C'rpaHa oqywnnacb Ha rpamx arconomxmeclcofi rcawacrpoqm. IIo1n.1'r1ca AJIb6hI B13ec'rn HOBbIe nanom oxonqawenbno ncqepnana Hapozmoe Tepnelme. Hmzepnamxubl rroxxnmmcb Ha napwtsancxyro 6opb6y. OHM mnn B rnyxne neca PI cosnanann o'rps1,z1L1 «necnmx résos» , pacnpasnsismnxcs c ncnanuamu Ha cyme. «Mopcxme I'é31~. x» Tonnnn ucnaacxue cyna H Hanananu Ha npn6pe2K- Hue Kpenoc'm. Hpmm OpaHc1cm7I nomzepaxan Hapozuiyxo 6opb6y I/ I nomen Ha coroa c réaamn. My>1cec'rBeHH1.n}'r PI aB'rop1«1're'rHr. n‘& qenonerc, on 65m l'I0,lUII/ IHHBIM na'rpno'roM Hnnepnannoa. Oaapennufi nonwrnx, npmxu Hmcoma He ronopmr Jmmrmx mm Heocwopoxcumx cnon H yMeJ1 ucxycno CI-Cpb! Ba'I‘b caou nozmnuume Hamepemm. 3a are on nojrytum npoasarme «Monqannsmfi». Becnofi 1572 1'. K0pa6JIIrI «MODCKPIX réaos» saxaawmm nop'r Bpmx, trro cra- JIO cnraanom K o6n1eMy Bocc'raHmo cesepnmx nposununfi. Hppmu Opancrcnfi Bepnynca B Hnnepnannu :4 Boamaann ocBo6o, zm'rem>Hyro 6opb6y. LIJIH ee no- 102 gxanalemm repuor A. m;6a 6pocu. r1 Ha ceaep ace c1/11151, HO ronnanncxue ropo, z1a oxaabxsanu ncnanuam reponqecxoe conpowmmeune. C 0I‘p0MHbIM Myxcec-rnoM cnepacnsann Mnoromecmmyxo ocazzy xcwrema . TIe1‘»’u1eHa. Roma ropon oxasanca Ha xpaxo m6eJm, ero xm'reJm owsancunncb Ha orqaanaufi mar. OHM paapymmm IIJIOTYIHBI Ha 6epery Mopa u saronmm Gnuanemamue 3eMJm. Bbmymm apara o'rc'ry1m'r1..
  • 105. EBPOIll. .'r1k‘KHF; I (T)CYIl~PCTBA B xv: HI. -'. PB()l/1 FIOIIOBHHE xvus. /(J/ M? ' I _ ‘ [I . A N: ..A/ ,4.-. . ‘.1 . fllpunu [ha miiwpx. Iiarmmue m= .x_‘xn'on nu Xup.1e. :a. I‘pa62opa. 1605 2. / 1573 r. M3 , aoHeceHmn repuora AIIb5bI Cbmmnny II 06 oca. ae ropoaa Xapnema He Ha| .1J!1OCb Hl/1 o;1Horo uenoaexa, Koropbm 3axoTen 61:1 Hecm MopcKyIo cny>K- 6y: ace MaTDOCbI 6bU1M saonuo c BOCCTaBl1JVlMl/ I.. . 3aUJMTHMKl4 ropona Benn ce6n Kax Hacronume BOI/ |HbI. .. Mx I/ IH>KeHepbI raopmm Hecnbuxam-Ibue aeum. .. Hmxorna He amne- nvu mom, omwmo 3aumu1eHHoro nymaa. .. 370 can/ Ian Kpoaaaan Bofina. Kaxofi y>Ke naano ne Cibuno. .. pom Hmcna amx m3MeHHw<oa — am Hacmsamee ‘WAG! Oco6eHHo cémeaer MCHR c TOI'lKy, KOF11a 9 Bmxy, c Kamm TDy, L1OM Bbl, BaLue BGITWIGCTBO, p. ocTa- 8T8 HOBb| e no, cu<penneHvm. m c Kaxoih l1efKOCTb! O mo,11v1 omauor caoro )KM3Hb M caoe nmymecrao a pacnop9>KeHme amx MFITQJKHMKOB. Po; x;;1enne Pecny6.1m<n Coemmenumx Hponrxnulxii. Home Hecxonsxnx new Gopbém n3.1o; i<,1eHHbIe zo>x«: m,xe npoanmmn nouum Ha comamemae c (Dn- JIHIIIIOM II. Onn COI‘. v'laCH. 'IHCb aepuywbcsx non BJIaC'I‘b I/ Icuamm npu ycnonnn BbIBO, '1il c In; 1*eppmopm"1 ucuancxux aoficx H coxpanemm HEKOTODBIX npmm- nemii. B npornnonec zory ceaepnme nposnmnm cwomm 3a npozxonxcenne 0CBO6O11H'I'€JlbH0I7I 60pb6bI no no6e11noro xoaua. B 1579 r. B I-opone Vrpexwe om»: zzoroaopmmcb 06 o6'bemmemm B . V1~pex'rc1cy1o ynmo, rcoropaa uonoxcnna Hawa- JIO nonnomy paapbmy cI’Icna1mei'1. B 1581 r. B.7IaCTb Climmxma H B Hunepnannax Ghma caeprnym. flpaamemm crpauu (c'ra'rxay11epoM) C06HpaJIHCb cnenan. Bx1.*11.n-.7u. .m Op-ancxoro, HO Bepo.1o. moe yfiniicrno npmxua paapymrmo 3'm una- mn. 110.1:-xmocrb nepenma K ero CbI}{_, '. Ta:1an'r. rmBoMy nomconozmy Mopnny npommuuu npoBo3macu: m C0651 Pecnyémmoii Coemmennux Ilponmmnii. ,4:/ . Hcnamm omaaanacb IIpI13HaTb Pecny6.nm<y xx npononxcana B0eB8.'l‘b c Heii. (( Coezzmzmmmm Hposnmumm npuumocb JIOBOJIBHO zxonro o'rc'ram3a'rb cnoxo caMo- “f “ CTOi! 'I‘eJIbI{OCTb. Hocne Hey11a<m1.1x HOHBITOK Bepnyn. B. TlaC'I‘b Han Hn, z1epJIan, zxa- *3 ‘_ . Mn I/ Icnarum B 1609 1". no, z1nucaJ1a c HMMH nepexvmpne Ha 12 Her. tbawrmxecrcn
  • 106. Rarmee Hosoe ape/ vm (r<oHeu XV — nepsasi nonoauna X VII 5.) oua npnanana Hesaancnmocrb Hosoii espo- neficxoix c'rpaHb1. Ozmonpemermo nepexvm- pue oauaqano pacrcon panee ezmnmx upo- aunxmfi Ha nae qacwu. IO>§<m,1e nposmnnm 0CTaJIHCb BO Bnaneuunx ncnaucxoro xopo- II}! 14 co Bpemenem cocwasmm ocnony coupe- Mexmoro roc_vz1apc"r3a Be.7IbI‘HH. Tonbxo B 1648 r. ncnauubx oqmunaJn. uo npuanami He3aBIdCHMOC'X‘b Pecr1y6Jnmn Coemmeunmx Ilposmumfi. K 'roMy Bpemeun B 3KoHoM1»mec- KOM n Boexmom o'rHomeHm1x (ma i{B. I1H. IIaCb onumvx H3 cnnbneiinnnx rocy11apc'ra Eaponm. Homsem I‘o. 'man:1m| . Ocno6o>§<neHue 0'1‘ ucnancxcoro nnammzecrna O’I'KpbIJIO uepea Coezmnemmxmn Hpommmmmu npocrop mm axouomnuecxoro poc'ra. B c'rpaHe ycrxeumo paarznnancsx pzmnm‘/ ‘I KannTa: m3M. B 60m. - ‘ ‘PPUHF X“-'10 F 0-'Iv'18HflC*<‘<H ('9-W»? ! umx ropogmx B()3Il1H{JIH [1eH'I‘pI1JlH30BaHHbIe Ha UDHPOM Mauy(1)aK'rypm. Ha KOTOpbI. ‘x' H:3r‘m‘0B. 'I5I. *m ca- xap-pacpmxaxx. mmo, nosxomo. u1e: u<, crezcno. Bucomm xumecmom cnaauzxacb upo;1_v1<u, m1 HOBLIX oTpac. nei'x ~- 1u. vmq)oBaH1m c're1<J1a nun orrrxmecxnx npu6opoB H orpamm 6pH. TIJIPIaH'I‘OB. Haufionee pas- mrrofi npomuuu4e1"1 Pecny6.nm<n Coezmnennmx flpoaununfi 6bI. Y!H I‘oJI. naH11m1, fIO3’I’OMy acrcope Tax cTa. rm Hfl3bIBa’I‘b BCIO c'rpaH_v. Bamumii umxzuz B xoaaficraeuublfi nozrbexvz FOJIJIEIHJIHH BHGCJIH uepecenenubl. l1ecHTKn Tbl(‘fl‘{ moz1eI}'1, cnacancb or peJIIrII‘HO3HblX r0HeHm"I, 6e>KaJm cxona 113 l0)-KI-IbIXI1pOBHH1UH7!, a Tamxe us <DpaHLum n I‘epMaHm{. Omt npuaosmm C co- 6o1“4 J1eHe}}{HbI(? x<a1m'ram.1. Ceh‘p€'I‘bI pemecna H cTpeM. r1eHne Been: awrusnyro >KH8Hb Ha HOBOM MecTe. B. naro, r1apH nx om, n'y BO3pO11H. TIOCb n pacuneno notrm yuwrroxcexluoe cy1<Ho;1e. rme Jleimeaa, a Ha xcaqecmeanue I‘0JlJIflH, l1CK. H€ cyxna B03!! !/[K umpmmfi cnpoc no Bceii Eapone. Paanwrmo Karmraamsma Becbma co- Aeficrnoaano T0, Wm B Pecnyfinmce ymepzmnca r<aJ1LB1«mu3M. noou1pm2u11«xix ofioramerme npu nomoum ynopuoro Tpyna.
  • 107. EBPOFIEPICKI/ IE FOCYIIAPCTBA B XVI — FIEPBOF1 HOHOBHHE XVII B. 3Ha‘! HTeJIbHhIX ycnexon nocrnrno cynocwpoenne. Crpana cosnana camufi Momaufi 3 Enpone (b. uo'r B cocrase 4300 Kopafinefi. OH Bnnoe npenocxomm ‘IPICJIGHHOCTB nasrrux nMec're qmomon Anrmm n <DpaHum»1. 3'ro noaaommo Coemmeanum Hponm-mnam rcomcypnpoaawb c nenynmmu rocynapcwnamn H necm a1<'rm3Hy1o BHGHIHIOIO ’l‘OpI‘0BJl! O. Ee KDYIIHNM uerrrpom c'ra. n ro. u.nannc- xnii ropon Amcwepnam. B ero nopmy cxonvumcr. orpomme Tosapnue no'rox<n 143 paanux cwpan n xon-runerrros. Illnporcoro paamaxa zzocrnrna raxxce nea- 'l‘eJlbHOC'l‘b Amcrepnamcuoro 6am<a n Topronofi énpam. Hoannenne qmoma noanommo Fonnananu Ha py6eme XVI—XVH an. Bl('. JIlO‘{PI- when 3 6opL6y 3a xonomm. BI: -IJI8. coazxana mmanncxaa Oc'r-I/ Iaucxaa rcomuamm, naqanxnaa nacwymenne Ha rocnoncwao ncnannen u nopryrwmnen 3 pafionax nu- aosa npauocrefi. Ona cuoma HOJIHOCTBIO awrecnnn. xomcypexrron K3 I/ Irmoaeaxm n qacwnqno — na I/ Izumu. I‘o. nJxammu ocaonamx xonoamx 3 Atbpmce n nocwannmm HEBOJILHKKOB 3 Honufi Cne'r. B Amepmce om: aaxnanum senum B Pynaononom samme n ocnonama xonoumo Honufi Amcrepnam (6y1xymnfi Hmo-I7Iopr<). V / XVII B. AHrnm7vcKm7r SKOHOMMCT ToMac Men , // onqabeMelbnnanaMu 9! MOI’ 6u npuaecm a xauecme npumepa paauue rocypapcraa xpncmancxoro Mupa, xmopue. mnen ooaoem Mano ooécmennux Teppmopufi. ace nocmmu éonuuoro 6oraT- craa M Morymecraa caoefi Ycepnnofi Toproanefi c vmocrpauuamn. Cpepya Hmx Coe. cmHeH- Hue npoaunuvm Hvuzepnannos nansuorcsa cefi-«ac cambwn nyuumm M cnaauum o6paauoM. C Tex nop Kax oom cdpocwm c ce6n npmo Mcnaucxoro paécraa, Kax uynecno om pas- Bvmvl ace caovn cnoco6Hocm! Kame Gonbume cpe, n.c‘raa OHM nonyumnm, -41065: samu- u. l,aTb caoso caofiony npoma Moum Taxoro BGIWIKOFO epara! VI npowaoumo nu ace aro Onaronapn mx Henpepueuomy ycepnwo 3 Toproane? He nanmorcn nu vnx npoanuuma cxnapaun T088908 Ann Oonbumncraa crpau xpucmaucxoro Mupa, énaronapn -4eMy ux éorarcrao, cynoxoncmo, MODSIKVI, pemecna, Hapon. a noToMy M oémecmeuuue Aoxo- supocnn no ymnawrenbuofi aucoru? Ecnvn MbI cpaamm apeMeHa MX nopa6ouJ. eHvm c wx Hacronumm cocrommem, TO orm noxaxcyrcn Ham npymm Haponom. .. Bcemy Mupy uynom Kaxercn. nno raxan Maneubxan crpana. .. vwnen xpafiue Mano npuponnux 6oraTcra, cbecmux npnnacoa. neca vmw npyrvlx HeO6XOJJ. VIMblX mm 30%- Hbl vu Mupa npvmacoa, aonpem aromy mvueer ace 3 Taxom upeaauuaimom nocrarxe, «no. Kpome caoux coécraeunux norpefinocrefi (aecbma 50flbUJMX). .. nponaer ApyrMM rocynapcraam cyna, apmnnepmo. cuacm. sepuo. nopox. nynm M npoqee. Houeuy uuaepaauacxue npoeuuquu cuumaaucb dozamefiwea uacmuo Hcnaucrcoeo Icoponeecmea? Cywecmeoaaaa Jlu cans» Jueatcay rcamaeuuucmcrcoa eepofi u paaaumueu uauuonanbuo-oceodoéumemauoeo deuorcenua e H uaepuanaax? Kaxue cuou uuaepuanacxozo uaceneuua npunuxaau yuacmue e nauuo- uaabno-ocaododumeabnou éauxceuuu? ‘Iex uoxcuo odzacnumb ucnoJu>- soaauue napmuaaucxux Juemoaoo 6opb6u? 4. Ifaxue ¢axmopu coaettcmaoeaau noéseuy Ponaaufluu? 3A, l1AHM5? 1. Mcxom M3 coaepxaumv aoueceumz repuora Al1b6bl rbwmnny II, game cue: -my amocdaepe, koropaa cnoxunacb 3 Hmzepnaruzax nocne aaeaermn ncnaucxnx aoficx. J
  • 108. 106 Parmee Hoaoe Bp€M$1(KOHeu XV — nepsaz nonoeuna XVII B. ) . ___________. .____. _._? __. ..[ 2. Oxapaxrepuayfire cocromme axonommm I'onnaH. am4 Ha ocnoaamm Ha- 6;uo, aeHm? Tomaca Mena. Flo-: eMy on c-mran, qro nocne ocaodoxgaenun or ucnancxoro rocnoacrsa ronnaruzuu cra/ m , apymM Hapo, aoM? ‘Ira, no Mne- Hmo Meua, odycnosuno 6ucrpoe paaaume crpauu? 13 AHFJIIIH B anoxy . TIOJIOPOB Hamenemta 3 auonomme u o6u1ec'rne. Manmifx 1<JmMa'r H Tyqubxe uacrfinma noanomum anrmmanau nupamnaam. oco6y1o nopozzy open. 143 ux mmanoifx n Torncofi mepcm -mum npexpacxue cyrcna, xmopme aacnyxcenno uaamaamx cropxxocrmo u rnannmm 6ora'rc'r3oM anrnnficxofi Hanan» . Kaqecrneanue mepcn n ucann nonssoaaamcb nmpoxum cnpocom, rpyxcennue mm 1<opa6Jm perynapno noc'ra3J1aJm caofi Toaap 3 Hnnepnaanm, Fepmanmo, I/ Icnaumo n zxpyrne crpanu. Bmnosrrrb 'l‘8.K MI-IOI‘O cyxon Anmmn ynananocb noromy, trro nx naromonneanem aammajmcb Mnorormcnenaue Manycpawrypu. Bamemmx ycnexon nocwnrnn Taxace xopa6nec'rpoemae, aunnanxa Meramxon, orpacnn no nunycxy c1-exna, fiyuarn, Mama, uopoxa. BHPOAHOG pacnonomenne c-rpanm Ha nepeceqeuuu ropronux nywefi as Ce- nepnofi Enponu 3 Cpenuaemuomopbe cnoco6c'r3ona. no ycnexam anrnniicxofi 'ropro3.xm. Ee 05'beMI: I c-rpemn-eJuaao Bmpocnn 3 cnaau c Bemncmvm reorpa(1m- qecrcmm owxpurnnmn, KOFAR rnannme Topronue Mamcrpann IIBDGMGCTPIJIPICB Ha noéepencbe Amanrntxecrcoro orceana n amvumcmae nopwu suumn Ha ne- pezmnfi nnan. C paamaxom woproann 6ora'reno xcyneqecm-so a poem»: ropona. MOHIHHM nop-rom mexcnynapomaoro aaaqemm cran Jlonnoa. Cxona uoc'roan- no npnéunum roproaue cyna us paauux crpan. sneer, Hmcorna ne cmomcan ronop paanoaautmoro xyneqecwna. 8a c'ro new nacenerme anrnnficxofi c'roJm11u ynenntrnnocb aqernepo n x 1600 r. noc'mra. uo oxono 200 Tue. qenoaex. Baxcnme namenenna npoucxozmam n 3 anrnnixcxom o6mec1'ae. Bnywpn nnopsncma o6pa3ona.7mcb nae fionbnme rpyrmu. Omm zusopsme nponomicann seem o6hnmmi& o6pa3 cymecmoaannaz xcmm Ha nnarexcn o'r xpecrbaa, Hecma npmznopnylo mm noennyxo cnyncfiy. Bce name aausrrmx om: ctm'ra. rm ne6.uaro- poxmnmn n ornocwmcb x mm c npeapermeu. Taxnx Jnonefi aasunann c1-apsmn mcopananut. Onn ne nnrepecoaanucb xoaaficmom n ocrananncb nae nenonoia xcnslm. Hoaromy nx npnéuma nanann, a cam»: orm paaopmmcs. B omnque 01' mix, nonue nnopane, mm nacen-rpu, awrnnno aanumannca lIpn5I: lJIbHbIM onnenoncwnom, coananajm B cnonx umenuax Manytbaxrypm no nponanoncrny cyrcon n Benn 'I‘0pI‘OBJIlO. I/ Ix nern yxce crpemnnucb nonywnwb ynunepcnrewcxoe oépasonaxme n nofrrn Ha mcynapcwneanyxo cJxyx<6y. Honoe nnopancrso 6uc'rpo oéoramanocb u cnyxcnno ofipaauom zma nonpaxcarma, ero panu nocwoanno pocJm, a nnuaune ycunnaanocb. Pacnmpenne cnpoca H8 mepcu. cnemuto onuenoncwao oqema nuronnmm n npnfismnnum nenom. Ono npnnnexcano aaaxwrmmmx xpecwwm :4 rcpyunux seuuennaaennnen — nemmopnon. Ho B Amvnm norrm Ben maopnncxcan aemm éhma poanana mm o6pa6o'nu«1 Kpecwmnam-oémnunmcam, npana xaropmx sauna- man crapnnnufi 065!-zafi. Cnoéozznoro npocwpancwsa mm nac'r6um ne xaawano. Bonee 6ora1-He xpecnane npn nepnoii xce no3Mon<Hoc'rx«1 cxynama yuacnm o6e1mennmx cocenefi. Jleuzmopnm ace cwxofi cromum xpecrum c aexvum H o6ro- paxcananu ee B snare ‘l‘0l"0, In-o oaa 6om. me He npnnannexcnw xpecrbancxofi
  • 109. [iBPOF1E‘riCi’l1[; YOCYLIAPCTBA B XVI — HEPBOH HOHOBHHE XVII B. I I’. ff0.=1.'IuH.3.Aur. 'nlii<'1«: ;m (‘PMH1 33 'mo~. 1 oéumne. 3aT€M nammo zzacerzazm "rpasofi n npeapamamx B nac'r6m11e. ICpec'rbsm- (‘KHO noma npu awm pa3p_vma: m. :1 Inc o6m*a're. 'xei’1 m. x6pacbxBa. m1 Ha ymmy. Hacn. «'1bcT13enm,1x“1 cron Kpecrmm c sewm c'ra. r1 r1oBceMec'rHb1M 14 nonytmn Haasauue oropamunauue. Tam, mm panbxue Tmcsmu rcpecrbsm BbIpaU.1HBaJIH ypoxcan. Tenepz. rmcnncb O’I‘ElpbI oaeu non npncMo'rpoM Bcero onnoro nacwyxa. Oaueacuuxecrcxie X()3il| -7lC’FBa 6x.1.vm yme ue (beonanbnbxmn, a xa11wraJmc'rw1ec- KHMHZ mm 6mm: Tecno csasanbx c pmmcom n ncnonbsoaann 'rpyz1 naexvmbxx (ten1.c1<oxo;3:»1fi(‘Tnenm.1x pa60THm<oB ~ 6aTpa1<oB. Oropomeunan 3eMJli{ I‘lpHHO- (‘H3121 . 'I€H, I1.'I0p, ~'1aM snarmrenbuo 60.'1b1H0 IlpH6bIJIH, HEM Kpecwbancxne nommuoc- TH. 3a'ro no:1o>§<enne xcpocwmm rs po3_v: n.TuTe ompaxmaarmfi peaxo namemmocb. OHM nowepsmu aewno, a rmecre c 1101": u B()3M0)§{HOCTb Becrn CO6CTBeHHOe xo3su‘»'x- (‘TB(). V max He o<: Tammoch HHOPO BbI60p3., Kax no6upa'rbc5x H1460 c'raHoBm'bcn npecryrmmcamu u Il[)()MbI1HJI$ITb B()pOBC'I‘BOM 14 pa36oeM. O6e;311oJ1en1u.1o 1<pec'r1.nue rxpespauxmmcb B naynepon - Juo11ei'1, noJ1Hoc'rb! o nmneuubxx openers K cyxuecraoaaumo. I/ Ix M0>KHO 61,130 yamzewb no Bceii AH! ‘- mm — uerrme TO. '1l'1bl 6(‘3;10MHbIX n fiespafiorubxx Hmnnx H fipozmr, Heonnokpamo nozxuumaxsumx BO(? ("l"clHH5I. Bnacru mecwoxo pacnpaanmmcb c naynepaxvm: 3a 6po11n>§<mmec'rBo ux I<. r1ei'1Mn. rm, 6mm. 1<a. r1_erm: m H name Kasmum. 3T0 BbIHy)K- mmo fiparbca 3a m06yx0 pa6oTy. HRDCJLKO Ttmbrco 3a nponuwanne. Anmnficxue Icpecrbsme. ems >z<vp'r1zaML-1 oropmicumlum-"1, npenpmmmcb B zzemesyro pa6o- qyro cmxy. OHM mummasmcx. pa6o1~mu<aMn Ha Manytbnxwypm mm fiarpaumm _v 60I‘ZlTbIX tbepmepoa. Tax. 8 AHFJIHH non 3:1 mumem porm cnpoca Ha I1I(? pCTb npousomesx arpapnuii nepenopor — pa3p_v1m-nm- Tpa£1HIUI()HHhlX ornomermii Mex<;1_v KpeCTbfiHaMH H 107 U 44%4_ T: j_ j
  • 110. Rarmee Hosoe Bpe/ ~19 (I'OHdl. ’ W nepaasi no/1oBuHa X VII 8.) ceuhopamu-. rIeH;1.nop;1aMn. C non Bnermem B pe: s_v. :n; raTe 3'roro zxeweaofi pafioqeifx cmlm 6511114 coananm YCJIOBYIH 111151 65Ic'rporo parnmwmz Kar1n'm. nn3Ma. XVI 3. M3 «Yronuw» Tomaca Mopa Baum oeuu. 065:-mo Tame xponwue, £1OBO! ‘lbCT8yIOLLur1€CR O‘-leHb HEMHOFVIM, renepb, oaopsn, cranm Tammy: npoxcopnmabnmm I/1 Heyxpommbwm, HTO noenaror , IJ. a>Ke mo. D.eL71, paaopmov I/ I onycvomanor nonsa. noma w ropona. Vlmeuno so acex Tex Hacmx xoponeacrsa, me noébasaerca 6onee Tonxan M t'1OTOMy 6onee u. eHo-can mepcrb, 3HaTHb|8 apv1cToKpaTbn M naxe Hexoropune a66aTbl, mopyl cambne. He £l,0B0flbCTByl0TC$l Temw e>o<ero, uHbwm goxopawm w npouemawm, Koropbue O5b| ‘-IHO Hapacranm OT vnMeHm71 y mx npeuxos. .. B csowx mmenmzx orm He ocraenmor Hmero Ann naumm, omomv ace non nacrémma, cnocnr noma, paapymanor ropona. ocraannsa XpaMbI ronbxo arm CBl4HbIX crown. 3m Mmnbne moan oépamam 3 nycmmo ace nocenermn M Ka)K. I1y|0 nsmb Boanenanuofi aewm. .. Taxvw: o6pa3oM. c Tex nop xax scero onmu o6>o<opa. HeHaCblTHa9l M xecroxan saaaa oTe= IecTaa. yHMHTO)KaeT Mexvn nonev'I, oxpyxaer e. L1v1Hb«M 3a6opoM H€CKOJ'| bKO TblC$1‘-I axpoa, on abnfipacbuaaer son nepxarenefi. nvuuaer mx — mm OI1yTaHHb| X o6MaHoM, vmm l1OJ1aBJ1eHHb| X Hacwmem — . ua>Ke WX CO6CTBeHHOI'O IIOCTOFIHVIFI I/ Ifll/1, aamyuma O6l/1,£1a- MVI, ebmy>o<. a.aeT K npop. a>o<e ero. Fenpnx VIII :1 xoponencxaa Pe¢opMa- mm. B 1485 I‘. nocne oxouqanna Bofinm P03 anrnnficxnfi npec'ro. n nepemen K ;1m=1ac- Tun Tlonopon. Buaqwrenbnoe ycpmerme may- , rLapc'rBa PI Koponencxofi B. nac'm nponsonmo B npanner-me Feupnxa VIII (l509~1547). I10 ero Bouapemm Anrmm 6b1na B1'opopa3psu1- H0171 eaponeiicxoii crpauofi Pl 3aMe'rHo yc'ry- naJ1a Cbpanuzm, I/ Icnamm n Hemeuxoii PIM~ nepuu. Fenpnx yuacnenosan orpozunyxo Kas- Hy 14 c'raJx ommm 143 fiorarefiumx Moaapxoa Esponm. Tenepb ero nem. cocroana B peme- rum rnasnofi nonuwnqecxofi aanatm — upe- Bpa'm'rL Anmmo B Be, z1ymy1o nepxcasy. ‘Iro- fiu , z1oc'mtn, 3'roro, Fenpnx peumn 3a'I‘MPI'l‘b cocezzefi-Monapxoa Bemmonennem csoero msopa. He manea cpencrn, on CTp0PL7I MHOI‘0- tmcneunue zuaopum n yxpamzm ux upe1cpac- HLIMI/ I nponssexxenmimn 1»1c1<ycc'rBa. Ho ero ~ "' ~'—-F1‘ npnmamenmo B Anmmo C'beX&JIPICL Hyu- ume II03'I‘bI, xyzzoxcnmm H apxwrewropu co Bceii Eaponm. Hpu nozuxepmxe KOp0JIH 3 cwpaue pacnpocrpannnncb uzzen rymarmama H Peneccanca, a Tomac Mop name nonytum Bucmylo rocynapcwsennyxo nonxcuocn. - nopn-Kauunepa. Peapnx VIII aaéowmcx u o 6eaonacHoc'm rocynapcma. Anrmm — ocrponaaa cwpana, noa'roMy Bpancecxoe xrropxcenne yrpomano efa 'rom. x<o c Mopa. Monapx JIM‘-{H0 1coH'rpoJmpoBaJ1 Hanemuocvb Geperoabrx yxpennennii H Kpenocwefi. 0!-I co3,zxa. n aoeunmfi ctmor, x<o'ropLu‘F1 Eospemeanmm Haamaann uxepensmnbxmn aoporaxvm Aurnmn. Hpecnmc C'I‘p8.I-II: -I 3aMe'mo ampoc. Penpnx VIII npunan nomunnmfi énecx n Benmme anrnuficxofi Moaapxuu u xoponencxomy zusopy. On 62.1.11 Bmcoxooépaaoaannmm qenosercom H menpum Meuenarom, no c'rpeMJIe- Hue HOJIHHHHTB Bcex csoefi none, nonospnrenbnocn 14 >xec'roxoc'r1. caenann ero npaBJIeHne necnoruqecrmm.
  • 111. EBPOHEHCKHE FOCYDAPCTBA B XVI — FIEPBOPI HOIIOBMHE XVII B. Roma 8 Aarmuo Haqanu nponuxan. petbopmauuouubxe unen, Fenpnx VIII caaqana Bmcrynnn nporun aux. Co apemeuem KOpOJIb nomemm noanumo H cam uacrosm Ha nponenemm Peq)opMauuu, rcowopyro H3-38 aroro Has: -..13a1o'r ucoponeacxcofiv . Tomu<oM l-C npxmsrrmo Taxoro pememm c'raJm o6c'ros1'rem. c'r3a cemeifu-Iofi ncnsnn Monapxa. Peupux VIII 1»: ero cynpyra, ncnamca Excawepmia Aparoucxcaa, nMeJm TOJIBKO onnoro pefiemca — 11091. Mapmo. Ropomo Hyxcen 65m Cblfl, nacnezmmc npecwona. OH aammcmm paaopmrrh cnofi 6pa1< PI xcennrbca Ha 3Ha'rHo1‘«'1 Mononofi aawmuauxe Anne Bonefin. Paapemerme Ha paanon MOI‘ nan TOJILKO nana pnmcxnfi. Onuaxo on He petmmca nop'rwrL ornomenna c Morymecrnennmm xmemmmmcom Exarepnnm — nmneparopom Kapnom V 14 ama- aan anrnniicxomy Monapxy. Pasuipenumfi Peapnx VIII 6pocn. n BbI30B PHMy. OH pemml coamrrb B Anmmn Hesanucmwyxo or nanu ueprcoab H nozxtmmrn. ee ce6e. Ilon em Aasnermem B 1534 r. nap. naMeH'r npm-Ian «Arcr o cynpemarum (aepxonencrne), xowopmix o6'ba3m1 xopona ezmncmenuhxm manor}? :4 aauurramcom aarnuficxofi ueprcan. Mouacwbxpn aarcpbmn, a Moaaxoa paaomann. Monacwblpcxne aexvum n nMymec'r- B0, a Taxme C06CTBeHHOC'I‘b uepxsu nepeumu 13 pyxn Kopona. Monapx pacnopa- xcancs man no CO6C'I‘BeHHOMy ycmorpenmo n aenan menpue nonaprm cnonm IIpH6JIH>! (eHHbIM, 'r. e. 143 yqeuna JI1o'repa Penpnx VIII B35111 npemne Bcero T0, trro Momo yrcpenwrb Koponeacrcyxo nnacn. Pecpopmnpoaanuaa amvmiicrcaa nepxom. noaanmcwaonana Taxxce xmero Jlrorepa 06 onpannamm aepofi n orxasanacb o'r aexoropmx Tanners. Ho 3 uenom ona coxpamma MHOPO o6u1ero c 1ca'roJmqec- Koii ugepxonmoz nepapxmo nyxoseucrna n ero nbmmoe oénaqerme, noxnonenue mcoaam n cnsrrmm, yxpamerme uepxaefi, ncnonbsonauue rxpu 6orocJryxcemm oprannofi My3bIKH. Hpaana, peanocwnme npnnepoxenuu npeoépaaosatmfi 651- nm Henolsonbnm Taxnm nonxonom. Om»: npuaunann xopona npoaecrn 6o. rIee myéoxyxo peqaopmy 14 nonnocwuo orxaaawbca o'r crxepexcwncoa narmamaa. Hoaan aepa nonyquna Haaaanne «amvlmcancxofi» n ébxcrpo no6e, z1n. ua. Bro n HGYJIPIBHTBJIBHOZ B8111: rem. KTO oncpmro owrcaablaanca ee I'IpIrIH5lTb, rpo- amxa cmeprnan xcapa. He owpexca 01' cnoux yéeaxnenufi 14 He comacnnca upm- anan. rcoponn rnaaofi uepxnu auamennrufi ryMarmc'r Tomac Mop. Bucoxaa , l10.. 'D! (HOCTb H cnana yqenoro He cmomm cnacru ero 01‘ mesa Peupnxa VIII. Mop nomé Ha 3u1ac1>o're. Ozmaxo aonpexn Bcem pacnpanam uexvxano aarnuqau npononxcanu Taiiuo ucnoaenonaua xawonuqecrao. Ono 6bIJIO apelvxeaao noccranosneao B npaB- netme zzoqepu Fenpnxa VIII - Mapun Trozxop (1553-1558). Koponena ncecwoxo npecnenonana l'IpO'I‘eCT8.H'I‘OB, wro Busaano peaxoe He1IOBOJIb- c'rao exo co cwoponu amvmqan. Bpaxcnefiuocrb K Mouapxpme ycmmnacb nocne ee épaxa c (Du- JIHIIIIOM II I/ [cnaHc1<nM: anrzrmqane pacn. eHm3a- JIM a'ro aamyxcecwno xax peanbuyxo yrposy oxa- aarbca B aanncnmocwn o'r Morymecwnennbxx I‘a6c6ypron. l'Io3'roMy npuxon K Bnacrn noqepu Peupuxa VIII K Axum Bonefin Enuaaneru I Tlonop Anrmm Bc'rpe'mJ1a c pa. z1oc'rb1o. Honaa rocynapmnn cpgenana oxonqarenbaufi BbI60p B nonbay aHmmcaHc'rBa. Ee mar mvlen Tamxe Ba>xc- | Aumouuc Mop Jlacxopa. Hue nonnwnqecxne noc. r1e11c'rmm: Amvma c'raJ1a Mapna Txonop. 1554 2.
  • 112. PaHHee Hoaoe ape/ vm (KoHeu X V — nepaasa nonoauua XVII 5.) oru1o'roM eapoueficrmx npoTec'raHTox3, a no- 1'oMy - I‘JIaBHbIM Bparoxvx Karommecxoii I/ Icnamm. «Jlrofiumnua uapona» E. rm3aBe1'a I. Hpaanemxe rcoponenbr Ermaanerbx npo;1o. r1- >K8.IIOCb 45 new (1558-1603) H aoumo B nc1'o- pmo max «aonorof-1 BGK» Aumuu. 3I~<OHOMH— xa :4 Kynmypa cwpamn npouaerann, a caMa ona npeapanmacb B Bezxymym vaponefxcxcyro 11epx<aB_v. Bonbman 3ac. rIyra B : )T0M npnHa11- .7Ie)Ka. »'I8 Koponeae -A ymnoii npaBnTe:1bHn11e, Mynpomy no. rm'rm<y n 'ra. r1aH'm pmomy Annun- Mary. Ennsaaewa 6r.1.'m O; Iap(‘lIHbIM txesmne- KOM H no:1yInI.1a npexpacnoe u6pa30BaHne. OH? ! 3H8J! fl IIEBHTI; fl3blHOB, HH('2*l. 'I8 CTHXH. Benmconenno urpmm ua M_V3blKaJIbHb1X nu- cTpyMeH'mx. Monapxmm on-py>+<una (29651 Hesaypmmbxmn mxlmocriwm. E0 . VIHHHC'I‘[)hl n q)aBopnTb1 651.111 r1u3'raMn u (I)H. TIOCOd)ilMH, aovmaxvm n MOp€I1.'laBa’I‘eJIflMH. repomvm H Bbu1arouJ, uMnc51 n0.= m'rm<aMn. IIX cn0co6- nocru E. rmaaBe'ra cymena l'IOCTaBH'I‘b Ha cnyxcfiy rocygmpcrny. ‘I'ro61-.1 He z1onyc'm'rb penurnoanbxx 6mm. KO'1‘0pbI(‘ u0TpHCu.1n I‘epM-ammo. Hlaeifmapmo, Hunepnannbl I/ I Cbpamnuo, Em-xaasera (. "I‘p(3MIIIIa(‘b npmsnetu. na cnoxo c'ropoHy u xaronmcon. I/ I IIp0'I‘eCTaH'l‘0B. ICoponenn no II03B0.vmJ1a ymm'ro- >Ka'rb mconbl, I‘pa6n'I‘b PI pa3pyuJa'rb KaTo: Iw{ecI<ne uopxsn. Ha upe,1:1o>+<e1m9 o'n<a3a'rbcx 01‘ opramioii My3bIKH npu 6oro(-:1y>+<eHnn E. 'm3aBeTa u1yT. mBo. no Tnepno noconewosana ocrasun. opran B noxoe, a efx cnmoii HP Mexuawb Hac. nzm<- names Mysbucofi. Monapxmm ynepsma caoux nozmaumux. two cmnow 3a50'I‘H'I‘b— ca 060 Bcex, neaalmcumo 01' pix Bepoucnoaezxamm. Ema (ma mo6u. '1a nyfimumo noB'ropa'rb: «Y B80 Mower 61:171. . nyu1mn”1 l‘0C_V11apb, no umcorxxa no 6_'; xeT fionee JIIO6$lII1eI‘OD. Taxan noavuum c. z1eJ1a:1a E. .'m3m3(>T_v oqenb x'1on_vJmpHm"1, anrmmane ae cnytiafiao Hasmnaam caoxo xcoponeay «mo6uM; w,eii uap(); ,1a>>. EJm3aBe'ra nposoznum nomnmcy nporercunonmma noompyum paamrme anrnnficxoro npouaaoncwna H TOpI‘OB. 'IH. I10:u,3_vm~1, rem. two p(Um1‘no3Hl. Ie ronenna B Eapone Bbmy>K, z1a. Tm Mnornx peMec: IeHHm-:0n—npoTec'mu1‘0B not-<u,1a1"b C3010 pommy. Koponeaa nanana npmor onuwnmm CIl(‘. IL| !a.7IH(‘T‘c1M-HHOC'I‘1)aH- mam. B Anmvm nocemumcb I‘OpHble Macwepa H3 I‘epMamm, HllJ. l(-“[)J1aHJlCKH6 Txaqu, tbpanuyacrcne xonponmmm, wrammncrcne c'rex<no11_vm.1. Om: nppmecnn c coéofi cexcpenx cnoero Macrepcwaa H co11ei&m‘BoBa.1n B0;3mn: HOBeHmo Honbxx Jm6o conepmencmonanmo crapux orpacnefi nponaB<>;1c'x~aa. Kopoxxeaa no11:1ep- ncnnana nao6pe'ra'reJ1efi H oprannaawopoa Manytbamyp, c0311aBaJm aurozume ycnonna mm ux Tpyna. Cnencnauem Taxoii nojmwmm cram) npousemuue aarnnficxoro nponsaoncma. Aurzmficxne Tosapm npomniasm B0 ace yromm 1 10 Maps. 3aMopcxcy1o Topmamo Benn K_V1'II1bI. o6'be;1nHeHm.1e B 6o. nz, nme KOMIIRHHHZ 0c'r-I/ Iancxaa Topronana c I/ Iaxmefi, Fsuueficxaa — c A(| )pm<of1, Mocxoscxan - c Poccnefi. Paannnamxcb Taxcme crmau 14 B npymx Hanpaanemmx. BO3HHKH()- Benmo K JIBSTGJIBHOCTH 'I‘Opl"OBbIX xomnanuifl cnocoficnaoaana cama z<opo. r1eBa. Oua xammacb qnenom necxonumx [43 max. sxmazzbmasxa , ZI€HbI‘H B T0pI‘0BbIe onepamm I4 nonyqana Hemanme npuébum. '
  • 113. EBPOFIEPICKME FOCYDAPCTBA ‘g B XVI — FIEPBOI31 HOTIOBI/ IHE XVII B. ham . Jlouaoa. XVI 8. B nparmenne EJIPI3aBe’I‘I: I 3aMe'rHo BBIPOCJIO 6J1aronoJIytme anrmman, 01:- HEN! 143 npoannennfi Kowoporo c'raJ1o arcrmznoe J10MOC'l‘pOKTe.7II: C'l‘B0. ‘{'ro6LI 3aCBPIJ. Ie’I‘eJIbCTBOBaTb ocoéoe nonrrenue K Koponene, 3,z1amm nepemco nJ1a1mpo- BBJIK B Bmxe 5yKBbI «E». B ommtme 0'1‘ npenbmymnx Tpenoxcnux npannennfi, B Anrmm yCTaHOBHJIOCI> cno1coI‘»'Ic'rBue. B cBoe1‘«'1 Bnympennefi nomrrmce EJ114- 3aBe'ra c'rpeMm1acL coxpannn a'rMoccpepy «Becenofi cwapofi Anrmm» c ee ynancermem K Tpannmmm n ocropooxnum o'ruomeHneM rco ncemy nonomy. Anrmm roronurcx c'ra'r1. nnannrunneii Mopeii. Bnemmozo noJm'rmcy EJm3a- Be'ra nponomma c yqe'roM -roproaux mrrepecon cnoero rocynapcmaa. Pnannofi conepnnnefi Anrmm Gbma I/ Icnarma, sanpernnman aHr. nm‘&c1cnM «epe'rm<aM» BGCTPI IIpYI6bIJIbHyIO T0p1"OBJIl0 co cnonmn Kononnamn B Honom CBe're. Hec1co. nb- rco aHrJ1m7xc1<nx xopafinefi nonmwanncb npopnawbcx rc amepmcancrcmu 6eperaM, no nonann B pyxu Hcnannen PI c'raJm xcepmaamn xcecroxofi pacnpanu. B o'rMe- c'rr<y anmnqane aaxBa'n.1BaJm Id rpaémm ncnaacrcue rcopa6Jm. Ha oxeancrcux nymx B Honmii CBe'r Haqanacb Hacronmaa, xo'ra PI HeO6'b5IBJleHHa. il Boiina. B 1577 I‘. aHr. nm‘»‘1cxm'»’1 nnpaw Cbpencuc llpefuc penmn nponnxnyn. B ncnancrcue Bnazzeuna B Amepmce co cmopoau Tuxoro orceana, o'r1cy11a ero noannenna He oxcnnann. OH nepecerc A'rJ1aH'rmcy, nmmen B Tnxooxeancxue Bonn n Heoaxmxanno ama- KoBaJI ncnancrcue I'I0p'I‘bI. TaM Ilpefix 3axBa'rnJ1 orpomnmfi aanac 3oJ1o'ra c rcopa6JIe1‘»’1, sarpyxcennblx mm ornpamcu B Eapony. I/ Icnarmbx nonxcnnann orriasmnoro nupara Boane Marennanona npoJm- Ba, H0 on, ‘iT05bI cnacwn , z1o6w{y, Hanpasrm cBo1‘»'I rcopafim. «3o. uo'raa Ham. » 3 I/ In, um'»’1c1cn1‘»'1 orcean. 05OI‘HyB Aq)pnxy, Ilpeiinc nonenone conepmnn nropoe B ncwopnn Icpyrocaernoe nywemecrnne H B 1580 1‘. Bepnyncn 3 Anrnmo. I/ Icnancrcnfi rcoponb tbmlnnn II 'rpe6oBa.71, trroém E. rm3aBe'ra Bepnyna narpa6J1eHHoe :4 Harcaaana rmpawa. Koponeaa, Tait- H0 Bnoxcnsman nenbm B arccnemxxxmo llpeffnca, cnenana nnofi BbI6op. Ona npnéuna Ha «3oJ1o'ry1o nanm 14 npmvxo Ha ee 6op'ry Jmrmo nocmrrmra Geccrpamaoro mapawa B phmapu. Heo6'LaBJIeHHaa Bofina paaropenacb c Hoaoifx cnnofi.
  • 114. Parmee Hosoe Bpemn (KoHeu X V — nepaafl nonosuua X VII 3.) . .._. _._____. .__. _._j Omomenna Memny maymi crpaaaxvm ace 6oJ1ee 05OC'I'p&UIPlCb. Amvma no. zuxepmn3a. na soccmsume npowma I/ Icnamm Hunepnannu H y1<ph1Ba. na B caonx rroprx-ax Msrrexcaux résoa. B owner nonna- nm oprannaonann a Amvmn pan xa'rom/ mecrcux aaroaopon. ICouq)J1m<'r nocu-ur npezxena B caaan c npewenannmn Ha aurnnficxufi npec'ro. n mo'ma1-m- cxofi Koponesm Mapma C1-Ioap'r — poacraennunu 14 nacnennnum Ennsanewu. Y6e>1<, L1e1ma:1 1ca'ro- mmxa, Maprm 6u. na uaruaaa M3 Illomannuu, X01718 -ram aaqanacb Peqxopmaumx, n oqynmacb 3 Anmmn. Co npemeuem oua npumma yqacrne B aaronope npownn E. rm3a3e-rm u fibuxa Kasnena no npuroaopy aammficxcoro cyna. I/ Ianecwne o cMep'm Mapmx C1'roap'r Bmaaano men peauocwnoro xaronnxa Cbwmnna II. I/ Icnauna co6pd. na orpomnuifx qmow H3 134 1<opa6J1ei’1 - Benmcylo apmany. Bcxo a'ry MOIIIB oaa o6pyumJ1a Ha «raeano epewucon K nnpawonv — npowecranrcxyro Aurmuo, yme nanno zxoxcyuamuyro ncnancrcomy KODOJIJO H n Enpone, H 3 Amepmce. Annrum cmoma BhICT8.BHTI: ncero 100 cynon, 6o. uee Manenpenumx K Jryqme ocuamennmx aprmmepnefi, Hem HCH8.H- cnne. 3'ro noanommo amvmuanam ycnemno neficrsonarb npowma rpomoamcnx n nenonopomnnux xopafineii apmanu. Oxcom1a1'e. rxbH1.u‘»'1 ynap ncnanuam Hanewm xcecrorcne éypn, naromuamne 3Hatm'reJu. Hyzo qacn. nx qmowa. Llomoii aepnynncb oc'ra-mu apmaau — TOJIBKO ee 'rpe-rs. Amvnmane npaszmoaann noéeay u 3 nacMem- Ky aaaaann no6e>icneuay1o apmagy «Heno6e, zmMoi&» . Mopcrcoe Morymecrno I/ Icnamm 651.710 cnomneno. Amvma romoaunacb c1'a'r1. cananmqnnefi Mopeih . 8 aarycra 1588 r. Peqb Exmsaaerbl nepe. a aHrnm“1cKMM BOIWCKOM $1 cemac CD811" sac He mm paaaneuenmi mm 3a6aBba. HO vncnom-Iena petun- ocm B caMoI7I ryme VI a nanny cpaxeuvm 0CTaTbC9 )KMTb vmm yMepeTb cpenm sac. .. no man Moero Focnona, Moero Koponescraa, Moero Hapona, Moefi qecm M M0617! Kposu. Q 3Ha| O. '-ITO Hanenena renown cna6on7I M xpynxofi xeuumuu, HO v Mensa ceonue u nvma mwpvwa, vs vsbponvo NmvM. V1 n nymaro. :-no rpaanasa J'I0)Kb. .. ~rro Vicnaneu. (tbmmnn ll) nnn Kaxofi-nm6o morn rocynapb Eaponu Moxer oreaxmbcn npecrynvma rpanuuu MO- ero Koponeactaa. .. 91 caMa aoabmy opyxne. caMa cram-uy aaumm reHepanoM, aaumu cynbefi M Harpaxy Kaxaoro no 3acnyraM Ha none 6MTBbl. 3aIca'r caonororo netca» E.1m3a3e'n. r. EJm3a3e'ra moémra nonwoparb, trro ! aa6o'rm~ca o caoem Hapone 1»! acerna rowona npnc. ny1.na1-boa K Muenmo em npencwanmenefi. 370 nonumano a3'ropm'e'r amvmficxoro napnamexrra. 110330- mmo emy Bucrynan. mmnnwropom naxmux aaxconon. Ctm'ra. noc1., wro Bmcmas nnacn. npnnannexcnr xopomo B uapnamerrre, 'r. e. Monapx nenwr ee c coc. uonn- mm. IIoa'roMy, 3 ommme o'r zzpyrnx enponeficxnx crpaa, rue c ycrmermeu a6coJno'msMa cocJ1onuo-npezxcranwrenbnme opraum -repmm cnoe anauerme, 3 Anrmm napnamen-r ocrananca awrusauu. Benynxyro pons 3 Hem nrpana na. na'ra 061mm, rcyna nxonmm npemvxymec'r- nenno npencwanwrenn HOBOFO nnopancraa n Gypmyaanu. OHM nonytxnnn o-1' Ennaaneru neofixomuuyio nomzepzxxy 3 cnoefi axonomuuecxofi JIGSITEJIBHOCTB, a Bsamen Tarcaxe nozmepxmaamx xoponeny. 3-ro cowpynnnqecwno nano '1-pemuny Ha py6eJ2<e XVI—XVII 33., Roma na. na'ra 061mm crana Hacwanaan Ha cnoem npane yttacrnoaa-rs 3 cpopmupoaannn arconomnqecxofi nonmuxn mcynapcma. 112
  • 115. I 2. ‘Imo o6w, eeo y auzauxancxofi uepxeu c Juomepaucmaou, a «mo -— c xaJweu- EBPOHEHCKME FOCYBAPCTBA B XVI -— FIEPBOH HOHOBHHE XVII B. Hon nasnexmem uapnamema E. rmsane're npmmloch nofirn Ha qacmuqnme ycwymm. HGJIOBOJIBCTBO napnamema BbI3bIBaJI& Taxme penn- rnosnax nonwrmca xoponeam. Ycnnnnncb auc'ryn. nemm nypn'ran(o1' mm-. — uucmbm) — CTODOHHHKOB nam. aei'1- mero ormmemm anmmcancxofi uepxsn ow oc'ra'rxoB xawonnuuama n ycwanonneuna 1<a. z1mmunc'rcxux nopa, u- xon. Hpenqze Bcero orm 'rpe6oBa.7m o-menwrr. euncxcouaw n nsecrn auéopu cnxmeuumcon oémmxoix. 3T0 0311a- qano 6m uonpua Bnacm anrnnxancxofi uepmm 15 ee mash: — xopozxeau. COI‘JIaCH'I‘I: C5I Ha Taxofi mar Enn- sasewa He ncenana. Ownomenns Mexmy Koponenofi M nap. uaMem‘oM yxynmnnncb. EJm3aBe'ra He mvxena nerefi n 6bma nocnezmefi npenc-rann'rem, mme17x nnuacrnn Txonopoa. IIocJ1e ee ' cMep'rn anrnnficxufi 'I'p0H yaacnenosan mornanncunfi I 1188140 Mumenc Cma KODOJIB flicon (flmefimc) Cnoapr (1603-1625), chm “‘“"‘-3“°3 1- 1621 3- rcazmennofi Mapvm C'r1oap'r. OH O6'beJ. UrIHldJI non caoefi nnacwmo Amxnmo, Iflowxamzmo PI I/ Ipnaanmo, nonoxma aatxano Tpnennaomy xoponencray — Benmcoii Bpwramm. Hpn nepnbxx C'r1oap'rax pacxoncnenna Menc- ny xoponem u nap:1aMea'roM upo11oJmca. rm ycnnnnarbca. Co Bpemenem orm upm- nema K oncpuwomy xonqmmcry — rpaxcnancxofi aofine H caepxceumo Monapxmx. I 1. B ‘LCM cocmoxma paauuua Juexcay cmapbm u uoabm aaopancmsom? uuauou? Kan nepexoa rc auzmucancmay nowuuut na noaoxcenue Kapo- Jteacxofi enacmu? 3. 3ac. nyJIcu. aa Jlu Enuaaaema npaeo uaauaambcx «zuodumuuea napoaa»? 4. M oxcuo nu yrneepolcéamb, tcmo Auamu: - adcomomnwz Juouapxun? Harcue omnoweuua cnoxuaucb uexcdy xopoaeecxofl euacmwo u napnameumou? 3A, lIAHl/ IF! 1 . Ha ocuoaarmn orpbzexa M3 «Yronvm» ToMaca Mopa abmcmare, Kax eeJ1m<m71 rymarmcr omocuncn K oropaxmaaumm. I‘Io=4eMy OH c-mra/1, «To a Anmma oauu «noe. aaIor aaxe mo, aev'r» ? 2. npoauannanpyfire cqaepxarme petm Ennaaaeru nepe. a aumnivcxofi apmuefi. O Kamx qeprax xapaxrepa Koponesu oHa cavuzerenbcrayer? Kax Morno aro o6pau4erme noa/ mun» Ha Goeaofi , ayx aHr/1w-van? Floaaonner I'M OHO no- HFITb, noqemy E/ maasera Gbma cram; nonyimpua a aHrnm? cxoM o6u4ecrae? 3. flame onpeaenerme not-mmfi: oropaxusaune, arpapuufi nepesopor. neH. a,nop. a, naynep, aurnmcaucreo, nypmane. CPAJREHI/ IH B B0 JIBOPIIAX MOHAPXOB : 14 MEGICIIYHAPOJIHLIE OTHOIIIEHI/ IH: HA IIOJIHX 113 O Xapaxrep Mexcnynapoxmmx ornomennii. K Hatxany XVI B. nomrrmzeclcaa curyamm 3 Eapone 3aMe'rHo nsmemmacb. B TO apems, KOPJ18 I‘epMaHIm n I/ I'ram«m 0C'I‘8BaJlJ/ {Cb pa:3p. po6J1eHHbxMn, Cbpanmm, I/ Icnamm n Anmna upe-
  • 116. Pannee Hosoe apewm (KoHeu XV - nepaan nonoauna XVII 5.) _. _._______. __. ._: .____. _T _ npammmcz. B cwnarme nemrpmmaoaammxe mcynapcrna, 3 npenenax xormpux C1018- nunmmcb conpeuennme namm. 3necb ycmxerme Monapxmx conponoxcnanoct. ncnonbaonannem nonmx nonxonon rc naemaefi uoJm'rmce. Hpanwrenn nen'rpa- Jmaonannux rocynapcwn yxce ne orpanmmnwmcb oniomenmmn c orrnensnuuu, npenmymecwneuno cocemmmu cwpanamu, a pacnpocrpaasum caoro anemnenonm nmecuyro nea'm. nLnoc'rL Ha acro Enpony. Pnanaum mm aux cwanonwrca npmmrm c rocynapcrnennoro um-epecao - coanarme gum coficrnennofi crpanu nanéonee énaronpwrrumx ycnonnfi a OTHOIIIGHPUIX c npymmn rocygxapcwnamu. Ecnn awofi uenn He yzxananocz. xxoc-1-mu. Mnpamu IIYTEM, 3 x01: nmo opyxcne. Macm'ra6u Boer-mmx c'roJncHo3eHm'«'1 Bupocnn: c'rpa1-11.1 npownnouocrannann Apyr npyry apmm as necsmcoa, a c XVII 3. - n3 cores mean BOKHOB. I/ Ix conep- xcanne 'rpe6ona. no orpomnmx cpencra n mxcenum 6peMeHeM noxcrmocb na rmetm Hanoromxawenbmmcos. I/ lmenno Toma , z1em. m aaqamx naahman. cnepnom nofinmo . Hanoi’; qeprofi Memnyuaponnmx owaomennii cwano nnmume Ha aux penn- moanoro cparcropa. I'Ioc. ne Peqmpmamm aacenerme Enponu pacxononocb Ha xaronnxos n upon-ecwanwon. Crpemnenne nomotn. emmoaepnam msrunano c'rpa- Km 3 Mexcrocynapcrnenuue rcoucpnnwrm. Bonncwnennmfi xawonunnsm coc'ran~ mm c-repxcem. anenmefi nonuwurcu I/ Icnamm, magnum npormaamcou xowopofi nmc-rynana npo'rec-rarrrcxaa Amvma. a co npemenem, nocne ocnoéoxcnemm o'r ncnancrcoro rHe*ra, — Pecnyfimuca Coexumenamx Hponnmmfi. B Taxnx ycnonnax gxocraroqao 651110 Manefimem nonona, trrofiu pazxoaoe aenopaaymemxe nepepocno n Memnyaaponnmfi xoaqxnnwr. Hoannenne a Mexcnynapozmux oniomemmx nonux qepr coaceu He oanaqano nonnoro ncqeauonex-ma crapmx oéhmaen. Ran n panbme, npononman . qefic'rno- BaTb cpenneaeuoamfi npunnnn nuuacwuqecxux 6pa1coa H nacnezxonarmfi. B pe- | sym. -ra're nepnonnqecrm nepexpannanacb rcapra Enponm. I/ Inorna a'ro neno I-C nosnmmoneamo raxnx mrazrrcxnx ofipaaonanufi, rcax Mnoronannonammaa ‘ mmepns Kapna V. O1*ne. nbm.1e crpanu, Bxmoqemnae 13 ee cocran, nepemco uuema npownnouonoacnme xurrepecu, trro JIKIIIBJIO nepxcany l‘a6c6yproB aayrpeanero exmucrna. Kare H paubme, Ha nnemmoxo nonu-nucy rcaxcnofi cwpanu mmann mmnue cnmna-mu mm anrunawnn ee Monapxa. Cucrema ll0Jll! 'l'l! ‘lecl¢0l‘0 pannonecua. B aauane XVI B. nanéonee uor'ymec'r- aeaahmn mcynapcrnamn 3ana¢moi'1 Enpoum 61.1.1111 I/ Icnaima, Caamennax Pum- crcas mvmepna (B 1 519 I‘. OH}! o6'benmuumcL non BJIRCTLIO Kapna V) K dipannna. Bnanenns I‘a6c6ypro3 nowrn co Bcex cropon oxpyxcaum <I>pamJ, mo, noarouy Mexcny mzymx crpanamn neonnoxpamo Boanmcamx cnopu na-aa npurpanmmux Teppnropnix. I/ Ix narepecu c'ram<nna. rmcL Taxxce n I/ I'raJmn, me qrpamco-ucnam cxuii Konqmmcr Bunnnca B samxcnme I/ Iranbancxne nofinhx (1494-1559). Boraraa, no pasnpoénennaa I/ I'ram»m He cmorna nan. nonaicnufi o'rnop 3anoe- Bawenam n npenpanmacb mm max 3 xcenannyro noébmy. Boeaabxe nefic-rnna nemacb c uepememmm ycnexom, ozmarco oxonqarenbuaa no6e, z1a ocranacb aa I/ Icnaanefi, nocne qero urammncxne rocynapcma HBJIOJIPO nonnaam non ee nmmrme. Cpaay nocne orconqanna Plranbancxnx aoim dipamma oxaaanach a'raHy'rox'i 3 pennruoaame Bofinbl n Hanonro o'rom. na o'r arcrnaaofi Bnenmefi nonnrnxn. Fnannum aparom I/ Icnaaan c'ra. na Anrmm. C npnxonom 1c Bnacrn 1 1 4 Txonopon oaa nonyvnma BO3M0)KHOCTh snmrrs H8 xon enponeficxnx rconqmurc-ron n 3 1588 r. Haaecna mxcenoe nopaxcenue <Dn. rmnIry II. B Tarmx ycnonmzx naxcno 651.110 ae nonycrmb npeofinanannn rcarcofi-Jm6o H3 nemucnx nepxcan. Roma omza as aux natmnana c'rpeMn're. m.no ycnnnnanca. Apyme nememxermo sarcmoqarm Mexuzy coéoifx ooxoau mm cnepxumanna onacaoro conepnmca. H‘. mm ofiuvmo npncoemmamacb Tarcxce Menee anaqnwenbnbxe
  • 117. EBPOHEHCKI/ IE FOCYDAPCTBA B XVI — FIEPBOP1 HOHOBHHE XVII B. TGMB C'I'p8.HbI-COCEIIH, K BCe BMGCTB 0031183811“ HDOTHBOBGC HDBTGHJIBHTY Ha PJIRBBHCTBO. _. 3-ro mmeune nonytmaxo naaaaxme <~ cuc'reMa uomrmqecxoro panuonecnx». AKTHBHHM ee yqacnmxom crana Ocmaacxcaa rmnepna. Baxnarmx novrm necb Banxancxufx nonyocrpoa. -ryplm cnomann repoxmecxoe conpomnneane Benrpvm P! B Iconne XVI B. paanepnynn aacrynnemxe Ha aacwpnficxne BJ1a,11e- rma I‘a6c6yproB. Bcxope mm Hatxamx npommrarbca PI 3 yxpanncxne 3eMJm, axozmaume 3 coc'raB Perm Hocnonnwofi. Ha nannenue co C'I‘0pOI-lb! OcMaHc1cox'»’1 mvmepvm sanopoxccrme xasamx o'rne'mJm aoennmmn noxoaaxvm 3 Typenxne ananeumi. Boznmrc ocrpmfi uonbcxo-Typeuxnfx Icoutpmucr, ynanwu. tcoropmfi ynanoch TOJI bl-(0 finaronapn 3Mema're. ru. c'r13y anrnuficxofi Icoponesu E. rm3a13e- Tu. I/ Imermo Toma Mexczxy Anrnneii H y1cpapmcxnMn 3eMJmMn yCTaHOBKJIHCl: nepame nomrruqecrcne xonraxrbx. l'Ioc'romman yrposa co cmpoubx Morymecwaeanofi Ocmancxofi mwnepmx cyme— cmeuno anmua Ha Memnynaponnbxe omomennn. B enponeficrmx crpanax yen- JlPlJ'! OCb crpcmneuue 3a61.m. o pemmxoanbrx npcrrnnopetmxx H ofirbezmmrn. secs xpnc'mauc1<m”1 Mnp — xamnnxon, nporecwamon K npanocnanaux — npowma rpo3- H01"O Bpara. C awofi uenuo Heonnoxparao Benncb neperonopm o nozxrowomce o6Ine- ro xpecwonom noxona npoma Typorc. Oxmonpemermo Hexcowopme npamrrenn 131.1- manranu Ha nepsbxfi man He coofipaxceumx ofimeenponeficxofi Gesonacnocm, a co6c'rneHHy1o nonmuxy <~ r'ocy/ .1apc'rae1-more nrrrepeca» . Orpemncb nomepmnnawb 3 Eapone nomrnmecxoe pannosecue, orm Bc'rynaJm B coroa c 'ryp1<aMn. Oco6y1o arc- 'I‘HBHOCTb nposumsma Cbpamum, Haneacb Taxrm o6pa3oM oc. na6m*b I‘a6c6yproa. Po'A: ;1elme nocwosumofi mxnnomarnn. Ycnoxcuerme Baaumooraomeaxxii Me3~K11y enponeficxnmn rocynapcraamn conponoxcnanocb nsmeneummn B mm- nomarwxecrcofx }1eHTe. TIbHOCTlI. Panbme xamzzoe nocom. c'r3o orpaxcanocb c KOHI-([)eTHbIM nopytxexmem n cpasy nocne ero BBIIIOJIHGHPIX upexpamano csoe cymecwnoaanne. B XVI 3. Taxax Bpemenuan (bop: /Ia nnnnomarnqecxnx ena- aefi Gbma yxce He11oc'ra'rotmo1‘&. Boaamma no'rpe6Hoc'rb 3 cosnamm noc'ro3H- aux xmnnomamqecxnx npencraamenbcwn 3 npymx cwpaaax. I/ Ix conepx<a- Hue Tpefionano nemanux cpe;1c'r3, noawomy He nce rocynapcwna MOPJIPI ce6e a'ro Bummope Ifapna-mo. Boaspau1eHHe nocnon. 1493-1495 32. __, _______: __B___ B: __j. ,_‘_: ____ K ». ! I
  • 118. "IACTb Par-mee Hoaoe ape/ vm (Koueu XV — nepaas nonoeuna XVII B. ) -. . IIOBBOJIKTB, HO IIOCTBIIBHHO CMCTEM8 IIOCTOSII-IHOI‘0 npenc'raBn're. nLc'rna IIOJIY‘-IHJIB. aceoémee pacnpocwpauenne. B To Bpema nocna He cnyqaiino uaaunamx cnouernmm unmonomoz 3 c'rpa- ne npeéunamm on co6upa. n noneanyxo mm cnoero rocynapcrna uzubopmanuzo. Perynapno, nnorna naxce nnaxcnm Ha aeab, on owupannsn aa ponmiy zuxunnme o'rqe-rm. IIpa3wrem. c'rBo nonyqano or nocnon cooémenua o cocrosunn noficx, qmaauconmx nosmoxcaocmx, coésrmax auyrpeanefi xmaan npymx c'rpan. BOB 3'I‘0 II03BOJIHJIO ynaqno nonénparb COIOSHHKOB, YCIICIIIHO PlCIIOJIb3OB&'l‘b ' CJI8.6OCTPI IIDOTIIIBHPIKOB, CBOCBPCMCHHO BHOCHTI: Heoéxonumme YIBMOHOHHR BO nnemnenonnwnqecxnfi RYPC. I/ IEOPZI8. IIOCJIB nopaxceaua B Bofine JIHIDIOMSTBI fiyrcnamauo cuacann CBOEPO MOH8.pX8 OT YHHSPITCJIBHOFO noronopa. ,1ImuIoMa'rm1 crauoawrca xacroamum ncrcyccwnom. Cxnanuaaewca onpe- . j_: —__j4_1_. nenenaufi nopsmox upnema nocnon n oxasamm um ueoéxonmumx noqecreii — gmnnomawmxecxnfi uepemonnan. Ilpn ero nunonneunn yummnanocb anaqerme xaxaxoro rocynapcraa. Topaxecrnennuii H nomneanufi npnem osnatzan ynaxcerme K crpane, rIpe11c'ran. ueanofi uocnom; c;1epxcanHbn‘& H xonom-mi’: - npeneépeaxenne mm Henpmcpbrroe HBAOBOJIBCTBO ee uonmmcofi. Boaamcnoaerme nocwoaanofi JIHIIJIOMETHPI Bhl3BflJIO noannenue cnenua.7n. - aux 'rpax'ra'roB, nocaamenuux npaaam H oésaaanoc-ram nocna, npanmxam ero nonenemxa. Ofimenpnanannmm c'ra. n npmmnn noconbcxofi nenpm<ocHo- nenaocwn. Baxcmmvxn nocwnxcennamn o'rMeqeHo pasnrrrue Mexcnyuaponnoro npana. IIOJIy"{KJIPI nayrmoe oéocnonanne uopmm naaumoownomennfi Mexcny rocynapcrnamn no Bpemx noifxnm H Mnpa, npanmla I1OJIb3OB&HH8 Mopanm, IIOH5!'l‘PI8 O Henapymemm Mencnynaponnoro AOPOBODB. , O6u1eenpone1"Ic1cm"¢ 1cond). nu1c'r: Tpllnnarunewnnn noiina. B aaqane XVII 3. ncuuxuyna noifma, xoropaa, 1'0 aamxaa, T0 paaropaacr. c nonofi cmrofi, noJmxa- na B Enpone uenmx 30 new - c 1618 no 1648 r. 3'ra nepnaa ofimeeaponeficxaa aoifma sonma 3 ncropmo non naananuem Tpwma'm. ne1'n: m. Ona Bmapeaana nonro H 6Lma auanaua o6oc'rpe1meM uonnwnqecxnx npownnopeqnfi PI pennrnoaaofi poamx. Eme c cepenmm XVI 3. 3 Fepuamm no Mepe paaaopaqmaaaua ICoH'rp- pe<bopMax1uu YCMJIHJIOCB Aazmenue xaronuxon Ha npo-rec'ran'ro3. Ha IIOMOID; b rca'roJ1mcaM npmmm nana pnmcrmfi H l‘a6c6ypm - Hememcnfi nmneparop Pl ncnancxnfx KODOJIL. I/ Ix npamsumcon nonnepxcnnann nporecwanwcxaa Armma, Pecnyfinmca Coemmemnnx Hponnaunfi, llamm, Illaennn, a Taxxce xca'rommec- ‘mp. A-. _ ‘ “file . I Ilpaaccxaa neqnenec-rpuum. Ppaompa. XVII a. nan tbpanuns — as xcenanna He JIOIIVCTKTL ycnnenmx I‘a6c6ypron. B aaqane XVII B. Bsaumaux 061111 K uperenanfi Haxommocb Tax MHOPO, trro egmaarneuasxm CIlOC050M pas- pemezms uporunopeqnfi IC8.3aJI8Cb Bofiaa. Ilononom 1c nefi nocnyxcnno noccranne 3 Ilpare, me 23 Max 1618 r. noopyxcenaue aamwrmucn qemcrcofi nesanncnmocwu pa- aomamx npasnmmsc-rno, coc-roaamee us c-ro- poarnucon l‘a6c6yproB. B o'rne'r Gonbmaa xaronnqecrcax apmna sue’: -ynmxa uponm noncraauen H 3 1620 r. paarpomuxa nx 3 6n'rne noane Benoii Popm. Ilo ‘Iexnn npo1<a- 'm. nacr. nonna Macconmx uamamxfi npo-rec- -ram-on H xcecroxnx pacnpan Han 6ya-ron- mmcamn. 3a1-em nofina nepemecwnnacb Ha _ ,7.. .
  • 119. EBPOIll: H(_iKHE FOCYHAPCTBA 5 B xvn — HEPBOVI HOHOBHHE xvn B. /(: ?!W} Teppmopmo Pepmamm, me 1<a'ro;1 mm npononxcamn II05e>K118Tb. 3'ro coananano ycnoaua mm ycwanonnenma rocnoncma l‘a6c6ypI‘oB Ha Bamrmce n Bmanano ofiecnoxoennocrb y npo1‘ec'ram'cKux npannrenefi Cenepuofi Enponu. Boennme gxeixcwmm IIDOTHB I‘a6c6yproB Hauana Hanna. . I - -}. , -” 1627 r. M3 , aoHecerm9 cppauuyscxoro Lmnnomara d>aHKaHa 1/ o Mex<, ayHapo, aHoM no/1o>KeHm4 B Eapone --. I c ‘ .1 l'a6c6yprvI Han71p. yT cpencnaa coanarb VI amnwpoearb dmor. ~+ro6u nepxarb a Luopax ceaep. rpeaoxmb nor; y max Havmyrcn CMJ'| bl He TOJ'IbKO ans: TOFO, -4106:» npenm- CTBOBSTI: roproane naman, anrnmau M qapauuyaoa, H0 M Ann TOFO, ~«To6ba aaxaamn. TO, «no MM He npnnannexm. vs BGDHYTI: T0. «no OHVI norepsum. Bor no~4eMy om nepxatcn wax ynpswo m c raxvwu eoonyweanenwem araxynor acewm caoumn cnnawm xoponn flanmm, ropona Hmxnefi Caxcormvu, 60flbUJY| O ‘48CTb Koropux OHM yxe aarmnm. Bcn FepMan-ma. ecnm oHa éyner l10,UHMHeHa Fa6c6ypraM. f10M0)KeT VIM nommrbcsa M craner Ann HVIX xpenxmm nbenecranom mm TOl'O, -4106:»: coopynmb Ha HBM Mouapxmo vn BO38blC| /1TbC$l Han Bcem xpmcmaucxmm Mmpom. ‘H0651 flp0'I'PIBOCTOH'I‘b npo'rec1‘aH'raM, mvmepa'ropy (I>epm1HaHz1y II Hyxcna 6mJxa C05C'I‘BeHH88 apmm. Ee npemloxcun co3,z1a'rb qemcxnfi msopamm Am.6pex1' Ba: memn- rein - 6ecc'rpa11mbn71 BOHH H 'ra. r1aH'rJmB1>u'F1 nonxoaoneu. OH Ha6pa. n C'I‘0'I‘b1Cfi'-{HOB Boiicxo, cymecnaoaasmee 3a cqer aanmamm cpencwa c Mecmoro Haceneana, 14 uauec aar- qanam HBCKOJILRO coxpymuwenbubxx nopaxce- Hnfi. Ileno npo'rec'raH*roB rcaaanocb npom'- parmbm, no 'ry'r B Bofiny nc'rynm1a Illneumt. B 1630 r. apnma non rcomannoaaxmem ahmaromeroca nomcosonua xopona I‘ycra- na II A11oJu. qJa Haqano cnoe nacwynneane. B owrmme 01‘ coJma'r JXPYPHX crpau, 1mcunn— Jmrmponam-me umezzu ne rpaémm Mupnoe Hacenerme M z1eMonc'rpnpoBa. rm aucoxnfi 60- eBoi«’1 Ayx. H05e1IHbIM Mapmem om: npomma BCIO Fepmamuo n 3 1632 r. CTOJIKHYJIPICB c xaronnxamn 3 pemaromefi 6m*ne some Mec- Tetnca JI1o'rn, eH Henonanexy 01‘ Jlefinunra. Hon ynapamu no6J1ec'rm. xx mnenoa Ba. v1neH- urrefin o1'c'rymu1, no 3 paarape fimuau norn6 I‘yc'ran Aaonbq). Hp0'I‘eCT8H’I‘bI nowepsnn csoero Jrytnnero nomcoaonna, no HGHEJIOJIPO nepeacmx rpoanoro conepumca u BaJu1eH- 1u'rei’us. Henomepaoe qec'romo6ne 'roJn<a. Jxo em x onnanemuo qemcxoii rcopoaofi, pann Hero Banneumwefin Bc'rynru1 3 neperonopm co maenamn. Oéanaennmfi B r‘ocy11apc'rBeH- nofi mmene, on 61,111 yéwr no Tafinomy npw rcasy mvmepa'ropa. , M
  • 120. ‘fr L/ Aorta Pawnee Hosoe BpeM57 (KoHeu XV ~- nepaas nonoauna XVII 5.) Ocana Mamofiypra. Fpamopa. XVII 3. Hocnenneii B nofmy BKJ1!0‘IIrIJIaCb <I>paHnna, xoropasx panbme nena salty- mxcnyxo urpy H nonnepxcnnana npowecwaxrroa Tonuco zzenbramn. BMec're co I1IBe1me1”4 ona npoaena pan ycnemnux onepannfi. Honoacenne npo'rec'rau'ron nocrenermo ynyumnnocs, 0}1H8.KO 3 ne. r1oM noima uporexana nsmo. Cmun c'rpaH-yqacrmxu ébmn nonopaanm, 3eM: m Pepmamm, Aacrpvm n ‘Iexmx pa- Fapapo Tep0opx.3axmoqe1me Mnpa 3 Mroucwepe
  • 121. EBPOHEPICKHE FOCYIIAPCTBA B XVI — HEPBOFI l'lOJ'lOBl/ IHE XVII B. aopenm, a 14x Hacenerme corcpawnnocr. B HGCKOJILKO pas. B Enpone Bce rpomqe anyqann upnamnm K Mnpy. Mnpnmfi K01-Irpecc npoxopgrm B Hememcoivi Bec'r(baJmn n mumca orcono ce- MPI new. Harconeu B 1648 r. ynanocb nonnncawb Aoronop, Kowopmfi nonnen wrorn Tpnpgnarnnewaefi nofinm — Becubanncxnfi Mnp. On sarcpemm Honoe co- ornomenne cm: 3 Enpone: npeofinananne I/ Icnamm n munepma o'rom. no B npoumoe, YCPIJIYIJIPICB Illnemm n Clfipamma. 1'10 ycnonmm noronopa Hlneuna uonyqnna pan 'reppn'rop1»n'& B Cenepnofi I‘epMaH1»m, trro nosnommo ex‘? ! sansrrs rocnopgcrnyrolnne nosnmm Ha Ba. n'rm<e. Cbpanrum sannanena 6oJILmeI'»’1 qacwmo Smaaaca n Jlorapnnrnn n npeapamnnacb B caMoe Morymecwnennoe B Eapone rocynapcrso. Enponeficrcne cmpanm npusnann Heaanncnmocwb I"oJ1- Jianzum H IIIBe1‘7mapm«1. . . Camme éonbmne nowepn B Bofine nonecna I‘epMaHmI: r1ac'rL ee 3eMeJu. o6ea- mogxena PI Gyrcnanbno Jlexcana B pymiax. Becwqnanbcxnfi Mnp orcoHqa're. nbHo aaxpenvm caMoc'rosrreJIbHoc'rb o'r, neJIbHL1x Hememcnx xnamecwn, 'r. e. noJm'ru- qecrcyxo pa3;1po6JIeHHoc'rh CTpaHbI. Coownomenne crux no Bec'rq)aJILcxoMy Mnpy onpenenmlo cwryanmo B Enpone Ha cnenylomne necarnnema. Hanypnwenbnaa Boffma 3a6paJ1a MI-IOJKGCTBO qenoneqecxnx xcnsnefi, npnnecna rope 14 paaoperme nenmm Hapozzam. Ee magnum yporcom c'ra. no nonnmaaue 'roro, trro peamruoauble npornaopeqna HGBOSMODKI-IO paapemrrrb Boopymennmm ny'reM. / 1. ‘Imo usueuuaocb e xaparcmepe ueaicfiyuapoanux omuoweuufa no cpaeue- umo co Cpeduesercoebem? Karcue uoebte u cmapbte -tepmu onu e ce6e co- eauuuuu? . Houeuy eeponeacrcue cmpamu cmpemumcb naaaepatcueamb «cucmeuy nouumuuecxozo paenoeecuaz»? Ifarc um yaaeaztocb amo aeztamb? Kare ua nwtumuitecrcyro cumyauuto 6 Eepone eaumza Ocatancrcaa umnepun? ‘Ieu 6u. nu euaeauu u 3 Ice»: samzmuauucb usueuenua a opzanuaauuu Bunaouamuuecxofi cJzyJIc6bL? ‘ . Cuyuaano nu umoeou Tpuauamuaemuetz eoiuwa cmano noeoe coomno- weuue cm: 3 Eepone? 3A, £IA HI/19 1. / ‘Ions/ raivrecb O6bFICHMTb, no= :eMyB XVI 3. , annnoMara Ha3bIBal1M ~'¢I70'~IeTHblM LLIFMOHOM» ? 2. Onnpancb Ha co. aep>Kar-me npm3e, qeHHoro , aoKyMeHra, oxapaxrepusyfire OTHOLUeHMe ¢>paHuy3cKoro nocna K I’a6c6ypraM. Kax dnpauuyacxoe npaaw TeJ1bCTBO Morno orpearuposarb Ha raxoe coo6u4eHMe?
  • 122. ‘ / /C Tb : ;~ In 4 / e/mvo CBET H TEHI/ l: EBPOHEPICKAH KYflbTYPA KOH| ..lf XVI- HEPBOP1 HOHOBI/ IHbl XVII B. HOC Tl/ DKEHI/157 HA J/ K14 I4 EPEMFI C YEBEPHI/1 HEMEPKHYLUHE O5Px3b1 /71/TTEPA TYPbI H PICK Y C C TBA - PaHHt': ‘€ Hoaoe spams: (KoHeu XV — nepaasv nonoauna XVII B. ) I/ "_; L E , - , I[0cTmIcEHm1 HAYICII H BPEMSI CYEBEPIHI V .7 ~ §. Hanan rcaprmxa Bcenenuoii. Ha pyéence XVI- XVII as. 11011 xvmsmnem 6ypHux cofibrmii anoxn Bam- x-xme nsmenemm npousouum B enponefxcxoix rcynmype. Ona paammanacb non 3mu<o. 1 npomaopeqnfi. C o. zmoi'{ c'ropom.1, pacmnpmlncb anamm eapoueiinen o Mnpe, snatnrrenbumx ycncxoa nocmmo oépasosarme, non- Jumnbxii no. z1'beM nepexmaana Hayxa. C zzpyrofi — 3 nua- Menn pemxmoanbxx Boian n a'rMocq)epe penurnoauoii ue'reprmMoc'm npousewazm Bcenoamoxcabxe cyeaepmt, nauéonee nmmm npoaanennem KOTOpbIX c'raJIa <«oxo'ra Ha nexxbm». B uerrrpe mmmaurm TBOpI10B Bospoxcnemm naxo- mmncb qenonex n rymaamapabxe Hayxm. Ha rpann XVI-XVII an. mrrepecu CMGCTPIJIHCI: n unyro unoc- KOCTBZ Mnoroqncnemme u3o6pe're1=ma n yco3epmen- crnonaana aann orpomnmfi aanac nonux aaanui/ '1 H ofiecneqmm pbnaorc 3 passwrrm eC'I‘eC'I‘BeHHbIX nayx. B arofi o6.nac'm Haqajxca Hacwosimuii nayqnuii nepe- nopo'r. Ilosmnenne uonux paapaéororc B ccbepe ec'rec'rBeH- HBIX Hay}: JIPIRTOBBJIOCB l'! OTpC5HOC'I'flMIrI pacwymero nponaaoncrna n npaxmqecxoii JIBHTGJIBHOCTII qe. r1oae- xca. ,l1a.7u. m«1e Mopcxne nywemecwnna cnoco6c'rBoBaJm ycnexam acrponozvmu. Hpnmeneuue xomnaca zxano Ton- qox usyqemuo snnennfi Marnewuama. Ycnexn xpacmIb- aoro nena, MGTBJIJIYDPPIH, uarowonnenna nexapcrn BCJIK K Haxonneumo HOBbIX snannfi no xmmn. Heo6xo; m- MOCTB oupenemrrb nansaocn MBTBHHH suzpa npn c'rpe- H558 us nymxn non-romcnyna K nayqeamo saxonos nazzemm H mmxcemm Ten. Omxonpemenno nozrbem Mawepnanbnoro npouanoxp c'rBa aoopyomm yqenmx HOBLIMH cpencrnamu H BO3M03K- aoc'm. Vm Haytmoii pa6o'rb1, uo, z1ro'roBn. n n3o6pe'reHne Ha
  • 123. CBET M TEHM: EBPOHEHCKAFI KYJ'lbTYPA KOHLLA XVI — FIEPBOIV1 HOTIOBHHH XVII 8. I HM Bepmcep. Ac'rpoHoM. 1668 2. I H H Bepaueep. Peorpaq). 1669 2. py6e>1ce XVI~XVII BB. Kpafine Hyxcnux , a.vm paasmwm uccnezxosazmfx Totmmx npn6opoB. B 3'ro Bpervxsa 6bUIlI 1{3I‘0TOBJIeHbI 6oJxee cosepmeunble txacu, noasmmcb MHKpOCKOI'I, Tenecxcon, 'repMoMe1'p n zxpyme Heo6xom»1Mb1e zum acTpoHoM1m H qmamm npnfiopbx. HCpBbI0 60nbume OTKpblTI/ I51 c;1e. na. rm ECTDOHOMLI. Co Bp€M€1{ aIl’1‘H‘IIIO(_‘TH B 3ar1aJ1Hoi71 Eapone roc- HOJICTBOBEIJII1 reoueuwpnqecrcne B31". II. 'FI, lLI; -I (o'r rpeq. «re» — . ’}€M. lI. J?) Ha cwpoelme Bc'e. rIeHH0i»’I. Ee 11eH'rpoM c'm'ra. r1acb H(: ‘TIO, E[BH}KHafl 3eM.7m, Borcpyr I<o'ropo171 B oIIpez1e. rIeHuo1‘«’I noc. we:1oBaTeJxLHoc'm Bpamanncb JIyHa, Comma 14 HJIaHe'I‘bI. Talcan 'ro'~u<a sperms! noJIHoc1'! .so COOTBGTCTBOBE-U13 HBTOJII/ I‘leCKOMy nepo- yqenmo, no:3'roMy oTpm1aTb ee Momno 61,1110, 'I‘OJIbK0 Boccraa nporma aBTopm"e'ra uepmm. HepBbIM Ha 3TOT cMeJ1b11‘»'1 mar o'rBa>I<1«1.r1cx HOJIb- c1<m71 yqeubxfix Huxonafi Konepxum (1473~1543). OH BblCK3.3a. -‘I MI>ICJIb, wro 3eMJI$I BMBCTG c nJ1aHeTaM14 Bpa Luaewca Borcpyr HGUOJIBPDKHOFO Comma. Caoxo re- -1 Huxonafi Konepmuc. XVI 6. nnouewrpwxecxyxo (OT rpeq. «rejmoc» — coJzH.14e) Teopmo Konepnmc o6ocHoBaJ1 B pa6o're «O Bpamennn He6ecm.1x ccbep». Onacaacb umcanzmumx, ac'rpoHoM non- me roma He o'r3ax<msa. *1c: =1 ony6J1mcoBa'rL cBoi'i 'rpaKTa'r PI nepnmfi Hanetxarannblfi arcaemmmp ynmxen nmub B nenb csoefi cMepTn. O'r1<pb1'me Konepumca Haumo Jxanbneiimee 060cHoBanv1e B nccnenoaannax z1a'rqaHMHa Tnxo Bpare PI ueMu; a I/ Ioramm Kemxepa. OHM npoH3BeJm Ma'reMaTut1ecI<y1o o6pa6o'r1<y ac'rpoHoMnqec- KPIX J1aHHbIX Y! He TOJILKO nozxrgepmum, H0 14 paaamm Teopmo Ronepnmca. deb s°”‘° I/ Icropna ;1oHec. r1a no Hac paccxcaa 0 TOM, Wm B Hatrane XVII B. B He60.'IbUIOM . n I‘0.TIJIaH1ICKOM ropone Mxumenéypre xum Mac'rep Xanc Hnnnepcrefi, marmos- naamuii u nponaaanutmfi mum. Ozmanczxbl ero germ nrpa. rm B nanxe pr peummx txepea zzna c're1<m. um<a paccMoTpeTb xpacxmoro r1e'ryun<a Ha umnne co6opHo171 31301-1111411131. R Bennqafimemy yzmanenmo nerymox ysenntuuxcsi B paamepax. N. [aJII>‘{HKI/ I paccrcaaann 06 STOM only, 14 TOT Bhmcnmx, Irro ozmo crexno fibmo BbII1y'KJIbIM, a Bropoe — BOPHYTBIM. OH saxpenmx ux Ha Koauax , r_1ayx Tpy6or<'n noMec'rmI 'rpy6m«x Lzpyr B npyra. Tax 6bIJIa co3z1aHa nepaasi nonaopnax Tpy6a. Kax qacwo fibnzaexr c rennanbnbtmn orrcpbrrmrmu, eme Hecxonbxo qenosex nou- TI/ I ozmonpemenuo (1 1‘0Jma1u1cxnM Macrepom czxenann no, v1o6m;1e Tpyém. C'reK. r1a
  • 124. Parmee Hosoe spemsz (xoneu XV — nepsasz nonosuua XVII 5.) . .._. 3 max Gum: owmnncponanu B qaopme sepnumxa qeqenunhx. I-Ia nemenxom rxeqe- | B3118 33)"-[HT umnaeo, OTCIOIIE H IIOIIIJIO 383383118 ¢JIIrlH3at . N I CHaHaJ1a HPIKTO H He npezxnonaran HCIIOJIb30Ba'I‘b l’IOl130pHbIe Tpy6u mm Ha- ytxuux Hccnenosaanfi. TOJ11-. -K0 Benmcnifx I‘a. mmeo I‘aJuuIeii (1564-1642) exon- c'rpyHpoaa. n Tenecrcon c yBeJmHeHHeM B 32 paaa H Hanpaamx ero B 3Be311HO€ He6o. Yqeamii oncpbxn Honue aaeanbx H ynmxen Ha JIyHe ropbx, oc'raBHJ1 nepaue 3apH- comm JxyHHoi'1 noaepxnocru. OH o6Hapy>xH. n rurrua Ha Conuue H, H85Jll011a5i aa HHMH, Bucxasan MI: IC. TD>, trro Comiue Bpamaewca Boxpyr csoefi ocu. 3a a'ro y'rnep- xczxerme npowms I‘aJm:1eH ononqmxacb Hmcanamxnsx. Cnacancb o'r coxmcenun. oH 6131.11 Bb1Hyxu1eH IIy6JIH‘<lHO orrpeqbcsi o'r caonx y6e>x11eHHi'I, xo'rH H He nepe- c'ra. u coMHeBa'rbcn B Hx npaaunbnocru. Ho nerenne, noxxman 3a. n cy, z1a, Bemxxcuii yqenmfi 'mxo, Ho Tsepno upoH3Hec: «I/ I Bce-Taxn oHa Bepwwrca! » . Pe11IH'I‘eJIbHbIM CTODOHHPIKOM yqemm Konepmma c'ra. n H'raJ1L51Hcxm‘& MO- Hax-q)paHu. Hc1<aHeu Jlaxopnano BpyHo (1548-1600). OH nouxen , z1a. nbme cBoe— ro npe;11uecTBeHHm<a H a o'r. r1HHHe 01* Konepumca cunran, two BceneHHan He orpaHHqeHa o, z1Hoi& Jlldlllh Co. nHeqHoi’1 cncwemofi. BpyHo amcrcaaan Mh! CJIb o HeCI(OH'~l8eMOCTH BceJ1eHHox”4 H cymec'r3oaaHHH 3 Her“: MHo>Kec'rBa MHp0B, 3 TOM Hucne H Haceneunbxx. 3TH B3I‘. Tlfl11bI cnuuucom pacxozmmxcb c uepxcmmbxm yHeHHeM H cram: OCHOB8HHeM 11.713 o6BHHeHuH B epecu. BOC€MI> new Tl0peMHOI‘O 3ax<moqeHuH, D; O1'IpOCbI H l'IbI'l‘KH HHKBH3H'ropoB He CJIOMHJIH Bpyno H He 3ac'ra- amm ero owpeqbcn 01' cnoux aamnnos. ‘lenoaetc pem<oc'rHo1‘-'1 o6pa3oaaHHocTH, o11HH H8 CaMbIX OpHI‘PIHaJlbHhIX Mbxcnnrenefi XVI 13.. JI>xop11aHo BpyHo 61.111 commen 13 Puma. OH OC'I‘aJICfl BepeH cnomu CJIOBaMZ «Kore aaxaawmaaew uemmue ero nena, 'ro'r He uyncrayew crpaxa cMep'm». BOJIBIIIHG nofienu nmrnunoro paayma. ?Kec'roxne pacnpanbx He Momu oc'ra- HOBHT1: pa3BH'rm1 H0301?! HRYKPI M noncrca yuenmmn H3 pa3HbIX cTpaH Esponbx H031-. .1x cnoco6o3 nosnamm Mupa. AHr:1HI}'1c}<m‘«'x qmnocoq) tbpencuc Berton (1561-1626) 61.111 yBepeH, Inc 13 cnoefi pa6o're y= teHbu"1 , ‘IO. 'I'/ KCH OIIHp8'I‘bCH Ha I Panuneo Fannnefi. 1640 2. I Tenecxon Fannnen
  • 125. CBET H TEHH: EBPOHEHCKAH KYJ'IbTYPA KOHU. / XVI ~ HEPBOI/ AI HOHOBI/1Hbl XVII B. pe3y. r1b'ra'ru , z1.Im'rem>m.1x Ha6mo, zxenm”4. Tom. - xo Muoropaaoabxe azccnepnmerrru Moryw nan ocuosaxme mm o6o6ma1ou. mx BbIBO, l1OB, TOJIb- xo ODE-IT cocwaanaer ocnoay Haytmux auannfi, aansercn emmc'r13eHHuM ncrotmmcom morn- Hu 91 ee emmc'rBeHHmM nozrrnepxcnennem. Yfiexcngexme Bexona B TOM, Irro Hayxa nomxna nan. qenonexy BJIaC'I‘b Han npnponofi u y. r1yt1- mwrb ero >l(K3Hb, Haumo Bupaaxenne 3 ero xpunawom aqwpname «3uaHne — cmra». Paanocroponnocrb mrrepecoa Bexona npocro nopaakaewz on 61,111 nonmmcom H rocy11apc'rBeH- Hum nesrrenem, IODHCTOM H zum. r1oMa'roM, HCTO- pmcom H mrrepawopom. Mup. npeoépaaoaannbxfi ncemorymefi nayxoii, qmnocoq) oxmcan B caoem yronuuecxom poMaHe «Ho3a51 Amanwnna», me uaofipaaxur aaxnawbmaronxyxo rcapnmy xmsmx B n, ueaJIbHoM rocynapcwae. Bea 1a. r1ac'rb 3 HBM cocpenowoqeua 3 pyxax cosepmenuoro npasnwenbcma non Haanarmem «J1oM CoJxoMoHa». B Hero Bxonm TOJIbKO yqenbxe, Koropme yum‘ mopgefi nepenaaan. ssyrc Ha xzamarme paccmanmx. HCIIO.7II>3OBaTb aneprmo Comma, smpamnsarb Hesnnanubre ypoman, coanaaawb H(: KyCCTBeHI-Ible ynoépemm. Bmnozmn. HOBbI€ amzu pacrermfi :4 }KflB0'I'RbIX, C'l'p0HTb : xeTa1'e. r1mu.1e annapanx n nomzonnbre Jnozum, npomosnpoaawb norony H semxerpsicemm. Bnaronapa Tamm noc'rux<emmM nepen crpanofi oncpbxaaercn npeupacuoe 6y;1yuxee. a ee x<u're:1eI"1 >x<11e'r Bceoémee nponaeramze. I Cbpeucnc Bemm XVII 3. M3 «Hoaoir AT/7aHTM, l1bl» Cbpencwca Eexoua Hmrafire He mm TOF0. '-lTO5b| orpvluarb va onpoaeprarb, He mm roro, urofibu npw~m- Man: Ha aepy, I/ I He Ann Toro. HTO5bl Hafim/ I npep, MeT , o,n9 6ece. u,bu. H0 HTO6bl MbICI'l| /4Tb M paambuummb. .. ‘Fl acero ! '|V| UJb rpy6a= a M He npmmmaro yuacwm 3 6vmae. .. Hama rpy6a npmabuaaer money? He K0 aaammmanvu pacnpswu wnu cpaxermqm. a, Haoéopor, K TOMy, 41061:: ovm, aaxmowms Mexny co6on7I MIAD. oébennueombumm cunawm scram Ha 6opb6y c npmponofi. aaxaamnu Lurypmom ee Henpmcrynnue yxpennemm M paanavmynm npenenu ~+enoee- uecxoro Moryuzecnaa. B owmlme 0'1‘ Bexona Bbxnazomnfica q)paH- uyscuufi qwmocoq) PI Ma'reMaTm< Pene llelcapr (1 596- 1 650) o'rBomm onhrry B'ropoc're11eH- Hyxo pO. TIb. I/ Ic1*otmx«u<oM nc'mHHoro snamxa on ctm'ra. r1 paaym. Ilercapr Jno6u. n l"0BOpPI'l"b, qro 13 urearpe xvmpao on — TOJILKO aamrrepecoaanumfi, no Henonepqnamfi 3pm'eJu. , P! nozmepran coMHe- amo ace. xpome MbIII. I.TleHHfi. C3010 6e3rpamm- gyro Bepy 3 pa3yM Be. m«1xm"i dmnocoq) saneqamen B cnosax: «$1 Mbxcmo, snatmr, 51 cymecrnyzo». Yqenne JIeKap'ra — xapreauaucrso (o'r ero J1a'ru- Husnponamioro mwerm - ICap're3m"1) — Haumo MHOI‘O‘-IPICJIGHI-II: IX npnsepmenuea n r1ocJ1e11oBa- I 4'>paMc Xunc. Pens Ilexapr. 1649 2.
  • 126. ' I’. ‘‘ (V ‘ I 1!") PaHHee Hoaoe ape/ vm (KOHCLI XV ncpsasz nonoauna XVII B. ) Tenefi. Ono aanoxcuno OCHOBH pa1mo11a. rm3Ma XVII 13. - y6e>1<, z1eHHoc'm B TOM, rrro MCDHJIOM HCTHHBI xnnnerca paaym. Paanwme Hay1111o1”1 1v11.1c. r11-1 11 no'rpe6Hoc-111 ec'rec'r- Beanmx Hayx cr1oco6c'n3o13a.1m 61,1c'1*poMy pasnwrmo Ma'reMa'rmcn. O'r1cp1.1'rns1 B Hefi ocymecwanmtncb 0111-10 38 npymm. 11.113 o6.r1ert1e1ms1 cnoxcuux nu- Imcxxermii (oco6enHo B ac'rpo11oM1u1) 651.1111 14306- pe'rem.1 J1orap11q)Mm. 11,1151 aarmcu a.111'e6pa1»1t1ec1mx B1.1pa>1<e1m1'»’1 11 , z1e1‘«'1c'rBm71 Hatuum ncnonbaonan. 6yxm.1 14 saaxm cnoxceuun 121 BbI‘{H'l‘aHPXfl, panes- crsa, cxo61c11 11 npyrue. lIe1<ap'r Been cmv13o.11b1, xowopmmu 11 ceroxma o6o3aat1a1o'r Henaaecrame Bennqunbl (nocnemme éyxnm . r1a'r1u1c1coro a.11q)aBm'a — x, y, z). Ecmx DRHLIIIB a.11re6pam1ec1me 11e1”1c'r13m1 aanncbmamx cnoaamn c nomommo cJ1oa1<m.1x 11 mo- Moammx cppaa, rpam H8 a'ro Maccy cm: H npemenn, TO ornmne 1; yno'rpe6J1em=1e Bounm qe'r1<1«1e a. nre6pam1ec1<1»1e CDODMYJIBI. Haqano Honoix anoxn B paanwmn Mawemarmcn 11 q)1»13m<11 cnsaauo c mv1e- HGM 131.111a1o1nerocs1 a11rJ1m"1c1<oro ytzenoro Hcaaxa Huorona (1643— 1 72 7). OH 1«13yr1a. n npupony cnera, nauxcenne nnaner no op6nTe, npmuu1m.1 1a3anMone171- cnana tpnaxmecxnx Ten. B xamnofi H8 3'mx o'rpacJ1e1‘»'1 Hmowony npnnannexcar rennanbnbxe o'r1cp1.1'm51, two uoanommo e11y ccpopmynnpoaawb aaxon aceM11p- HOPO npuwaxcenna 11 Baecnx orpo1~1111.11‘& a1<J1a;1 3 coanaane naytmofi 1<ap'mm.1 Mnpa. ICo. rIoccaJIbHoe Bnnanne Ha eapo11ei‘1c1<y1o uaytmyro 1v11.1c.111. o1ca3aJ1 11eMen,1cm‘i ytxenmfi I‘o'r(1)pu, z1 Jleiifimm (1646—1716). ‘{e. r1oBe1< uc1cmot1m‘e. nbHo1”1 o11ape11- nocm, on o'rc'ram3a. r1 14.11910 0 ezmncnse suamm 14 ,11oc'rm' 11eMa. n1.1x peayjxuraroa n paaxmx cqaepax 11ay1<1»1 — npase, ncropun, 5131.11co311a1m1«1, reonomn, tlmamce 1/1 npymx. Onnaxco nommmxyxo rem1a. r11.11oc'r1. . IIe1"161111u 11pom311.11 3 MaTeM8'I‘HKe 14 qmnocoq)11n. Yv1em.11‘»'1 y'1'nep>1<,11a.11, trro zvmp uocwpoea Ha ocnoae TO‘-IHLIX Mamma- nmecxnx pacqe-ros 11 coc'1-om‘ 143 MBJIKHX >1<m31.1x qacwu — MOH811. I/ Ix paarme KOM5flHaIJ, KH co3z1a1o'r Hecxoxmaemoe pa311oo6pa3ne Mrrpa, B KOTODOM ace anememm Tecuo 33am~1oc3s13a- 111:1. 011110 113 11ao6peTe11111}'1 . TIei&6111111a ~ C‘{eTHai{ Manmmca. Ona nponsnomuxa ace apmbmewwxecxne 11e1‘e'1c'rnm1 PI aL13Ba.11a o1~poMH1.1171 mrrepec 11 BbICO- xyro oueuxy 3 Eapone TOPO 3peMe1m. Fomdipud Kue.1.1ep. I-11.101011 Ycnexn Me, r11u111m.1. Bamnbxe n3Me11e11m1 upo- 1»1cxo, z1m11«1 B Mezmurme. me B Cpez1HeBe1<oBLe roc- no11c'raoBa. :1o npe, z1cTa1s. r1e1111e, trro ananmx 1-. .r1e,11ye1‘ t1epr1a'r1. 113 zxpemmx 're1<cToB. Ha116oJ1ee a13'rop11'reT~ Hbxxvm aB'ropaM14 C'~IHTaJIHCb B1.111a1o11111ec51 Bpatm ’ '1 1 z1peB11oc'r11 I‘m1r1o1<pa'r p1 I‘aJ1eH, xopowxaa uwram 143 xoropbxx 311au11u1a 11a. 111oro 601151119, <1e. v1 npa1<- , » 'r1»1=1ec1<11i'1 0111,11. 0111111111 113 nepaux 11po'r11a "raxoii '1'ot11c1»1 sperms: BbIC'I’yIIHJI 111Be1'»'u1apc1<11i'1 13132111 11 aJIXPIMHK Teo(1)pac'r I‘ore11re1"m Ilapanenbc (1493-- 1541). OH 651.11 BOBHHLIM xnpyprom 11 . '3HL-l‘FO}<0.Y Hapo, z111o1‘51 MGJIHIIIIIIBI. co31J, a.n 11eMa:1o 1-xoamx :1<>~ 1<apc'r3 H 11p1131.113aJ1 aJ1x11Mmcoa BMBCTO :1oJ1o'ra Hapauenbc 11c1<a'r1. CIIOC06bl 11c11e. r1c-111151 mo11e1"1. Ycrwxn I19-
  • 127. CBET H TEHH: EBPOFIEPICKASI KYI1bT! /PA KOHLlA XVI — FIEPBOPI l'| OJ1OBHHb| XVII B. Team 6 pauenhca 3 neqennu éonbuux K838111105 conpeuenmmam qynom, onaaxo HO- naropcxne Mewozxu cqynaxonaroro nexapsn 61.mn Bucmennm npoq)eccopaMn Baaenbcxoro yunnepcwrera, xyna ero npnmacwm qwrawb Jtexrmn. Hanamm xomxer nuaynmm Hapanenbca, ozmoro na Jrytmmx Memxxcoa XVI 3., ocwanwn. npeuonasaune. Hattano Hosomy ararry B paaawrnu aHaTOMPIPI nononmn nmxoneu P18 Hm1ep- Harmon Annpeac Beaanuii (1514-1564), npocbeccop Hanyancxoro yHm3epcn're'ra B I/ I'ra. m«m. B cnoeM rnannom Tpyne «O nocwpoennn qenoneqecxoro 'reJ1a» on 0606- mm: P! cncremamanponan an-nrromuqecrme JIOCTHJKGHHH, a 'rexc'r xcuum co1IpoBo- nwl 250 mlmocrpannamn - pe3y. rIb'ra'roM C05CTB8HHhIX axcuepnmemanbnux no- ncxon. Bce 3'ro naaecno cepbeanmfi ynap no cxoJxac- ' Tnqecxofi Menmmne. Ee aamlrrnmm usmann Be3a- Jma us Haayn, no BSPJISIJILI yuenoro Hanum Hemano npunepmenuen B paanmx crpanax Eaponm. Caofi nxnaa 3 noanarme qenoaeqecxoro opramasma aaecma ytxeaue paanmx crpan. I/ Icnaaeu Mnrem. Cep- new (151 1-1553), a CJIGJIOM 3a Hmw anrnmannn Yunn- nlvx Papneii ( 157 8-1657) o'r1<pbmu cnc'reMy KpOB0~ oépamenua. I/ I'ra. r1LaHen; llmnponamo <l>pa1cac'ropo (1480-1553) usyqan mupexunoaaue 6o. :1e3uu 14 mo- co6u 6opL6u c xmnm. B Tecaom cotose c Mezmnmioii paannaanncb xmmsx, 6o'ranm<a, aoonoma. Bnepnme 3 ncmpxm uayxn naqamx co6npa'n. repéaprm, 0CHOBhI- 381'}: 601-anuqecxne canu, o'ncpu3a1'1, Mysen rrpnponu. C1'peMwrem. Hoe aaxcotuxerme nayrmux ananuifx y6em«mo uccnenoaareneii 3 Heo6xo1mMoc'ru xonnexrnnno o6cy>1cz1a'rb Haymame npo6neMu. C 3'roI‘»'1 nenmo 61.11114 coanaau nocrosmno Aeficrnyxomne Haytmue oprannaaunn - at<a, z1eM1»m. Hepnofi orxpbmacb qmopenwnficxaa Arcanemna onhrroa, aoanmcmaa npn qua- Hanconofi nomxepxcxe ceMeiic'raa Menwm mm nponarauau Haytmmx anannfi. Hpocymecwaosana arcaxzemm Bcero necnrb new, no ee nesrrenbnocws nocnyxmna Bnoxaoanmomnm o6pa3noM mm npymx c'rpan Enpoum. B cepenmie XVII 3. 65mm ocaoaanu Jlozuxoncxoe icoponeacxoe o6n1ec'rBo PI Hapxmccxcas axanemns — cnoeo6pa3ame cpecnyémucn yqeaux» , tmenm r<o'ro- pux nocraannn caon aaamm Ha cnyacéy aayxe. Haqam: Tauxce BBIXOJIKTB cnenuanbnue xcypaanu, rrro o6.nerIm. no 05MeK Haytmofi nnqaopmanueivi H coneficwnonano pacnpocrpaaenmo auanufi. I Yunnan Fapnefi 4-Oxorra an nemm» . Haytmuii nepesoporr coanan c paarapom coxorrbx Ha aenbm » , Roma Hennnannble 3011351 mecwormx npecnenonanufi saxnecwnynn Enpony. Bepa 3 cremmare cnnu» cymecraosana nsnasua. ‘Iac'rz.1e annnemnn, IIp0J10JIJ! <I4- Tenhnue sofmu H ronomiue roam u3Ma'rb13a. m»1 Jnozxefi, Irro nopoxcnano crpaxn H xcenanne uaxcaaawb nnnonnux. Bpara naxomum B o6pa3e Bellbmbl. l'Io nonepmo, xomxoacxnmn anannamn, mm aenoncrnom, 6511114 nanenenu Te, KTO Bcrynmr B coxos c nbanonou. Ilonytmn 01' Hero qpesmepaoe Morymecrao, Taxne JIIOJIK snco6u ymema caepxwecrecrnenuum ofipaaom BJIPIHTB aa oxpyacaromnfi amp. npymx monefi, xcnnornux. Benbmamn Haauaanu Taxcxce Tex, wro aaan neJ1e6- Hue caoficwna nexapcrnenaux pacrennfi n yMe. n JIe'~IK'l‘b Tpanamu. B rconzxoacrne oénmamm npenmymecraenno xceannm. Bean. 3 xpnc'rnan- cxou Mnpe, me rnaaeacwaoaann Myxcqm-11.1, xcenumnm cqwrmmcb cyn1ec'rBa- Mn rmsmmvm n cJ1a6L1Mu. 9'roro, no npenc'raBJ1emmM TOl"0 apemezm, 651.110 nocwawotmo, q'ro61.1 c'ra'rL Aofibmefi nbsaona. Ilmi npnaneqemm :4 cyny He 'rpe- 6ona. uocb 11oxca3a'reJn>c'rB, xBa'ra. no npoc'ro xcanofiu cocenefi. BOJIBBI-II: mm : ..__? .j. j__. _. . __:4~j_. __? __. ’ _. . _ : T__. .-. _ -. _:j. ._. ... -_. _ - . _- _, _. 125
  • 128. cmeprb, Heypookafi, nponaxca Monoxa y xcoposu, name xpacora — ace MOPJIO am- 3B8.'l‘b oronop. Roma ace xcepna nonanana 3 pyxn cynefi, Te JIBPKO c6nna. un c 'ro. mcy nepeuyrannylo no cuepu-K xcenmmxy n Bmmrnaanu K3 nee upnaaarma 3 snoneannnx. Co npemenem 3 tmcno 05BHH8eMhIX Barnum nonanan. n anym- Iumu. C XVI B. rnaznbm CIIOCO50M co6pa6o'r1<no noncygmmux Ha nponeccax c'raJm HBITICH, go 'roro aanpememme. cOxo'ra Ha BBABMD 6L1.na npnfiburbnum nenom. llonocv-xmc nonytxan txacn. umymecrna cnoeii xceprnu, a cynbn n nanarm - nucoxylo nnary. C cepemmm XVI no cepemmm XVII 3. B Enpone cocroanocb 6oJ1ee 50 Tmcml Benoncxnx nponeccon. C ozmnaxonum ycepmaem nx npoaonmm n xawonurcn, Pl npo'rec- 'raH'ru. Tonuco emmnnu ornaxcnnanncb I1p0TPlBOC'I‘O8'! ‘b o6n1eMy 6eayMc'rny. Korna uoracma xocwpu, Ha xcompmx cxcnrann ofimmenaux B Benoacme, xmypaa rem: nemxa Ha ICOI‘11a-TO npouneranmne xpaa. Ilenbxe cembu ébum yH1»m'ronce- nu mm norcmrynn ponaofi oqar, nx xosaficrno npxmmo B ynanorc. «Oxo'ra Ha sezxmm - arc Maccoaoe yénficrno neaunnux, ozma as aanfionee npamarnqnmx crpaann qenoaeqecxofi ncwopnn. XVI 3. I43 «Mcropnn ropqaa Tpnpa» camuenmaxa I/ "ioxana l7n, aeHa Bce HaCTOJ1bKO noaepmm, -no npononxmenbuue Heypoxavu abssaanu seawa- MM. .. -410 ecn crpana nommnacb, n. a6u ynwwoxwrb nx. 310 Aamxenme nomepxanm MHOFVIB uepxoanue AGSITGIM. Mcxaaume 6oraTc1'3a a nenne coxoxennbax B6AbM. Flo roponam M Aepesumw. .. crpeumrenbno nepenauranmcb Cl'I6LLMaIlbHbl6 ofiavmmenw, umcamamopu. cymm M npouvue. npuanexan x cyny VI nonaepran l‘lblTKaM CYL| J.eCTB o6oero nona. cxuran MX a orpoMHoM KOHW-IBCTBO. Mano KOMy M3 06am-memux ynaaanocb u36erHyTb Haxaaaomn. [lame npe. a.cTaawreneF1 1 26 Tp| r1pCKOl7l anacm He Mvmoaana nonofinan y-iacna. Eunw coxoxenu cynbsa. Aaa 6yproMvuc1- pa. Hecxonuco pamauoa VI nomouu-Mxoe cynefi. B 37017: Karacmocbe norvI6no HeMa. no can- mennvucoa. .. Se3yMcTso moncxofi 311065: VI cynefi. >o<ax<. na3umx KDOBI/ I vv AO5bl'~M, aamno Hacronbxo nanexo, two emaa ma ocrancn vcro-rm6yp. b, xoro H9 KOCHyflOCb nonoaperme a 3TOM npecrynnemm. .. Buno MHOFO ocnoaarmfi coumeaatbcn, ace nu ocyxnermpne BVlHOBaTbI. ..
  • 129. CBET I/ ITEHH: EBPOFIEPICKASI KYI1bTVPA KOHIJA XVI - FIEPBOF1 HOHOBHHH XVII B. 1 Karcue ycaoeuu daazonpuamcmaoeaau noazeuy uueuno ecmecmeew uux uayrc? acrnpououuu? 5 . / 2. Houeuy ocodoe aoauyzueuue ueprceu ebtsueanu omrcpeumua 3 o6.uacmu I 30 Hex uoxcuo odzacuuma mom ¢arcm, umo oauocpeueuuo c paaeumuem uayrcu uuua «oxoma ua eeawuvf 4. Hpomua xatcux cpeaneaexooux eazmuioe npuxoauaoca eucmynamb ne- auxau? 3A, £1A HMFI 1. rlpotmrafire orpueox H3 «Hosofi ATHHHTMAH» tbpeucuca Eexona. ‘fro aa- ‘ rap cwran rnaeuuu 3 «term» mmr? ‘-Iro on umen a may, Haauaan ce6sz «1py6a wow 7 2. Onnpancb Ha coo6LueHue Floxana llmena, nopaauucnure, xax cneayer no- HHM8Tb cnoaa 0 ram, wro Hexoropue uepxoanue genre/1n «ucxanu Oorarcraa a name coxoxeunux seam». TOl1bKO nu csmuemmm npecnaaoaanu vaxyro uenb? 3. HCI'IOl1b3yfl . £lOI1OI1HMT9l1bHyIO nnreparypy, noaroroabre paccxaa 06 o, aHoM M3 abuzazoumxcsv ywenux XVI-XVII as. 0 III I/ ICKYCCTBA Pbmapn lleuannuoro Odpaaa. Ocwpme nponxnopermn anoxn o'rpa3mmcL Ha xapawrepe n conepxcaunn enpoueficxofi nnrepawypm n ncrcyccma. B nenom coxpananacs aepnocu. nneanam rymaunama n Boapoxcnennx, no nocne roro xax Petpopmanus pacrconona Map 38 use uacm - Icawonnqecxyxo n npo-rec'rau'r- cxyxo, Barman-I I'yMaHnc'ron naqamx mean-rbcn. 0311 see 6om. me Tepsum nepy 3 awrnnayro xmaneaaylo noammxo qenoaexa u ero Taopqecxne cmm. Baamen npnxommo yfiencnenue 3 fioaxecwnenuom npenonpenenennn qenoneqecxofi cynbfim 14 neofixommocru noxopwrbca efi. 3'ro nanomumo nponanenenna nom- Hero Boapoxczzermn qyacwnom fiecnoxoficrna, aeynoaneraopennocm 14 name rparuama. BMec're c rem rcynyrypa nepexonnofi anoxu necna B ce6e panocrb uoananna Honor-o Mnpa n nepy n ropxcecrao paayma. Bepmnnofi ucnaacxofi nwrepawypu XVI 3. H onaonpemezmo uaqanom ea- poneficrcofi . rm'repa'rypu Honoro spemerm cwano Taopqecrao Murena Cepnan- reca (1547-1616). I 1 HEMEPKHYIIII/ IE OBPABLI JII/ ITEPATYPLI Cepnaxrrec upoucxozmn as odezmeamero maopancrcoro pona :1 (Sam cuuou apaqa. O-my npmcommocs nocroanno ncrcan aapafiomx, as-aa vxeno 60111311183 oeum qacro nepe- eaxuma as ropoua n ropon. 9ro nmnwxo Mmem: nonmem- aocm l10JIY‘IE'l'b cepbeanoe o6paaonanne, no on turran ace nozxpsux (name paafipocanmue no yanmam ofipumcn acum- cannux Gyuar) n cyuen npno6pec'm oénnxpaue snanna. Bonsmyro '!8C’l‘b cnoefi Gypnofi amaan Cepnarrrec oc- rananca connwrou. B 1571 r. 3 anauemrrom cpaoxermn c rypxaun y Jlenanro on nonywun paneane, aaxourmm meeca napammou pyxcn. nocaxe qero nonaux a amxupcxufi IUIGH. TOJILKO cnycra nomux rm-rb new ero nmcymum H3 ' Mnrem. Cepsazrrec
  • 130. PaHH€€ Hosoe spews: (KoHeu XV ~ nepaasi nonoauna X VII 8.) . ... . _. nenoml Monaxn-nomunmcannu. Bynymnfi rmcawem. anon» noeaan, a Bepnynuinca K Mnpuoii xcnann. c'raJ1 céopnmxom nanoron. He amen an MaJ1efimei, <;IUloB- nocru K 3-romy aaxurrmo, Gennara name npeuenao oxcaaanca 3a petite: -Icofi. Ocnoéomxamncb, épocrm c. nyx<6y n aaasmca nureparypauu 'l'B0p‘Iecf1:BD! l. 7.. .-‘ . _ 1 I W Poman Cepaaxrreca « Hpemynpylfi unans- ro 11011-I£nxo'r Jlamanucxuiip cpaay ppunec asropy aceoémee npusualme. Hponanenemxe 651110 aam/ Mano xax napomm Ha pbmapcxne pomaau. Ero repoii, noJ1y1-mumfi maopamm Anonco Roxane, ncnner B cenbcxofi myxoMa- rm, éecnpepmnao tm'rae'r pbxuapcrcue poMa- an :4 Metrraer o coécrneunbxx nommrax 3 ayxe srmx pomanon. Omiaoxufi unanbm 11ena- e'r csomu opymeaocnem 05bI‘{H_0I‘0 r<pec'r1.a- rmna Carmo Haney - qenoaexca coo6paan- TeJ'! bHOI‘O u npocwouymnoro onnoapemeauo. Bmecre onn a Ha noncxn cnanm. IIy'reu1ec'r3ya no noporam I€ac'rmmu, try- naxosawufi Hon-Knxow Bo! oe'r c Be'rp5muMI»I Menbnunamn. OHM Kaxcywcn eMy neJ1m<aHa- Mn, saeaxcue maopu — aamcamn, a 'rpa1<'rnp- Hue cnyxcauxn — npexcpacnmnm namanm. Bce a'ro amrmuurr éeccmbxcnenno n cmeumo, H0 6ecc'rpaI11Hb1i'1 nnanbro Metrraer o TOM, q'ro6u a r1oBceMec'rHo uapmm Apyxcéa, JIIO50Bb :4 cornacne». PI nocreuenuo Ha cmeny npomm npnxonm cmvma'rm1 K punapxo Heqanbnoro O6pa3a, aemxxozzymno aammuammemy c. na6b1x 14 noMora- xomemy o6ea, u;oJ1eHm.1M. C'roI‘«’nmfi ycnex pomaua B XVII H nocnenyromnx c'roJ1e- THHX o6'bacH: u1ca xmexmo rem, trro 1103-Rnxor, He éynyrm HAGBJIBHHM repoem, BOIIJIOTPUI B ce6e ttenoaeqecxne qepwu Henpexonxmefi uennocru — omary, 6.na- ropozzcmo, 6ec1<opuc'rHoc'rL. Ceromm «IIOH-KHXOT» — Bropaa nocne Bnémm xrmra no Kommecwny aahncon, Ha xowopble ona nepeaenena. Illelccnup u Bonmefinmii Mup 'rea'rpa. C nMeHeM Bbmalouxeroca )1paMa'rypra ylIJIl>$lM8 Illexccnnpa (1564-1616) CB$I3aI-I pacuBe'r anmnficxoro 'rea'rpa. I Iiamrrmuc IIon~Knxo'ry K Cazmo Hence 3 Mupruxe Teawp mexcxmponcxcnx npemen xmen n Armrmn napom nmfi xaparcrep. Cpenu spwrenefi MO)KHO 61.1110 ynmzeu. Kpecwbanuna, npnexanmero Ha pbIHO! (, Mawpoca, IIOJIy- tmnmero aecxonbxo naefi 01-nuxa Mencny xmamumamn, paccyxrmenlaaux pemecneunnxon, roaopmmux 'ropro3- nen. Cnexramm upoxomum mien, 6om. max qacrb 'rea-r- pa paamemanacs non o'rxpm'n. m ae6oM. Hanec nmenca Jflflllb nan noacamn mm coc'roirre. m-. nofi nyfinmm :4 H811 cuenofi. me nrpaam awrepbl u Juofimm aaxaauaan xpecna cnercrme meroma. 06511-mo cneaa Tpaneunefi mm onanom BLIJIBHPBJIBCB 3 uaprep, aanommaa. wro Te- arp 6epe'r cnoe naqano or IIJXOIJIBJIHOIO neiicrsa. Korna 3030}: mm ucuo. nm-rrenefi co ncex c-ropon oxpyxcana 'ro. nna. 3ana3eca ae 6u. rIo, umrro ne o'r, zxeJm. no awrepon o'r apwrenefi. Hcencxme ponn ncnomuum Mononme Myacrxmm. Ecnn Haqano cneK'ra1<J1a aanepxmaanocb, nyénmca mywmna: clcoponena 6pee'rcas. I 1|. U Yunnan Illexcnap ___, j _%_. _‘-—j———_—? -—
  • 131. C'r3LI H ILHH LBPO| '1tHCKr$1 | ’Y. |‘lL>lH’: KOHLLR XVI — IlL‘PB()l/1 HOHOBI/1Hbl XVII B " . V’uJ1h. mu Xo2apnz. AHr.11n“1c1<m"1 amep I‘oppn1< 13 pom-1 Pwxapna III. [In dpum 5'. Lflexcnupa Illexcnnp po1111.r1cs1 B 11poBHH1maJ1bH0M ropo111<e CTpe'1'q)op, z1e-Ha-3i'1BoHe B cembe o6e;1HeBu1ero Toprosua. B 21 run on 11o1<1my:1 ponuofi 110M, cemmo 11 0111- pammcsi Ha noucxn y: J;at111 B JIou, r1oH. Tam LLIe1<c1mp cTa.71 a1<TepoM n 11paMa'ryp- POM Tempa «I‘. r106yc» , 113:1 BXOJ1OM 13 Kowopmfi 1<paco13a. r1acb HHJIHHCBZ «Becb Mnp nrpaer 1<oMe, u,mo»> , a CHMBOJIOM c. uy>1<nJ1 I‘ep1<y. r1ec c 3eMHb[M mapom Ha rmeqax. Hlexcnnp He npmrymmnan C10>K€"I‘OB am: (JBOHX nbec. a 3aIr{MC'I’BOBaJI nx y an- Tnqublx 11 cpezmeaercosmx amopou. Ozmarco cmlofi caoero T8JIaH'I‘8 on co311aJ1 ra- . nepe1o He11oB'rop11Mb1x o6pa3o13: npexpacnmx B csoefi ca1v1oo1'13ep>1<e1mo1}‘1 111061311 PoMeo n, II>1<y. r1be1'ry. namyqemxoro 6OJIe3HeHHbIMI/ I comuemxmvm I‘aM. r1e'ra, ocJ1e11- neuuoro peBHO("I‘I>}O OTBJIJIO. I‘ep011 U. Ie1<c1111pa MHOI‘OI‘paHHbI2 >1<n3ue1mb1e o6c'ro;1Te:1bcma MOI’_V'I‘ IIp€BpaTHTb ;1o6pb1x B 3:11:1x, 13eJm1<oz1yu1Hb1x B MCTHTe. TIb- aux. ttecmmx 13 Beponomnmx. He cn_vua1"mo rem1aJ11.11b1p“1 npamarypr c'raBm1 B csonx npon33e;1e1111;1x BOfIp0CbI, ncxronueuubxe r. r1y6o1<om conepxcammz rrro co- c'raB. r1;1eT cmbxcn t1e.1o13et1ec1<o171 xmann? l"Io=1eMy omm H "row we uenoaerc cnoco6eH Ha BBICOKHC 11 HI—I{3I{I/ I8 nocwyrnm? B qeM 3a1<: I1ot1ae'rc51 npnssanne !1eJ1oBe1<a? . - . __. —__j —__—. __. -.__—_ -. ._. . . ... ... : . , . ... . / M3 rpare, am4 yl/1l‘lbFlMa LL/ excnmpa «/ 'aMner» , ,'/ Flocnennee BDBMFJ, - 8 | 'lO'~48My. ‘R M CBM He 3HalO. - Fl YTDEITMH BCIO CBOIO sece- "1-"noon. 3a6poc. vm ace npl/1BbI‘4Hbl8 aanmvm; I/1D. el71CTBl/1Tel'| bHO. Ha nyme y Mensa Tax 19:- xeno. Lno ma npexpacnasa xpamm-ca. 3eMn9. xaxercn MHe l1yCTblHHb| M MblCOM; 3101 Hecpa8Hem««emum“4 nonor. aoanyx. .. KEDKEYCR mue He HEM l4HblM, KBK MyTHblM M HyMHb| M cxonnenwg-M napoa. HT0 3a Macrepcxoe ('203llE1Hl-1e — uenoaex! Kax 6naropo11eH pa3y~ MOM! Kan éecxoneqeu cnocoénocrbro! Bn6II'.1HvM m e namxenwm — xax abupasmenen M 129 uyneceu! B , uenT«c1avm — Kax cxonen c aurenom! B nocrmxeumm — Kax cxonen c 6ox<e- cTeoM! Kpaca BCEDGHHOW Beneu scero >o<mByu1ero! ? I{n: m1. [1Ic1<c1111pa orcymxuu . 'u-1m1,~LuM11. HeHo'ropb1e nccneaoaawenu cinna- 1o'r. =11-nun 119 61.111 amopom nu-ox upuu: n3e;1eHp11>'1, H3BeC'I‘HbIX non ero uMeHeM. 5 B1‘m. u-. ;:-o -L. .-r I , nmL 8 xi‘
  • 132. I’ 7 E V’ WAC Tb Pannee Hosoe Bpemn (xoneu XV -— nepaasa nonosuua XVII :3.) “'. :'_I; " " ; r'. ~ ). o. - I U’ ‘u - . .:. »o. . -u. .‘—. .___- ‘—. . -‘ ' 44 ' — Jlopenuo Bepnunu. l'L1oI11a,1b Ca. I1eTpa. Pu. v. 1657-1663 anrnuficxaa xoponesa EJn«13aae'ra I, xom Hanéonee Bep0$ITHl-. -IM npe'reH11eH'roM oc'rae'rca nce-Taxu nomxoncxnfx arvrep Vnnbam Hlexcnup. B Konue xounon, BGJKHO TO, ‘ITO CYIHBCTBYIOT GPO UDOHSBBIIGHHH “ aaxsarbxaalonme H P1811138- . Baoiinennue. 4 I I/ Ianecnio 6o. nee 20 xannmzaroa 3 Ulerccrmpbx, B TOM qucne Cbpencnc Bexon PI I 3 Bnoxa 6apomco. Paawrenbabte uepemeabx, npoucxomuamue B Muponocnpw srmu Jnozzeiix Ha py6e>xe XVI-XVII 133., He Momm He noannmb Ha ncxyccrso. Ha cMeay ypannoaemeanomy n rapzvxomrtmomy ucxyccmy Bo3p0>K11emm npnxo- AK? noauifr c'mm. — Gaporcxo (man. — npuuydvuebzu, cmpamwziz). On aoanmc B I/ I'raJmn n crpemwrenbao pacnpocrpammcn no Bceii Espone. Bapoqnmm ' nponaseneauam npucynm ocofiaa nmmnocn. 14 Bemitme, Ixonqepxuywaa , z1e1<o- | ~ pawnnaocwb K Hacmmennocwh (mxoma name qpesmepnasx) nennunofi. I/ Ix uenb — oxasarb Ha qenonexca xpafme amouuonanbnoe Brxeqameune. Bbmaromnmca upencraawrenem ucxyccma fiapoxxo Gun apxmemop n cxynbtrrop Emonaumx Jlopexmo Bepumm (1 598—1680). Hanéonee npxoe npon3- Be, z1exme Macrepa - a. HCaM6J'lb nepen co6opoM Cnmoro Uerrpa B Barmcane. Mao- : xcecwno pasnosamcnx na.1IoMHm<oB, coénpasumxca nepen I‘. TIaBHbIM xpaMoM Ka- 'l'0JIH'-IGCKOPO Mnpa, Aonxcnm fibum ‘IYBCTBOBBTB cnoe zxyxoxmoe egmncmo. lbm Bomloxneumr arm"! nnen Bepnmm namen remxammoe pememxe. Ilepegx co6opoM on coopyzmn Bennqecraenayxo nnomam. c o6eJ1 ucxom n q)ou'rana1~m u npuzzan ex”: q>opMy onana, o6paM. neHaoro 113yMa rcoJ1oHHa11aMn. Cnoano rnraawcxme pyxn, oxm o6rmMa1o'r qenonexa n Bezxyw ero xc co6opy. Ofimne oqepmnna aHcaM6Jxa Ha- noMnHa1o'r xmoq, trro cnmnonnrmpoaano cnorm Xpucwa, ofipameanme K nepsomy enncxony Pmvxa anocwony Hewpy: « I/ I nan T668 xmotm Ilapcma nefiecnoro ». Fnaaaaa 'reMa 3 Taopqecrae Bepmum ~ pa3.u, rumemm o ncnsmx xx uyacmax : qenonexa. rrro c ocofioii cmxofi flpOfiBH. TIOCb B Taxnx ero CI<y. Tlbl'I'I')'pHI>IX paéorax, Kan «Anomxon H llatlma», <<3xc1‘a3 CB. Tepeabw. Cnonx repoela Bam‘em. H306- paoxan B MPIHYTBI myéorcoro amounonanbuoro no;1'z, eMa, BPIDTYOSHO nepenanaa ero nocpencmom >i<ec'roB, abxpamennn JIHLIEI, mmmcu.
  • 133. ‘_ CBET M TEHM: EBPonE: >1cKAsa KYJ'1bTYPA { KOHLIA XVI - FIEPBOPI nonosMHbI xvn B. Tema o “ ___; r CTMJIL Gapomco nponmc Tamice B Jim- BOIIHCB, me nomxnnnmfi nepe13opo'r conepmmr n'ra. ru. sn-zen Mmcenannmeno na Kapanazmco (1573—1610). On nepnsuvx naofipaann Mnp Henpnyxpamenamm, cnonno ocwanonun Ha csomx Icapwmiax MI‘! -IOBBHI/ I5! peamanoiri xcnann. Yzxnsnwenbnofi z1oc'roBepHoc'rn nepconaxcefi ‘S __ xy, uo>i-came nocrnran npn nomonm PI3JII06- 5‘ A _ nermoro ncmaonncnoro aqaqnewra - cBe'roBoro ‘ ~ ‘ Konrpacra, PII‘pbI cBe'ra PI TGHPI. 7’ ~~ Henpesaofinennbxm «KODOJIGM x<KBo1mc- neg ~> no npany cqnraerca cbnamanzzeu Ilrrrep Hayan Py6eHc (1577-1640). OH npnnan 14c- Icyccwsy Honoe zxmxarme, Bneca 3 Hero 'rpa- , zmu1«m aurwmocwn I/ I Bospoxcnemm - 14306- paxcerme ofinaxcennoro Tena H panocm ésrma. Ero Kap'I‘HI-II: -I 6yKBaJIbH0 nanyqaror >mI3HeH- Hyro cuny. Py6eHc 651:1 npercpacnbm rco.1Iopnc- TOM 14 _VMeJI yzmnnrenbno 'I‘O‘{H0 nepenanau. Bee owremm maera. Karc Hmcomy, eMy ynananocb Bmrmcarh (paxwypy Trcalm, 6.nec1< yxpamelmfi, nyumc'roc'rL Mexa. BeJImcm‘«'I (1maMaH, z1eI. : co3z1aJI Tarcxce csoe nanpasnenne B nopwpemofi acmaonucu - napazmmi/ I nop'rpe'r - I»I3o6pa- xcerme auaqnwenbuofi nuqaocwn B opeone cnanm H Benuqus. 1 11 ueeo Be4wcxec.7IIo; JAr'1'pe'r ‘ (npmmeccu) Maprapmm. 1660 2. 3aBa. r1eHHb1x*x aaxasaxxm, Pyfienc OTKDBIJI neofimqnyio Macwepcxylo, cnoeo6pa3- Hyxo <<(1)a6pm<y xcapmn». Cam Mac'rep nenan upennapnrenmimfi acxna Macnom, yqenmm rmcamd no : -mm Ha6pocxaM rcapmny, 3a'reM Py6eHc ee nonnpannan. I/ I3 aTo1”4 MaCTepCKOfi BbII1I. TIO 6oJ1ee 3 'I‘bICfi‘{ xapnm PI Mnoaxecwno pucymcos. Omxawy Tpyna B Heft Py6eHc — IIOTOMOK Icynuoa K 'l‘OpI‘OBI1eB — oprannaonan co anarmem 11e. r1a: cymecwaosann cneunanbnme pacnenxn Ha pa6o'ry ytxenmcos n Ha ero coécwsennme nponaneneuna. Mz1h: e.'1aH0.>ir9.= z0 0a I{apaea0Jtco. Yxcma Humep Hayaxt Pydeuc. An'ronop'r- B 3.ma_~‘c(‘. 15.99 2. peT c me! -IOI"4. 1609 2. (JV
  • 134. i ‘A; ,~/ HACTb Parmee Hosoe ape/ us: (1<0Heu XV 9 nepaasv nonosuna X VII 13.) Honnnnnmfi 3o:1o'r01”1 Bex nepexcnnana B XVII B. ucnaacxaa XCHBOIIHCB. Xycene P116epa (1591-1652) 11 tbpancncxo Cyp6apan (1598-1664) ncnom.30- 88.11]/ I peJmrr103HL1e c1oxce'rb1 14 coazxama nemano apxmx, HCIIOJIHBHHLIX rJ1y601<0r0 npamamsma IIOJIOTGH co cuenamn us xcnann cnmux, Myueumcon, OTIIIBJIBHKKOB. Bepnmna 1«1cI1aHc1co1‘»'1 zxmaormcn — 'rB0pr1ec'r3o Ilnero Be.11ac1ceca(1599—1660). B 24 rona on c'ra. n npmuaopnbxm XYJIOJKHPIKOM KODOJIH 613121.111/1r1I1a IV 11, 0c'raBa51cb HM A0 Korma xcnaan, rmcan npenmymecrnenno nop'rpe'rb1. Benacrcec coazxan 1*a.11epero n306pax<eHm"1 qneuos Koponencxofi cemm 11 xx oxpyxcenna, 0'I‘Me'-IeH- HYIO 1v1y601<mv1 nponmcaoaermem no Baywpennnfi xvmp 14 ncnxonomxo nepc0na- xceii. HOJIOTHa Benacxeca uopa>1<a10'r 'I‘O‘IHOCTb1O nepenatux xaxczzoro xaparcrepa. He cnyuafino nana I/ IHn01<eH'mi'1 X, ynunea c1301"4 11op'rpe'r, He CMOI‘ ynepxcarbcn 0'1‘ cnon: «CJIPIIIIKOM upaanuaol» B I‘0J1J1an111m, me rocynapcrneanofi pennrneii 65111 1<aJ1bBmm3M, He arran- muifx uepxcoanoro ucxyccwsa, xyzzoxcnmcam IIDHIIJJIOCB 0'r1ca3a'rbcx 0'1‘ peJ114r1»1- oanmx c10>1ce'r013. B noncrcax HOBLIX 'reM 01m 06pa'r1»1.n1/1cb rc orcpyncaromefi ne1‘»‘1c'rau'reJ1LH0c'm: rmcann n0p'rpe'r1.1, cnemm 143 noncennennofi mnanu, nefiaaaxn, H8.TIOpM0pTbI. Ha1160J1ee spxnfi upez1c'raB11'reJ1h roJ1.r1aH11c1c0171 IIIROJIBI - PeM6pann'1' nan Peiin (1606-1669). C 1v1y601<o171 11106013510 14 'ren.11oM nanncaabx KM uop'rpe'rb1 menu 11 cbma, npyrnx 6J11131mx m0,z1ei'1. Xynoxcmxx 0c'ra13m1 60J1ee 60 amo- nop'rpe'roB, rnnnx na 1<0'1*op1,1e, MO>KHO r1pe,11c'rasm'1. mxp ero Mmcnefi H r1y3c'rn 13 paaxme nepnonu mxxarm. Tnopqecxnfi ny'r1. Pemfipamrra aasepmaer 1<apT11- Ha «Bosnpamerme 6.r1y11H01‘o cmua 1.» — paccxaa xyzzoxcumca 0 Bcenpomaxomefi 111061311 11 ncrcpennem pacxasuum. Ilsa c'ro.11e'n»m cnycm qxpannyacxnii maso- Imcen 3>xeH Ilenaxpya czcaaan 0 Tsopqecme PeM6paH11'ra: «Ilpanna — caM0e npercpacnoe 14 penqaiixmee mmerme B Mnpe». Pemdpaudm can Pe1‘m. Bo3npa111en11e Xycene Pu6epa. H1«1111m‘&. 1642 2. 5-'1Y. '1H0l‘0 Cb! Ha- 15634559 32-
  • 135. CBET H TEHH: EBPOFIEHCKASI KYIHJTYPA ' KOHLIA xv: — nepson nonosmbn xvn B. I OM61 411:3’ 1. ‘Ie. u . uo; »cuo odzuzcuumb mom (parcm, -amo 3 arzoxy, Kozaa na6.'uo6a. J1c. n yna6orcpbu4apcmea. po.1zan «,7.IoH-Ifuxom» npuo6pe. v wuporcyzo nony.7u1p- uocmb? 2. B Item 3alCJLIOlla.71.0Cb ceoeodpasue cmuxuz Gapomco? Ifarcue npo6Jze. mu eozmoaaztu meopuoa anoxu Gapomro? 3. B. /zuautu Jzu xamonuuuam u npomecmanmuam ua cofleparcartue meopue- cmaa xyaoaicuurcoe? 3A, £IA H M}? 1. Vlcnonbsyn ¢parMeHT M3 rparezwu Yu/1bnMa Luexcnnpa «f'aMner», abmc: -m- re, Kama rymauucrvwecme mew Haw/ m oro6pa)Ke: -me ao asrnsmax aero- pa Ha -venosexa. Bepur / m I'aMner 3 raopqecxue cnoco6Hocru qenoaerca? 2. Bmmarenbuo paccmorpme unmocrpauwo Kapnmu PeM6paH, ara «Boa- apamenue Gnyanoro cbma». no aaLueMy Mueumo, KaKy: o )KM3HeHHyIO wcropmo M3o6pa3m1 Xy, £10)KHVlK? Kame uyacraa nepexnaaror ero repou?
  • 136. FlOIIbCKOE FOCVIIAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE ' LIAPCTBO. ['1 Pl ET IIOJILCKOE I‘0CY1l; APC'I'B0 ‘IEPE3 . . B03BI-. -IIIIEHI/ IE K CBOEBOJIPIIO nOmaCKOE I'OCY11AP- I C Xoaaiicrno 11 nacenenne. B XVI — nepaoii nono- CTBO: ‘-IEPE3 BO3Bb£UEHHE Bnne XVII B. Honbcxoe K0p0J'IeBC'I‘BO 61.1110 011301’: 148 K CBOEBO/714/0 Benymnx c'rpaI1 LIeu'rpaJ11.ao-Boc'roqHo1‘»’1 EBp0I1bI. 3naqwre:11=ay1o ‘IECTB ero Teppwropuu aauumann ne- ca. Ha 11poz1y1<11111o JIBCI-IOPO npombxcna - npenecuny, 11o'ran1. 3oJ1y - cy111ec'rnona. r1 nocrosnnbxfi cupoc Ha 3ana11e, me xx ncr1o. ru. aoBa. rm 11.1151 Hymn 1<opa6ne- crpoeumx 11 're1cc'm. m.noro nponanozxcma. Iloawomy eme c npenbxnymnx c'roJ1e'ru1‘i B HOJXLIIIB axruaao 31.1py6a- 1111 neca, a Ha ocaoéomnennmx aemnax yc'rpauBa. rm q)oJ1bnap1m — rocnoncxne xo3m‘»'1c'1-Ba, ocnoaanaue Ha Tpyne sanncummx xpecwban. fDoJ11.3ap1c1»1 B03HPIK8.JIH Taxme H8 Bmxcynneuamx mm oroépammx y xpecwmn aemnax 11 H8. ocnoermux nycromax. B XVI B. fiapmnnuo-qronbaapoqaoe xoas11‘»'1c'rBo nocrurno cnoero pacnaera, I110 61.1110 auanano pOC'l‘OM cupoca Ha aepno Kax B caMo1‘»‘1 IIoJ11.me, Tax 11 13 3ana;1- aofi Eapone. Kpecwbnncxoe xosaficnao He Momo y, z1o- nJ1e'rnopm'1. ero nonnocwmo. IIIJ1ax'ra (naopaacrao) Havana awrunno paanopatmsa-rb co6c'rBe1moe xoas11"1- c'r3o, pacnmpas npexcne acero BbIp8II1PlBaI-IE8 pnm: near. 3 ycnonnnx crpemnwenbaoro poc'ra ueu Ha xJ1e6 3'10 npxmocmxo aemanbxe fiapmmn. B Konue XVI 3. Honbma exceromxo 11oc'raa. mu1a Ha 3ana11 no 200 Tue. worm sepaa. Em Beanu npenmymecwnenno 3 Amcrepnam, xpynnefimnii no 'ro1v1y Bpemeun enporreficrcufi x. r1e6Ha11”1 mom, a o'1'ryz1a - 3 I‘JIy6b I‘oJu1am11«m 11 11a. r1ee — so <DpaH- unto, Aarnmo 11 npyme c'rpam.1. Poc'r d)0JII>Bap0'~lHOI‘0 xosnficwaa 6a: mpo3a. r1ca aa nmpoxom npnmeaeuuu éapmnnu. Ecnu B Haqane XVI B. 11oJ1bc1me 3a1<oH1.1 eme pa3peInaJ1u Bmxon H8 MOCKOBCK OE LIAPCTBO: J7HXOJ'lE TbE THPA H C TBA H CM YTbI
  • 137. ‘ HOflbCKOE FOCYIJAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE "* UAPCTBO: B FIOHCKAX CT AE~W'lbHOCTH V ‘lfilllllllllfllfllflillllloo ‘. ’// /// //z7/7/ I Caumxnaa Macrepcxaa. Fpamopa. XVII 8. I Opymeiinan Mac'repc1caa. I‘paeropa. XVII e. rcpenocmnqecwna, TO B cepezmne c'ro. ne'rmI ocnoéoxczxenne rcpecrum c'ra. no Hence- Mox-: HL1M. Bapumna ynennqunacb no 3-4 zmeii B He, ueJno. Rpecrbnne 6excaJm o'r caoux xoaaen, H0 Te nMeJm npano 6eccpo= mo pasmcxunawb n nosapamarb 6er'm.1x, a Taxxce Harcaabmawb nx no cBoeMy ycmowpenmo. Hpononxcann paanunanacn ropo, z1a. Bo B'ropo1‘»‘I nonosnue XVI B. B HPIX upo- xmnano no we-rnep'm 1'IOJIbCKOI'O Hacenenxm. Cpezm ropoxcan npeo6JIa, z:aJm op- rammoaanabxe B uexn pemecnennmcn, rcowopue B ocnonnom ofiecneqmsaam BHy'rpeHHm‘»'1 pmnox. Baxcnaa pom. npnHa1u1e>ica. na Kyneqecway. Honscxne aepno, BOCK, nen, rconomm, CMOJIa n Jrec IIOJIb30BaJIPICI> nmpoxnm cnpocoM H8. Banane. ‘Iepe3 Teppwropmo Ilonbmn npoxonnnn eaponeficxne Topronme 11y'm, trro o6ecnetm13a. no npomaewarme xpymnnx nopwon Ha 6a. n'rm‘»’1c1coM noéepencbe, B nep- Byro oqepenb Fzxaubcxa. Co BpeMeHeM H3 xyneqecraa BLIJIGJIKJIIICL éamcnpm. Komcypenumo Kyneqecnay coc'raB. n5um Marna*rh1, mnaxra 14 nyxonencrno. Om»: Haxozzmmcr. B oco6eHHo BI: -II‘0,lIHOM nonoxceunn, H50 Koponencxofi npm3n- nemefi ocBo6omnaJmcb o'r ynnawu IIOHIJIPIHBI Ha BBIBOB nponywroa co6c'rBeH- H01"0 nponasoncrsa. 3'ro rapamrnponano Bmcoxne npnfibum PI nomranxuaano rc nenoaofi arc'm3Hoc'm. Hanfionbmyro npennpm»1MImBoc'rL npoannnnu Marxia- 'rm. B norone 3a neubramn oxm He orpannquaanncb Imozzamn co6c'1-Bennoro x0- 3sn"4c'rBa, a cxyuaam npozxyrcumo y MGJIRKX xoaxea n 3a'reM nepenponanann 60JIhII. IHMPI uapnmmn. Ilpnmxexana Toprosnn H Memcyro n1Jmx'ry, Koropaa He nmena Kpenocrnmx I<'. peCTbHH n cocwannana notrrn nononnny nnopancxoro cocnosna. Tarcne umaxwmm camn o6pa6a'rLxBaJm cnoro semmo, a trrofim o'r. rm- ‘{aTbCH o'r xpecrban, acerna, name pa6o'ras B none, HOCKJIK ca6mo. Bo Mnorux roponax Hapsmy c nonaxamn npoxcnnann Hemum. B OTILGJIBHLIX pafionax (B Homopbe, Cnne31m)onn npeo6J1ap; aJm n nepxcann non CBOPIM KOHTpO- . r1eM ropozxcxyro BJIaCTI>. 3aMe'rHy1o pom. B '1-oproB. ne IIOJIBCKOPO 1copo. nenc'rBa urpann nepecenenubl — apmme PI mo-rnamznm. Ho caMoe mnpoxoe yqacwne 3
  • 138. " "B f I O ml. “ )) ; ~, /I’ 7 L. ‘4ACTb Pa: -mee Hosoe ape/ ~19 (KoHeu XV — nepsasz nonosuna XVII 3.) r :1 aefi npmmmamx espen. paccemmnmecs Ha V“"“4“' -‘~‘ IIOJIBCKHX aewmx nocne H3I‘HaHH5I H3 Sanamxoii - ~ I Eaponu. Hotrm B xaxcnom ropone cymecwnonamx ‘ f enpeficlme ofimmxu. Bnaronaps xoponencxoi/ x / J-“ _ . nozuxepxcrce enpen nonbaosanncb caMoynpanJxe- I , I I . " ‘ “ mxem n CBO6OAHO ncnoaenosamx nynauam, Imam ; .7 naamen nanorn B uonbay rocynapcraa. B XVI 3. :1 p ' ‘ ‘ * B03HPII€ name nenrpanbnufi opran IIOJIBCICOPO ‘ ‘ , I . enpeficwna - Baan. Illnaxewcxan nemoxpanm. Hepexon K 6ap- muuno-cponbnapoqnomy xoanficwny cnoco6- c'rnoBa. n axonomntxeclcomy 1»: nonnwmxecrcomy ycmremno mJmx'rm. K 'roMy me yz1eJu. Hm1‘»‘1 sec zrnopsmcnaa 3 o6u1e1‘«’1 Macce IIOJIBCKOFO Hacenemm 651:1 aaaqnwenbno Bmme, Item 3 npymx espo- neficrcnx cwpauax. 3'I‘HM u O6'bfiCK8JlaCb noma- Tnqecxaz awruauocwb nonscxofi mnaxrbx, ee mrrepec K rocyzzapcraeuabm nenam. Ha py6e>xe XV-XVI BB. 3 Honbme 3aBepnm- JIOCb ocbopmneune cocnoauoift Monapxmxz B c'rpaHe neficrnonan Aayxnanamufi ce1‘»'xM. Bepxmm nanawa — cenaw — BI<'. JI10‘I8JIa npez1c'ra- awreneii Bmcmero nyxoaeacma H Mama-ros. sannmanmnx BBICOKHE rocy11apcT- Bemme IIOJDKHOCTH. B mmcmozo uanary — IIOCOJIBCKYIO n36y — Bxomum 11en_vTa- Tbl, nsfiparmue Ha cefmmcax - cmesnax Mecmofx n1.nax'ru. Kpecwbane n ropona ow yqacma 3 ceiime nonuocrmo ycrpanmmcb. Pnannaa pom: B Hem ace fionbme npnuagmeoxana m. nax're. Cex‘&M Mor ue TOJIBKO anmrrb Ha pememm rcopona, no na- me orpaurmnaawb ero neficrann. B cnoro oqepenb, noneuenue ce1‘&Ma sannceno o'r nosnuufi cefimuxos. K Tomy xce, xom c XIV B. 3 c-rpane npasmm TOJIBI-C0 upen- cwanuwenn nnnacrun ilremlonon, Koponencxcaa BJIaC'I‘b ocrasanacb Bbxfiopnofi. Bce a'ro npnnanano rocyzxapcwnennomy yc'rpoi'xc'rBy I'Iom. um cBoeo6pa:3mm}'1 Bun. Buywpn maopancxoro cocnonun, Mexcny Mamawamu H mnaxwoii, uma 6op5- 6a 3a mmanne Ha Kopona. B 1530 r. ona BbIJIHJIaCI: 3 o'n<pm'roe nomnmzecxoe HDOTHBOCTOHHPIE. TOJFIKOM K Hen/ ry nocnyxumo 1'0, Wm uoxcxmofi xopom. Cums- Mymx I (1506-1548) no Hacwosmmo cnoeii menu - nranbanrcn Baum Ccbopua uponen naéparme n Kopouaumo nx neaarnneruero cbma Cnruamyrma Anryc- 'ra. Bro npomnopeqxmo Tpagmmm, nocrconmcy HOBOFO KODOJIH M0)KHO 61,1110 m.16npa'r1. Tonmco nocne CMGDTH ero npenmecraennuxa. Crano nonsrrno, wro npennpnnma IIOI'IbI'I‘K8 aamemrrb Bméopnyxo Monapxmo Hacnencrnennofi. Boamymennan mJmx'ra 06am-mna Curnamynna I 3 Hapymerum aaxoaon, no nanbme aroro neno He noumo. ‘: ’—~ in _ . .‘ / ‘* I» " V‘ V ' ‘ : . - . , ‘/ pi‘) / ‘. . I HOJIBCKHC aczulmmn. OK. I 5 70 2. Cnmamynn II Anrycr (1548-1572) upoxxonxcnn mmmo orua, H3-aa qero MGJKJIY Hmvr H mamxrofi aoanmc Kompnuwr. Roma ace xopomo nouanofimmcb zxenbru mm aenemm sofinu, a nonytrnn. nx on MOI‘ ronmco npn comacxm 111.r15Ix'rbI, MOH8pXy npuumocb rurm Ha ycwymm. K ymmnenmo ncero cefma - 136 Cumcmyrm Aaryc'r asuncx Ha ero sacenanue He 3 npm3bmHoM mm Hero Mo, z1HoM 11 . PITEJIBHHCKOM, 8 B IIIJISIXCTCKOM Hapsuze. R TOMY me OH o6pa'm. nca K CGITIMY H8 IIOJIBCKOM H. '3bIKe, 8. H8 H8 . TIa'I'IaII-HI, K816 O6bI‘IHO. 3T0 6blJIPI CHMBOJIPIQECKHG IIDHMBTBII OHH CB1/IlI€’I‘eJ'IbCTBOBa.7IK O6 HSMGHGHI/ IH [I031/III}! !! KODOJISI, 0 GPO C'[‘p€M- nenxm noroaopurbca co umax'ro1'«'1. B pe3ym. 'ra're rcomuponmcca 3o3o6.r1a11a. n npxumnn uaéparma nonbcxnx Koponefi.
  • 139. vs . F1OIlbCKOE FOCYDAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE V LIAPCTBO: B HOHCKAX CTABI/ lflbHOCTl4 TBMEI Hocne cMep'r1»1 Cnmsmyuna II ABryc'ra, nocnezmero I/ I3 zmnacwnm Hrennonon, HOJILCKPIM xopo. w1eM 1»136pam4 q)paHU. y3cKo- ro npmma Feupnxa Banya (1573-1574). Hepe, z1 BocI. uec'rBneM Ha Tpon on noxnanca He Hapy1I1a'rb 3aI<oHoB Petm HocnoJmToI‘»'1. Koponb 6bIJI o6513aH 1ca>1<, z1b1e p; Ba rona co- 3bIBaTI> cef»’xM, He MOI‘ 6e3 ero comacna 06'5- fiB. IlfiTb Boimy, saxnloqarb Mnp, n311aBa'rb 3aKOHbI, C08bIBaTb ononqenne. Ecnn Monapx oncaablaanca or ncnonaenna a'rnx 06:13a- TBJIBCTB, a'ro ocBo6o>ic, z1aJ1o mJmx'ry OT no- Bunosenua exvxy. B pe3yJ1b'ra're cram, msnoro ycnnenna no3m1m71 ILIJIHXTLI Bo3o6J1a, z1a. n npnnunn <<CBO50,1IHOI"O Be'ro» (3anpe'ra). Roma xo'm 61.1 ozmn H3 , z1eny'ra'roB cefiMa nponanocnnz «He noanomno», pemenne He npnnnmanocb, name ecJm Bce OCTa. TIbHbIe 3a Hero nporonoconann. Hatxajmcb nocwoannme 5 5 cpbmm B pa6o're ce1'«’1Ma. Hepemco cnyqanocb, » PBHPHX B8J1Y8- 1570 3- trro , r.Leny'raT1.1 paauaesxcamacb no CBOHM mue- Hmm, Tax mmero 14 He pemma. I/ IMeHHo Toma cram»: ronoprrrb, wro Honbma JIBDJKI/ ITCH Ha HGIIODHJIRQ. H. IJIHXeTCKa5I Bonbnnua nposnmnacb n 13 peJmmo3HoM Bonpoce. Peq)opMa- unonnme mzen pano npoumum B Honbmy Kare B q)opMe moTepaHc'rBa, Tax 14 KaJII>BHHId3Ma. Honbcxcne npo'recTaHTm 'rpe6oBaJm nozmnnenna rca'roJ11«1qec- K0171 neprcau KODOJIIO, nepegxatm uepxoanofi co6c'rBenHoc'r14 rocy, z1apc'rBy, o'r- Menm Jxecmwmbl n Bnenennn Ha. uoroo6JIox<eHm1 , z1yxoBeHc'rBa. B cepemme XVI B. 01114 nocwnrnn ycnexa: cefnvx npn nozmepxcxe KODOJIH ocBo6o, zmJI m.1mx'ry o'r yn.11a'rb1 ;1eca'rmu.1 14 ycranosmx cBo6o, uy Beponcnonenanna. Ho npmaepncennocrs I. I.UI$IX'I‘bI r1po'rec'raH'm3My o1«: a3a. nacb HeI'IpO- 11oJmcwreJ1bHo171: rronytms cBoe, ona CTaJI8. Boaspamarbcn K rca'roJmun3My. Coazxamle Perm Ilocnomrrofi. Yc'raHoB- nenne 13 HOHBCKOM K0p0JIeBC'I‘Be 1mmxeT- cxofi neMo1cpa'mn coanano no Bpemerm c ero o61>ezu»meHneM c Bennxnm 1cHmxec'rBoM JIMTOBCKHM. ToJ1=moM K 3'roMy nocnymuna yrpoaa co C'l‘0pOHbI Mocxoscxofi nepxcasbx, npo'mBocToa'rb r<o'ropo1‘«'1 B oxmnotmy Jlwrsa 6I: IJIa He B cocroamm. MOHIHBIM co1o3Hn- KOM Moma c'ra'n> cocennsm Honbma, Tamxe aanuwepecosax-man B npezzocwasnennm mm- xcec'rBy nomouud. Benb cnacaa JIvI'rBy o'r repa- xa, Honbma npenm'c'rBoBa. na y'rBepx<;1eHmo Mocxnm Ha 6epeI‘ax Ba. r1'rm<u. K 3T! /IM coo6- Parpyma 3 Hosfiax-111, paxcemmm l'IpPl6aBJIHJIOCb eme ozmo. Y1<pa- 1550-1560 ez.
  • 140. PaHHee Hosoe spams: (KOH€Ll XV nepsasl nonorzmm X VII 5.) xmcxoe nancnso Hanesmocb onepencn Ha no- JIBCKYIO nozmepmxy B saumwe cnonx aemem. or Hananennfi Kpumcxoro xancraa, Kowopme c Korma XV B. c11e. r1a. rmcL nowrn 9>! <(? I‘O11HblMH. B 1569 I‘. COCTOHJIOCB rxonnucmme . TIxo6- Jmncxcoii ymm. Boamucna nonbcxco-. rIwro3cx<an nepmana — Peub IIocno: mTaa (IIO. 'IbCK. ~ pecny6» . /mica), nmesmaa q)e; xepa'rmaHoe yc1~po1"1cTBo: o6e ee qacwn 06’bflBJ'lflJ1I4Cb paauonpasnmmn. Kaxcnas H3 HHX coxpamma 'rpzumunoHHme opranm Bnacwu H cyna, coficnzennoc aoiicxo n Kasrry. Ofimmxm 6514111 cefim, z1ene>mum cnc'reMa. Buemusm no. rm1'm<a. Bo mane Perm Iiocnomnoii c'roaJ1 conmecruo u36pannb1fi Monapx. Hocm3- mnfi 1'1»rrym.1 I'IOJ! bCKOI“0 Kopoma H aemmoro Kan- aa JIPITOBCKOPO. B «rocyzzapc'rBe zmyx Haponoa» Teppwropns C06C'I‘BeHHO I'IOJIbCKOI‘0 KoponeB- c'rBa He npenbxmana Tperu o61uei'x njxoxuazm. 3a'ro coomomenne peajxbaofi BJIBCTPI cxnaxxmaaixocz. B IIOJIb3_V Ilonbum. Co- npemermmm He spa Hasmnanu uoayxo crpauy coxoaoru KOHH H nczuxmma». JI1o6JmHcKa5I yrma npmzena K coazzanmo Muoronauxxonanbnoro rocy;1apc"rBa, Tecno cnasana Cy1Ib6bI IIOJIBCI-COI‘0, . rm'roBcxoro, Genopyccxcoro H yx<panHcrcoro Haponon. Petn: Hocnomrraa npencwannana c0601": cnoeoépaanyxo Moaamcy pasnmx Kynyryp M peammii, no He oéecnevuma ycnoanfi mm nx pmmonpaanoro cocymecwnoaauna. B pe3y. nb'ra're aarcmotxemm ymm yxpanncrme Boesoncrsa — Bpaunaacxcoe, Honomcxoe H Knencxoe — o'rom. rm or Jlrrrssx K Honbme. Yxpauncxcne . xama'rb1 H mJ1ax'ra pacumpwm cnou npasa H BOJILHOCTPI, no fibum Bbmy>mem. I ycrynwrb qacn. semen» 3 nonbay nonbcxofi mnaxrm. BMec're c IIOJIBCKIIMH nopmucamn 3 Vxpamiy npnnmo Kpenocwnnqecnso. HOJIBCKOE npasnwenbcrno HaMepeBa- JIOCI: Taicaxe nurcnuzznponawb yxpanncxoe xcasaqecrao. ‘{ac'rb ero nm'1'a. rmc1. upeapamwh a peec'rpoBoe Icaaaqecmo Ha nonbcxofi cnyxcfie, a npou ux A czzenan, aanucnmbmu KpeC'I‘bHH8MH. Conpownnnemxe xaaaqecma 'rm<m": uomrrmce cnJxo'rm1o BOKp_VI‘ Hero y1<parmcr<m”x Hapon n auaaano pan socc1'amu°x, nepepocmux noagmce 3 Hauuoaanbno-ocBo6o, '11xTe:1buyzo Boiiuy 110:1 . , L _ npe;1Bo, zu»x'renbc'rBoM Bomana XMe. TIbHI~XI1KOI‘O. « 3" (-3 M Home npercpauzemm , zmHac'run Hrennouoa ' rcopomxmn B Tetxenne notrm c'ro: m'rm1 manom- JIHCB PIHOCTpaHU, bl. Buéopm oéwmo nepe. 1ex<a- JIHCI: nepnonamu Geaxoponeabn. K()TOpb1e upo- 11o. rm<aJmcb nopoii ron-noznopa n C0l'Ip0BOH‘- JIBJIHCI: 6opb6oii sa npecwon M(’)K, "1_V pa3HbIMH npereanenwamu. Hpe, Z1CTaBH'[‘eJIb nme,1c1<ofi nnnacwnn Curnamynn III Baaa (1587-41632) cwpemmrca yxpenwrb xcoponeacxwro B. TIfiCTb. , 110 nawonxnynca H8 pesxoe H€'11OBO. '1bC'I‘BO cmam. Koponb 65m npxxaepmeauem Kom~pp(= q)op: .aa~ mm 11 anycnm B cwpany nesynroa. Omx sssmu non caofi KOH'I‘p0.7lb ILIKOJIBI, paaaepnymx o1<aro— I‘ep6 Petm Hocnonwrofx 4.2!. ‘
  • 141. |'lOJ1bCKOE FOCYHAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE LIAPCTBO: B FIOHCKAX CT AB! /lTIbHOCT I/ I nuquaauue npo-rec'raH'ron u npanocnannux. I/ Ieayxrru cuoco6c'rnona. rm pacxony Yupanncrcofi npaaocnaanofi uepmm n coagzamuo nocne Bepecreiicxofi ynnn 1596 r. yuuarcxofi uepxsu. B OTBBT H8 Mo K nareplo Henononbnux nonnmuofi Cumamyrma HI npncoezmmmacr. npaaocnasuaa m. nax'ra, noxmanman noopyxcem mm mnexc. Id xom Ha none 60:: no6e, zxn. n K0pOJIb, on He Tonbrco He 0’l‘B8JKPIJICfi upecnenonan. upowunuuxa, no name nomrsepnnn ace mnaxercrcue npnnunemn. Bnennum nomrnuca. B nepsofi nononune XVI B. nosmnm IIoJrbcxoro 1copo. nen- c'r1aa B Eapone YCHJIPIJIPICB. Fnannoe uanpannerme ero nnenmefi nomrrmcn co- c'rann5um OTHOIIIGHKH c MOCKOBCKMM rocy11apc'rnoM. HOHLITKH naps I/ Inana IV o6pec'm nuxozz K Bannxficxomy MODIO auaswm Jlnnoncxylo aoiiny (1558-1583). Heynatm Ha ee nepnom mane ue nomemwm Perm l'Iocno. nu'ro1‘& aaxomnrrb noiiny Ha suronuux ma ce6a YCJIOBHRX n npncoemmnwb txacn; Hpnéammcn (JIm3o- umo). C Hac'ryn. r1e1meM XVII B. aoanmcno Honoe upownnocronnne. P8‘-lb Hoc- nonmaa OT! -€pbI'I‘0 nozmepmana camoanarmen Ha napcxnfi npecron, a 3 1609 r. Ha‘-18.118 nporna MOCKOBPIH Bofiny. Honhcxue Boiicxa 3ax3a'mJm pyocxcyxo c'roJ1mJ; y, fiospe npuauamx chum Cnrnsmyruza III, xoponennqa Buanncnana, u; apeM. B 1612 r. Hapomioe onomxenne usrnano HOJILCKPIX aaxaamuxoa H3 Mocxnbx, no no aoroaopy 1c Ilonbme owomma Cmoneucx :4 ‘lepnnrono-Cenepcxne aemm. Ha ceaepe Peqb Hocnonnwaa cronxnynacb co Illaenneii, crpemnnmefica npeofinanarb ua Banrnficxom Mope. Ofruomemm Meacny rocynapcrnamn HCIIODTHJIHCB nocne upncoenunennn Honbmeii Jluaox-mu H ocoéenno o6oc'rpn- Jmcb rxocne T0l"0, Kax Cumamynn III Baaa ynacnenonan xcopony cnoero o-ma - mnezxcxoro xopona. B Illaemm Cnrnamynzx 61,111 Henonynapeuz B o'rmmne 0'1‘ mowepaa-mnenon, I-(0pOJII> ncnoaenoaan Karonnqecrno u MGHHTL sepy ne co- énpancx. K 'roMy me crpaaofi on cpaxnmecxn He npasmx, K60 cpasy me nocne Koponaumx sepnynca B HOJIBIIIY. Illaenm nmranncb Jmmwrb Curnamylma III npecrona. Haqanacb Bofina, uopancexme 3 Kowopofi c'ron. no nonbcxomy Impo- Juo uxaencrcofi KOp0HbI. B xo, z1e nanbnefimnx cwonxnoneunfi nnuacrmtecxne aonpocm Tecno nepennenucb c 6opb6ox‘«’I ofienx c'rpaH aa rocrxozxcrno B Boc'roq- Hofi Banwnn. Peru, Hocnonwraa Bmmna H3 npornsocmanua nofiexczzennofiz ona y1'pa'n»ma fionmnyxo qacrb Jlnnomm. 'I‘pe'n. e nanpasnerme Baeumefi momma- xu HOJIBIIIH — Typeuxoe. IC Hattany XVII 3. omomenna Mexqry znsyxvm crpauaun oc'ra3a- JIHCL MHpHbIMH, xo'r51 n He Sesofinatmumu. Ilocne TOPO max aanoponccxne Kaaazcn HD611- upumum necxonbxo noxonoa H8 Typeuxue ropona Hppmepnomopba H B Monnaamo, o'r- Homemm Mexcny Peqmo l'IocnoJm'roI7x 14 Typuneii pearco yxymummcb. B 1620 r. Havanacb aofina. B cpaxcemm y nepemm Ileuopu, IIO5JIH30CTH or Monnaacxofi c'roJm- um Hcc. uomnm no'repneJm nopaxcerme o'r npeaocxonsumax can TYDOK. Ilpn o'rc'ryn. ne- mm, Henonanercy o'r nononbcxoro Mecwerma Momnena, rypxn zzomazm nponxanmca n pasrpommm ero. B cJIe, zry1on1eM may 8 6m‘- ae non XOTHHOM Typzm He cmomu ononerb nonbcrco-xaaaqhe noiicrco. Cymrax-I nomen Ha nonnucaune Mupnoro zzoroaopa c Pe‘lbI0 IIocnoJm'1-oi’: Ha ycnosnnx man no nofinm» .
  • 142. R: -1HHee Hoaoe ape/ ~19 (xoueu XV ~ nepaasa nonoBuHa X V]! B. ) -__: :___-__--_1,. ._ _— B 1648 1*. Bcnuxnyna HaI1HOHaJIbI-IO-0CBO60- nnrenbaaa aoima yxpanncxoro aapona 11011 upen- Bo111»1'reJ1bc'rBoM B. XMe. r1b1m1J.1coro. Houcxu C0103- mma npmaema XMeJIbHMU. l-COF0 1c comamenmo c Moc1co3c1mM uapem. C more MoMeH'ra 6op1.6a no- Jmxoa c yxcpamxcrcmvx uaponom 13 npenenax Perm IIoc11oJ1wro171 npenparnnacb BO B1-1e111H1o1o Bofiny c Mocrconcrcofi nepmasofi. Bocnonbaonaamncb CJIOJKHBIMH 11.1151 Petm Hoc- Ixomrroii 06CTOfl'I‘eJIbC'I'BaMH. IIIBe11m1 o6py1mu1a Ha nee 11ac'ro:1u1ee uamecnme. Em He spa Hasnwm cmsencxum no'ror1oxv1»: notrru ace nonbcxue aewm oxaaanucx. B pyxax saxaarqnxon. IIpo'm13 apara nomu-mos: Hapozx. B ynopnoii 6op56e on o=11«1c'mJ1 c13o1o crpany o'r maencrcnx o1<1cynaH'ro3. Omiauo cno1<o1“1c'r1314e coxpananocb 11e, z1om*o: cnona narra- nacb 3a'rs1>1<11aa 130171113 c Poccnefi. Ona npononmanacb no 1667 r. , Korma 61.1110 3aKJ1lO'-ICHO Almpyconcicoe nepemnpne. Ho ero ycnonmxm Petn. Ilocnonmaa nepnyna uapzo CMoJ1e11c1< K Cenepcxue aemm. Yxpazmy paszzejmsm no llnenpy H8 nae v1ac'm: JIe13o6epe>1<Le oc'raJ1oc1; n coc'ra13e Poccma, a Hpanofiepembe, 1cpoMe Rnena, 3110131» nepenmo 11011 BJIaCTb Petm 1'Iocr1oJm'ro1‘»'1. B ncropma Petm I'Iocr1oJm'ro1‘«'1 Haqanacb anoxa nowpncennfi M ynamca, upo- nomrcanmaacs no cepezmnm XVIII 3. Ilonsclcaa Icynnrypa. Konen XV-XVI as. - 3-ro npemx pac111ae'ra nonbcxoii 1<yJ11.'ryp1.1, ee csonorofi sex». Rax 121 npyrne Haponm 1ca'roJmr1ec1<oro Mnpa, nomucn qepnama nnoxnoaeaue 3 uranbxncxom Bospoxcnemxn. BOJILIIIYIO 1cyJ11.'rypHy1o Mnccmo aunonaann Tnnorpaqwm, uewrpom K1111- ronetxarannn c'ra. n Kpaxon. Oc11on111.1M J1u'repa'ryp111.1M s31.11coM oc'ra13a. nacb . na'r1.m1., onuaxo nocrenenao nponcxonnn nepexogz Ha nonbcxnfi 5131.114. Voice 1: cepemme XVI 3. Ha new 1s1.1mJm B caer nepnue xnuru. B ycnonnax a1<'m311o- ro paanwrna axoaommcn 11 o6mec'r3e1mo1‘»'1 xcuanu nupoc cnpoc Ha o6pa3o3a11- aux J11o11ei'1. aoannxna pasnernnennaa ce'r1. aaqanbuux 11 cpenmax 1n1<o. n. Tam yqnnncb He -rom.1co ne-ru mnaxrm, no -ramrce Meman 14 qacmv-mo rcpecrban. I'Ipenoz1aBa1-me aenocb H8. JIa'I‘bII-[P1, a co 13peMe11eM — ace 6oJ11.me Ha pozmux aamcax. Pom. 1<yJI1.'1'ypr1oro nerrrpa np11Ha, zu1e>1<aJ1a Rpaxoncxomy yuunepcmewy, me nonyqana oépaaoaarme Mononexcr. 113 paaumx yromcon HOJIBIIIPI, a raxxce H3-38 rparmubx. XVI — nepnaa nononuaa XVII n. c'raJm ano- xofi 6yp11or-o passwrna nonscxofi mrrepa-rypm, cnaqana notrrn IIOJIHOCTBIO narnnoaauqnoii. Ilepnbm 31111115111 u1»xca're. neM, naqaamnm nncau. 110-IIOJIbCKK, 61,111 HmcoJ1ai'1 Pei’! (1505-1569). Ero cbpaaa «Honaxn He rycu, cnofi aabuc 11Me1o'r» npenpawnnacs 13 nocnonmzy 11 noaxnna no cero. z1- asmmero 111111. Hponanenemm Hmconaa Pea nanonnenu enxnm nmcmennannem Geanenba 1:1 nocneaannem nonesnoro Tpyna, a ero um: c'raJ1o cuMao. noM pomaoro aamxa 11 : m'repa'ryp1.1. Bepmunofi uoJILc1<oi'1 nwrepawypu anoxn B03- poaxnennn xsnaerca noa'r1mec1<oe Tnopqecwao flna Koxanoncxom (1530-1584). OH MHOPO nncan
  • 143. ._ , '2 >‘ . l'lOflbCKOE FOCYDAPCTBO I/1 MOCKOBCKOE IJAPCTBO: B nomcmx CTASVU1bHOCTH T€‘I/73 ‘ : , , v__ Ha JIa'I‘bIHI/ I, HO Hal/ I6OJIee I161-II-I33 qacm. ero Hacnenna — V — nonbcxonabmnbxe nponsnenenna. B Imx no3'r pacKpb1BaJI / y BHy'I‘peHHHI7I Mfip ‘~IeJIOBeICa, Bocneean pa, u;oc'rb )KIrI3HPI . ,l‘; ._ . f ‘ n xpacory npnponbl. Ero mo6nMLn‘& manp ~ q)paLmm, .. A , ‘ He6oJ1bmI»Ie carnpnqecxue c'mxn. >4 Haufionee anatmrenbnbxm naMa'rHm<oM nonbcxofi . . . apxwrexrypbt c'raJ1 Boasezxennmf/1 13 Haqane XVI B. Ba- { (‘W '1 Be. r1bc1cm‘»'x xoponencxnfi naopen B Kpaxone. Baaenb ; '9 ocrasanca peanzxennnefi HOJILCKPIX Koponefi BIIJIOTI: ‘_ no npannenua Cnmsmynna III Basm, Roma pom: c'ro- I ' , ; I A ‘ . rmm.1 nocweuenno nepemna K Bapmase. llaopeu c. rIy- ( {:3 ; :3 a mun Mec'roM Bcrpetm xopononannmx oco6, npnexvxos 1; L ‘ ' 3 , ; nnocwpaunmx nocnora, phmgapcxnx Typrmpon, 'rea'rpa. rn»1- H11 Koxafioacxnfi aonannmx npe11c'raBneHm}'x I/ I npnmaopnmx npa3z: Hec'rB. Cefiqac sneer: paamemaewca caMbn'»‘1 6onLmofi Myaefi Honbmn — xpammnme rcomrexmm ro6eJxeHon, BI>ITKaHHbIX no saxasy Cm*p13MyH, z1a ABryc'ra B0 Clmamzpnn, a Taxxce enponeficxofi Me6eJm, mmaonncn PI opyxma. Banenb — a'ro sacrmsmaa B xazvuae ncwopmz Honbmn, cBn, u;e'rem. c'rno He TOJILI-C0 ee Mory- mecwna B XVI 13., H0 P! Bmcoxoifx enponeficxoii Icynyrypbl. I I’ XVI 3. M3 npoM33e, aeHm: I'lOl1bCKOI'O MbICl1MTel1FI AH, a>Ke; : cbpw/ a Moaxescxoro «O6 wcnpaanemm rocy, aapcraa» HMKOMM o6pa3oM He , r1ocTa1'oHHo, HT05bl Tbl 6am umnxmqem M Ha3b| BaJ1C9l 5b! MM no My>KcKoI71 M >s<eHcKoL71 ceMeL71HoF1 nmmm, ecnm He o6peTeuJb ce6e LLU'l'ilXeTCTBa nocTyn- Kawn, M60 6e3 HVIX LUIIRXBTCTBO T806 npeapanrrrcn B nosop. I/ I Ha060pOT, ecnm nepen Ha- MVI He umnxrwa, a Henoaex, nMuJeHHbu7u ponoamocm. Ho cnaaHbu71 VI , uocTov”1Hbu71 yaa>KeHvm 3a ceom nocTynxv| , T0 Taxoe OTCyTCTBV1e umnxemraa He T0nbKO He nannercn Henocrarxom, a sacnyxmsaer orpoMHou71 noxaanbu, 6onbu. ue171, Hem BCFIKMG I’ep5bI M noprperbl npexucoa. .. 91 cumano, Hro npo6neMa rocyp. apcTBa cocrom 3 1J. OI'| )KH0l7| opraHv13au. vm Tpex ero co- craenmoumx. OnHa M3 HVIX Kacaercn rpa>o<. u,aHcr<oro ofimecraa, ynpaBneHvm MM, coxpaHe- Hvm 3 Hem nopsmxa M B ero aaumre. Bropan Kacaema -mcmro H McKpeHHero noHmaHvm 5eccMepTHoro Sora, a Tperbn — npaavmbHoro aocnvn'aHvm M o6pa3oeaHv1s1 Mononexn. . I - ’ " "' Baaenb. Bnyrpeanufi maop maopna. Baaenb. I€a<1)e11paJxI; aL1i'1 co6op. XVI a. XIV—XVI ea.
  • 144. 4.. 5 1) 2 Z 14 I nix‘ nennmx petbopm. Bhma coanana c1«1c'reMa npmcaaoa I L/ A C Tb R3HH€e Hoaoe ape/ «an (KoHeu X V — FIEPBBFI no/1osuHa X VII 5.) 1. Karcyro pom: 6 zocyaapcmaenuofz JKUJHU IIo.1bu1u u2pa. ; npuuuun am‘ dopnocmu rcopoxuz? 2. Jleerco . ’lU Obuzo 6 IlO.7lb(. ‘ICOM cefmte npuflmu K cozxzacuio npu uc. zoez1u Oeacmeua npaeuna «ceododuoeo aemo»? 3. IIoue. vy 6o. zbuzuucmao noxbcrcux npomecmaumoa 6€pHy.70Cb rc K01710- Jxuuecmay? 4. ‘Imo aaem ocr-toaamuz c-cumamb Pew; I'Iocno. wmyIo eocydapcmmm qu» aepamueuozo muna? 3A, £(AH! /IF! 1 . Ha ocuoaamm M3J10)KeHHOI'O B naparpadae Marepwana noncrmre coaep>+: am1e BbIp8)K6HMfl. ‘ «nonbwa aepxurcn Ha Henopswre». 2. Oxapaxrepuayfire OCHOBHbIe Hanpasner-my aHeLuHefi no/ mrmm Pew! Floc- no/ mroir. 3. Onupaqcb Ha d>parMeH1' M3 npoM3ae, aeHMn AHJDKQFI cbpwva Mozvxescxoro, nonpodyfire BbIFlCHMTb, qyacraworcn Im so sarnsuzax aaropa D8H6CCaHC- Hue anmw-mu. I70-4eMy OH crmra/1 aocnurarme M oépaaoaarme MOllO, l1e)KM o, aHoi1 M3 rnaeuemuux aaaaq rocyaapcrsa? MOCKOBCKOE IIAPCTBO: JII/ IXOJIETLE TI/ IPAHCTBA I/ I CMYTLI f, » W. _ Hpalmenne Hnana IV Fpormoro. Tpoa [[13 ’ - E , ;T csoero o'r11a, Bacmnm III, Ilnau IV (1533- ‘ ' V 1584) yuacnezzonan 1~pex. r1e1-mm pe6om<n. vx. Cnycra IISITB new M8JIb‘HIK nowepan Mam — Eneny I‘. rmHcxy1o, Bmnormsnamyro npu . 1a. 'xo— JleTHeM cbme O6fl3aHHOC'I‘H perema. lOuoMy rocyzzapxo npmmxocr. pacwn B onacuoii armo- cq)epe aarosopoa, Mawexceii I/ I yL')11i'1("r13. Boxpyr Tpona nocrosu-mo Luna oaxecwouenuaa éopbéa H Mexcny paamnmmmu apucTox<paTuqocmxmx 5' KIIBHHMH, CTDCMHTQJIBHO CMGHRBIIIPIMH Apyr‘ 7 npyra y Kopmma BJmc'm. B 1547 r. Iiaan I' ’”~ ‘ nepabnvx B pyccxofi 14c'ropxm npmmn 'm'ryJ1 I «- 11apa»>. Oxmaxo eme uo. r1ro;1a on ocTaBa.1ca ' . I I nrpymxofi B pyxax 6oHp. norca nocne cTpau1- -' j , HOPO noxcapa He scnmxuyno Boccmmxe 3 Mock- ’« I / ' _‘ Be. IIonoJI3:m cnyxn, Gyzrro c'roJmuy n0;1o>1<r. "m po;1c'rBeHHmcn naps — Ibnmcxme. Boccmauxrxe yrnmmm Han Hmvm pacnpaay: c noc:1e; mex”x npanxmefi rpyrumpomcofi 651110 norcouueno. K n. nac'm nprmmo Honoe npaBn'rem. c1'Bo — Idsépaunan pa; J,a, yaxuii xpyr npnfinnxceuublx K napxo JIIone1‘»'x. Bneprmn-to K peum'reJu. Ho omx Haaesm cno1<oi’x- crime 3 oxpyxcemm I/ Inana IV 1»; npncrynmm K nponenenmo Ba‘/ KHBIX I‘OC_',1aD('T* ODFEIHOB LI9H'I'p2I.1bI~I()I‘O ynpasneami Hanonofine conpememzbxx MHHXICTGDCTB. Kn: -x;1mx“1 11.; npmu. .03 J 3, / ‘ i. 'r' M _ /1'3 3 1 I/ Inaa IV. XVI 3.
  • 145. FIOI1bCKOE FOCYLIAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE LIAPCTBO: B HOHCKAX CTAB|4l'IbHOC'| 'l/1 omeqan aa onpenenenuyro o'rpac. ru. : IIocom. cxm‘& - 3a nnnnomawmxecxyto c. nyxc- 6y, Paapanamfi - 3a Boem-Ioe neno, ‘~IeJ1o6n'rH1.u‘»‘1 - 3a xorrrpom. nan Bcemn npyrmvm npmcaaazvm H 'r. n. B 1549 r. 61.111 coanan nepamfi Bemclcnii co6op - cocJ1onHo-npe. nc'rann'reJ1b- Hmfi opran no o6paan; y aanannoesponeficxnx napnamerrron, no 6ea yqacma nocnannen roponoa. OH I-IOCHJI coaemawenbumfi xapawrep 14, He orpammnnaa Bnacm naps, cnyxcnn I-Iazxexcuofi onopofi ero 1IoJm'rmm. I'Io pemenmo Co6opa 1550 I‘. ynnnen cBe'r nonhlfi Cyneémnc. Bnepnme B Mocxoncrcom rocynapcrne on 05'bflBHJI ezmncrnenuum ncroqmncom npana aaxon H ycmnonmz ofirrmfi no- psmox cyna no scefi Teppuropnn u. apc'rBa. Honmfi Cynedamc c'raJ1 Tarcxce oqe- pezmbm marom 3 aaxpenomenuu zcpec-rbnacma. On nmrrnepznm nopmy npenh1- nymero Cy11e6nm<a (1497) o nepexone KDGCTBHH 3a aenemo no IOphena mm (26 uoafipn) n nenemo nocne Hero, H0 yaenmmn paamep ¢IIO)KH. J10I‘Oo. Cymecmennue usmeaenns nponsouum B Boennom gene. Boamucno nepnoe pyccxoe nocrosmr-xoe Boficxo — cwpenbuu, Boopyxceunme ornecwpenbnum opy- ucuem - nuuzanamn :4 xononnum — 6ep1u.1moM 3a cnmiofi, Meqom mm ca6J1efi Ha 6or<y. ,U; em. m, opyxcne 14 ofimynzmpoaarme crpenbuu nonyuann o'r naps. BBIJIO orpamweno MCCTHIFIGCTBO — nonyuenne Boermmx nonaxnocreift B aasncnmocwn o'r aacnyr npemcon. Bcrcope 3 uapcxoe noiicxo BJIPIJIOCB noucxoe xasaqecmo. Ycmrerme camonepxcaanofi Bnacm n coanamie crpeneuxom aoficxa II03BO. T[H- Jm I/ Inany IV axmnnsnpoaarb anemmoxo nonwrmcy. B 1552 r. ueaoii 6o. m.nmx ycnmm on onnanen Kaaaacmm xancrnom, a B 1556 r. nponaoumo norrru Gecxponuoe npncoegmuerme Acrpaxancxoro xancrna. B peaynurawe arux no- 6e11 Mocxoacxcoe uapcwao ynwrroxmno otxar nocroxnaofi arpeccnn, nonyuuno noaue aemm, 0'I‘KpbIJIO ce6e Bonnccxnfi Topronufi ny'rb 3 cwpanu Bocwoxca. Hpuumo Bpema 3c'ryna'rb B 6opb6y sa Bbzxon K Mopcxomy nofiepexcblo. B 1558 r. Haqanacb Jlunouclcaa noiina. Cuaqana I/ Inan IV Ben ee necbma ye- nemno: cnycm nonrona ero Boficxo yxce croano Ha Gepery Bammficxoro Mopa. Ozmaxo ycnex oxaaancn HCIIDOIIOJDKHTCJIBHLIM. I'Ipo'rnn Poccmx BLICTYIIHJIH HOJILIIIEI, Ilhaemm, llamas H Jlwraa. 11a 14 B Mocrcne Bnnarenbnue ‘menu Pla- Gpanuofi panu ctmrama aofiuy onmooqnmm marom. I/ IM xcaaanocb, trro ona JIHIIII: oumexaer Poccmo o'r pememm maanofi aanaqn — Haneceana ynapa no Kpumcxomy xaucnsy. Bro o6oc'rpxmo ornomeana napa c I/ Iaépannofi panofi, I Kaaaub. Fpaavopa. XVI
  • 146. ' f. ’ ( . “I I ) Pahmee Hosoe ape/ ~19 (. wr. ~_e: , ’ ncpmfi non-oauna XVII 8.) H0 He ocrauommo Boiinm, xowopan sarcontmnacb Tonbxo B 1583 1'. IIOJIHLIM nopa>1ce1me. ~1 POCCHH. I/ Iaau IV 01319.11 1uBe;1aM Hapny, H831-II‘0pO11 11 eme HGCKOJIBKO pyccxnx roponoa. B 1'01‘ MOMGHT, Korna Memzzy uapexvx H 1/13- 6paHHo1‘/ ’: paaofi BOSHPIKJIO Henonnmauue o'rno- CHTCJIBHO Husoncxofi Bofirm, Haauy IV yxce ncno. rm11.r1ocb '['pH11I1aTb new. OH npuoépen nonu- 1'ul1ec1<m"1 OIIbI’I‘ 11 crpemmcn IlpaBIITb caMoc'ro- swenbuo. Oxmofi P13 rnaanbxx uepr xapawrepa I/ Isaaa IV c'raJxa necnocofiuocn. c, z1ep>Kp1Ba'rb ce6s1, , uef1cT13oBa'rb B pa3yM1»1b1x rIpe11e. r1ax. C Hum ace name cnyqanucb upuc'r_vnL1 >xec"ro1<oc'm, Korna naps Tepsm xoxrrpons Han co6o1"1. IIpo1“u1e'r t1e'raep'rb cwonema, 11 3 cocrommn Tarcoro upm- namca I/ Inan IV y61.e'r co6c'rae1u1o1*o CLIH8, na- pemma I/ Iaana. Tenepb ace uapb ofipyumn roHe~ J? ‘ ”*~ 43- Hm! Ha finnxcafimnx coparmxxoa. I/ I:36paHHax CWW-"5/H0 (PW 1'¢’P6<’Pwm€l'4H- pana pacnanacb, n Mocrcoscrczxii rocynapb Ha‘-1811 M°°*‘°3°““° 3°3+'1*"”'"- npaawrb ennnonnqao. B rocynapcrne yc'raHo- rP"“’°1"" XVI 3' nmxocb neorpammenaoe camonepxcasne. . Cnenyxomnm 111aroM naps: c'ra. n nepexon K 7,3“ '= .)-. ' '”, _'-. "3". “3f. ', {IOJIHTKKG «xpy'r1.1x Mep». B Haqane 1564 1'. 1 * , .' _ 2 H , I/ Iaau IV, aafipan rnanaue uepxosame cB5m. mn n ‘ 1 .1 1 A , ‘ , I 4" -. . rocyzxapcmzennyxo xasay. auexan c cemhefi 113 . , / . 3;. .~= ‘I . T Mocxam. On nocemmca nenozxanexy or CTOJIPIIIBI ~'—* . '., }'<-' ' ~ -; ' n saxsun, trro owpercaerca o'r npecrona. 3a'reM ~. '* I _L ownpannn B Mocxny nna nocnarma. B nepnom , ; / .. ' . V uapb oénmmn anan. B uamene. xasnoxpancrne, ->~ -‘V I I ,4 4’ Hexcenannn aamumarb oreqecmo. B'ropy1o rpa- ‘_, ,'. . ,1 1”] . _. 1, Mory I/ Inan IV anpeconan npoc'rmM Mocxarmam, .2’, . C; , ‘_ 7. A I-(OTOPLIX aaaepmx, rrro Ha aux <«rneBa H onamn . j‘, I ' ‘II’, {)1 -' <15.’ '2 1m1ca1c‘'1«1xHe'r>>. 3'ro61.1nnpo11yMaHHmnnoJm'm- > _ _ _ ; ’ _' q « txecmm X011!BbI3Ba"I'I>HapO1IHl>Ie aomiemm BCBOIO ’* V - f 3 nozmepxcrcy. ‘hofibx 1436e>1<a'r1. xx. Bonpcrcaa , ’ Ayxua 11 nmcmee nyxoaencmo o'rnpanmu»1cL x (L , _ M - < A L , . 7‘ I napro c npocbfiofi BCDHYTBCH Ha npecmn. I/ Inaa IV A _ 1(; u;_; ]u1.1.,1‘, :V I 1- ; r. cornacmxca, 1-IO Ha Hecnmxannmx ycnonmzx. M - « I R . , OTHLIHB naps MOI‘ pacnpannawbca co cnonmn ‘ I ‘ “ l1pO'I‘flBHPIl<aMH no co6c'rne1moMy ycMo'rpem11o. Ilynmu, aaxsaqemme 143 399171 T‘0CY118PC'1'3eHH0fi TGDPHTOPKK (" 39371111‘! - a Jlnaomm. M uuua nuopa m=1»)I/ Isan IV nonyqmx y. z1e. n, cymecrnoaanmnfi omenbno («onpnqs») o'r ncex OCTaJII>Hl: Ix aemenb. B ero rpanrmax nnacwb Geapasnenbno npnaannexcana naproz szxecb cyn1ec'rBo- 144 BEUIK omenbnbxe npnxasu, 11apc1cm“1 znaop 14 aoiicxo. Peauzxemmsr I/ Isana IV naxommacb BO mzopue, cueuuanbuo uocwpoemtom 3 nearpe Mocxnm. Bce : ‘la noxonm or oupmmux Bnanenuii noc'ryna. rm 3 onpmmyxo xasay. Onpmmmcn (I nocmm qepnyxo onexcny, a K cemxy npvrropatmaamx Memry 11 co6atn.1o ronony - ’ : _. ‘3‘ cnmnonm cnonx ocnoanmx 061'-13a1111oc're1‘«'1: ncawm I‘pbI3'I‘b napcxnx nparon H (1, / x /1 BbIMeTa'l'b 143 c'1'panb1n3MeHy. I'Io Poccmx r1po1<a'm.11ac1.BoJmax<ec'ro1<nx roue11m‘«'1
  • 147. A, ----- Pl Kp0BaBhlX xaauefi. Horomxn mvxenn ace ocnoaamm H83BaTb I/ Inana IV Fpoanbm, xom, smmmo. npanmrbnee 651.710 651 mnemo- B8Tb em. xax Ha Banane. I/ laanom Yxcacmnm. Pacnpanbx pacmawann aoexmyxo cucremy cwpaam. Jlyqume aoesonbx ébum xasneau, onpmmoe aoficxo ycneumo amnonuano 'I‘0JIbKO Kaparenbnue onepaumx H unoxo npornnoc-rosuro aaemunm Bparam. Bce : -rro npnaeno K Boennoii xawacrpocpe. B 1571 I‘. xpumcxufi xan Ileana? -Fupefi nozxomen K c'reHaM Mocxau H cxcer roponcxofi nocan. Horufiam Aecarxu Tmcau Juonefi. ‘iepea ron xan Bmprcn BHOBB. u 'ro. ru.1<o ueuofi Hermo- Bepuux ycunnfi em ynanocb o'r6pocn'r1.. Hepen Jmuom Heynaq I/ Iaan IV o'rMeHm1 on- pnrmnay 14 name aanpewml ynomnnarb caMo cnoao. Onpwmmia u nopaxcerme B JIm3oH- cxofi B01‘/ me Buanann B c'rpaHe cwpamnoe pa- aopemxe n rlocmnvum ee rm Kpafi m6eJm. Hapb I/ Iaan IV rpm c nonoaunofi 11eca'm- JIGTPUI Bnanen ncefi nonnorofi anacru 3 Mocrconcxofi nepxcaae. On cranun nepen co6ofi Macm'ra6m.1e sanaqn n nepezuco no- c-rnra. n ycnexa, no aarem pacwpaquaan uno- nu cnoux no6e. n. CYJIB68 a'roro rocynapa - oépaaen npanwrena, Koropufi éonbme 3a6o- -mnca o coécwneuuofi cnaae n Morymecrse, aexcenn o 6.nare nepxcaau. Cmyrnoe npema. Hpeemuuxom I/ Iaaua IV Ha uapcxom rpoue cran ero cpezmnii Cblfl tbenop Hnanomm (1 584- 1 598) - 6oJ1e3HeH- Huii qenonex, aecnocoénmii caMoc'roa'rem. - no ynpanmrrb orpommm rocynapcwaom. CI>ax'rmxecrcn BJIBCTB oxaaanacb 13 pyxax Bopuca Ponynoaa, cec'rpa rwroporo, I/ Ipmxa, 6m. r1a xceuoii Hoaoro uapa. Mnanmero cmna I/ Inana, Aayxnemero Ilmwrpmz, BMec're c Marepmo nocemum B ropone Yrmaqe. Tam B Aenwrnneruem noapacwe MaJ! b‘{IdI-C nom6 npn Henbmcnem-xux o6c'roa'reJ1bc'rnax. Pacnpocrpauunacb Momsa, wro ero yémm no upmcaay Fonyuona. Eme 50JIblIIe 6y;1o- paxcmm napon cnyxu, 6y1rro 61>: napenmxy ynanocb cqyzxomv cnacmcb. B nonepmerme ncero, He ocraaua nacnemimca, ymen n3 xcnsrm nap}. tbenop. Pyccmm uapem nocne nonrnx yronopon c'ra. n Bopuc Fonyuon (1598-1605). OH He npnuamxexcan rc uapcxcomy pony 14 He muen npana Ha Tpoa. I1oa'roMy Tonbxo cxcenanueo HOHbCKOl: . IOCYDAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE LIAPCTBO: B HOHCKAX CTAEW'lbHOCTH | Onpurmmc S oxonmia I/ Iaaufi Benméoro. XVl—XVII 8. Teua_7_.
  • 148. I LIA CT! ) PaHHee Hoaoe ape/ -151 (KoHeu XV — nepaan nonosuua XVII 5.) aapona onpannmaano ero Benqarme Ha nap- c'rno. Hpannenne Ponyaoaa cxnanunanocb aecqacmnno. Ha Poccmo 05pYI1’IHJIOCb ae- CKOJILKO Heypomafiamx new, crpany Hanan- mum -ronnu ronozxaxonmx u nnmux. B crom. Hanpameanmfi MOMBHT 3 HOJIBIIIB nosmmxca camoanaaen — 6er. rx1.n"4 Mocuoncxnfi Monax Fpuropnfi Orpenben. EMy ynanocb noirrn n Tecume omomenmx c IIOJIBCKHM rcoponem, Maraawamn n xamnmecxnm nyxoaencrnom, xo-ropue noofiemann Mononomy a3an'rro- pucry nomoxm. 3 nonyqemm MOCKOBCICOPO Tpoua. 08 me Bsamen comacnncx BBECTK 3 _ Poccxm xaronntzecrao 14 omawb Honbme i t{ac'rh pyccrcnx aeMe. rn. . 9-‘-‘é 3 - v ‘ " 1 s, 1; JIe'roM 1604 r. nonbcxoe aoncxco J1me- rbpanu Crmdeuxuu. Jlmemxxawpuiil. nM"Tp'm I nepecemm rpafipmy P°ccPm' Fpamopa. XVII .4. IIoBceMec'rHo K nervry npncoezmnmmcb ne- ;1o3oJu. Hue npannermem Ponynoaa, 'reM fionee, rrro Jlxcenxunrpufi pasnaaan nceM mezzpme oéemamm. Paanxaxy cofisrrnfi ycxopxma ax-Ieaannaa cmepn. Bopnca Poxxyuona. B Mocxae fl0,lIH5IJIOCb BOCCTRHKB npoma ero Hacnennuxon, n JI>+<e11Mm~pm“x Tpnymqnanbao BCTYIIHJI B c'roJmny. Ona acrpeqana em KOJIOICOJIBHLIM anonom. Bcxope cxona npnébma noun nonh- cxoro aoenomn Mapnna Mxmmex, cwanmaa menofi Jlxcenmnwpna. Bo spew: csaneéamx ropmecm saroaopmmm-Goape no; um. rm Boccraane. H8.‘-18.711405 pacnpaam c nommamn, JI>Ke, uMu'rpm‘»'I norufi. Ha rrpecrone oxaaancs 6o5xpIm Bacmmii fllyficxnfi (1606-1610). Hpoma Hero Bcrxmxuyno Moumoe Hapomioe aoccmn He non npezxaonnwenbcwnom xaaaxa I/ Isana Bonommcoaa. Emaa ynanocb I1OKOE‘«IH'! 'b c 6yH'ro1anmxaMu, Kare nosnmrca no- Bbxfi, Tenepb yme aropmmo «trynom» cnacnmficn Jlaxemvurrpnii II. K10 cxpb13aJ1- --—~ ~_- ' : .-a_ _ 1,-2-5.. ca 321 awnvx xmeuem, no cnx nop Henanecmo. *". 'f. - I -3, " ‘-7 -A Borcpyr JIx<e, z1Mwrpm1 II C06p8JIOCbB017ICKOH " I _ _ ‘ ‘ znmnynocb Ha Mocrcny, no 3381'}: c'roJmn, y . I ' I1 -« T camoananeng He CMOI‘. Co cnomm owpsuzamn 3 ' ' on c'ra. u 13 no; rMoc1<onuoM cene Tynmno, sa , ’ _, _' trro nonylmn npoanume «'I3num1cxm‘& sop». O1‘ Maoro. r1e'rne1“4 Cmywu c'rpana. rm nce , cnon pyccxoro o6mec'rBa: oéesmozxenn rope- na, npepaan HCI: Topronme canan, paaopsmocb xpecwbx ncwno. Bacnnnfi 1lIy1‘»'1c1cm‘& He cmor ononen. spam 1: o6pa'rm1ca 3a nomombxo 1c Hlnengma, ofiemaa o'r, z1a'n. er”: qacwh pyccrcnx seMeJu. . Ycnenmbre neficrnxxa mnenon noc- Jxe ocnoéomnenna aaxnaqeunmx «1~ynmn- uaxvm» Teppmopufi Bb!3B8J1H noamymexme IIOJIBCKOPO xcopona. On aaxonmxca B coc'ro- mnm Bofinm co Illsennefi n IIOTOMY cpasy me aroprcn 3 Poccmo. Ilomum Haronosy paa6n- JIPI MOCKOBCRO6 noficxo. Ulyixcxoro cneprnn Mnxam Ponranoa. X VI! 6. c npec'ro:1a, BJ'laC'I‘b nepemna K Bosrpcrcofi
  • 149. l"lOl1bCKOE FOCVIIAPCTBO I/ I MOCKOBCKOE UAPCTBO: B FIOHCKAX CT AEW'| bHOCT H zxyme. Ha TOT MOMBHT B nee nxonnnn ncero cemb qenonerc, na-3a qero nepnon ee npannenna nonyqnn Haananne ¢CeMn6ospnmHa». Mexcny rem nofina Ha 3TOM He aazconqvmacb. Ee npogzomxcexme nmasano noanmcnonenne naponnoro nnnxcennn 3a ocnofioxcnenne or aaxnawtmxon. 7/ XVII a. «Hoablfi neronuceu» o , a3mKeHm4 3a co3,aaI-me HapO, £1HOI‘O OI'IOJ7'-IGHMH B OAHOM ropone, Haaaau-mom Hmxnmfi Hoeropon, ero xmenm, npe. u,aHHbIe npaao- cnaauofi aepe, He xenanm BM, lJ. eTb ee 3 namncrae VI Hauanm paambuunmb, xax 61:: nomoub Mocxoacxofi nepxaae. O, cmH M3 Hoaroponuea. MMeaLuw7I MSICHVIO Toproamo, Ky3bMa Ml/ IHMH. .. ofipamncn KO 3ceM nIop. nM: «, D.omKHbI Mbl | 'lOMO‘-lb Mocxoacxofi nep- xaae, He xanen )KV|3HVl caoefi; M He TOJ'lbK0 >KM3HM caoefi, H0 He xanen Tanoxe D. B0pbI caom nponaaarb M xen c D. eTbMM omaaarb B sanor I/1 6mm. ~cenoM TOMy, no abncrynun 6b! 3a nonnm-myro sepy xpucmaucxyoo VI cran 65: y Hac pyxoaonmenem». Hv1>xeropop. - uam xe eceM ero cnoao mo6o 5bU'lO, M sambncnwm OHM nocnarb 6vm, -4enoM. .. K mn- ano , D,MmTpmo Mmxafinoaway Floxapcxomy. .. B03I‘JIaBJIfieM0e nocancrcnm c'rapoc'roI‘«'1 ICy3bMoI‘«'I Mmmnmm :4 Boesonofi I[1vm'rpneM Hoxcapcxnm Hapozmoe onomzenne ocnoéonnno Mocrcny o'r 3ax3a'r- qmcon. B 1613 r. 3eMc1cm‘»'I co6op H36p8.JI Ha 11apc'rBo npexxcranwrenfi Honoii zmnacrnn — 16-. ne'rHero Mnxamxa Pomanona. CMy'rHoe Bpema aarconqmlocb. Mocrcoacxcoe rocynapcmno BL-ICTOHJIO PI noxaaano cnoro BHYTDGHHIOIO npoqnocrn. B 1649 r. Cofiopaoe ynoxcenne orconqarenbno BBGJIO B POCCPIPI rcpenocrnoe npano. Rpecwbane 6mJm upnxpennenm rc aelvme, a Kpenocmoe cocwoaane c'ra. no Hacnencwaennum. Coficwnennmcn 1cpec'rL5m umenn npano Ha nx umymecwso 14 6eccpoqHbI1‘«. 'I poamcrc 14 Boanpamerme 6er. nmx. Bemucoe nporunocwoanue Poccmx 11 Perm Hocnonuwoft. I'Ioc.1Ie oxoHt1a- HPIH npo, zLoJmcn'reJ1bHo1‘«’1 14 Kpoaanoii CMy'rm Poccna B Teqenne eme Mnornx J1e'r nepexcnnana cnoxcnme Bpemena. HeMa. no cm: ymno Ha npownsocroanne IIIBe1IaM. Ho MPIpHOMy pgoronopy orm Bepaynn Poccnn 6oJIbmnHc'rBo aaxBa- qexmmx 3eMeJ1I: , H0 o'rpe3aJm eii Bmxon K Bamrmce. He oc'raBm1a cnonx noon- I'a'I‘eJIbCTB Perm Hocnomrrasx. Hocne n3Hypn'reJ1bHo17I 6opL6LI Poccnn npn- IIIJIOCB omam. e171 3HaIm'reJ1LHy1o Teppwropmo, B TOM tmcne ropona Cmonencrc, ‘iepnnron, Hosropon-Ceaepcxnfi. OIIYCTOIIII/ ITe. TII: HhIe Ha6eI'n Ha pyccxne aemm npozzonxcano Kpmmcrcoe X8.HCTBO. OI-[PI Bpemermo npexpawnnncb, Korzza non- cxne rcaaaxn 3axBa'mJm 14 3 -reqenne IIHTPI new ynepmnnamt rcpenocrb A303 — rnanayxo 6a3y 'raTapc1co-Typeuxofi arpeccxm npownn Poccrm. B 1648 r. Haqanacb Haunonanbao-ocnofionnwenbnan Bofina yxcpamicrcoro napona non npezznonnrenbcrnom Bornana Xmenbnmncoro npowma Perm Hoc- noJm'roi'I. B ee xone nanbnonnnnmfi nomrrmc Xmenbnnnxnfi nonsm, trro He JIOCTHPHBT JIOJDI-CHOPO ycuexa, noxa He 6y11e'r HMeTI>~CIrIJIbHOI‘0 n Hanexcnoro coloaumca. I'IocoJ1Lc'rBo XMGJIBHPIIIKOFO o6pa'mJ1ocL 1c napro Anexccero Mu- xaiinonmzy (1645-1676) c npocbfioii o nomonm. Mocxoncxoe npaBn're. nLc'rno rconefiagocbz xaana enna cBo, zm. na KOHIILI c Konuamn, 0,1130 sa npyrnm crpany corpacama Hapozmme Boccwanna. IC Tozvxy me Honbma Gbma He TOJILKO Bparom, H0 H BO3M0}KHhIM coroanmcom B 6op1.6e c xmnnmm Kpmmcrcum xancwnom, 3a KOTODBIM cwoana MorynJ; ec'rBem-Ian Ocmancxaa nmnepnx. IIoa'roMy 3anopoxc- cxmm l'IOCJIaM o'rBe'rmm B Mocrcne, rrro rocyzxapr. He MOJICGT H8.pyI1IH’I'I> Mnp c HOJILCKKM xopoJ1eM, HO c'raHe'r nomorau. rcaaarcam nponononhcranem, opyxcnem 14 nenbramn. 147
  • 150. Pawnee Hoaoe apemn (xoneu XV — nepsan nonosuua XVII B. ) . Ia Xonounoe n ornecrpensaoe opymne. XVI-XVII co. Bpemi pemuwenbuux 11ex‘&c'rBm'71 Hac'ra. no mm POCCKH B 1653 r. Bemcxuifx co6op peuxwx npnnsrrb xaaarcon non caucoxylo pyxy» naps. P13 Mocrcnm B ¥xpa- I may ornpasxmocb IIOCOJILCTBO B0 mane c 60.ilpflHOM Bacmmem By'I'ypJIHHhIM. * 8 xmnapa 1654 r. Ha Hepeacnancxofi pane 651.110 npumrro pemexme o nxoxcnemm Yxcpamxbx B coc'ra3 Poccxm. Bcrcope Poccua uatxana nporna Petxu Hocnonwroii aoiiay, Ko-ropaa IJ1Jl8 c uepemenumm ycnexom. ucromaa cmlbx oéeux cropoa H ycmmaaa nx crpemnenue K Nmpy. I10 ycnonuam Armpyconcxoro nepemnpna Poccmx nonyqnna cmonencrme :4 txepxmroncxne aexvum, Jlesofiepexcnyro Yzcpamiy PI Knen. Banoponccxaa Ceqb nepexomma non coBMec'ruoe yupannerme o6onx rocynapcra. Benapycb, qacn. Jlwrssx n Hpasofiepexcnas Yxcpaxma BHOBB Boaapamanncb Petm I'Iocno. rm'rofi. Tamm o6pa3oM, aoupoc o npncoennuemm Bocroqnocnanancxofi Teppwropun Perm l'IocuoJm'ro1”a K Poccnn ynanocb pemwrb Tonbxo qacrnqno. Onnaxo man- Haa nonnwutxecrcan sanaqa, ,Z1eC. fl'I‘HJIeTK5lMH cwoanmas nepen MOCKOBCKKM . _ npannrenbcraom, — nuxnnnnponan. yrposy IIOJIBCKOPO rrropnceuna - fiuna 3 ocnoauom pemena. Kynvrypnue namenemm. Coanaaue enn- Horo rocynapcwna u ycnoxcaeane cucwemm ynpaaaxemm ycrunum norrpeénocn. B I'p&MU! ‘- Hux Jnonax. B 1564 r. npouaonmo naxcuoe cofihrme — ocnonanne xuuroneqarauna. Bunmnii ABHKOH onnoii H3 rcpemnencxux ueprcneii I/ Iaau Cbenopon aMec're co cnonm nomomnmcom IIe'rpoM Mc'mc. naB11eM nanann B Mocxne nepnyxo neqawnyxo KI-IHl"y «Amoc- Tom. Hoazmee, uepeexan no Jlbnon, <Deno- pon Haneqaran Tam cBy1€B8.pb». Ileqawnan mmra coananana uoqny mm pasmrma o6pa- I PYROHKCBM IIGPKOBBEH KHK1‘8- aonamm. B XVII B. 6yMara OKOH‘Ia'I‘eJIbHO XVI 9- BBITCCHHJIB noporoii nepramerrr. B Mocxne
  • 151. HOflbCKC)I: . | ‘()(. ‘YLL‘PCTBO M MOCKOBCKOE _ I 3" LL‘PC. TB()- B HOHCKAX CTAE~W'lbHOCTH ' - 7" ’ 9 pa6o1~aJm nae Macrepcxcne no naro'roa. r1eumo 6yMaru, no ouu He o6ecueuuna- ma nOTpe6HOC'I‘H mmroneqawanmt, noaromy 6yMary npuaosmm as Cbpaumm 11 I‘oJ1.r1aHmm. B XVI B. Gbuxa npoaenena Kponomuaas pa6o'ra no coénpaumo n coc'raBne- umo CIIHHLIX JIBTOIIHCHBIX caonoa. Tax B031-IPII-CJIPI orpomnsle Hmconoscxaa PI Bocrcpeceucrcaa newormcn. yxpauxennme Muoxcecrnom nnnxocwpaunfi. Hac'roa- xmm co6b1'meM B pacnpocrpauemm anaaufi c'ra. no nsnanne nepaoro neqawuoro ncropuqecxoro Tpyna — «Cmioncuca» (c rpeq. — 0630p. onucanue). HanncaH- Huii non pyxoaoncwsom Knescxoro yqeuoro, Monaxa I/ Inuorcexrrna Fnsena, cCmxor1cncn axnnouan ncwopmo Pycn c npeanefxmnx Bpemen. Eme B XVIII B. on ocraaanca ennacmennum neqammm nocoénexvr 11.7151 uayqemm ncwopnn. Iloneaubm nanatmem cqwranacb «Topronaa mmrao. One conepxcana pas- Jmrmue cooémemm o crpanax, c I-<O1‘0pbIMPI pyccxme xynubx Benn '1‘0pI‘0BJ1l0. C XVII 8. mm naps H ero oxpyncemm 3 I'IocoJIbcxoM npmcaae coc'ranJm. rmcb ¢KypaHTbI9 — He‘{T0 uanonoéue pyxonncnofi raaewm c nonocmmu o CO6bI'l‘PI5{X aa rpannuefi. B XVII B. B Mocmae npomnnano HeMa. uo Bmxozmen P13 yxpamicrcnx n 6e. rIo- pyccxnx semenb. Hafizm npmow 3 Poccnficrcom rocynapcrne, onn npnaecnn c cofioii aanaxmyro npocnemennocwb u orxpmnn B Mocxcne HBCKOJILKO qacwaux mxon. I/ Ix neawenbnocwb nonroroauna ocnonamxe B 1687 r. CJIa3smo-rpexo- Jramncrcofi axanemnn no mane c yqenhxmn-rpercamn 5p8Tb8MH Jlnxynamm. 3'ro 6bI. YI0 nepaoe amcmee yqeénoe aaaenemae B Poccnu, o'n<pu'roe mm nlonefi ¢BCHK0l‘0 tmna. cana n sospacm». l’Ioc'renexmoe ocnoéoxmenue nurepawypm o'r uepxoanoro mmmma cxaaanocx. H8. nonynnpnocwn cawnpnqecxux npouaaenennfi. B noaecmx o «lllemmnnom cyneo n «Epme Epmonnue» BbICMeHB&JIPICb Hecnpanennnnufi cyzx 14 nponaxcnbxe
  • 152. 1/] ‘"17 / L/ ACTb Ram/ ee Hosoe ape/ ~19 (KOHCU XV nepaaz nonosuna XVII B. ) cyzxsn. Bmxozxeu, 113 6e. r1opycc1c11x aemem. C11Meo11 IIoJ1o1J. x<m71, Bbrnycxamc Knew- Mormmncxoii 14 Bmxencrcofi a1ca11eM1«11‘»'1, 110- noxcnn 11at1a. no c'rv1xocJ1oxce11mo. 3Hatm'reJ1b11b1e naMe11e111»111 nponaomnn B apxwrexwypnom ucuyccwae, npuanannom npocnannmb cnny n aenmtue rocyzxapcwaa. B cene Konomencxom ébma Bucrpoeaa mar- poaaa nepxonx. Boanecemm — noz1J1m1r1m‘»’1 menenp poccuiicxoro aozmecrna. Bennom pyccxoii apxwrexwypbt XVI 11. c'raJ1 3HaMe- 1111-11,113 Ilorcpoacxnfi co6op — xpam Bacmmx Bnaxcennoro Ha Kpacaoia nnomann 3 Mocx- ae, nosnenennufi 11 neon 335111451 Raaarm. Tara 14 npaszmntuxoix Topxcecrnennocrn namna orpancenue 3 nepecwpoffxxe 6a1ne11 Mocrcoscxcoro Kpexvum, ynenqannmx 11 XVII 3. 1<aMem1o171 pe3b6oi’1. Henpeaaoimennme coopy- xcenua co3,z1a3a. r1x1cb 3 nepessmnom ao11t1ec'r- ac. Ilunnofi xpacowm m3ope11 3 nonmocxonnom 11apcx<oM ceJ1e Konomeacxom cocrosm 113 270 1<oM11a'r c 3000 01:011. 3a ero pesnoe oépazvmenne, nL1noJ111eH11oe Gezxopyccmmn Mac'repa: ~m, coapemenmnm Haabmann nsopeu «3ocLML1M =1y, z1oM cae'ra1-». Hfiuaonnch paasmaanacb 3 'rpa, z1m1m1x nxononncanua. Jlytmme pyccrcue xynomnxvxxn pa6o'ram1 B Opyxcefiuoii nanawe Kpemna, cBoeo6paaHoM xynoaicec-In BBHHOM 11eH'1'pe C'I‘paHbI. I-lauéonee 3!-Ia‘{PITeJIbHbIM xy;1o>1<11m<oM XVII 3. c= m'ra- e'rc;1 Cnmon Ymarcoa — Macwep nsoépaxcemm txenoaeuecxoro Juema, OCHOB8'l‘eJlL uenofi xynomecrnennofi 1111101151. Ho Bcefa Poccma fiponmm cxomopoxu n rcyxonmmxu c JIIO5PIMI1eM 3pn're- neii — Hewpymxofi. Bnacm na31.u3aJm Tarme npezxcrannenna <-ca'ra1m11c1cnM11 Cu. »/on Yuuucos. Apxamwl Muxmux. llrcona. I676 2.
  • 153. c FlOI1bCKOE FOCYHAPCTBO H MOCKOBCKOE V LIAPCTBO: B HOHCKAX CTAEVU1bHOCTV| nrpamn» 14 aanpemann nx. Ho c, z1eJ1a'rb 111me- ro He MOFJIPIZ Kaoxnoe nommeune 6po11mmx ap'mcToB 1:1pv1BJ1e1ca. r1o 1c I-IHM MHoxcec'rBo Hapona. I/ Ismenenna B 61.rry. B1411 xcnnnma 11 em BHy'rpe1111ee y6paHc1*Bo, nomamaas y'r3ap1. 14 Manepa nonezzemm, ena 14 onexcna 3aa1»1ce- .1114 0'1 cocnonnofi upnnaxutemnocmu qenonerca. B XVI B. roponcxne PI pgepeaencxne 110- Ma o'rJ11»1t1aJmcL Mano. Rampgbxfi 143 max — 3'10 omenbnaa yca, ub6a c 11oMo1v1, xo3511'«‘1- c'r13e1m1.nvm coopyaicenmmn, 11e6oJ1L11mM oroponom 11 cap; oM. Ilpaapga, B ropozze Ha ymmy Bmxonnnn He camn ;1cnJ11»1111a, a 31.1- co1c1»1e rnyxne 3a6opL1, 3a 1co'rop1.1Mn c'ros1- Jm manna. Popomane Aepxcajm c1<o'rnHy 14 11oJ11.3oBaJmc1. BbII‘OHaMPI, Haxonamnmnca 3a npe, t1eJ1aMn ropona. C XVII 13. 6o:1pe 14 6ora'r1,1e 1110,1114 Haqann BOSBOLLHTL 1caMeH- Hue xcnnnxna, yrcpamex-111519 npnqypgnnnofi pe3L6o171. 06b1qHo , uoMa psmonmx ropoxcan n KpeCTbfiH o'ra1u11»1Ba. n1»1c1. no-qepaomy: p; mM Bmxonvul qepes cneunanbnoe o'r13epc'r1»1e. Ka- Mennbxe netm c JIBIMOXOZIHMPI Bcrpeqanncz. TOJILKO 13 6ora'r1.1x , z1o1v1ax. Orma z1e. r1aJm He- 6oJIb11.me: y 6o1‘a'1'1.1x 01111 651.7111 3a'r5n=1y'rLI cmo, z1o1‘X1, a y 6em11.1x — 6w11.1«1M nyampem. 3aMe'rHL1e owrnqua cymec'r13o13aJ11»1 B o11e>1<, u;e. Co6oJIm-1y1o 111y6y 14 mamcy MOI‘ HOCPITB TOJIBKO éoapmi. I€pec'1'1.51H1»1H one- Banca 13 xaclrran 143 rpy6oro cyrcna z1o1v1a111- Hero n3roToBneHna mm rcoxcymorc 113 on- tmnm :1 Henoporofi BoI71J1ot1HL1x‘»'I HJIPI oB=11»IH- 1413113’: 1'oJ1oBHo1‘& y6op. JIaI1'r14 eme He c'raJm ocHoBHo1‘»’1 06yBbIO 1<pec'r1.a11. Rax 11 6o1'a'rL1e Juwm, Kpecrbane Tarcme xo11m11«1 B canorax, no 113 6oJ1ee nemenofi Icoxcn. Bonpcxcaa onen- zxa mnnacb 113 nopomx 11p1»113o311b1x 'r1caHe1‘«’1 — cpnarmpcxoro cyxna, Beneunancxoro 6apxa- Ta, BOC'1‘O‘{HOI‘O amaoax 121 naptm. He nemenne CTOPIJIPI cepe6p51m.1e 1»1 3oJ1o'r1,1e nyroanrxm, a Tamice 11a1.u1«1'r1.1e Ha 11J1a'r1.51 3Ha'r1u;1x men- nmn ncemqyr 14 zgparouenume xcamm. | Kynen, c<m'ra1o111ni’1 nenbrn. M uuuamropa O'rJ1p1t1m1 B crone Ha‘{IrIHa.7IPICb c nocyzua. IIoBceMecT11o 13 o6nxo, z1e 6mm Mucrcn, t1a1111»1, KYBIIIHHBI pasamx q)opM 14 pa3MepoB. O61:1tmue 1110,1111 IIOJIb30- 151 Banncb 1v111115111o171 11 nepenannofi ynzapbxo. Boape HMBJIPI napamiyro nocyny 143 cepe6pa 1»1 11o13cez1;HeB11y1o - 113 onona. Ena name npocrmx J11o11e1‘«'1, 3a 1»1c1cJ11ot1e- rmem POJIOJIHLIX . r1eT, Bbzrnanena AOBOJIBHO pa3Hoo6pa3Ho1‘»'1. XJ1e6 11o1*pe6m1.rm npenmymecnaenno pxcauofi. I/ I3 nmexuiqnoiix Myxn Bmuexann rmpom 14 Icapanan. Ema zcaum n 1<1ace. rm, 113 onomefi Hanfionee pac11pocTpaHeHHo1‘»‘1 oc'raBa. nacb pena.
  • 154. '~IACTb Parmee Hoaoe apemst (xoneu X V -~ nepeas nonoeuna XVII B. ) ~o. :._ M -. r- , , Uoasecuaa qepnnnmnna. XVII —‘ nan. XVIII 8. Jtapeu. XVII — uav. XVIII 8. 0TH0CH'l‘e. TII>H0 Henoporo c'rou. no M5100, ero coJmJm npo aarxac. L[eJ1aJm pasume Hanwrxn 143 q)pyx'roB H aron, B mapy OXOTI-I0 nmm rcnac n Mopc. Mnoro no'rpe6- mum pmfibx - cnexcefi, conenofi, cymenofi, mmenofi. B xaqecwne Icymmapnoro meneapa Ha éoapcxmx nupax nonaaanu xcapenux JIe6ene1‘&. Honoe 3 6m'ry nponmcano Tonmco 3 nnopsmcxyxo aepxymrcy. B ee mann- max IIOSIBPIJIIICB npenmerm pocxoum H xoMq)op'ra »~ esponeiicxaa Me6e. ub, aeprcana, mocrpu, noporaa nocyaa. Kypenne 'ra6axa C‘-! PIT8JIOCb HeupHc'roi’x- nbm aaunmem. Hponaauam Tafiaxa yrpoxcana Kama», a rcypxummgmcam — ccbmxa B Cufinpb. B cembe rnannofi qmrypofi 651.71 Myxctmna. }Reaa H new Gecnpexocnonno eMy IIOJI‘{PII-IRJIYICB, 3a Henocnymazme 6mm. BMec're c 'reM nonoxcenne men- [I. U1HbI He Bmrnmxeno nonaocrmo éecnpanrmm. Myxcy ne paapemanocb pacno- pamarbca ee npunanbtm, oxa nepxcana B cnonx pyxax Aomamnee xosaficrno, socnwrbmana Ae'rex‘&. He cnytxafino ctmranocb, wro xopomaa xcena nopome «rcaxvum neanoro». B Izenoxvr pyccxnii 61:11‘ Menimcx qpesnbmaifxno Mezmenuo. 1. Ifaxyro uenb npecxzeaoaa/1 Heart IV. nauuuax Jluaoucrcyio eofmy? Holtemy 6onpcmeo ue noddepwcuea. -Io noxzumuxy uapx? 2. I7oue. ny 3 rconue npamenun Hcaua IV Poccux orcaaanacb 3 cocmonuuu pasopeuun? 3. Coomsemcmeyem nu uaaeauue «Cmymuoe apemz. » ucmunnoxy noxio- Jrcenuro 6 Afocrcoectronz qapcmee e Ha-Ia. /ze XVII 6.? 4. ‘Imo Jneuzaxzo Poccuu cpaay coeaacumbcx ua npedocmaeneuue Yrcpaune eoermozi nomouw? 3A, flAHI/ I5? 1. Onnpancb Ha coofiuzemm npmae, aeHHoro , aoKyMeHra, no, qyMar'1re, no~IeMy Ky3bMa Mmmu npuabraan pyccxnx npndernyrb K raxmw xpainmm Mepam, xax npo, aa>Ka M/ wyuxecrsa M aa/ vor xeu M Aereh. 2. Mcnonbayn . aono/ um renbnyro / mrepa1ypy, noarorosbre paccxaa o BbI. £laIO- Luemcn naM9rHm<e pyccxofi apxurexrypbr XVI—XVIl BB. , _‘__ , o.—¢g-.
  • 155. BCEMKPHAfi ucworun ~3 ‘fi4C3Tb [J Hosoe spemx (xoueu XV »- XVIII 6.) I I . . I owe Bpe/ v12 ‘x. ’. '‘ I ( Bropasz nonoBuHa X VII — X VIII B. ) KPMBHC 3 -I , » «CTAPOFO I “ ‘- nopsxmm», r» _ i . . HAHAHO — - I , __ _ MOJ1EPHH- ’: -N’: . 4 _’ I r: ~2 3ALll/11/1 V‘ ' ‘ ; " ‘T ‘b_; »:'_‘‘4». ; _ ' CTP/ Hb| ‘? .-""5 . __. , I I ' ’ xvm BB. — Te/ vi bl i -, :_A . }. f“‘Ju. ‘ . ‘ .4 . ,_, __ , . ; — . —.. , . . L. .. : - -I V T »_. (- mmrl , 2» . .._. . ‘: '1"‘ . . '. 1 . "5 ~-: -. ' ’ » T , , 4' "'. ' . _ v. ’ --'~‘»'(5" ~ __ '__« f . ,. "'_. ‘.—--——‘ I U . ‘~ ou. _ _/ _i . _,_ ~—-—--' w --3 K. .- -w . : . ,. 5 /5 I‘ V I ‘ -. ~=. ~.. ... _. ~ “"' 3‘, ’n-. "u ,2 . I _, .a V , . I ’ ~"' L’ ‘4. _, - ‘I’ . ? - - , , / , r ; ,f,4 » -‘ . M , , I " J" " , "" a. J I -
  • 156. I , u 3 . . ‘/ ,’(3 I I. ) BCEMHPHAH ucropua A 8 H. F. HODAMIK _ L ’ -’ Boaoe opema (rconeu XV >~—); VIII e. ) V OBOE Bpe/ v12 . (BTopa;1 nonoBuHa iXV1I- XVIII B. ) *‘»‘. '/5/ . "‘ ‘ ‘ I “ " PEBOJIIOIII/ I51 XVII B. - , . O . . “ : .- - . . I/ I HPOMLIIIIJIEHHBIII I G/ vnc? O IIEPEBOPOT B AHFJIHI/ I KP]/ [3]/ [C Hpezunsepne penomomm. Ha pyfiexce XVI—XV11 BB. B Anrmm nponcxonnnn Bamume namenerma. Hosme «CTAPOFO maopsme — IIHCGHTDPI — pasnozzmm Ha oropomennmx ["| OP§u1KA»_ aemmx oBeI1 PI nonytlaam 60JIbI. IIHe np1»I6L1JIn o'r upo- H ALIAHO naxcn mepcwn PI Maca. Sm «, meHexcm.1e JIIO, lIPI>> 6mJm 'recHo cnasaau c rcanu-ra. r1nc'mt1ecrcnM yrcnanom xo3sn‘»’1- MOHEPHI/ [3A]_[| /II/ I c'rBa H c'rpeMmmcb IIOJIHOCTHO yantrroxcnrb q)eo, z1am: - Hue nopamcn. B nepeane cymecwnonana aamemaa npocnofixa q)epMepon. Bom. nmHc'rBo K3 Hnx PICl'IOJIb- ; § p_: »n' PEBOMOUI/ “XVI, B_ 3oBaJm Tpyn HaeMHLIX censcxoxoaaficrsenumx pa6o- - HnPOMb, wnEHHb”; , qux — Bqepamzmx Kpecwbnn, comannmx c aezvum B HEPEBOPOTBAH, -HHH xone oropaxcnnannfi. Rpecrbane yxce naano He BLI- nonmmu Harypanbnmx uonnnnocweu, a 13Mec'ro max §L’. l ’ <ppAH1_u4,qB3EHuTE ynJIa= mBa. nn J1eHzLJ1opJ1aM JICHBTH. C ozuiofi CTOpOHbI, MOI’)/ LUECTBA 3'ro ocJ1a6JmJ1o nx aanncnmocwb, a c gxpyrof/1 — 6bIJIO , _ I BI>II‘0,IlI-IO nemmopnamz B nosmx ycnommx onn orna- §§ ‘3 5 CHHHHE Bann npennoqrenne I1eHe)KHOMy o6po1<y. Ornomemm ' ' FIPOCBELHEHHH 3 nepenae 6L1c'rpo Tep8JIK q)eo1xam. H1.n‘»’1 xaparcrep. 3§E"‘- ‘ FIPOCBE£L1EHHbll7! A5COJ7IOTI43M
  • 157. ' KPI/13!/ IC «CT APOFO l"IOPfll1KA». HA‘-IAIIO MOHEPHVIBAUJ/ M , ... _.____. _._. .. . .,. . C'rpe1vm'reJn. Ho paannaanacb 13Hy'rpeHH51a Ia BHelI[- H515! 'roproB. na. Bnaronapa o6oco6JIeHHoMy OC'I‘pOBHOMy pacnonooxenmo Teppuroprm AHrJnm 5bIC'I‘pO npeBpaT14- nacb B e, zmHL11‘«'1 punorc. Bnemnaa 'roproBJm cocpe;1o'ro- vmnacl. B pyxax Momnmx Oc'r-I/ IHnc1co1‘2'1, Mocxconcxofi 14 npyrnx Komnannfi. OHH Bopoqanu 0!‘pOMHbIMK 1can1«1'ra- Jramn, 3naq1«rre. nLHa5-1 qacn rcoropmx nma Ha z1a. u1.ne1‘«'m1ee pacmupenne Manytbawrypaoro nponasoncwna, npeoxzxe Bcero cyrcnozxemm, Me'raJ1J1yprm»1 n 1cQpa6J1ec'rpoeHm=1. Toprono-npennpnnumarenbcmne rcpyrn npnofiperaam ace fionbme neca. Orm HY>R, t£aJIPICb B nonux ycnonnax mm IIOJIHOF0 nepenona xoaaficrsa Ha 110131.113’: nan. Oroponmncam n31v1eHeHm‘»’I nponmocromm Te, rcro 131.1- c'rynaJI 3a coxpanexme cwapux nopmucoa, — apnc'1*o1<pa- ma, q)eoz1;a. r1Lnoe msopnucwno n anmmcanczcaa uepxonb. OHM cocrfinann onopy aHrJmi'1cxo1‘& Monapxnn PI 110.111.30- BaJIHCb noalyttennmmn o'r nee Maoroqncnennmmn . nbro'ra- Mn. COXDRHHTB CBOH npnnnnerxm 14 raparrmponannme ' . ‘-1 41: . ‘A11. Te/ via POCCHH: OT FIPEOEPABOBAHHFI K MOFYLLIECTBY ; § 243 .1 r CEBEPHASI AMEPHKA: j§ 25* PO)KLIEHHE ~ - HOBOFO FOCYLIAPCTBA
  • 158. Hosoe Bpemv (aropast nonoauna xvu — xvm a. ) , , , , , ,- _ ‘. ‘. 'r 0.‘ ‘ 5 3‘- H ’ A. Buxmaapmc. Kopaém, OCT-Maxxcxoii KOMIIRBHE noxmxaer nop'r. OK. 1650 2. mm npnébum, He ;1onyc'm'rb nanbuefimero ycmxeuun Mononofi fiypxcyaavm - aroro Jxaxcnann npommmxn npeofipasonannfi. 3&Jl0I‘ caoero ycnexa oan nu- nesm B npaamnefi , znmac'mn C1*roap'roB. Ropoua acaqecxcu nozmepxcunana c'rapoe zu3op51Hc'rBo, npenocmaanaa eMy MOHOIIO. TIbHbIe npaaa Ha ssmycx TOPO mm nnoro Toaapa. Ho a'ro Memano cBo6o11Hox‘F1 Komcypeunma, cnepxcnsano pasawrue Topronnn n npombxmnennocwn, CKOBbIB8JIO nenonyxo nnnuuarnny éypmyaamx. Ee Henoaonscrao orxcnnmnm cnofi sex c'rpoeM BBIJIHJIOCB B cbopmy penurnosaoro upo'rec'ra npowua aurnnxancxoii uepxau. I'Ipezu1pnrmMa'reJm a notable maopsme 11puo6pe1'a. rm ace 6oJ1bme neca 3 31(0- aomuqecxofi ncnsau. OHM He >xeJ1aJm 'rpa'm'rb caon neubm Ha nocrosmrme aanocu 3 nonbay anmmcancxofi uepxcsn u noromy ace 6o. nee cxnonsumcb K nypwrarmsmy. Hypwraae Hac'ramsa. rm Ha otmmermn uepxum or nopornx o6pa- non M 'ra1«mc'rB, o'r Bnacrn euucrconoa 14 Ilepl-(0BHbIX cygxon. OHM xo'reJm ormemrn. nommuenue uepxnn I-COp0JHO 14 nepenawb ynpasnenne ero B pyxcn BbI60pHbIX Konnernfi. Ram 14 npyrue r1po'rec'ran'rm, nypurane npuamaann Bepyromux K Tpyxzomoémo 14 6epex<JmBoc'm. Cnon , uo6po, ae1~eJm mm nonqepxnnann name Bnexmmm Bmxomz ozzesanucb B crporym TGMHYIO oaemny c 6eJn. nv1 noponmqxcom, My)i<'-IPIHH KODOTKO C'I‘pHI‘. IlHCb 3 xpyxcorc. Hypwraue pearco Bucwyuann npowua acaxnx pasanetxeanfi, name 'rea'rpa. B Hauane XVII B. B nypmanname BI>I,11eJIPIJ1HCb Asa Teqemm. Ilpecmrrepuaue cqwra. m4, wro ermcxonoa H cnaxneanmcoa Heoéxommo CMGCTHTB, a no mane Kaxcnofi ofimmim Bepymmnx nocraawrz. Hsépannoro Ha 1-2 rona cTape1?ummy- npecawrepa. K 3'roMy xcpbuxy npunamiexcana Bepxyxuxa xmcewrpu n Icyneqecrsa. Bropoe Teqeune nypwraxmsma COC'! ‘aB. TI5{JIH unnenennewru (o'r aam. - ne. zaeu- cumbza), Bhxcrynaamne nponm Bmemarenbcma rocyzxapcwsa B zxena pennrnu. aa cao6o;1Hoe camoynpannenne penumoanmx oéunm. Cxona BXOAPIJIH cpemum H Memcan fiypxcyaamx, panonme ropoxcaae 14 xpecrbane.
  • 159. KP1/13HC «CT APOFO HOPHIIKA». HA‘~| N'IO MOIIEPHH3/LlHH Monapx n napnamenr. B 1625 r. Ha anrnnficxnfi npecwon asomen Kapn I C1'Ioap'r (1625-1649). Ran n ero o'reu fircoa I, Kapn He Juo6m1 nypwrau M upo- smmm Bepo-repnnmocn. K xaronmcam. 38KJIIO‘-IP18 6pa1< c cppanuyscxoifx upma- ueccofi, on name noaaomm cnyxcnm. Ana nee BO JIBODIIG K. &TOJIH‘~IeCI-CH6 Meccbx. 3'ro Bmsnano B anrnnficxom o6mec'rBe Tpenoncnue cnyxn o Boamoacnom 303- apamemm xaronnunama. Bo aaemnefi nonnrvuce nepnbxe C'rxoap'rb1 'rar<>xe npenefiperama m1'repeca- Mu anrnnficxofi Gypncyasnn. Oan ncxaam cozoaa c Karonnqecunmn I/ Icnarmefi 14 <I>paHu. nex‘»'1, xom mvxeuno 3TH crpafiu nenann ace, Irroém nepexpbrrh ny'm aarnuficxoifx Mopcrcoii Topronne. O'rpm1a'reJ1bHoe ornomerme BhI3bIBa. TIH n uocroanuue 11o6opu Kapna I. R 'roMy xce xopom. He o6pam, a.n Brmmaumi Ha napnameuw n uanenan naxcuumu nonuomoquamn caonx npxuusopnmx. IIoc're- nermo Monapx n napnamewr npenpamanncb B naa upownaofiopcnzyroumx nerrrpa. Borcpyr xmx clmaqnnamxcb apax<ne6m.1e npyr zzpyry cunu. B 1628 r. napnamenr coc'raBn. n «IIe'mnmo o npanev — noxymexrr c nepetmem Tpeéonanufi nenoaonbuux. Petu, aura o aauurre qacruoii CO6C'I‘BeHHOC'I‘PI, npas P! cno6on aurnnqau or nponaaona xopoum H uepxan, o 3anpe're BB01IPlTb Hoame Hanoru 6e3 copnacxm napJ1aMeH'ra. B o'rBe'r Kapn I pasoman napnamem‘. B Te- qenue uocnenyxomux onnnuanuaru new on npasxm ezuaaonuquo, onupascr. Ha cnonx tpanopwros - namecnmxa I/ Ipnammu rpaqaa Crpaqxpopna n etmcxona Ymmama JIo, z1a. Ilepamfi, npoanannmii aa caoro )KeC'l‘0KOC'l‘b uxepnum rpa- tbom», nbxxcaqnnan neabrn H3 nopaéomeunofix I/ Ipnammn. a mopofi 6e3>xaJIo- CTHO npecnenoaan nypn-ran. l'IocJ1emmM 3 HeMaJ1oM xonuqecrae npuumocx. 6ex<a'rb as cwpanu. Bmnrpanmi 3 Amepmcy HGCKOJIBKPIX zzecancoa Tmcsq Top- ronnen n npommcnoamcon-nypxvrran aussana coxpamexme nponaaoncnaa H Macconyro 6eapa6o'rmLy B Anrvmn. B c'rpaHe CTRHOBPIHOCL ace uecnorcofinee. B Taxnx ycnonmtx o6oc'rpn. r1ocb nonoxcenne B I. IIo'r. rIaHmm. Eme c 1603 r. ona 62.1113 caaaana c Anmmefi Jmtxaofi yuneiiz B o6eux crpanax onnoapemexmo upanmm Crxoamu. I110-rnammm crpemmmcb nepnyn. ce6e Heaanncnmocrb. IIocJ1e normrrxn nacazxwrb Ha ux 3eM. rmx nopsuucu anmuxancxofi uepmm mornannuu B 1639 1*. Banana Bofiny nporms Amzrmu. ‘ITo61.1 co6pa'rb cpezxcma 111151 ee aenemm, Rapny I npnumocb CO3B&'I‘b napnamexrr. Bonpexn o>xuz1a1m- am, nenywaru He nann xopomo paapememm H8 szmmanne Hoamx HPIJIOFOB. Bcero nocne zuayx nezxem. paéorm Kapn I pacnycmn napnamenw, Haaaannbxfi H3-aa a'roro «Kopo'r1<nM». Bamxcaas nofiaa Tpeéonana Hemanmx Aeaer. B 1640 I‘. xopom. co3na. n Hosbxfi nap. naMeH'r. Em nenywarbx cpaay me am- Annnynu nepen Mouapxom pan 'rpe6oBa- uni‘: n aaimmm, two He noaaoxurr ce6a paaornarb. 3'ro'r napnaxuenw npopa6o'ra;1 uensxx 13 new :4 uonyqnn naanaxme «II, oJ1m1‘/1» . OH nepenan Kapny I BBJIPIKYIO peMoHc'rpau; mo (npo'rec'r) - oénunemux npowun snoynowpeénennfx xoponeacxofi Bnacm. Haqano Aearenbnocru I[oJ1roro napnameuwa c'ra. no Harxanom Anr: m1‘icxofi penomouun. Bcxope napnamerrr pacnycwun cynu, . AHMOPW0 Baflflefiifi 1130333015 coananaue mm pacnpan c He110BOJILHbI- “°P"'P°" R‘*P-’”3I' 9"’ *3“ Mn, H o'rMeHuJ1 neaaxoaabxe Hanorn. On r°‘p3""""M‘p“' 0"‘ 1635 " TOMB
  • 160. ®]fl! 7- ‘-IACTb ' MOPE Teppuropuu. nonxompom-mue napnauenry na 1643 r. Teppwropwl. nepeutenume non xoorrpom. napnauema 9 1643-1645 rr. Teppwropun. octaaumecn aepuuuu xopomo ‘=3 Macro pewanousefl nofienu apmm Kpouaema wan aoficxauu Kapna I 3 none 1645 r. I “ er 9.“! ‘JH6 MPHAHJICKOE npon. /la-Menu: Anramiiclcan penomomm Hoaoe apems (eropau nonosuna XVII - xvm a ; x rnaauasu craaxa Kapna I Pafion pacnpocrpauerwm aavnxerma neaennepoa a 1649 r. noxonu Kpouaenn npoma aoccvaeumx npnannuea M motnanncxux npnsepxeuuea Cnoapvoa 9 1649- 1650 rr. Boaspameune Kapna II n aoccrarcoanenue Mouapxvm a Aurmm a 1660 r.
  • 161. KPl43|/ IC «CTAPOFO l'1OPFU1KA». HA‘-INTO MOIIEPHI/ l3AlJl/ M Hacwosm Ha apec're Crpaqxpopzxa K Jlozxa no ofinmienmo 3 «rocy11apc'rBemaox71,. namene». Hon 1IaBJIeHKeM MHoro'rL1csmHox‘»'I 'roJmu, 1IpH6bIB1I. Iefi B nomzepxcxy napJ1aMeH'ra, rcopom. oman npmcaa o xcasrm cnonx tbanoprrroa. I/ Imermo B awn nun Ha JIOHJIOHCKKX yJmn; ax, B Bnxpe 5ypHI: IX co6LI'rm‘»'1, p0,ZIHJIPICb Honme cnona. Tex, wro nonnepxcnnan rcopona, Hocnn memconue n 6apxa'rHb1e Hapsmm n mmnnue noxonm, Haanann «xananepamm, a nronefi B npocwofi nypnwancxoifx ozzexczxe c xopowxofi crpnxcrcofi — «xpyrnorononumm. Kapn nonmwanca apec'roBa'rL napnamenrcxnx mmepon, no JIOI-IJIOHIIBI cups- 'raJm nx. B conponomnennn o'rpn, z1a H3 400 3014303 rcopom. ammo IIpPI6bIJI B nap. uaMeH'r c 'rpe6oBa1meM nmnawb eMy Msrrexcnmcon. Henorcopume napJ1aMeH- Tapnn OTBGTHJIM o'r1caaoM. TeM npemenem ymmm JIoH, qoHa BI-IOBI: aanom; -mm: Boopyxcennme, pemwrenbno Hacwpoennue TOJIIILI. Hecnocofinmffx an l'IOBJIIrI~ arr. Ha napnamerrr, an Hanecwn uopsmorc B cnoefi c'roJmu; e, rcoponb noxxmyn Jlonnon. OH ownpanmrca Ha cenep CTDBHLI — 'ry, u;a, me eMy eme xpanmm Bep- HOCTL, trrofim co6pa'rL T&M apmmo. B aBI'yc're 1642 r. Rapn I IIO, lII~I5{JI cnoe 6oeBoe anamaz Tax Haqanacb nofina upo'rm3 napnamerrra. Hepamfi Mnpuufi (napJIa- MeH'rcxm‘«'1) nepnon anrnnficxofi penoanomm aanepmwlca. Ona Bcwynmla 3 cnoix 3'ropo1‘«'1 swan - rpaaicnancrcyro Bofiny. Ppaacnancxaa noiina. l'IapJ1aMeH'r nonnepoxunanu 3 OCHOBHOM >1<n're. rm 6oJxee paanwrux Bocroqnux rpaq)c'rB — Icynnm 14 qmnancncru, roponcxne peMecJ1eH- mucn H Topronnm, nxcexrrpn n KpeCTb5IHe. B ero pyrcax HaXO, lIIc‘[JIYICI> qmow 14 ocnonnue noprm Anrmm, H0 napnamerrrcxoe onomzenne cocrosmo n3 pas- poanennmx, nnoxo ofiytzennux n cna6o Boopyxcenamx orpxnoa. Ha cropone rcopona c1-omm sna-rb, (peonansnoe maopaacrno Cenepa, autum- Kancxoe nyxonencnso. Ero apmm 5bIJIa 6o. rIee onhrrnofi PI Jxyqme 110,l1I‘0'I‘OBJIeH- H0171, t1eM napnamenwcxne cmm. 1'Ioa'roMy naqano Bofinm cnoxcvuxocb ynatmo mm Kapna I: on ezma He 3axBa'rmI JIoH, z1oH. Vcnexam Icopomx CIIOC06CTBOBaJ’XO K To, rrro napnamerrrcrcne reaepanm n36eraJm pemmemmmx neficrsnfi, a cam nap. naMeH'r, me npeo6na11aJm npecnrrrepnane, cmpemnnca npvxmnpprrbca C no- p0JIeM n nepnommecxu Bcwynan c mm B neperosopm. I/ IH, z1ene1-1,z1eH'rm, rcarc B apmm, Tax 14 B nap. naMeH're, 'rpe6oBaJm awmsnaaunn Goenmx neficwsnfi 14 pe- mnwenbnofi nofienm Ha): cnnaxvm Monapxnn. Hpownnopeqna Mexcny nnmu n npecawrepnanamn ace 6o. uee O6OC'I‘p. 'iIJIPICb. B cTOJIb cnoxcnbrfi MOMGHT mmepom nnnenennemoa c'raJ1 Ommep Kpomnem. (1599-1658). Kpounem. pommcx B CBMBC He6ora'roro 3eMJIeBJI8- Aenbna u nonyqnn cyponoe nypvrrancxcoe nocnwranue. On oxommn roponcrcyxo mxony, usytxan npano B .7103- none H Tam xcemmcx Ha zxoqepn 6ora'roro rcynua. Bep- nynnmcs nomofi, KDOMBGJII: c'ra. u oépasnonhm xo- aannou, ynaxcaemum H nanecwnmm qenonexom. Ero na6paJm cnauana n Koporxnfi, a sarem - P! B llonrufi napnamem. C naqanom rpaxcnancxofi nofiuu Kpomnenb ncrynnn 3 napnamemrcxylo apmmo. I/ I3 cnonx aemmncon on Ha- 5paJI owpan xananepncwon. Ho nepnoe ace nopaxcenne noxasano, qwo zrrnx aeyxcmoxcnx mo, z1ex‘>'1, Bqepamxmx Icpecwban, Tpyzmo Ha3BaTL nacroamnmn connaramn. I Po6epm By. /mep. Kpomnem. IIOHKMBJIZ mm no6em. x nan xoponem neo6xo- Kpomnenb
  • 162. 1 I 3- : H0806 BpcM$7 (sropasv nc": .'. ;."’cJ XVII - XVIIIB. ) mmo concem npyroe noiacxco ~ crmoqennoe u aeecnocoéxoe. On ccbopmnponan o-rpamn 143 ornaxcnmx u qecmmx nypman, cam o6yqaJz nx aoermomy neny. Kpomnem. J'IH‘«IHO 3a6o'rnncn. wroou ace connarsx 6mm xopomo onewu, o6y'rm n cI>ITbI; ycranosmr >KeJxe3Hyxo xmcrmrumny. On nomen Ha Hecnmxanuuii no -rem spezvxenam mar -- aasnaqan H8 oqmnepcxne nomxnocm ne nnopan, a xpa6p1.xx u cnocoéaux npocromonnnoa. Ycrpamaromee Bnettamenne H8 xcoponencxyro apmno nponaaomxno T0, trro uepen aaqanom Gwrnm coJ111a'rb1 Kpomaenx rpomco pacneswm pennrnoamne ncanma. I‘po3nbu71 xop na nsyx nxcan Myxccxnx ronocoa npnsomm npomannxa 3 -rpenew. 3a npocwue, no nanemnue Merammtxecxme nocnexn cougar Rpomnena npoanann « xceneanofioxnmn ». KPOMBBJIB coanan apmmo noaoro ofipasua — 6oecnoco6ny1‘o, opramxaoaannyxo, aoonymennenuyxo nneanamu CB06011b! n cnpaaenmmocru. Bro 61~. .ma nepnaa n ncropxm Amvnm perymrpnaa apM H51. Ona Havana no6exu1a'rL Kananepoa. 14 moan 1645 r. coJu1a'rbI Kpoxvmemi ynwrromnnn ocnoaubxe cnnm Icoponeacrcoro Boficxca B 6n'rne y Heficfin. Hepeonermfi cnyroift Rapn 6e>icaJ1 Ha cenep H T8.M cnancn B nnen momannuam. B pymx napnamenwa nonana xoponencxan nepenucxa - noxymenwu, B xowopmx Kapn aasmmm o cnoefi roroanocm IIpHHfi'I‘b nnoc'rpan- nyro nomomb. I/ Ix ofinaponoaanue nuanano B Jloxuxone B3pbIB Boamymenna: cam I-CODOJII: oxaaanca npe11a're:1eM caoero napona! 3a Gomamyxo cyMMy nxomamxum abmann Kapna annnnficxomy nap. naMen'ry. Boennme neficwnna Bpemermo npercpwrmmcb. 1'IepBaa rpaxcnancxan Bofina orconqnnacb. Ozmalco cnoxoficrnua He nacwynmioz Kpafine O5OC'I‘pKJIaCI> no- Jrwrntxecrcan 6opb6a Mexcny npecswrepnanawm u mmenennenwamu. B ee xone noanmma napnm . ne3eJmepoB(ypaBnn'reJ1ep"x). Pecnyomma n npo'reK'ropa'r Kpomnemx. Boxcnexvx neaennepoa c'ra. n llmon Jlzuxfiepn (1614-1657) — anrop psma namqmeroa (ofinnqmenbnbtx npon3Be;1e- mm), B xoropux Inna pern. o npenocwannennn Bcem mozmm pannsrx npaa. JIeBeJ1- Jxepm 'rpe6o3a. rm OTMGHBI Mouapxxm n naJ1a'rb1 J10pJ.10B, nepezzatm nepxonnoiix Bnacwn naJxa're oénmn n nseaermn ee OTBGTCTBGHHOCTPI nepexx Hapo, z1oM. Onn nmcrynanu Taxcxce 3a nmpoxoe aufiopaoe npano, HGHDPIKOCHOBBHHOCTB qacwnofi co6c'r13eHHoc'm n caofiomaoe pacnopsmcenne exo. Hon nasnennem nenemtepoa B 1647 1*. Haqanca 'rpe'm1‘& — 11eMoxpa'rut1ecxm"1 ~ zrran peaomoumx. I'Iom.1'rx<n napnamenra J1OI‘0BOpHTbC5I c xoponem. a Taxxce peuxemxe o poc- nycxe apnum Buaaajm I1p0‘I‘eC'I‘bI no Bcefi crrpaue. Bro sacraarmo Kpomsemx nofiwn Ha paapua c npecanwepnancxnm 50.IIbII]HHCTBOM napnamexrra :4 06'5- GJIPIHPITBCH c apMI«Iei»’x. Ho ero npmcaay o'rpn;1 xananepncroa 3axBa'rmx B IIJIGH rcopona, no Kapny yaanoch 6ex<aT2. n samxroumb Tafiflblfi coxoa c momannnamn. Bcuope oxm B'I‘OpI‘JI1ICb B Aummo. Onnonpemenno no crpaue npoxanmacb Bomm Mwrexceii 3 noxmepxcxy K0- pomz. Becnofi 1648 1‘. Kpomsenb c ~ >1<e:1e3H06o1«: u.m ~ Baimca aa ux rIo11aB: Ie- rme. Haqanacb Bropaa rpaxcnaucxan xaofma. flponomxanacb ona Henonro: y croponnuxoa xopona y>1<e He 651.110 6oJmmoii apmm, nos“: -omy Boccwajm TOJILKO omenbaue o'rpn, z1u. B xonne Jxera Rpozvnaem. oxcmmarenbno paarpommx n nx, 14 mownannuea, a B , z1e1<a6pe aaxaawmx Jlormon. l'IapnaMeH'r axons Hanan neperosopm c K0p0JIeM. Bozmmcna peanbnan I ‘ yrpoaa Bosapamenmi Kapna H8 'rpoH. Kpoxmesu. ;zox”xcTBoBa. r1 Gbxcrpo 1-1 penni- Te. TIbH0. T1011 ero , r1aB: xeHne. w1 H3 napzlaxzenra n; m1a.1u npecmnepnan, a 3aTeM nponema cyn H811 xoponetvn. Kapna I oéammnu 1; rocy,1apcTaem1oi'1 usrweae, paaaaabuaamm rpancnancxoii B011HbI u Kponm1po. 'm'rmx. Bnepume a ucroprm
  • 163. KPVl3HC «CT APOFO FIOPHJIKA». HA’-‘INTO MOHEPHVI3/LlV| H cyn Bmnec cMep'rm. n‘»'1 npuronop npanamemy Monapxy. Ero Kaaumm npn or- pomnom creqemm Hapona Ha nnomaxm nepen xoponencrcnm xmopnom. 19 Man 1649 r. nap. r1aMeH'r npoBo3rJ1ac1»m Anrnmo pecny6J1mco1‘»'1. R Tomy Bpemerm na. na'ry . nop, u;on yxce ynpasnnmrn, napJxaMeH'r coc'roa. n JIKLUB 143 na. na'rm 061mm. BMec'ro Icopo. ne3crcoI‘»'1 B. nac'rn nefic'rBoBa. n I‘ocy, u;apc'rBeHHufi coBe'r, Icyna Bxommn mmepu mmeneH, u;eH'roB n Bmcmee Boennoe 1coMaH, z1oBaxme. COBBT JIOJIHCGH 6am nommnsrrbca na. na're o6m; nH, no Ha caMoM nene om: IIOJIHOCTLIO aanncenn o'r Kpomaens 12: em Gnnxcafimero orcpyucenna. Hm; yrcpelmenxm pecnyénmcn Kpomnenb pemml pacnpannrbca c 'reMu, rare 3 rpaxcnancxofi noime nonnepxcnnan Kapna I. C Hemannofi >1cec'ro1coc'rmo on sanoenan I/ Ipnannmo. 3a HGCKOJILKO Mecanen enceneanofiorcneo paaopmm n onyerommm nnewymyio cwpany. Jlytmme 3eMJm noéexcnennblx npnammen nepemnn K anrnmtanam. Orpafinenne I/ Ipnammn npenpawmro penomonnonnyro apmmo B saxnawqnrcon, oxsaqennmx Henacmwnofx xcaxcnofi naxcnsbx. 3a'reM RpoMBeJIL ofipynnm ynap H8 II. Io'rnaHp; mo, oémannnmym cmna Kapna I rcopo- JIeM RapJIoM II. AHPJIPI‘{aHe IIOJIHOCTLIO ynmrroxcmm mownanncxylo apmmo. Roponb Gexcan Ha IcoH'rHHeH'r. Kpomnem. 'rpnyMq: a'ropoM Bepnynca 3 Jlonnon 14, npnmenma cmxy, pasc- rHa. n nap.7IaMeH'r. 16 nexaépa 1653 r. on nonyqnn noxcnsuennyro , z1oJmcHoc'rL J1opna—npo'reK'ropa (aanurrnmca) Anrnun, IJ. Io'rJ1aHzmn I/ I I/ Ipnanzmn. K nemy nepexmm Komannonanne BOODYJICBHHLIMPI cw1aMn n Benenne BHemHe1‘«'1 nomrrmcn. Bea cornacna npowewropa He ]1O3B0JI8.VI0CI> MBHHTI: aaxonm :4 Baomrrb Honme Hanom. Ho cy'm Rpomnenb ycranonnn BoeHHy1o mncrawypy. Tpewnfi awan penc- Jnomm sanepmmlca. Ha cmeny pec11y6.nmce upmneal nporewropar Rpomnena. Hotrrn , z1eca'rb new Kpomnenb ynpanmm Anrnnefi, omtpaacb Ha apmpuo. OH paanennn Teppnwopmo cwpanm Ha 11 oxpyron 14 nocwanun no rnase xcaxczzoro nonnosnacwnmx renepanos. Hon nx npncmorpom Haxoznmacb name qacmas oicnanb Hacenennn. Aurvma npeBpa'rmIacL B xmypyro Monqannnyro c'rpany, me rocnoncwnosana a'rMoc(1)epa nonospnrenbnocrn, oronopon 14 Aonocon. Kpomnenb nonnocrmo aaxBa'rn. n Bnacn. B cson pyrcn H q)aK'r1»mec1m npamm Anrnnefi Kan Hexopoaonannblfi Monapx. JIop11-r1po're1c'rop nponomm ycnemuyro BHBLLIHIOIO PI KOJIOHPIEJILHYIO IIOJIIrITPI- xy. OH saxnroqnn Bmronnmfi Mnp c Pomannnefi, uonnncan Topronufi noroaop co IIIBem»1e1‘«'x, 3axBa'rmI 0CTp0B fimafircy. Ho peunrrb cnoaxnme BI-Iy'I‘peHI-IP18 npo6.ne- Mm KPOMBGHB He CM01". Conepaxaane apzvum PI qmowa nornomano 0l"pOMI-Ible cpep; - c'rBa. TopI'oBJm PI peMecJIa Haxonwmcb B rmaqennom cocwoamm. Bespaéonma PI ofinmuarme Hapozxa , u;oc'mrJm Hefibmanmx paamepon. Pexcmvx npowewropawa cra- Honmrca Henonynapnmm, B Anrnnn Hapacwano Hapozmoe HeJJ, ’OBOJIbC’I‘B0. Pecranpanna Mouapxmx. B 1658 r. Kpomnenb yMep. BJIaC'I‘b nepenma K ero cmny Pn=1ap, uy — qenonercy cJIa6oMy Ir! Hepemprrenbnomy. OH He cnpannsmcsi c yn- . pasneunem c'rpaHo1‘»'1 I/ I 65m Jmmen nnacrn. Cpotmo coanannmfi napJ1aMeH*r upla- HHJI pemerme 0 Boccwanoaneann Monapxym 14 npnsnan Ha 'l‘pOH cbma Kaanennoro Monapxa — Kapna II Cnoapwa (1660-1685). Honufi xopom. IIOKPIHYJI Cbpannmo, me naxommcx B amnrpaunn, 14 'rop>xec'rBeHHo B'bexa. n B Jlozmon. Tax nponsomna pecwanpamm — Boccranormenne Ha 11pec'roJ1e nuaacwnu C'r1oap'roB. Rapn II noo6ema. n He HaKa3bIBa'I'I> Y‘-IaC'I‘HI/ IKOB penomomm, He 0THPIMa'l‘b saxnatxennme B xone rpaxczxancxux Boim 3eMJm, ofiecneqnn. cBo6o11y Beponc- nonenanna, H0, ezuaa nonyqnn Kopony, KOpOJIb Hapympm caoe cnono. Haqanncb pacnpasm c zxemenamn penomomm, upecnezxonannn npecnrrrepnancrcux cnamem Hmcon, Boanpamex-me aeMJm 6bIBI. I.IHM Bnanennuam. Opgnarco npannm c'rpaHo1‘»'1 6 Bcemmpnan Mcropmn, 8 am. 161
  • 164. . X , 3 If L/ A C HOBOE Bpe/ ~12 (aropan nonosuua XVII — XVIII 3. ) . 5 j ' 1 ‘$3.’ ' .1. . ..- L a-l£: _:; _«. I A B'bean xcopomi Kapna II C'r1oap'ra 3 Yafiwxonn. XVII e. no-c'rapoMy 6uJ1o yxce Henoamoxcnoz B napJIa- Merrre aacenama npe1zc'raB1»x're. rm Gypxcyasxm 14 HOBOFO maopnncrna, xonwponnponanmne , r:e1‘»’xc'r- _ ’ ans: Icopomx. K 'roMy xce nnywpn napJI_aMeH'ra ,1‘ -. .-1‘ wig CJIOJKPIJIHCB zuae nonuwmzecxne napwnn — Top: -I < 3 “ :4 BHPH. Topn nonnepxcnnann rcoponencrcyro W BJIaCTI: , o'rc'ram3aJm Hepymnmocrb rcopoJ1eB- cxux npan PI cymecrnyxomero nopamca. Burn aa- 4, mnmanu uap. uaMeH'r, BLICTYIIBJIPI 3a namenemm ‘-’- 3 arconommce, rocynapcwaennom H neprconnom I / ,3 yc'rpox‘»’1c'r3e. Topu smpaxcann mrrepecm apnc'ro- ; . I" , (V, I - ' .1 _« Kp8.TIrIH H Kpyllliblx 8eM. TIeBJIaJ. IeJIBIJ; eB, asnrn - ~7 33.. 7 . *4 » nonoro maopancrna, xyneqecwna n cbnnancncron. Mexcny HHMH nocrosmno nma oc'rpan no. rm'rn- qecxan 6opL6a. . _. Cwryamm yxynmmracb, Korma nocne cMep'rn I / ’ _» . ; / /'4.-0 M -_ ‘ Kapna Ha IIpeCTO. JI Baomen ero 6pa'r, rcaronnx av _» —- . A—V__’, , «. ¢' I 1 "/ (%- I 4-, I ‘h ‘r Hxon II (1685-1688). OH c'rpeMm1ca npanmb ‘~ -— ‘ ’“ / camonnacwno 14 He xcenan cnymawb coBe'ro13 v HI<0BH-TPa6'0P0-16332- napJIaMeH'ra. Rare 1»: noxofinmifx 6pa'r, fircon II I nocroaano nonyqan nenbrn o'r qrpannyacxoro rcopona JI1o, u;oBmca XIV H name o6ema. u eMy BOCCTaHOBPI'I‘I: B Anrnnu xa'roJm- Imam. Taxoe nonenenne Kopona nepenonmmo qamy Tepnennx. I'Iap'rxm Topn n BKPOB o6'be, z1nHmmcL, trrofim nnmnn. flrcona II npec'roJ1a. B3aMeH 61.1110 pe- meno upnrnacnn. Ha Tpon Myxca ero cwapmefi noqepn Mapxm — crarxaynepa Fonnannnn npo'rec'raH'ra Bunnrennma II Opancxcoro (1689-1 702). ; 4, -7-—. , “ 5 . . ‘ «Cnannaa penomomm» H ya-nepmnenne xoncrnrynnonnoii Monapxxm. Ha 162 npennoncenne 11eny'ra'ro3 BFIJIBFGJILM OTBGTPIJI connacnem. OH aanepmr nx, trro -; ‘§~. ornpannserca 3 Amvrmo, IIDBCJIGJIYH nem. samnwwrr. <<npo'rec'raH'rcrcy1o penn- 8 7.) rmo, co6c'rBeHHoc'rL PI cBo6ozmbn'«‘x napJ1aMeH'r» . OCGHBIO 1688 r. c 15-Tmcmmoii “ " apMne1‘«'1 Bnnbrenbm nbrcaxmnca Ha aarnnficxnfi 6eper :4 B351)! Kypc H8. JIoHnoH. , '= " Koponencxne o'rp51,z1L1 nepexmm Ha ero c'ropoHy. IIorcnHy'rLn71 BceMH, Hlcon II ) c cembefi 6exca. n B0 Cbpanngmo. BPIJIbI‘e. TIbM Opancxnfi 3'roMy He 11pena'rc'rBoBaJI.
  • 165. . KPM3Mc uCTAPOl‘O I'IOP$U1Kr». HAHNIO MonEPHM3AuMM Tema _u . _ . .._______. .._. .__. ... _.. _.. ,- On acrynmx B Jlonmon H 651:: npoaosrnamen rcoponem Anrmm. Tau nponaomen W Gecxponaufi rocynapcrsennbm nepenopo-r — «Cnamax pesomonux». Csoe ‘ aaanamxe one nonytnma 3 npomnonec xpoaanoifx peaomomm cepezmau XVII 3. «Cnasnaa peaomomun» nonoxuma rconen nexonoifx 6opb6e Mexcny rcoponem n napnamez-rrom, norcommna c a5COJIIOTPI3MOM n oanaqana yraepxcnenne B AHFJIHK xoncrnryunonnofi Monapxnn. Omune maanyxo pom. nrpan nap. ua- Mezrr, nanenennmfi npanom nanauau. sarcoma. Monapxy paapemanocb JIHIIIB <«napc'rno3a'rb, no He npanrm. » . 3'ro'r nopsmox aaxpemm «Emma (aarcon) o npanax» , aanpe-rnnmnii xopomo usnanarb 38.I<0HbI, co6npa'rb HEJIOFH PI coau- nan. apzvxmo 6ea cornacna napnamezrra. B zxorcymerrre nonqepxunanocb, rrro napon mvxeer upano caepmywb xezxocroimom xcopona :4 HOCBJIHTI: aa Tpofl npyroro. I'Iap. naMen'r onepxcan nofieny nan xoponem. -. 1/‘ 1689 r. I/13 «Sunny: 0 npaaax» I . / , "I Ayxoanbue M caeTcr<Me nopnbu M O5LlJ. MHbl. .. co6paaLuMecn Hb| He B Kauecrae nonHo- / ‘ro M cao6o. uHoro npencraamenbcraa aroro Hapona. .. aananmor mm soccranoanen-cMn M no. u.Teep>meHMsn CBOVIX npearmx npaa M BOJ1bHOCTel7l HM>o<ecne11ynoLu. ee: 1HTo cTpeMneHMe T0nbKO Koponescn<MM noaenen-IMeM. 6e3 cornacma napnamema. npMocraHaenMaaTb aaxoubu MnM abmonueume aaxonoa Heaaxormo. 4. ‘-110 e3MMaHMe c6opoa a nonbay M a pacnopn>o<eHMe K0pOHbl. .. 6e3 cornacMn nap- naMeH*ra. .. Hesaxouuo. ' 8. '-ho Bb|60pbI «menoe napnamenra AOJ'l>KHbl 5blTb CBO6011HblMM. I 9. ‘ho caoéona cnoaa. npeHMM M acero roro, -no npoMcxonMT 3 napnamemre, He Moxer i I 6blTb HOBOAOM K npecnenoaanmo. I/ Iamemuxca 14 nopanorc npecrononacnenonanna. CBIH Hrcoaa II, pennocrnmfi 1<a'ro. nmc, naxonnnmniica n amnrpamm no Cbpanuun, 651:1 Jmmen npana Ha- cnenoaarb aurnnficxym rcopouy. Hocne cMep'rn Bunbrenbma Ha Tpon naomna M. na, a,maa 110% flrcona II — xoponena Anna (1 702- 1714), 5OJIe3HeHHafi, Henanexoro yma )§CeHI. I1H- Ha. Ocaommrm co61.1'meM ee npannenmx c'raJ1o yqacrne Amvmn 3 nofme 3a ncnaacxoe samen- c'r3o (1702-1713). 3T0'I‘ Kpoaaauii xoH(1mmc'r acnuxnyn Mexary enponeiicxmxm rocyzzapcrnamn nocne cMep'm Geanemoro ncnancxoro xopona Kapna II aa npano nnanen. I/ Icnarmefx PI ee KO- Jroammn. Ilpunumaa B Hem yqacme, Anrmm c'rpe1vm- Jracb ynmrroaxnrb Toproaoe :4 Mopcxoe Moryme- c'n3o Cbpauumx. Vcnenmbxe éoenme neficwnna nocnyxcunu 3a. noroM mm nocmxcemm awoii nemx. I10 ycnoznam Vrpexwcxoro xvmpa 1713 r. Amumn nonytmna I‘n6paJ1'rap ~ xmoq K rocnoncrsy 3 Cpezmaemaom Mope. Eii J10CTa.7IHCb Taxxce q)paH- nyacxne ananeana 3 Amepmce - aewm aoxpyr Fynsonona aamnaa. Kpoxvxe TOP0, x Ant-mm non- HOCTBIO nepenmo npano uocwanmrrb HeI‘p0B- pa6oB mm Hcnaucxnx xononnfi B Amepmce, rrro npelapammocx. B ncwotmmc orpomnux npnfihmefi mm éypmyaamx. M. floim. Anna C'noap'r 6.
  • 166. “ VAC Tb Hoaoe BpeM5I (Bropaa nonoauna XVII — xvm 5. ) . h jg IIo6e11a Han Cbpannnefi oéecnetuma AHPJIPIPI rocnoncrnyromee nononcenne Ha Mope. 3'ro, B caoxo oqepezzb, noanonnno efi cnenam. nepnme man»: Ha IIYTPI K coa- zxamuo Bpnwancxofi nmnepnn. B npalmeane xoponenu AHHLI nponaomno 061.- emmenue Anrmm c IIIo'rJIaI-mne1‘»'x 14 I/ IpJIaH, zmefi. C 1 707 r. Honoe rocy, z1apc'rBe1moe oépasoaanne c'raJm Haaunau. O6-bemmemioe Koponencmo Benmcaa Bpmanua. HDBGMHKKOM A1-mm Ha aHrJm1'»'IcrcoM npec'roJIe c'ra. n Feopr I PI3 Hemenxofi nnnacrun Pannonepon - npannyrc Hxona I. OH Mano Hmrepecoaanca rocy, z1apc'r- Bennmmn pgenanm PI name He rosopnn no-aHrJm1‘«‘tcKn. Hocrenenno cnoncnnca nopanorc, Icorna KOp0JIb 61.1.11 o6x3aH Haanaqan. MPIHHCTPOB H3 nap'r1m, npeo6- Jxa, ua13u. Iex‘& B napnamenwe. Tarcoe npaBn're. nLc'rBo Hecno OTBGTCTBGHHOCTB nepen IIapJIaMeH'I‘OM, a He nepen 1copo.1IeM. Hpn Feopre I A1-1rJme1‘»'1 ynpanmmn Mmmc'r- pm 143 naprnn BPIPOB. Hocne npnxozxa K BJIaCTH Feopra III, Ha upowmcennn ero norrrn 60-Jxewnero npeémsamaa Ha Tpone, npanamefi nap'meI}’1 0C'I'aBaJIPICb TODK. B Aarmm ywnepzmnacb napnamenwcxaa, mm xoncwnrynnonnaa, Monapxnn. E Havlano HDOMLHHHOEHOEO nepenopora. B Tetxelme XVI-XVIII BB. B Anrvmn Bcnencwnne oropaxcmaanma npawrnqecxn ncqeama KpeC'I‘I>5IHe-3eMJIeBJIa}1eJIb- I 1151 H notrm Boa 3eMJm orcaaanacb B pyxax Jtenzmopnoa. Onn o'r11;aBaJm ee B zzonrocpoqnyro apenny qrepmepam 14 npep; npmmMa'reJmM. Te ncnonbsoaann 3 Tpyn Haemzsxx pa6o'rHmco3 — Bqepammax Kpecrwm, nmnennmx aemm H contac- : max Hannmawbca Ha pa6o'ry 3a JIIO5yI0 nJIa'ry. Tax B Aurnnn 651:1 ocymec'rBJxeH Q aI'papHLn‘«'I nepeBopo'r. ¢ OH nozxrowonnn notuay mm npomumnennoro nepenopora - n3o6pe'1-emm H mnporcoro nnenpenna B nponasoncwno Mauma, CIIOC05HI: IX 3aMeHPITb pyqnofi Tpyn. 1'Ipn 3'I‘0M Manyqyarcrypm yc'ry1mJm Mec'ro q)a6pmcaM c notrrn IIOJIHOCTLIO é Mexannsnponannmm Tpynom. Haqanca upo- - T Mmmnennmn nepenopor B cwapenmen 01'- E pacJm anrnnficxofi IIp0Ml: -II1'. IJIeI-IHOCTH - | TGKCTPIJILHOM nponanoncwne. Eme c XVII 3. cepbear-n.1M Komcypenwom I anrnnficxnx -rrcanefai c'raJm rcpacmame PI ne- mesme uannficxne cwrnu. Om: IIOJIb30B8.- 3 JIPICL nmporcnm cnpocoM Ha Bprrrancrmx | ocwponax, nx BB08 nocwommo poc. Coo'rBe'r- I CTBeHHO norcyruca anramncrmx Trcanefi ; nanana, H Mecrnme TBKCTPIJILIIIPIKH Tepmm : 3apa6o'r1cn. Hpannrenbcrno Heonnoxpawno l. ‘II>ITaJIOCb 0CTaHOBKTI> mm xom 651 orpannqwrb nocramcy nnnnficxnx cm» | men, Bnpottem, 6e3 ocofioro ycnexa. Txarm Bce paBHo nonanann B Anmmo, H0 yoxe rcoH'rpa6aHp; HmM ny'reM. OT 6e3I>ICXO, lIHOCTPI anrnnficxne Trcarm nmn nopofi H8. IIIOKPIPYIOIIIPIG nocwynxn: npamo Ha ynnnax orm pnamt Ha menmnaax nnawba, nomwrme H3 aprcoro nnnnficxoro cwrna. Co BpeMeHeM anrmmane nomum, vrro Bmnepxcarb xomcypennmo KM y, n;ac'r- ca, TOJILICO ynennqnn BBIIIYCK CO5C’I‘BeI-IHBIX 'r1caHe1‘»'1 14 c, z1e. naB nx nemenne. 164 IIepBI: IM marom Ha nywn rc arofi uenn c'rano n3o6pe're1me Trcaqa 1»: Mexamnca - Jlxcona Rea nomanxcnoro 7-xennorca. OH npmaomrmca B nnmxenne npyammofi, ,u; nnra. ncx B11306 6L1c'rpee n noanoanm 3&MeTI-I0 ycrcopmb nponanoncwno. Tenepb 'rKar; aM nyxcno 651.110 60JII>II[e upsxm, 'r. e. Boanmcna no'rpe6Hoc'rb 3 coanannn 6oJIee M01111-10171 npsunmbuofi Marmmu. B 1765 I‘. nJ1o'rHmc H Treat; I[xceI‘&Mc Xaprpmac vI3ro'roBmI Mexammecrcyro npmmy «llxcenmx» (Mac'rep Haanan ee Tax
  • 167. KPHSHC «CT APOFO HOWUIKA». HA‘-{N10 MODEPHMBALLHH 13 neon csoefi noqepu), c HOMOIIILIO rco'ro- pofi ozmn paéornmc MOI‘ IIDPIBOAHTL 3 Annma- xme 18-20 nepewen. Busmnfi napnxuaxep M nonxafi nenen Pmiapn Apxpaifrr npuc3o- HJ1 uyacoe uaofiperenne PI yMe. no em ncnoJn. - aoaan - npncnocoérul K cllxcennm nommoe rconeco. Bonee TOP0, B 1771 r. anepmrmufi Apn- pafir nocwpoun cnennanbnoe ananue Ana cnonx Mamma - nepnyxo B Amvmn <ba6pn- Icy. ‘iepea HBCROJIBKO new Ha nefi yace pa6o- 'ra. nu conm Manma n paéovmx. Bcxope no Bcefi Cenepnofi Amvmn, me Muoaxecmzo Gypnux ropuux pex oéecuetmnwm 6ecnepe- éofinoe zuamxenne Bonsmmx Konec, 30331.1- mamxch 4-5-swaxcume Impmnmue tpaépmcn. Paamrme ll nepsue nocnencrnna npomnmmennoro nepenopowa. I/ I3o6pe're- mm cnenoaann ozmo aa npyrmu K ocymecrnnsuncb He TOJIBKO B 're1<c'r14m. noM npousnoncrne. Baxcnme nsmenemm npoucxonmm Taxxce B npyrnx o'rpacJmx npoummnenuocwn. Konoccanbnme nocnezxcraua 11:15: paaarrrmx (ba6pIvI‘IH0l‘O nponsaoncrna mueno noannenue naponoro nnnrarena. B owmqne or nozxanoro, aarmcsnnero ncxunoqnwenbno o'r anepnm perc, naponofi nnnrawem. Moxcno 61.1310 ncnonbaonan. me yronao. Coanan ero mornannen llxceiimc Var-r. On no'rpa- Tm: 20 new Ha yconepmencrnonanne cnoefi naponoii Mamnnu, noxa B 1784 1*. He c)1eJ1a. n ee Hanexcnofi 3 ncnonbaoaanuu. Bnenpenne naponoro nnnrarena npuaeno K nmporcomy pacnpocwpanenmo cbaépmc. Ilaponan Manmna pa6o'ra. na Ha ynne, H 3'1-o Aano Tonqox ycmrenuomy passa- 'rmo yronbnofi npommmnennocrn. Merannyprua Tamxe nepeuma Ha ncno. ub- aonarme xameuuoro yum. Bunnannam. xceneao, xax npeacne, Ha zxpenecaom yme cwauonwxocb ace cnoxcnee, uo'roMy trro Gonbmue Jxecnme Maccnnu 65mm yxce ynuwroxceuu. He1xoc'ra'roxc rommna 'ropMo31»m paamrrne Meramryprrm K nuaymnan Anrnmo BBOSKTB Mewann us-3a rpammbx. Tenepb cu-ryanna non- nocrmo uameuunacbz Amvms c'ra. na nponsnonnn xvmoro xaqecrneanoro Me'ra. n- na H cama nponaaana ero B npyrue c-rpanu. A mannoe — yaenuqenne smnnanxn Mewamxa nosaomuxo pacnmpwn. sunycx MBIJIHH. 1Ia. ruu-xefimne Texanqecxue naoéperenun npmaeam He Tonbxo K poc'ry nponaaozxcwaa Me'ra. nJ1o3, no n 1103- BOJIPIJIH cnenarb ux nemesne. IIpoMbxm. ueHHbu‘& nepesopor 14 u3MeHeHm1 3 ctbepe nponaaoncrna 'rpe6oBaJm yconepmenvnsoaamm Tpaacnopra Pl nyweii cooémenmx. Amvma nonro c'rpa11a. na n3-aa yoicacnux nopor: Tam, me aaxaqnaanacb BbI60HH&, Haqunanacb mvra, a qacwbte zxomzm Booéme npeapamanu noporn 3 Henpoxozmmue 6oJ1o'ra. Tem npemeuem orpomnme Maccbz yrmx. xcextesa, xnonxa u npyroro Chlpbfi Hyxcno 61.1110 nocraanarb o'r wax? u noproa Ha q)a6pmm. Foronan nponyxnus Taxme xcnana ompasxu H8 , z1aJu. m»xe pbmmx. Ilepeaosxy cnenoaano cnenan. Hanexcnoii H 6o. nee zxemesofi. Pemnn, 31'_v l1pO6.I!6My B8fiJICfi Ilxcon Me'rKap — «Cnenofi Jlxcerc» . HICCTHJIGTHPIM Manwzmom on 3a6onen ocnoifx n uowepan aperme, HO, c'raa Bapocnmm, aayrmnca o'r. rnNHo opnenrnposarhca H uaxoann. camme Jxyqmne Hanpanneuxm mm npoxnanbxaanna nopor. I/ Imenno Merrcap uepnhm cnenan Bblnyxnyro zxopory 1»: nponoxcun BJIOJU: nee rcananu mm c'ro1<a Bonm. Taxne noporn cnyxcmm rcpyr. nm3'x ron. 165
  • 168. L, -'/3, C H0806 BpeMH (sropasv DO/ ‘IOBUHJ X VII — XVIII 5.) ,3 - Ilanerco ne Bce om: Momm nonro Bunepxcnnamb nocwoaunyxo 'rpaHcnop'ru- ‘ pomcy Taxcenbxx rpyaoa. K 'roMy ace nepesoaxca no cyme c'rou. na nononbno no- poro. Bbxxon namnu 3 npoxnanbxaannn xananoa. Bcxope onn ryc'roi'x ce'rbxo ‘. '_, IIOKDBIJIH BCIO crpany. Rananu noasomum nenco H nemeso nepenoawrb 6oJu. nme ' Maccbx yum, METBJIJIOB H npyrnx rpomoanxmx TOBBDOB. Illnpoxcoe npnmeuenue M8.IIIKH Busaano cnmxcexme 3apa6o'rno1‘Ix n. na'ru. ‘-Iacm. Tpyxcennxoa 3oo6m; e nowepsma pa6o'ry. Ycnonmt Tpyna 6mm: oqenr. 'rsm<eJ1bmm. Pa6otxm”x 118111: npononxcanca 14—18 qacon. Xoaaena oxo'rno ne- nonbaonamx TPYJI xcennmn n ne'rei'1, nnam HM Bnnoe n 3'rpoe Menune, 'IeM Myxcqmaam. Hpannrenbcmennue aaxonu nacaxcnann Ha q>a6pm<ax cyponyro nncnnnmmy, xcecwoxo naxaaunanu 3a Manefimne napymemm. Bce 370 351351- Bano HGJIOBOJIBCTBO B pafiotxeifx cpene. XVIII B. M3 cranm 06 ycnoamvx rpyna Ha ¢a6pMKe B ropone Mat-mecrepe 3 HMX MO>KHO 6blllO pa3MeCTl4Tb Kan MO>KHO 6onbuJe monefi. Hroébu He 0CTaBV| Tb MeMc- flO)'lb3OB3HHOFO Mecra. ¢a6pMxM ctpomcn 3 HeCKO! '|bKO araxefi, npeMMymec'raeHHo HeBblCOKMX. Sollblul/ IHCTBO noMeu4eHMM aacraaneuo MaLuMHaMM. .. I/13-3a cneuM¢>M- I uecxoro xapaI<Tepa l1p0MblLIJJ1eHHOCTM a aoanyxe nocrommo neraer xnonxoaan nuns. I xoropan 3 coenMHeHMM c Macnom. .. naer OCO5eHHO uenpMmHbn71 aanax. .. l Konmecreo paéoranoumx Ha cba6pMKe 3aaMcMT 07 ee paamepoa. Ha onnofi ¢a6pM- xe. .. pa6oTano HeCKO11bK0 coTeH Henoeex. ¢>a6pm<M Macro paéoraoor nnem M HO‘4b| O. . Ilnn aroro VlCl1OIlb3yeTCF| MHOFO caeuefi. H0 no~nM HW-ie| 'O He nenaercsa nnn BeHTW1'iluV| M. M3-3a uero nocrosmno He xsaraer ceexero eoanyxa. .. KaKMX nocnencramh MO)KHO >K11aTb or raxmx fy6L4TenbHblX ycnoaMM? D X! 'lOflKOBble d>a6pMKM pacnonoxenbu 3 6onbLuMx 3naHMnx M ycrpoenbt Tax. ‘-| TO5bl XVIII 3. M3 nporoxona 3acenaHm71 nanarb: o6LL¢MH o >Kano6e wecanbmwxoa Luepcm rpacpcraa , £1eaoHwMp ‘-IecanbmMr<M mepcm npocm paapewermn yxaaan; nanare Ha TO, -410 Mao6pe- reHMe M npMMeHeHMe MaLuMHbl nnn pacuecuaanm LUepCTM peaxo cHM>+<aer cnpoc Ha rpyn. .. OHVI cumanor, -no acero onna Maumua c nomouwo onnoro aapocnoro pa6oT- HVlKa M «Iempex MnM nnm nerefi MO>KeT nenana Ty xe paéory, Kaxyro Bbll1OIlH$'HOT 30 uenoaex O6bHHblM py-mum cnoco6oM. .. Konmuecnao Maluw-I. .. oucrpo pacrer ao ecem Koponeecrae, naryénbze nocnencrsun Hero y>+<e nocrawouuo -4yBcTaMrenbnu, nocxonbxy MHOFVIM He xearaer paéom M enbu. Bce name HGAOBOJIBCTBO cba6pwu1ux pafioqnx BBIIIJICCKHBBJIOCB B 6yH'r nporma Mamnn. Pafiownmcn npuaanncb Ha q)a6pm<n, nomamx Henanncwnme cwamm, a mxorna cxmrann name cpafipmmbxe anamm. Taxux monefi naaunann ' <«-nynnnramm , no xmexm Hana Jlynna — rononm, 1<o'rop1.n"« mco6u nepabm paa6nJ1 ‘ BH3a. I!bHbIe cwamcn Ha qynoqnofi q)a6pmce. 01* paapymnwenbnbtx neficwanfi npennpunnmawenn uecnn Gonbnme y61,1'ncu :1 -rpefionamx or npannrenbcrna samm-L1. Hapnamerrr npmuux aarcon o cmepwuofi xaann aa noptxy Manmn. He- ' 166 penrco nna pacnpan c Jlymmramn ncnonbaonann BOGHHYIO cmty. ;. Omanunue neixcrsna nynnmon He Momn ocranoanrb ycnemnoro xona ; “, 2 npomuumennoro nepeaopora. Ero ocaoanme wrorn c'rany'r conepmenno meann- _« HLIMH TOJIbK0 3 XIX 3., no 3 XVIII 3. ofinapyxcmxocb rnanuoe — npenmymecwno 1. 1*’ Mammmoro nponanoncnaa nan Manytpawrypofi. Manmnnoro Tpyna Han pyqnbm. (*5. Hpomumnennbm nepenopor coanan axonomuqecxnfi cbynnamenr nna noaoro
  • 169. , KPHBHC «CTAPOFO FIOPSUIKA». HAL‘! /U10 MOHEPHHBALLHI/ I Te N78 _l . _ . ... _.__. __. ... éypxcyaanoro o6m; ec'rBa, nnnnmncb ommm H3 Baxcuefimnx npoaBJ1eHm7I ICpPI3PI- ca <<c'raporo nopamca». Anrnnficxne I«I3o6pe'reH1m 6L1c'rpo nponmum B apyme ’ C'I‘p8HbI. Ha pyfiexce XVIH-XIX BB. B031-IPII-CJI8. noc'ro5IHHa51 Tara xc Texmmecxomy o6HoBJ1eHmo — Mopgepnnaannn. 1. Ifarcue uameuenwz npoucxoéuau e aueauficxoa arcouomuce ua pydeorce XVI —XVII ee. ? 2 2. Elmo npuaxzexaao auezzullcrcyro dypalcyasuro a nypumauusme u rte ycmpau- i eazzo 8 aumuxaucxofi ueprcau? ' 3. Houemy napnamenmcxan apmzuz e nauane zpaolcéancrcozi aofmu aezlcmeoea. /ta neydarmo, a same»: Havana nodealcaamb? I 4. Rozaa u no rcarcum npuuunam rzpousomezz nepenonz 6 zpanlcaancxoa 6011- He? C rcaxum codbtmuem caizsano ezo uauano? 5. Elmo Baem ocuoeanun cuumamb npometcmopam Ifpo. -.zee. ruz eoeuuofi Burcmamypoit? 6. ‘fem omJLur¢aJzacb pecmaepupoearmaa Monapxwz om aopeeo. /uozguonnoll? 7. Hpaeuxtbuo Jlll H. a3bt8a)7lb eocyfiapcmeermbul nepeaopom 1688 e. «CJza6- noit peeomouuetl»? 8. Eaxumu 6blJllt nocnedcmeun aepapuozo nepeeopoma? Houeuy c= Luma- emcn, umo on noaeomoawt nottsy 611;: npomuumeunozo nepeeopoma? M oorcuo Jzu oepanuuueamb nponzbtwaeuubtfl nepeeopom I710./ '£bICO mexuu- Itecrcumu uoeoaeeaeuwwu? I 3A, lIAHI/ IF] 1. I70nbITal71TeCb oueHMrb aenrenbnocrb Kpomse/19 B Kaqecrae npasurenn i AHFIMM. ‘#70 8 H617! npeoénaaano — I'lOJ70)KI4Tel'IbHbIe mm orpuuarenbuble ' MOMeHTbI? 2. Ha ocHosaHm4 orpblsxa M3 «Emma o npaaax» oxapaxrepuayivre KoHcmTy- Lmounyto Mouapxmo. f7o~: eMy ee Ha3bIBaIOT Ta/ once «napnaMeHrcKoF1»? 3. Mcnonbsyn Marepnan y-4e6Hm<a, cocraabre ra6/muy «OcHosHbIe n3o6pe- Terms Ha‘-Ial1bHOl'O nepuoaa npomblwnet-moro nepesopora». VIM? 3H3‘-IeHMe M3°6peTeH"e n3o6peTarenn naofiperermn I E i I 4. Onnpancb Ha I'IpMB9,£16HHbIe B yve6HMKe , £IOKyMeHTbI, oxapanepusyfire ycno- H ' am? Tpyaa d>a6pmHb1x paéownx. B '-IGM OHM ame/ m npwmubl csoux 6e, qcram71? Flosao/ mlor / m coo6LueHm1 , aoKyMeHro3 gonycrwrb, -no ny, a,amcKoe , £1BM)K9- I-me so3Hm</1o He cny-Iafiuo ? KaK Bbl , ayMaeTe: MOIYM nu , aev'1crama nyxmmos nomewarb aanbHet71weMy pasanrmo I'IpOMbluJJ7eHHOI'O nepesopora? I; "’ ' <I>PAHI_II/ IH B 3EHHTE _ J / ‘ - - - MOFYIIIECTBA 167 Kopom. -connne Jhononmc XIV. Bmfina no6enm*enL1n»me1‘«i 143 Tp1»1,1mamJ1e'r- (( Her‘? ! Bofinm, Cbpanmm B0 B'ropo1‘71 noJIoBnHe XVII B. npeBpa'r1»IJIacL B 0,1130 143 ‘f Hau6oJ1ee Morymecwnennux rocy;1apc'rB Enponm. IIocJIe cMep'rn Jlzozxonmca XIII _ . . K0pOJ'IeM c'ra. n ero rm'rmIeTHm‘»’x CLIH Jlxonomm XIV (1643-1 715), a xopoJ1eBoI‘»'I— (7 . _
  • 170. L, -'/ C —/ 3 H0806 BpeMfi ( aropasv nonosuua XVII - XVIII rs. ) pererrroxvr — Man. Manonernero Moaapxa Anna Ancrpnficxax. <Da1c'mqec1<1»1 BJIaCTb oxcaaanacb 13 pyxax ee acecmrbnoro q)aBopn- T8 — nepnoro Mnnncwpa, Kapnnnana Jlmynno _. Maaapmm. Tananmxxsbtfi n11n. r1oMa'1', on / , nposonnn nenonyzmpaylo cpenn q)pan11y- ~ 303 Bnyrpenmoxo IIOJIHTPIKY, trro 351333.710 _ ‘jg rpaxcnaucxyxo Boixxy — Cbponny. Ilorcontmn * ‘ ‘ c Heft, c1)paH11y3cKm‘«‘1 a6co. r11o'ru3M Bc'ry11m1 ’ ‘ I B cnofi cazvmix 6J1ec'm1m11‘»'1 nepnon, C3838!! - _‘ 1151171 c KMGHBM Jlxonosmca XIV. . . ..' <DpaH11y3c1cm‘& Mouapx 65m yéexcneu 3 , ~; 6o>1cec'r13ermoM npopxcxoxcnermn 1copoJ1e3- ‘ . cxofi Imacm 11 ynepen B ee 6earpam1r1Hoc'rxa. ~ ‘ “. Eme 3 17-. r1e'r11eM Bo3pac're on abrpasrm a'ro ': . B 3naMe1m'ro171 q)pa3e, anpeconannofi H8110- - xopnmm rmeuam nepxonnoro cyna: «B51 ny- ruawmm Pam Hanan” XIV. 1701 2_ Mann, rocnona, rrro rocynapcwno — 3'10 nu? Pocynapcrso — 3'10 :1!» Hposnamxe KODOJII: -COJIHIIE IIOHBHJIOCB, Korna 15-newunfi Jhononmc c'ran11e~ Ban 3 on11oM 113 npnnnopx-tux 6aJ1e'ro3 napwmo <v Comma, paaronmomero 'r1.My». 0110 61.1c-rpo 11 npoqno CJIHJIOCB c mvreuem Monapxa, 1co'rop1.11‘»'1, eras B3pOcJI1>lM qezxoaexom, coanarensao noompsm xmsonncuea 11 cxynsuropoa n3o6pax<a'r1. ero n Bane Mnqmqecxoro Anonnoua — 6ora comma. I/ Inexo coécraennoro Benmrna JI1onoBmc XIV BOIIJIOTKJI 13 Bepcane - rpaH- nnoarxom nBop11oBoM a11caM6:1e, pacnonoxcennom 1361111311 Ilapvmca. Taoperme Jryqmnx apxnwercropon 11 canonnmcoa, Bepcanb nopaxcan t1e'1'1<oc'r1.1o 11 1»13b1c1caH- 11oc'rb1o tpopm, nneanbnoii ynopanoqennocwbro napxa. 011 c1'aJ1 Henunanamm no '1-oro CKMBOJIOM rcoponeacxoro Morymecwna, o6pas11oM nnx Bcex Monapxon Enponu. Jhononmc nepenec crona cnoro peanneanmo, npenpamn 1<opo. r1encxm”1 nnop 13 nerrrp nonnrxmecxofi 11 o61nec'rBem1ofi muaxn Cbpanlmn. Koponb ncerna nep>xaJ1c11 npocro 11 Beam: /130: on xnananca no nnopne na- xce ropnmmum. BMec're c 'reM mvtermo 3 npasnezme Jlrononmca XIV noarmx nbrmnbxii 11 c'rpor11i‘1 npnnnopnbxii 11epeMo1u1a. r1, npnanaaamfi aoaaennqnnan. nepcoay xcopona. Kaxcnuix ero mar - or y'rpe1mero npo6yxcne1ms1 11 onenamm no nettepnero o'rxona xo cxy - npenpamancn 3 cnoxcnoe pnryanbuoe neficwno, aa KOTODLIM r1ov1'm're.111.11o 11a6mona. rm Mnoroqucnenanre npnnnopnme. JI1ono13n1c coanan 11onJ1mmL1i’1 rcymyr Monapxa. B Enpone He 61.1110 naopa, 1<o'rop1.u‘& 61:1 He c'rpeMm1cs1 1<om1pona'r1. 3'ro'r cmm. npnnnopuoiix xcnarm. Ropome. 131m1<aJ1 no Bce ne'ram1 rocynapcrneunoro ynpanneuna 11 npotmo nep- man B cnonx pyrcax pbmam nnacm. ‘I'ro 61.1 1111 upennarann ero Munucwpu, no- cnennee K oxom1a're. z1L11oe cnono Bcerna oc'ra13a. nocb 3a JI1ono13111<oM. Cymecmonan JIHIIIL onnn txenoaex, 6e3 yqera Mnemm xorroporo uopom. He 11pmmMa. r1 an onaono Bamnom pememm, — M1«1rmc'rp qnmancoa 9I{a11 Bamcr ICoJ11.6ep (1619-1683). Xpamnem xoponencxoii xcasnu. Kom.6epy 61.mo xopomo nanecmo, wro cu- ‘ na rocynapcnaa sanncm o'r cocromma qmnancon, xoropme, 13 came oqepenb, Tecno cnaaanbx c a1<o11oMm<o1‘2‘1. Hoaroxvxy Mm= mc'rp 11oc'ros11111o ynemm Burma- Hne 11poM1.1mJ1e1moMy paanwrmo c'rpa11L1, ncsmecrm noompsm rbpannyacxnx
  • 171. KPI/ l3HC «CTAPOFO HOPHIIKA». HA‘-‘IAIIO MOIIEPHHBALLVIH ‘ Iflapm; JIe6peu. Ocaonanne Axanemmi nayx JIIo11o3mcoM XIV. XVII 8. ' Ifzzoa JIe¢pesp. Bamcw Konbfiep npezznpnnnmawenefi H KOMMepCaHTOB. Ho ero nnunnawnne Manyqzamrypm noJ1y- qann rcpezmwbx 14 Hanoronbxe JIbI‘0TI: I. OHM 6mc'rpo aansum Jrmmpyzomne no3n- u;1m Ha BHyTpeHHeM pmmce. Kaqecnao Haunonanbnux TOBap0B ynyqmnnocb, trro ofiecnetnmo HM amxon Ha esponeficxne pmmm. Bcrony BBICOKO nenmmcb u3ro'roB. neHm.1e B0 <I>paHmm memconue Trcarm, rofienenm, rcpyoicena. Ounc- Bpemenno, samnmaa q>paH11y3c1cm‘«’1 DHHOK. o'r 1moc'rpaHHo1‘»'1 Iconxypennnn, Ronbfiep Been amcorcne nomnnum Ha nnocwpannue Tosapm. I/ Ix nocwynnenne no <1>paH11mo pesxo ynano. Cnoxo IIOJIPITPIKY — npo're1<n; noHn3M — ICoJu.6ep ocy- nJ; ec'rBJmJ1 ncrcycno :4 yrsepezmo. JI1o6nMmM 11e'rnn1eM RoJ1L6epa 61:13 qmow, Ha Hyxcpgu xoroporo MPIHHCTD HH- xorna He xcanen cpep; c'rB. I/ Iamenerma nponaounm npocwo pa3n'reJu. HLIe: c Tpex 1copa6J1ei«’1 14 mec'r1»1 ranep tppanuyacxufi q). rIo'r BbIp0C 110 270 1copa6.ne1‘«‘1 PI 60 raJIep. . . / . V>¢ w-»- A- I Lflapzw JIe6peu. JI1o;1onm< XIV uocemaew «O're. ru. rofienenom. XVII 6. . _j_. _—- . ?._: ;.—. =_. ... j:. ..—__. ..__. _.. .¢. .:4 4 .
  • 172. 1 1 IL"; H0808 BpeMfi ( Bmpay nonoauna XVII — XVIII B. ) I V K V ‘~‘ I; I£onb6ep c'raBn. n uenb ynntrroxcwrb MOPCKOC npeofinananne I‘JI8BI1hIX 'l‘OpI‘0Bl>IX A’ conepmm (Dpamnm - Pomranzmn PI Anrmm PI ofiecnetmrrb eii nepnencwno Ha Mopax. Ho9'roMy on Bcerna naxonun cpe, uc'raa mm crponwenbcrna Topronux cynos. Bo Ibpanmm noanmcma Moumme 1-opronbre xomnamm: 0c'r-I/ Imxcxaa aena Aena Ha Teppwropnn cospemenuofi I/ Iuzxoneamx, a Bec'r-Hxmcxaa — 3 Ame- pmce. Om: Topronanu Bcexvx — o'r caxapa no pa6oB, no Talc H ne cmomm IIOTGCHPITB I‘o. nJIaH, z1mo B Mexmynaponnoii Toproane. Ilnan Konbéepa npoaannnca, oxmaxo ero nomrmxa 5JIaI‘0TBOpH0 nonmuuxa Ha cocrosnme tbpalmyacxoii axonommm. ‘ XVII s. Xan Eamcr Konbfiep. M3 «flwcem, aocnoMm4aHm'1 / 44 HacraeneHm7:» , / / ’ 2 Kpome Tex Bbl| 'OD. , Koropbze caMo no ce6e Morno 5b! npvmecm nocrynnerme a Koponeacrso Kpynnbux neHe>+<Hbux cpencra, Mbl, onaronapn Mauyqaanm/ paM. o6ecne- qwm 65: xne6oM Hacyuu-cum Mmnnmon npocToro mona. 6e;1c'rayromero Hb| He 913-33 07- cyrcrsma saumvm. .. 3|-la‘-IV| TenbHbl|7l pocr Konvmecrea Kopaénefi eme 6onee ycunwr aenwme M MOUJ. b rocynapcma. Ecnm xce K ecvecraermomy Morymecrsy mpanuvm xopom. cMo>+<er npncoenvmmb cvmy. xoropyno nam flpOMblLUfleHHOCTb VI Toproann. .. TO aenwme V! Morymecrao KO- ponn aoapacryr no He5bIBaI1blX paamepos. Boiinm Jlxonomnca u enponeiicxne rocy11ap- < crna. B npanneune Jlronomuca XIV ero apmna He J ‘ noxnnana noun cpaxcenuix Ha npormxeann 30 new. 1'Ipe'reH, z1ysI Ha pom. <«o6u1eeBpone1?'icKoro MoHap- xa», KODOJIL ocyuxecrnmm noJm'rm<y Teppn'ro- pnanbnmx aaaoesannfi. Bea scsumx ocnoaannfi tbpannyscxne noiicxca aaxaawum Bonbnmfi ropon Crpacfiypr. Bro BhI3BaJIO 13 enponefxcxnx cwpanax Bonny aoamymeuua. Cwryaxma o6oc'rpn. nacb B 1685 r. , Icorna JIro- . . aoamc ormemux Hamcxnii 3p; m<'r. FYPGHOTBI non- ‘ Bepmmcx. npecnenonannamz nx xpamu pa3py- mann, nacwopon Bbxromum, IIIKOJIBI saxcphmwm. Camnx ryrenoron HaCHJIl>H0 npmxyxczmrm nepe- xoxurn. 3 Karommecwao. Talc Jhozzonmc aanesmcs yc'raHonn'r1. 3 cnoem rocynapcwae pennrnosnoe I . - ennncwao. no pe3ym. 'ra'r oxcaaanca concem HHLIM. Ouono 200 Tue. ryreaowon, npenmymecmeano OIILITHHX pemecnennmcon n KOMMepCaHTOB, no- ; xxmyma Cbparmmo. Onn nanzum upmow n coce; z- ‘ 1, max npowecwanrcxnx crpanax :4 3 Honom CBe're, " xyzza He TOJILKO abmeanu orpomnme cpencwna, no rx cexperm csoero peMec. na. Macconbxfi ncxozz ryre- noroa nanec omywumhxii y, n;ap no dapauuyscrcofi axconommce. Ha arpeccnnuylo nonwrlmy Jlrononmca Eapona o'rBe1-nna cosnarmem axrruqapaunyacxofi : coaJm- mm. Cromcaonenne Mexcny c'ropouaMn C'I‘8HOBfl- F-“°5YC- "’P‘""4""- XV” 3- JIOCB Hemmyembxm, a ayxcnbtii noaon, rcax acerna,
  • 173. KPVBHC «CTAPOFO I'lOP$U1K/ ‘-n. HAHNTO MODEPHVBALIHH aamenca. B 1700 r. , He ocraaun npsmux Ha- cnemimcon, ymep rcopom. I/ Icnamvm Rapn II. 01-! aaaexnan caofi Tpon anyxy Jlrononmca XIV npn ycnomm, vrro ncnancxaa PI cbpauuyacxaa 1copo- - - nu nmcorzza He orcaaxymca B ommx pyrcax. 011- 4*‘ "=1 ’‘'‘'‘''‘‘'“'= -*‘ *, E- ‘ » Haxo Jlxononmc He coéupanca npnnepxcnnawbca I 3' ‘ “ Q. ‘ a'roro npenocrepenceana. Kan Tonmco ero Bnyxa I; . ‘ nposoamacmm 3 I/ Icnamm xcoponem <I>mmn- ' 4 ' . 110M IV, Jlxononmc aaammz cllnpeaeea 60.711-. >II! e He cymec'rBye'rI» Benz: B I/ Icnauvm H Cbpanmvm Tenepb npaamxa oxma nnnacrna - Bypéonm, co6c'rneHnm<u ruraxrrcxux ananenufi. ‘lpeamepnoe ycmrerme Cbpamum Bmanano oémeeaponeilcxyio Bofiny 3a ucnaacxoe Hac. nen- c'r3o. Ona conpoaoncnanacb mxcenmmn nopa>s<e- ammn <I>paH1mn, noa'roMy Map, nonnncannmfi B Bepcane nocne ee orcomxamm, He cnyqafino ctm'raJm «CIIECIITCJIBIILIMD . Ho ero ycnonnam ne- nancxnfi npec'roJ1 coxpansmcn 3a Cbmmnnom V, I-IO eMy npnnmocb oncaaarbca o'r nacnencmennux npaa H8 cppanuyscxcyro Kopoay. IIpeo6na11aHmo Cbpanumt 3 Espone, yc'rano- anamemyca nocne Tpmmawmreraefi 3017mm, Hacwan xoaeu. 3'ra nofina oxaaanacb nocnennefi Ana Jlronoamca XIV. Bcxope nocne ee oxormamm K0p0JIb, npannamufi no tbpamnm notrm Tpu qernepwn c'roJxe'm51, ymen P18 xcnann. OH He 6m. n an Benmmm nonwruxom, rm Bemucnm nomcononuem, omiaxo nmemao npn Jlxoaonmce XIV so Ibpamnm I oxouqawenbno npercpanumcb Mencnoycofinnm H aasepmxmocb cbopmnponanne rocyzzapcm-Ba. Hpannenne Koponn-comme oanameaoaanocb Tax- ace coananneu nommmimx meneapon 3 ctpepe xynyrypm. '); -r'-: '-¢v.4%- .1"' - Ayzmemma nancxoro nocna y Jlxononruca XIV. .71 u mozpazpwz ¢panuy3cmu‘i mlaccmmam. Cmvnaonom rcyJu. ~.- Typu Ibpannnn c'ra. n nonufi xynomecraennmfi c'mm. - rmaccmmam (OT JIa'l‘. - odpasuoebui). Totmee a'ro Haanaane osaatxaew — cocnonaunmfi Ha Knaccmce», 'r. e. H8 nponanezxemmx, npnauam aux nepnmnofi cosepmeacraa. Taxmvm mm 'I‘B0pU,0B ruxaccmmsma 61.1111»: naxvurmmcu aH'ruq- uocm n ncxyccwna Boapoxcnenns. I/ I,z1eaJ1oM, nocrofiamm nonpaxcamm, mm npexcne scero cqwrann c1o>xe'ru us anrnqnoii Mncponornn u PIC'l‘0pHH. Knaccmmam ywnepnnnca no Cbpammn B cepemme XVII 3., xorna a6co. mo'rnaa Monap- xnx nocwnrna pacunera. I/ Icxyccwao Toma nema- Jxocb oqem. Bucoxco. rocynapcwno noompmm ero Tnopuoa, no nmranocb aacwaawn. nx cnymnu. cnomvx mrrepecam. Pnaanufi noaynr xnaccmmama — cPa3yM H nopsmox no ncem o . Ero 'reope'rmm 6mm y6ex<, z1e- nu, ‘rro ocaoau xpacaru 3 ncrcyccrae 3arcJxa11m- . Man Hoxpe. JI1o11oam< XIV 3 oépaae IOmnepa. OK. I 6 70 2.
  • 174. I I ’ Honoe Bpe/91$? Isropay no/ r<‘urm. ua XVII « XVIII B. ) . . . *4 ~1> . ‘:_A, _ . ;{. ... ‘». Myabmanbnuil Temp. 1740 Ba1o'rc51 ‘IGTKI/ IMH npammamu. I/ IM HYJKHO neyzcnonuo cnenosarb, owfipacbnaax ace (1)an'rac'rw-Iecxoe u nenpmanonoaoéuoe. Raxcnmfi xcanp, xamnoe nponsaezlexme MC- xcyccnsa neoéxommo C‘0311&lBaTb no onpez1e- * I JICHHBIM aaxouam, He nmxons aa ux paMKH. Bbxcume 11oc'm>§<e1-ms xnaccxmnama cm- aaam c 'rea'rpoM. Hepaooqepezmaa pom; o'r- aozmnacb zxpamaryprnn, xoropaa nomxaa 651118. onuparbca Ha upanmlo Tpex ezmucwn - npemenn. MBCTB u neixcrana. 310 oanaqano, wro Bce cofibmm xnaccvmecxofi nsecbx uponc— xozumn B 01130 apemn, cnytxanncb 3 onnom nbep Kopfleju, Mecwe H paamxnanncb 3 pamcax TOJIBKO on- Hoii c1o>x<e'rHo171 JIHHPIK c neéonbnmm KOJIH- tIec'rBoM nepconaxcefi. B 'rea'rpe Bosnmcna ' onpeneneuaaa cnc'reMa mrronannfi pr mec- T03. Axrepbx aoaabxmez-mo z1ex<. naMupoBa. rm, naofipaxcaemue mvm repon PI repomm Bcerna , Burnanenu Bemmecwaennumn. }~ Y ucwoxoa 'rea'rpa, ocnosaunoro Ha arnx ~ npunnurxax, c'ro51.r1 Hbep Kopnem. (1606- 1684). B cnonx Tparennax Ha uc1'op1mec- K148 cxoxcewm (« Cruz» , «1"opa1mi'x» ) on H306- paaxm repoea, npenannmx rpaxcnaucxomy ‘ Aonry 14 cnyoxemuo Ha 6J1aro rocyzxapcraa. ‘~ I . I Jlpyrnm BbI1Ia1OII1IdMC5I , z:paMa'ryproM anoxu V ‘ Knaccmmama 651.71 Jlcan Pacnn (1639-1699). Ocnony ero nponanenennii (<~Am1poMaxa» , <<(De, z1pa= >) coc'raBJ1sJm arrrnqnme c1o>xe'rb1, repon xoropmx nppmocmm cnon cmrsnme 31588 PBCHH txyacraa B x<ep'r3y cymecwnylomnm aa- xoaam. Peuepwyap cbpaunyacxoro 'rea'rpa anoxu xnaccmmama mcmoqan Taxxce K0- Mezmn. I/ Ix 'I'B0pI10M c'ra. n }I€an Barucr Monsep (1622-167 3). B cnonx nbecax
  • 175. KPVBHC «cmporo FIOPFUIKA». HA‘-{M10 MODEPHHBALMH T(~). 'v; 8 Monsep Monsep 3 poma cmeumoro Monauxa 3 cnewraxne on Tecno coennnml xoxvuwecrcoe 14 Tpamtxecxoe, 3mcMen3a. r1 nenocwarxu 06- mecrna: narnoe Jmnemepue cnameunmcon (<<Tap'rxocp»), 5eCCMbICJIeHHOe c'rpeM. ne1me pa36ora'reau1ero éypxcya noxonwu. Ha maopmmaa («Memarma no naopaacrse»), rnynocrb H x<aJ1Hoc'rb(«I'Ipo11eJnm Czcanena» ). Bepmuaofi cppamxyacxoro xnaccurmsma 3 xmaonncn annsuxocb 'r3opqec1'- 30 Hmcona Hyccena (1594-1665). BOJIbI1IyIO qacn: xmsau xynoxcnmc, yan- BHTGJILHO ofipaaoaannmfi qenonerc, pa6o'ra. n B I/ I'ram«m. C1o>x<e'r31 ero Kaprnu 3 ocnonnom uaneauu aH'l‘Id‘{HbIMH o6paaaMn H KMGIOT Juarrepa-rypnyxo ocnony (<vTa. m<pe11 H Bpmmmn» , «Aprca. ucxne r1ac'ryxm ). 3aMe'rHoe Mec'ro 3anuMa1o'r nefiaaxcn. Bcerna Hacenenume Mmbonornqecxumn n 6n6J1ex”4c1cnMn repomvm (<-IIex‘»'x3a>§< c Pepxynecom ~»> , mum <- ‘Ie'r3xpe Bpemenu rona» ). Hyccea 3ocne3a. n Morytmia paaym, npexpacnmfi Nmp u cosepmenumx repoea, aepamx cnoemy rpaxcnancxomy nonry. Bomromexmem nonoro cwmm 3 apxnrewrype c'ra. n Bepcam. — rmon co3Mec'r- noii pa6o'rm MHOJKGCTBB apxm~e1c'ropo3, c1<yJx3n'ropo3 H cazxoaamcoa. I‘Jxy- 6o1cm‘»'1 uenwrenb xnaccmmama Jlxonosmc XIV npumacnn nx mm cosnauna aHcaM6Jm, npnanannoro npocnannsrrb Monapxmo. B xoponeacxofi pe3n, z1eH- umx rcnaccxmecxcax apxnwewrypa coemmena c pocxcomnbm mrrepbepom — Me- nanbouamn, apxamn 14 xcononuamu, uarowoaneanmmn us 5pOH3bI, Mpamopa H nermmx nopon nepeaa. a Taxxce c xy;1o>xec'r3en3oi& pocnncmo cwea n c3o;1o3, cxynbnwypofi n Meéenmo, nannmaqrrom n napxom. Bepcanbcxnfi napx pactmnyncn Ha 'rpn xunomewpa. Omaaxo ero nemco OCMO’l‘- pen finaronapa cwporofi ynopsnoqeanocwn. RYCTBX amcyparno noncrpnxcenm, amlen nepecercaxowca non upaxvmmn ymamn, maewnmcn coanazor npanmlbnme reomerpnqecxne qmrypm, Gaccefinhx nMe1o'r aepxanbao rnanxyxo nonepxnocwb. Taxoii napx nonytmn naaaarme perynnpamfi, mm <1)pa1my3crmi’1. TBOpI. IbI xnaccmmama 3epmm, Irro uenb ncxyccraa coc'ron'r 3 npeo6pa3o- j BBHKK MHD8 H qenoaexa, 3 npemaopemm m1ea. no3 xpacowm 3 xcnanb. Ozmaxoé ’ Ha cnyxcfie Monapxnn 30331?! C'l‘IrIJIb ace 6o. nee npuo6pe'raJ1 qepwu nmmnofi :1
  • 176. H0806 BpeMH (Bropan nonoauna XVII — X VIII B. ) I Hbep Hammb. Bun Bepcaaxbcxoro zmopua c noporu Ha Hapmx xonozmofi 'rop>xec'rBeHHoc'ru. Ilpyrne enponeifxcxne crpanm noqyncraoaann H8 ce6e ero Bmumue, H0 B I1eJ1oM coxpanmm B XVII 3. Bepnocn. fiapoxrco. Jm any docmu-lb caoeit umu? 2. If Iteuy cmpewuxzcn Jhodoaurc XIV. omJueruu1 Haumctcua afiutcm? Coom- aemcmeosaxz . /Lu peaxzbubui peayxwmam ruzauam xopoxm? 3. ‘I mo u. ue. u 6 auay Jlrodoeurc XIV, rcoeda nocne npo3o3e. /tauzeuua eeo euyxa ucnancxum rcopo. ae. u <DuJ: unnoJu Vsaaauzlr «Hupenees 6o. rwzue ue cyu4e— cmayem»? 4. B '¢e. M cocmwuzu ocotieunocmu mzaccuuusma? Hottexy on eoanurc unen- uo so cbpauuuu u antenna 8 cepefiune XVII 6.? & 1. ifarcyto udeto ex. /zaduaa. /z J1 todoaurc XIV 6 nocmpoeuue Bepcamz? Ydaaocb I 3A, £IAHl/ I9 1 . Ha ocnose npuaeaermoro orpbzaxa M3 . aoKyMeHra nonbzrafirecb sbmcumb: -no, no y6exa1eHmo )KaHa Bamcra Konbdepa, cocraann/1o ocHoay MoryLue- craa rocy, aapcTea? I7o«4eMy raxoe 6o/ Ibwoe auawemae cppauuyacxm? Mm-mcrp npmzasan crpourenbcray dmora M xaxofi ue/ m on crpewmcn 3TMM, l1OCTW-lb? I'Ipoao, an caoro nonumxy, Konbdep aadomncn TOJ7bKO o Be/ mtmn xopo/ In mm gyman ranoke o Hyxgaax npocroro Hapoaa ? C3014 paambuunenun o6ocHyfire. 2. Mcnonbayn , £lOI'IOJ7HMT6l7bHyIO / mreparypy, nqaroroabre coo6Luem4e o reop- wecrae o. aHoro M3 auaaloumxcn npeacraaurenefi cppauuyacxoro macaw- uu3Ma. 1 74 2 2 . E . cnanm: IIPOCBEIHEHI/ Ifl Topmecrno ananuii n ucroxu Hpocnemenna. Ha py6ex<e XVII-XVIII as. 3 Eapone cnomnnocb H0806 unefiuoe Teqezme — Hpocnemenne. Ero nommenne 651110 nonroronneno uamenemmmn 3 ycnommx xcnann, xowopme nponcxonmm
  • 177. KPVBHC «CTAPOFO HOP5U1KA». HA‘-{N10 MOIIEPHI/ I3/L1H|4 non smmnnem paaawrmi xannrannama, ecwecrneuno-Haytmoro nepeaopora n pacupocrpanenun paxmonamxama - Bepu B éearpanwmue BO3MOJKI-IOCTH = :e- Jronetxecxoro paayma. XVIII B. Bomen B ncwopmo Kan anoxa Ilpocnemenmx — anoxa u3MeHeHm‘»'I 14 oénoanemm. Om: aawparnaanu ne xaxyxo-To omiy, a paanme ctbepu ncnsnn — pennrmo K nomrrmcy, oépasoaanne n Bocmnanne, xynyrypy n ucxyccrno, nayxy n Texmucy. I/ Igzeanamn Hpocnememm c'raJm map, Henacwme, nepo'repnu- MOCTB, xpwrnqecxoe ornomenne K a3'ropm~e'raM (nonbaonymcrno). caofiona, finarococroanue n cqacrbe monefi. Tarme men pacnpocrpamumcb He Tonbxo n Enpone, no PI 5 Honom CBe're, 11pno6peJm unrepnannouanbuufi xaparcrep. BMec- 're c 'reM B Kaxcnofi cwpane Ilpocnemerme coxpansmo caon ocofiennocm. IIo cpannenmo c Hecnozcoiinum, aanonneanum Bofimaxvm XVII 3., anoxa Ilpocnemenmz 6m. na ormeqena onpenenenuoifx noJm'rw1ecxoi'1 c'ra6n. nbnoc'rb1o, DOCTOM axonommcn. ynytxmermem 6u'rom.1x ycnosnii, xynvrypauun , z1oc'ru- xcenmmu. 31'}: noawmnnme cznmm noanomum uanesrrbcaz xcnaxu. qenonexa Moxcuo namemrrb K JIY'-{IIleMy. Mmcnnwenn T0171 anoxn — npocBe'n«rre.7m - aepmm 3 «ecrecrneaauii cne'r paaymao . I10 nx Mnenmo, qenoaex, Kare cymecwao pa3yM- Hoe, npnanan nepecrpowm. o6mec*rBo Ha paaymnmx Haqanax, c'rom' JIMLIJB KCIIO. TIb- aoaawb aanoxcennue B Kaxczzom CIl0CO5HOC'I‘PI. 11351 More nlonefi Heofixonmvxo aocnnwuzan. :4 upocnemarb, a B o6mec'rne pacupocrpamrrb noneanme wanna n naytmme 0’l'KphI'I'Hfi. Ho yfieagnenmo npoc3e'ru- Tenefi, TOJIBKO c nomommo ananuifx MO)KHO 62.1110 1IOC'l‘ld‘Ib 6.r1arococ'roamm n npouneranna. XVIII B. enponeficxofi ncroprm He cnyqaifxno uaabraarow 4-anoxox‘/ '1 paayma» . Bepa B cnny ana- xmfi, B'noc'rmxeHm1 Hayxn 14 Texamcn nana Ton- txorc soaauxaoaeumo nnen nporpecca — ney1u1oH- uoro npozxnmxenun qenoseqecwna anepen. Fnaanue unen Ilpocnememm ponmmcb B Anrmm. B XVII B. Amvma samemo onepezmna 6om, m1mc'r3o eaponeiicxcnx c'rpaH 3 nc'ropvmec- xom pasawrma la c'ra. na cnoeoépasnmm o6pa3x1oM oémecraennoro nporpecca. Ocnonu aarnnficxoro Ilpocnemeznm aanoxcnn abmaxomnficn MbICJ'IH- Tenb llxcon JIo| c1¢(1632—1 704). OK ywsepaxnan. trro npn poncnemm ace moan coananm panam- MH :1 noromy mwexor ecrecwneanue npana Ha J-KPISHB, cBo6o11y H C06C'I‘BeHHOCTb. llns o6ecIIe- qemm n aamwrbx a'mx npan mom/1 AO6p0BOJIb- no sarcmoqaiow Memny co6o1‘«'1 oémecmennmfi noroaop, cnyxcaumfi ocnosoii mm cozmamm rocynapcrna n aoanmmonemm mcynapcrnennofi nnacm. B cnyqae napymeuma rocynapcrneaaoii nnacrmo o6mec'raeanoro noroaopa n nocxra're. m.c'r3 c ee croponm na nmmyro c3o6o11y n co6c'raem1oc'rr. nomanumx, napoa nmeer aa- xonnoe npano nameawrb Taxyro BJI&CTb. Hpomnnun aficomomama, Jlomc 3 nepnon pecraspannn C'r1oap'ron 65m nmayxcnen amnrpuponawb B Fonnaunmo n nepnyncn Ha pommy TOJIBKO nocne aoccranonnenna xoncrnryunoanofi Monapxnu. Heynnnwrenbno, -no on aa- nymmaanca nan rem, xaxc n36exca'rb qpeamepnoro ycmxeana rocynapcraeunofi anacrn. Tax soanmma ages 0 ee pasnenez aaxoaonarensnaa BJ18.C’I‘b nomxaa enigma. ‘ 175
  • 178. HOBOE ape/ vm (aropan nonosuna XVII - XV/ II 5. ) éhma naxonmmcs y npencrannwenbuoro oprana — uapnamerrra, a ncnomamem. - nan - y Moaapxa n npannwenbcraa. Oco6y1o pom Jloxx OTBOJIPIJI co6Juo;1eHmo npmmpma aarconnocm. On ywnepmnan, trro «mm mm ozmoro wenoaexa. Haxo- namerocs 3 rpaxcnaacxom oémecrae. He M0)Ke'I‘ 6hI'I‘b cnenano ncrcmouenne as saxonos aworo oémecrnao . dlpamxyaclcoe Ilpocnemenue H BoJwrep. CaM1.xi71 M1{oroImcJ1eHHL1i'1 Kpyr 'raJIaH'rJm- Bmx npocsewmenefi cnoxcmrcn B0 Cbpammn. Bnarozxapn mu crpana npeapawnnacb 3 uerrrp esponeficicoii nH'reJIJIexc'ryaJu. HoI7I >KH3l-IPI. O'rc1o, z1a Ayx Hpocsemenmi pac- npocrpaanncs no Bcefi Enpone. Ommm K3 ocHoBa'reJxe1‘71 q)panuy3cxor'o Ilpocaeuzerma 6131.7! IIIapm. Monrecxcné (1689-1755). On x<pn'rm<o3a. rx qnpanuyacxnfi 86COJll0'I‘H3M n c ynancennem omocmlca K aurnnficxofi Roac- 'rn'ryLmoHHo171 Mouapxpm. Bcnen 3a . TIo1c1<oM Morrrecrcbé paannaan Teopmo paanena snac- Tu. B npouanenennu «O nyxe saxonono on nepahnvx amcxasanca 3a HeO5X0,£[I/ IMOCTB pas- rpammurb aarcoaonarenbnyxo (napnamelrr), HCIIOJIHPITBJIBHYIO (monapxmt) H cyneényro qwopmu anacwn c 'reM, wroém rcaacnax na aux Moma peanbno CJIYDKHTI: npornnonecom npyrofzi. 3'ro'r upunnnn Morrrecxbé cqnran pemaxonum B gene oéecneqenmz sarcom- uocrn. Caman 3aMe'rHaa (bnrypa cbpanuyacicoro Hpocnememm - Mapn <DpaHcya Apya, 60- nee nanecwuufi non ucennotmmom BOJILTBD (1694-1 778). Pasnocroponne 'ra. uan'rJmBL1i'I qenoaerc, on 651:1 qmJIocoq>oM, ncwopmcom, rmcarenem. 3a cnon y6e>xnemm n ca'rnpn- qecrme nponasenenua nonnepranca npec. ne- noaammm, naxonmxca B aawoqennn B Bac'rn- JIHH, a aa'reM B ccumce. Jlna c Jmnnnm rona. npoaenenaue 3 Anrmm, yxpenmm npmsep- JKGHHOCTB Bonyrepa K nonnwnqecxofi cao6o- ne n pennrnoaaoii 'repImMoc'rn. Bce npocBe- mermue Juozm Enpoum amum ero npnsunz ¢P&3,U, ’aBHTb ragmsyh, nanpannennmfi upo- mn Morymecwna Kawonnqecuofi nepxnn. BMec're c 'reM rcpwrmca nepxnu He Memana Bonyrepy ocraaawbca ncxpemmm xptwmanuuom. On c! m'ra. n penurmo neoéxonnmofi mm o6mec'rna onopofi Mopanu. no omxonpemeaao DCIIIFITGJIBEO 1 76 nmcrynan aa cnoéony Beponcnonenanna n upocnanmm xmero nepo'repm1Moc'rn. Bonyrep mncorna He ocrananca paaaozxynmum K Hecnpanezumnocni. II. Inpo- xyxo IIOIIYJIHDHOCTB npuo6peJm em nyémmnue sue-rymxermn 3 3aJ1m'1'y Henmmo ocyxcnennux. Mmcnwrenb auamnan yaaxcerme y uexoropux enponeficrmx Moaapxon. Poccuficxaa nmneparpuua Exarepnna II n npyccxnfi K0p0JIh dipnnpnx II, cwpemncb Bmrnanen. cnpocaemennmmn npasnrensuns, rxepe-
  • 179. KPHBMC «CTAPOFO FlOP9U1KA». HAHNIO MOEIEPHMBAUHI/1 W IIPICbIBaJIP[Cb c B0111.'rep0M. Ero 1;1111111111e Ha c01apeMeH11111c0B 61.1110 I-IaC’I‘0JII>KO R CPIJIBHLIM, 1110 XVIII 13. 11 Teuepb Hepezuco 1-1a31,113a10'r «a110xo171 Bo111.'repa». V’ Macconoe _v1311et1eH11e 11p011313ez1eH1111M11 <<13e11111<01'0 0cTp0c11013a>> c1J; e11a110 ero 11Ms1 c11MB0110M 3110x11, , ua110 11a3Ba1111e 11,z1e1‘«'1HoMy 're=1e111110 e13po11e171c1c0ro Mac111'ra6a - «30111,1ep1;s111c'rBy». B0111.'rep IIOJIHOCTLIO 3ac11y>1c1111 11a111111cb, 0cTa1311e1111y10 IIOTOMI-CaMI/ I Ha ero 1v101'1111e: << H031, 11c'r0p111c 11 1111111000111, 1303Be111111111311111171 t1e110Bet1ec1<111’1 pa3yM 11 11ay1m13111111‘71 ero 65111, CBO60,D; HbIM>> . 311111m11one11m1. 1I011111111111.1M 1ue1:eBp01v1 snoxn l'Ip0cBe111,e111151 cTa11a <«31111111<11011e1111H, 111111 T01'11<0B1a11‘»’1 c11013apb 11ay1c, 11c1cyccT13 11 peMece11>> . Ee 11ep1sb11’1 TOM 131.1111e11 B 1751 r. 113-11011 nepa zuzyx aB'I‘OpOB - (1111110- cocba 1Ie1m lhmpo (1713-1784) 11 MaTeMaT111<a }Ka11a }1’A11aM6epa (1717-1783). 01111 13ep111111, 1110 111121111111 11 06pa3oBa1111e CIIOC06HbI npe06pa30BaTb Mnp, 11 110'r0My c'rpeM111111cL 11011ec'r11 110 11111'aTe1151 11oBe171111y10 1111q1opMa- 111110 0 c0c'r0H111111 11ay1<11, 11c1cycc'r13a 11 pa3B11'1'1111 peMece11. H0 np14r11a111e111110 II1111p0 11 1I’A11aM6epa c'ra'rb11 mm <«31111;111<11011e111111» 1111ca1I11 11o, z111111111L1e 311a'r01<11 ma” oupe <1>pago,1ap, cB0e1'o , ue11a - 113BecTHL1e y11eH1.1e 11 1111ca're1111. M1101'11e IIeH11,II1111p0. 1769 1. 113 max BL1c1ca3L113a1111 c1111m1c0M c1v1e111.1e cy11c11e1111s1, 113-3a Hero 1»1311a're11e1‘»'1 06131111111111 1; pac11poc'rpa11e111111 011acHL1x 1w; e1‘»’1. JI’A.11aM6ep 0c'ra131111 «91111111c110r1e111110» , a , Z[11,u; p0 Ha He1co'ropoe 13pe1v1s1 name 11o11a11 B 1<0p011eB- c1cy10 'r10p1,My. H0 B011pe1<11 13ceM Heyps1111111aM «31111H1c- 110ne1111s1>> 11p011o11>1ca11a 13b1x01111'rL. Bcero 6111110 11311aHo 35 TOMOB, co,1:1ep11caB11111x He TOJILKO c'ra'r1.11, 110 'ra1<>1ce 1111111oc'rpa11;1111 11 'ra61111111.1. «9H11111c11011ep;11H» 6hIC'l‘p0 pacnpocrpansmacb, sa- Metma 1v1110r11M y=1e611111c11 11 name 11e111.Ie 611611110're1<14. Ona c110co6c'rBoBa11a np11061n; e111110 14 311a1111HM 11e113- Mepmvxo 6011Lmer0, Hem npexcne, 1c0111111ec'rBa 111011e171, y1c0pe11e111110 pe1111r11031=101'1 *rep1111M0c'r11 11 311pa130r0 cML1c11a. E171 r1p1111a,1111e21ca11a 11eMa.11aa 3ac11yra 13 (pop- 1v111p0BaH1111 110130110 =1e110Be1ca - a1c'1'1113110r0, 11pe1111p11- mafl Hem“ mv1t111B0r0, o6pa1u; eH110ro B 6y11y111ee, cTpeM11B1uer0cs1 fl. AJmM6ep 1c JIPNIHOMY 11 06111ec'rBeHHoMy 611ar0c0c'ro51111110. H11ea11L1 Pycco. HOBbIfi man 3 paaB11'r1111 q)pa1111,y3c1c0- ro IIp0cneme1111a cnaaaa c 11Me11eM }I€a11-}I’€a1ca Pycco , (1712-1778). 011 pa311e11a11 06m; y10 11,z1e10 11p0cBe'r11're11e1‘«'1, : ~._- _ wro 11p11poz1a - 3'10 0r'p0MHaa rapM0111111ec1caa c11c'reMa, a “ 1' 11e11o13e1< - ee c0c'ra13Ha51 11acT1.. H0 13 0'r11111111e 0'1 1111x Pyc- V co 61.111 y6e11c, z1e11: 11101111 caM11 pa3pym111111 arro <<ecTec'rHeH- - 1 Hoe c0c'r0HH11e>> , 01cpy>1cm3 ce6s1 pa3HL1M11 yr1pe>1c,11e1111a- 1’ ' M11, c03,z1a1111e I(0T0pI>IX 11p0'r11130pe<111'r 3a1c0Hy lIpPIpOJIbI. , M1.1c1111're111. He np113HaBa11 n011o11cm‘e111.111.1x 110c11e, z1- ' » c'r13111"1 nporpecca 11 11p1131=113a11 13ep11y'r1.cs1 1c 2111131111 11a ’ 110He 11p11p0,z11.1. Ero 11,z1ea11 - 310 'r11x0e 11 pa3Mepe11H0e ‘ '1 I ‘ ce11bc1<0e cym; ec'r13013a1111e c e11ce, :(11e13111;1M 'rpy,110M, He- m3“‘ma" PY°°° xi
  • 180. ‘IA C Tb Hosoe apemv (aropasa nonosuna XVII — XVIII a. ) _ " 3flT€fi. TIPIBbIM 6bITOM M JIOCYTOM. TOT, KTO Bblp0C B T8KHX YCJIOBPIHX, cam CHO- co6eH pemwrb, qemy yrurrbca. Bocnwrarme B noxmmamm Pycco — a'ro panam- Tne cnoco6Hoc'refi n 3a, z1a'rr<oa pe6em<a, o'rcy'rc'r1me mo6oro Hacnmm nan HHM. Pycco He npoc'ro I'lp0'1‘PIB0l'!0CTaBJI5IJI npnpony H unannnaanuro, H0 y'r3ep- >x<11aJ1, wro paanwrne Hayxn PI ucxyccrna r1op'm'r o6Luec'rBo. 3'ro Buamnano nosmyxuexme B cpezze npocBe'm're. ne1‘«'x PI emcyro Kpwrmcy co croponm Bonyrepa. C3017! Banrmn mvlen Pycco 14 Ha rocy, z1apc'rBeHHy1o BJIaC'l‘b. Hax»x6oJ1ee coBep- UJEHHBIM eMy 1{838JIOCb o6mec'rBo, ocnoaarmoe Ha Aoroaope Bcex rpaxcuan. Hpennonaranocb, lrro a'ro 6y11e'r rocyzzapcwao cBo6o, r.1Hux n 06'be, l1PIHeHHbIX B Momumfi KoJme1<'m3 pasnux mozzeii — pecny6nm<a. XVIII 3. )KaH-)Kax Pycco. M3 rpaxrara «O npowcxoxaeuma M npmwmax Hepaaeucrsa cpe, aw moaeiv» . flepaufi, KTO. oroponna yuactox sewm, cxaaan: «Sta 3eMna MOS! » — VI Hamen mo, qeI71, 110CTaTO‘-IHO HaMBHblX. ‘-| T05bl aromy noaepmb, 6am Hacronumm ocuoaarenem rpaxnancxoro o6u4ecTaa. OT CKO1'lbKV| X Hecuacrmfi M yxacoa vlaéaavm 6b! pon mon- CKO|71 TOT, no I<pm<Hyn 65:. BblDbI8afi Konbn VI aacbman paw: «Bepermecb, He cnymafare aroro o6MaHu. wn<a! Bbl noménere, ecnm aaéynere, «no nnonbu aewm npvn-| a,w1e>o<aT acem. a aewm — HMKOMY». I/ Ineu Ilpocnemenun It o6mec'rBo. Honue nnen noaonbno 6uc'rpo npoHmc- JIM 3 o6n1ec'rBo. Hon ux auaxou nponcxonmm nameuemm B oépasonamm n Tpazmuuax cemefiaoro aocnwraxum. 3aMeTHO no'renJ1eJm oniomenux nnyrpn CGMBH. B TOM tmcne u oraomeuue K 11e'raM. Ilaxce H8 cemefiaux nopwperax BMGCTO Manenbxnx nezm :4 JDKGHTJIBMGHOB, uaofipaxcanmnxca panee B c'rpo- mx noaax, IIOSIBIIIJXIIICI: nrpaxomne Manmmn. Pomrrenn Hatxanu ynenxwb 6oJn. me mmmamm aocnuraumo newefi 14 passa- Tmo nx yMc'rBemu.1x cnoco6noc'rex71. 3a6o'mcb o Gnarococwoannn cnoux no- TOM! -(OB, mm c'rpe1vmJmcb nan. 11e'raM xopomee o6pa3o3amxe. Pacmnpenne ce- TH uucon, 3 TOM rmcne H mm éenumx, coneficraoaano poc'ry qucna 06pa8OB8H- °° Bwzwm Xoeapm. I Jlfau Bamucm £IIap6en. Ilem nowropa I‘pexeMa Jleaotuca c aonanom
  • 181. xr ~ KPHSHC «CTAPOFO | 'lOP5|flKA». HA‘-IAIIO MODEPHHBAIJHH aux nxonefi. Llenorncn B ocnoanom y‘lKJIPICb rpamore n aenenmo nouamnero xoanficna y cnonx Marepefi, no aemano as aux yzxe nocemamx mrconu. B aa- acnwoqumx cemmx mm noqepefi name acero npnmamann nouanmux yqnwenefi. Bpema 651110 xcecroxnm, n Tenecnue naxaaanna cqnwanncb oébmnsxm nenom. Omaaxo nce rpomqe anyuann ronoca Tex, wro nmwanca y6e, uu-rs pomrrenefi n yuwrenefi no npene nopxn. Jloxrc yraepncnanz «I/ I3 newefi, rcowopux macro 65101-, pemco nonyqaxorca xopomue moan» . XVIII 3. M3 rpaxrara , £(xoHa / Ioxxa «Mucnn o aocnnranma» Y pe6eHKa AonxHa 6am: o11Ha Mrpymxa. 310 npvlyuaer AeTev‘1 K Gepexomaocm, "o HVI 6om'cn norepmb mm ncnopmrb caoe coxpoaume. a Gonbmoe xonmecrao Mrpy- mex nenaet mx pacro-mTenbHuMvI Tparompamu. .. Kpacuaufi Kamywex, nucr 6yMarvI, Mawma caasxa v<moHe:71 VI ace, -no aannevcn 6e3onacHuM gum x<M3HvI. Moxer pas- aneqb Manemamx netefi He xyxe nopomx MaMMHblX noxynox, Koropue nerxo paaémb M ncnopwma. XVIII 3. M3 npow33e. aeHm1 XaHHbIByJ'II1M «Cnpasotmux Hacronmefi nezm» Cneumre 3 mxonu. He aanepxmaafirecb no nopore no He nporynuaame sannmfi. He aaéuaafire HMHGFO p. oMa: HM KHVIF c Terpammm. HM nepqarox c HOCOBHMIII nnancamn. He oranexamecb Ha 6ecnone3Hyno 6omoeHno e u. u<one; He mymme. '-! TO5bl He 6ecno- KOMTb y-mrenbmuy M o. aHoo<naccHm<oe. Crapamecb nncan. Kpacmso. tmcro M 6ea oum6on<. Beperme pymm. He paanueaine Heprmn no He nauxaine VIMM caono VI Hyxyno onexny VI nanbuu. Ynyqmnnocb coc-romme Mennnnnm: orxpmnannca éonsaunu :4 ponmmnue Aoma, conepmeacwaosanocb Mezmunncrcoe oécnyncnnanne, nonnxcanacb cMep-r- HOCTL. He 'ro. nmco B nomax Goraqefi, no PI nxonefi cpemiero noc-rauca nmenucb xoponme tmcmue 6n6Jmo-rexn. Pacnaxnynncb Tarcxce zuaepn oémenocwynnux 5H5JIH01‘e! <, nmnanannmx mmrn Ha nom. Oépasoaannme mama, oémnnnennue oénnm uwrepecom x nomrmxe, Jm-repa-rype mm ucxyccrsy, xcaamann o6me- axm. Om»: coananwm ruryéu n nmeparypnue rcpyxucn, co6npa. nncL 3 canonax - qacrnux Aouax, In-062.1 npoaecm sperm 3 mrrepecnux Gecenax n IIOIICJIKTLC8 cnomm nueqamennnmn o'r npoqwraaaoro. B cepennne XVIII 3. neqanaaa nepuommecxax npecca nonuocwmo nmrecnnua pyxonncnme «ao- nocm» . Paaewm u xcypnmm necam vmqzopmanmo o coéwrusx Memzxyaaponnofi xmaun, conepacamm ne6a'ron 3 npaawrenbcrae, cocromnm axonommcn. Ha ax crpanuuax paamemanncb peruxamnme 061.33- nenns, coofinxenna o xoauep-rax u Teawpansnmx LE NEZ POVR RY ma THEOPHRASTE RENAVDOT- GRAND GAZ ETTIER DI FIANCL E7 ESPION DI IAIAIII: Andlddnnluchuaiqnulvdnloladdu-In-i-. firnnbudfinn cnewraxcnxx, oécyxgnanncb xmuxame nonmncn. Ibm 414:: 5. ya mun: :1 wvgvuvz. eaponefinen c'ra. no ofismnmu qepnarb nonocm as : .""a. ... ... "“". .‘Z. 'u": .‘2', ..a"", ;,": .'. ’l'. .."" 0 H ltuupafnl-u-ngalé>nu(uqu’uln npeccu, rrro BGJIO K ynennqenmo mpaaceu. on A/ -c: fi-. ,.. ..a.4,. .,. ... ,.. .., 0 5 two: mmsumeu npocnerwrenen n<ypnaJmc'n.1 1<pn'rmco- '5.a£. "£. : BSJIH IIOJIHTHKY CBOPIX npannwenbcra, IIOCTEIICEHO cnmuaa C 888 38.380)’ TEKHCTBCHHOCTH PI 116.7185! nocwosumem PJIECHOCTK. HGMBJIO MGCTB OTBOJIPIJIOCL nyfinuxannu IIHCGM = m*ra'reJ1e1‘«i, P118 OHH BbIC! <'. &3Ll-
  • 182. 1"‘ I I‘ ‘ / ) VAC Tb Hoaoe spew: (aropas nonosur-Ia XVII --XVlII3.) (1 I I 3a113 0303 cy21cz1e333 I10 pa33mM np06J1eMaM. Tax c1<J1a, :u.13a113c1. ycJ1o333 " 11113 q)0pM3p03a3311 06111ec'r3e330r0 M3e333. Enponeiicxcan 113'repa-rypa: Memny p33yMoM 3 I1y3c'r30M. I/ I3Me3e333 3 06- 111ec'r3e 3a111113 0'rpa21ce33e 3 113'repa'rype XVIII 3. II0-rec333 ap3c'ro1cpa-r310, 3a 3ep30e Mec'ro 31131011311 t1e11o3e1c 'r0pry10n13i»‘1 3 I1p03330113111;3i'1. I/ IMe330 1c 3eMy 3 06pa'r3113c1. 113ca're113, pacc'ra31113c1. c 11pe21c33M 1cyM3poM — p1.111apeM 3a 1co3e. II03ce;13e331:.1e 3a60'rb1, 631'r03b1e Me11033, 33a3M00'r30111e333 063133313 1110,2131)‘: c'ra. I13 c0z1ep21ca33eM 3o30r0 1cpyn30r0 r1p03a3t1ec1<0r0 3p0333e, z1e3321 — p0Ma3a. Bnoxa IIpoc3e111e333 0'r1cp31J1a 3a21c30e 33a3e33e 3ac'r301?'1 233333 r1e11o3e1ca, ero cnoc0630c'r1. np0'r330c'r0a'r1. 3e33r011aM 3 pa1103a'r1.c3 233333. Ta1<01‘«'1 rep01‘»'1 c0111eJ1 c0 c'rpa331:1 p0Ma3a «P0633- 303 Rpyao» a3rJ131‘71c1<0r0 n3ca're1m IIa33311a Jlecbo (1660—1 7 31). O1ca3a3313c3 n0cJ1e a3ap33 1c0pa6J1a 3a 6e31110p;30M 0c'rp03e, P0633303 0c'rae'rca 3aez13- 3e c 1131:0171 np3p0110171, 30 3e 'rep3e'r np3cy'rc'r3321 nyxa. He n01c1xa11a3 pyx, 03 pa60'rae'r 3 c03)1ae'r Borcpyr ce63 M3p, np3r0;13311‘«'1 11113 233333. 01130- 3peMe330 3 cam P0633303 33 JIBPICOMLICJISHHOPO 3 c30e3pa330r0 10301113 npeapamaercs 3 3a1ca11e330r0, CPIJILHOPO 3 6ecc'rpa11130r0 My21c333y. Ero 233331. 113 1 0c'rp03e — 3'10 rap1-10333 =1e1103e1<a c 01cpy21ca101113M M3p0M. HeyI1333're11b30, 3'10 P0633303 c'ra11 3a- p0,z131.1M 111063M11eM: Bell}: 1ca21c, z11.11‘»'1 t13'ra'reJ11. MOI‘ MI: -ICJIBHHO n0c'ra33'rs ce6a 3a ero Mec'r0. 03 3e ne- J1ae'r 33t1er0 -raxoro, 310 3e 3011 c311y cpep;3eMy v1e. r103e1cy, a np0c'r0 3e 'rep3e'r 3ep1.1 3 yn0p30 pa60'rae'r. I'Iy're111ec'r333 3 r1p31c1110t1e333 - pac3p0c'rpa3e33a11 'reMa p0Ma303 XVIII 3. Hepemco a3'r0pL1 pgaxce nepe3oc3.I13 c303x repoen 3 31.1M3111111e331.1e c'rpa3L1, 310631 3a 3x 11p3Mepe 6o11ee 0-r1<p1.rr0 1cp3'r3303a'r1. 3e110c'ra'r1c3 06111ec'r3a. I/ IMe3- 30 Tax, CTPGMHCI: 3c11pa33'r1. n0po1c3 A3r. r133 'r0r0 3peMe33, c, u;e11a. I1 3 c30eM 33aMe33'r0M I1p0333ene333 <<Hy'remec'r3351 I‘y. IIJ133epa» , I[21co3a/ ran Cnnqrr (1667-1745). C0cpe11o'r0r1e33e 3a 3301303 233333 33303333 331333110 n033.I1e33e 303010 're=1e333 3 113'repa'rype — ce3'r3Me3'ra1133Ma (0'r a3r11. — uyecmeo). 03 303333 3 np0'r3303ec pa11303a1133My c ero c'rpeM11e33eM 303333311. 233331. qenonerca c'l‘p0I‘KM 3a1c03aM. Ce3'r3Me3'ra113c'1-1.1 601131113 1103ep3113 cepxmy 3 11p3p011e, qem pa3yMy 3 113331133a1133. O33 30cne3a113 yez133e330c'1-1. 3 0'rI1a. I1e331.1x I131c3x yromcax np3p0111.1 3113 3e3a-re1‘»'1J1331:11?1 ce111.c1c31‘»'1 6311*, pa3r03ap33a113 c 33'ra're113M3 0 nonsrrnmx 3 611333321 3M 11y3c'r3ax. Hac'r03111;3M «p0Ma30M c'r011e'r321» c'ra110 np0333e11e33e 3eMen;1c0r0 n3ca're113 3 1123110001113 Horanna Bo113q)ra3ra P613 (1 7 49-1832) «C'rpa3a333 MOJIOJIOPO B. ep'repa>> , KOTODHM 3at13'r313a. I1ac1. 3021 E3p0na. Ero repofi — 33e=1aT113're1u.3L1171, 3a, z1e11e331.1i‘x 'r031c01?'1 3y11101‘»’1 1030313 3e33a'r30r0 3p03cx02311e333. 03 3e M02ice'r np3cn0c063'r1.c21 1c 0611I; ec-1~3y, me r0c11011c'r3y1o'r 00011033313 npe, z1paccy, z11<3, 11311eMep3e 3 3e3e21<ec'r30. 01011313033333 0 0q)311;3a111.3oi’1 M0pa111.10 3 3ect1a- c'r3a21 11106031. 'r0111<a10'1' Beprepa 1c caM0y63171c'r3y. XVIII 3. 3epe111c0 3a3313a10'1- <<3e1c0M npoam» . 3'10 3e c03ceM 'ra1c. 9noxa IIp0- c3en1e333 001333113 3 3ac11ez1c'r30 3e1103e3ec'r3y 60ra'ry10 3033310, 11penc'ra311e3- ‘ 3y10 3Me3aM3 Bépnca, I‘é're, I1I31111epa 3 M30r3x zzpymx. II03'r1-1 30cx3ma113c1= ‘ 1<pac0'r01‘»’1 11ep303,z1a3301‘«'1 11p3p0,u;1.1 3 y33113 3acJ1a21c;1a'r1.cs1 e10, pa3m1.1n1113113 3a, z1 cy'r1.10 r1e1103et1ec1c0ro C‘IaC'l‘I-:5! 3 CMLICJIOM 233333. I/ I3'repec 33133133110 1123033133 Cnnqrr
  • 183. *5 n KPHBHC --CT APOFO HOP9UlK. ~»‘ H2“iAHO MOIIEPHHBALIHH Taxnce Bee Henpaanononoénoe, upeynenwxennoe n Heo6'bscHnMoe, two nopo1m- (,1 no Honblifx THU poMaHa — x‘o'rm{ecx<nfi. Mec'roM neficwana Taxnx npon3Be11eHm‘»‘x ’ "‘ CTBHOBPIJII/ [Cb Iiacenenume npnsparcamn pasaammhl Mouacwbxpeii n ammcoa, rue npoucxozmam Henmoaepnbre ymacbx. Csoefi masuofi aanaueii m1'repa'rypa XVIII 3. ctm'ra. na socnnwanne tmTa're. n51. Mnome nncawemt CTi1HOBHJ'II/ {Cb rJ1ama'raaMn cmenmx mxefi n Bnacnnensmn 11_VM. Jlureparypa owxpbma 11.7151 ce6a « Manenmcoro qe. v1oaer<a». Ee repoem 61.111 npez1c'raBm‘eJ1b Tp€TbeI‘O cocnomm ” TpyJ10.ruo6m3bnV1 fiypmya, Txaopeu. Hau, uo- H£UlbHOI‘0 601"aTC'I‘Bfl. Mup ucicyccrna. Hoabxe BGIIHHH upommajm H B ncxycc'rBo. Ha c-Meny ! cwporomy Knaccmmamy npmnen xy11o>Kec'rBeHm.1i't CTHJIL poxo1co(o'r tbpanu. — palmeuua). Ero mo6uMbn‘& MOTHB — y'rol-menublii 3aBH'I‘0K, noxoxmii Ha r1pu- I ‘{y11JIHBbIIrI cmzyaw Mopcxofi paxommbx. 3'ro npxmasano Hcxyccwny . r1er1<m"l H I Hapxnuufi xaparcrep. Bnumarme Tsopuoa ébmo IIDPXKOBEHO K qyscwaam ue:1o- I Bexa. llarxe o cepbeanbxx aemax om: cwpemmmcb I‘0BOpH'l‘b Henpuuymzzexmo H ocwpoyxvmo, BOCHBBEUI paxxocrb xmama. B xcmaormcn uapml Betmmii npasmum 6€33a60’I‘HbIX nepcouamefi. <I>paHu. y3cKm71 xyzxoacmuc Alrryan Ba'r'ro (1684- 1721) cosnan Hosbxfi, ;xa. ner<m‘»‘1 01* Henpxianexawenbnofi 11e$'1cTBnTenbnocTn Mflp — xvmp, ucnonuenuufi ‘IHCTOTBI, 11106311, csewnofi rpyc'm H panocrn. Porcoxo sapommocz. BO <IJpaHmm, a aa1'eM npomncno B zxpyrue crpaum. 011- I Haxo npocymec'r3o3aJ1o ono Henonro. C cepezumbr XVIII B. Ha cmeuy poxoxo V I I I 5 Aumyau Bammo. Busecxa xux axrmxaapuoro Maraanua }Kepceua. 1720 e.
  • 184. Hoaoe Bpemi (sropan nonosuua xvu — xvm 5. ) . . » npmnen Heorcnaccnnnam, 'r. e. Honufi ruraccmmsm. ToJmKoM K ero BoaHmcHoBe- H1410 nocnyncnnn , z1oc-rmrcemm apxeonornu. Rax pas Toma Haqanncb pacrcomcn Holvmen — npennepnmcuoro ropona, aacunannoro nennom npn naaepxcennn Bymcana Beayana. Hafipgeanme 'raM namsrrnmcn Henpezaofinenaofi Kpacowm H conepmencrna Bmanann orpomnufi mrrepec rc aH'rm1Ho1‘»’I Kynyrype. Ona 6oJ1bme, qeM nrpunoe fiaporcrco, o'rBeqa. ua n, z1eaM rpaxczzaacrcoro nonra PI c. ny2icem»m o'reqe- crsy, xo'rop1-. .1e Bce rpomqe asyqann B o6mec'rBe. 0c05eHHO o'rqe'rm«mo arro IIpoaBn- JIOCB B 'rsopqec'rBe Benymero xcnnonncna qapannyacrcoro Heorcnaccrmnama flfialca I Jlyu llamma (1748-1825). Bo <Dpamum, me Honhxe (popular ncxyccrna BOBHHKEJIH ocoéenno 6bIc'l‘p0, 3 Baxcnoe cofihrme xynoxcecrsennofi xcnsnn npeapawunncb nyfinmuiue Bucwanxn - Canonm. Hatmnas c 1667 r. nx exceroano, npn nomzepaclce nnopa, 0pI‘aHH3OBI: I- Bana Koponencxaa arcanemmx xcmsormcn :4 crcymarrrypbx. Ycnex 3 Canone osaaqan Hacwoamee npnananne, opgnaxo nocmqb ero 61.1110 nenpocwo. Hponanenenna mm Canonon o'161«xpa. ua xomnccna arcanemncon. IIDKHJITI: yqacme B arnx Bmcwanxax cwpemmmcb He TOJILKO qapar-myau, no I»! Macrepa us npyrux c'rpaH. Hocwenenno Hapmxc npenpamnca B o6n1eenpone1‘«'1cr<m‘& xynoxcecwnennufi I181-I'I'p. B XVIII B. peaxo nonnsmracb 3aBncnMoc'rL xy; :oxc- Hmca 01' aarcaaqmcon. Fnasnmm cyngbefi nponsneneunfi ncxyccrna CTaJIO o6n1ec'rBeHHoe Mnetme. Q Pa3noo6pa3ue Mysmcumnofi alcuaxm. Hon mmannem I oéumx n3MeHeHm‘»’1 n o6mec'rBe HOBLIM conepxcalmem ! HaIIOJIH5iJI8.CI> Myahma. HOHBHHKCL nponsnenermx, H Hanncannue H8. pennrnoanme c1o>: ce'rL1, xowopme MOJKHO 651110 ncnonnnn. He Tonmco B nepxnn. 01114 no- Jxyrmnn Haanarme «zxyxonnme» . Oparopxm — Gonbmne nponsnenenna mm coJmc'ra, xopa n oprcecrpa - HeMeI1- xoro xomnoanropa Peopra tbpxmpnxa I‘en, z1eJm (1685- 17 59) nepenanann nenmme onpenenennoro 6n6JIefic1<o- ro co6u'r1m n ero anaqenne mm qenoneqecwna. Kan- I Korma 'ra'rL1 — noxoncue Ha oparopnn, H0 6oJIee Icoponcne Cefiacqvhgn Bax nponsnenenna - Ploranna Ce6ac'ruma Baxa (1685- . 1 750) snytiwm c y1mBn'reJ1LHo1‘»’1 amonnonanbnofi cmlofi. i Om»: nomorann qenonexy Jxyume nonsrrb o-rp; em. Hue annsonu 6n6JIeI‘&cKoI‘«'I ncwopnn, BbI3bIBaJIlrI y Hero r. ny6o1me nepexcnnamm, cnaaannme c Bepoifx B Bora. BO3pOCJIO saaqerme cBe'rcI<oi»'1 My3bIKId. Ona anywa- na npn maopax Monapxon, B canonax apncrorcparron, B oémenocwynnblx 'rea'rpax. B I/ I'raJm1»1 OCHOBHLIM BH- , z1oM My3I>IK&JIbHOI'O ncrcyccwna c'raJ1a onepa. 3'roMy 6J1aronpna'rc'rnoBa. no T0, trro wranbancrcne nennm n Mysuxamru nonytxanu npoqneccnonanbnym lIOJ1I‘OTOB- Ky 13 CIIGIIHBJIBHO o'rKpm'rmx yqefinmx saaezzemmx — i -' Koncepnawopmxx. " Halmcannaa B XVIII B. Myshuca nanana Bo3Mox<- ' Hbempo Anmouuo. nocm. nponnnn. -ra. naH'r He Tonbxo rcomnoarrropy, H0 14 B0JU>¢PaHI‘ Auanefi ncnonnwremo. Hpencne Bcero neannacb BPIp'I'y03HOC'l‘I>, M°‘1*‘P"‘ 3 4°T°“'3°- 'r. e. ymerme PICIIOJII-. [5{'I‘I> cnoxcume nponsneneuua, 1763 2. ‘ITO Hpe}I'bHBJI5IJIO BBICOKPIB 'I'pe6OB&HPIH I-C xcatxecway My-
  • 185. KPVIBHC «CTAPOFO FIOPSIIIK/ n. HA”! /U10 MOEIEPHHBAUHM ' P. Typnuep. M_v32.u<amm 3bIKa. TlbHblX nHc'rpyMe1»rroB. B I/ I'ra. mm Macrepa us ceMei'{c'rB Amam, Fsapnepn H Cwpammapn pa3pa6o'ra: m H max Be. r1m<y1o Tafiny nepenanamx P13 noxonemm B noxonenne Tpazmunn narowolmemm yzmnnrenbublx no aaytxanmo cxpnnox. Oco6oe Mec'ro B Mysbuce XVIII B. npuuamlexcur reunanbnomy aBc'rpm‘&c1<o- My Komnoswropy Bonbqwanry Amanelo Monapry (1 756-1 791). Ero ocoéenuo npmmexana onepa: sens oua naaana BOSMOJICHOCTI: noxasarb B3aPIMO0'I‘H0lI1e- mm monefi. ux txyncma 14 crpervmenna. O11Hv1M n3 nepabxx Mouap'r Hanan ne- I'I0.TIb3OB&TI> mm Hanncarma onep Jm'repa'rypI-me Hc'roqHmm. OcHoBoI‘»'1 11113 snamenwrofi «CBaz1b6b1 Cbnrapo» nocnyxcmxa nbeca qypanuyacxoro z1paMa'ryp- ra Bomapme. By, z1y1m q)eHoMeHaJ1bHo O, I1apeHHbIM ‘-XGJIOBGKOM, Mouap'r Hanncan nepaoe npouaaenenne eme 3 IIHTPUIBTHGM aoapacre. Bcxo CBOIO xoponcyio xcnsm. KOMl'IO3HTOp Mnoro pa6oTaJz H ocrasun orpomnoe Taopuecxoe Hacnenne. Ero onepu, cnmcpormn, xconuepnx ncnomxeubr myfioxmx amounfi. Plameuenun B noncennenuoii JICHSIIII. 061:! ‘-IHBIMH mm eaponeiiuen HaIIPITK8- Mu c'ra. rm qafi n 1<oq)e. I/ Ix nmpoxoe no'rpe6ne1me npenpawmlo Maoroqncnennme Koq)e1‘»'m1»1 B Hacwoauuxe u, em‘pm o6Luec'rBeHHo1‘«’I xcnauu. Kamnufi ynaxcaemblfi ropomamm mvlen caoxo Juo6uMyxo 1<oq>ex71H1o, me 8 orxpenenexmoe Bpenm ero scema MOPJIH uafiwr zxpysbn mm nenonbxe napmepm. 'I‘y'r Jlerqe Bcero 61.1110
  • 186. .2” Jlormoncrcax 1<oq)ei'um. XVIII 8. u. .- Jffau dbpaucya Be Tpya. 3an'rparc apncwoxparoa Hosoe Bpems (aropaz nonoaw-Ia XVII - XVIII B. ) 5 ‘{r_ : ysnan. nomrrmzecrme n -ropronme HOBOCTK. B Jlonnone, me n 1700 r. cymecrnonano 6oJ1ee nnyx mcm Tarcnx Icocbeen, xx co6c'r- Bemnncn name coopyxcann cnennansnue HOMOCTBI ma q-renna Topronmx Honocwefi ncnyx. KoMq)op'rHee c'raJm xcmmma. B oco6H5I- rcax ncqeaamr npoxoxmme rcomnawu, IIO'I‘0JIKH CT8.HOBI? IJIHCb nmme, KOMH8.'I'I>I Jryqme upo- newpnnanncb K ocnemamxcb. Crapmfi cyn- nyx mm xpanemm 6eJu. a aamemmn KOMO- nom c Bunnnxcnumn ammcamn. Hoannnca y, uo6nL11‘»'1 c'ryJx — c Marrcnm cnnenbem n nu- corcofi npsmofi cnnmcofi. 111:3 Manmmefi, yqnnnmxca XOJIKTB, npnnymann cne1m- aJ1LnLI1‘«‘I nepenannmfi crynmnrc mm caMoc- TOJITGJILHOPO IIBDGJIBHJKGHPIH no xomnare. B namofinennyro Aewanh mrrepbepa upen- pa'rmmcL paanux cbopm aeprcana 3 rcpacu- aux pamax: 6e3 max He o6xo1n«u1oc1. nu onno xcmmme. Yaopqame pamm ncno: n>aoBa.7mcL Tamxe mm omenxn rcamnnon. Ynenrmnnca cnpoc na nacrennme qacm n rcapwnnhr. He- cMo'rpa Ha pgoporonnany, Boapoc 3303 rclrraficxoro qnapqaopa - nercoparnsnmx 138.3, c'ro. noBoI‘«'1 nocymn, nsmcrcannbxx c'ra'ry3'rorc. Roma me B 1709 r. nemenxnfi anxnmmc I/ Iorann Bewrep pacrcphm cercper ero naroronnennn, n carcconcrcom ropone Meficene noammacb nepnaa q>apq)oponaa Marrytparcrypa. Ee npoxzyrcxma mwena omenomnmomnfi ycnex n c'ra. na o6paan; oM mm q)apq)oponoro nponsnom c'rBa, nanaxcennoro co BpeMeHeM n B npyrnx enponeifxcxux crpanax. Honue nrcycu nuanann cosnanne 6o. nee npocworo n ynoénoro rcocnoma, npawrlmnmx axcceccyapon. Cnoncnme namcrcne npnqecxn Havana c'ro. ne'rna - rcopaémuc nop; napycanm mm na'r1opMop'r K3 cppyrcron H onomefi — nocwenenno yxommu 3 upomnoe. O61.mnmM c'ra. uo Homerme mmcnero Genba. Anmmqaue ‘ nnenn B o6nxon 3on'rm< o'r Aoxcpga, ctm'raBn1m‘»'Ica panee ncrcnrotzuwenbno JICBHCKHM alcceccyapom A115! 3&I1'1PITI>I OT comma.
  • 187. ’ Meficeacxnfi qmpcpop. XVIII 8. KPHBHC «CTAPOFO l'IOP$U1KA>-. HA‘-IAIIO MOIIEPHPBALIHH ’ 1 Kapnxarypa na npxnecxn. XVIII e. B 1756 1'. na ymmax Jlomzona nnepnue nonnwrca nemexon c solrrmcom. Bro 65m anrnnficxufi nucarem. n anawox Bocwounofi xynyrypu llncon Xennefi. Ero nun auanan eznme nacmennm co c-ropoau npoxonmx n nacromnyxo apocn. xe6- Menon - co6c'raeunmcoB naervmux xommx axnnmuefi. Ke6MeHm ycMo'rpe. rm 3 aoxrrruce xomcypexrra cnoemy finanecy u ymunmeaao oénanaum Xeaaea rpaauo. 3axcn'roImue ropoxcane -raxcxce aucwynnnn npo-rm: aonmucn. I/ IM xaaanocs, trro nonbaosanca 3 aenorony aoanucom. a He rce6oM nonofiae-r TOJH: K0 6e11asucaM. 3a-ro mm aefiorawux Jnoneii, K01-opsm npnxonwxocn aeMa. no xomrn. nenmom, aozrrmc c-ran Jxyrmnm cnyuzmcom. Ifatcue uaeu sanoalcunu ocuoey 0.21:1 ITpoceeu4euun u nouemy onu po6u- Jlllcb umeuno e Auznuu? Houemy M aumecrcbé npufiaean donbzuoe auaueuue paade. /aeuuro exzacmu na mpu eemeu? Ifarc aw Moxceme o6-uzcnumb mom cpaxm. umo Bonwnep npuabzean «pas- aaeumb eaéuuy» — xamonuuecxyro uepxoea - u oanoapeszenuo ocma~ aanca ucxpeunum xpucmuauuuoau? IIoa. nu: u1o nu Hpoceetueuue na cnoco6u pacnpocmpanenun umpop. ua- uuu u ua qzopnzupoeauue odmecmaeuuozo Muenwz? Hanonnanocb nu eaponeacrcoe ucxyccmeo anoxu Hpoceemeuua uoebm coaepxcauuem? Ifarcue uoebte croaicembt u zepou noswunucb e uem? 3A, flAHI/15-7 1. I/ Icnonbsyn rexcr us rpaxrara Pycco, a raxxe Marepuan yveduuxa, nonpo6yuTe BbI$ICHHTb, 8 ‘IBM aenuxuu MbICJIHTel1b amen npuyuuu Geacrsuu odtuecraa. Comacuu nu Bbl c ero a3rnn, aaMu Ha ponb nporpecca, Hayxu u ucxyccraa? 2. /703H8KOMbTeCb c ¢>parMeuraMu npouaaeneuuu floxxa u Bynnu 0 menu- rauuu u noseneuuu nereu. Coxpaumor nu ux 83Fl1RAbI caoe auaqeuue ce- ronun? '-Iro BaM Hpaaurcn 5 Hux. a taro — Her? 3. npencraabre ce6e, wro Bbl oxaaanucb 5 onuou us nouaoucxux Kodneen Hawa- na XVIII B. Koro 6bI Bbl Mornu raM BCTDGTMTI: u xaxue paaroaopbl ycnuwarb?
  • 188. W‘: C T}; Hoaoe Bpe/ vIsI (sropaz no/1o13uHa XVII — XVIII 5. I ' IIPOCBEIIIEHHLIPI ABCOJIIOTI/ I3M «C0103 tbrmocoqaon 11 1*ocy11apei'1». Bo 13'ropo1‘«'1 11oJ1oB1111e XVIII B. a6coJ11o- TPIBM c ero 11eorpa11m1e1111o1‘1 Mo11apx11=1ec1co171 13.I1ac'r1.1o 1<. r1oH11J1cs1 B Enpone 1c ynanxy. A11rJ1111‘»'1c1ca11 peBoJ11o1.11151 r1o1<a3a. r1a, =11-o 1<opoJ1eBc1cy1o Kopony Mom- no IIOJIy‘IKTI> yxce He «MPIJIOCTBIO Boxcbefi» , a MPIJIOCTBIO 11apJ1aMe11'ra. ‘-P106111 1136e>1ca'rL 3'roro, 1*ocyp; ap11 A3c'rp1111, IIpycc1111, Pocc1111 11 Hexoropmx pgpyrnx cwpan HaqaJ111 IIDOBOLIHTB noJ111'r111cy, 11a11paBJ1e11Hy1o Ha y1cper1.I1e1111e I‘0CIIO, l1C'l‘B8. zxnopsm B ycI1oB11s1x c'ra11oBJ1e111151 1ca1111'raJ1113Ma. Ha Barnsnu 3'r11x Monapxon r1o13J11151Im 11,11e11 IIpoc13e111e1111s1. Hpa1311'reJ1aM HpaBPIJI8.Cb MLICJIB o nepxcane B0 mane c o6pa3oaa11r1L1M rocynapem, 1co'rop1.1171 cone'rye'rcs1 c (p11.I1oco(baM11 11 11peo6pa3ye'1‘ o6111ec'rBo 11a Honmx, paaymamx Ha- r1aJ1ax. 01111 1101111111 Ha ocy111ecT13I1e1111e yMepe1111b1x pecbopm, 1110651 coanarb 6J1aro11p1151'rH1.1e YCJIOBKH 111151 pa31311'r1151 cBo11x crpau 11 ozmonpemenno y1cpe1m'r1; CO5C’l‘BeHHI: -Ie 110311111111. Honaa rocyp; apc'rBe11Has1 11oJ111'r111ca r1oI1yI111.r1a naasanne npocnemennoro a6co. I11o'r113Ma. B pasnmx c'rpa11ax noJ111'rm<a 11pocBe111e1111oro a6co. r11o'r113Ma 11MeJ1a MHOFO o6mero. IIpaBs111111e Mo11apx11 a1cT11B11ee npo13o, z111.r111 r1oJ1m*111cy Mep1ca11'rm1113Ma, 11ar1paBJ1e1-:1Hy1o Ha co3,11a1111e 6I1aror1p1151'mL1x ycJ1oB111‘»'1 111151 31co11oM11qec1co1‘»’1 , z1e51'1'eJ1LHoc'r11 'ropro131.1e13 11 11pe1mp111=111Ma'1*eI1e171 cBoe1‘«'1 c'rpa111.1. 01111 3a6oTm111cL o coc'ros1111111 o6pa3oBaH1151, Hay1c11 14 11c1<ycc'rBa, ,11eJ1a. rm 11epBb1e 11on1,1'r1c11 orpa- 1111t111'1-1. cocJ1o13111.1e IIDKBHJIGPHPI 11 o6I1erq11'rb 11oJ1o>1<e1me 1<pec'rLs111. Bonee a1c'r11BHy1o 110311111110 (oco6e11Ho 13 1<a'roI11111ec1c1»1x c'rpa11ax) 3a11s1.1111 R0p0HOBaHHbIe peq)opMa'ropL1 no OTHOIIICHHIO 1c 1J; ep1<B11, 11oc1'e11e1111o 11o11rm1151s1 ee rocy;1apc'1'By. B51110 co1cpan1e11o 1coJ111t1ec'rBo Mo11ac'r1>1pe1‘«’1 11 11po13e11eHa =1ac- 'r11t111aa cexynapuaauna 11ep1<o13H1.1x 3e1v1eJ1L. l'IpaBwre. r111 1131011511111 11e3y11'ron 11 1:1p11cBa1113a. I111 orpoMHL1e 6ora'rc'r13a 11x opnena. HOCTGHGHHO B o6111ec'r13e y'r- Bep>1c, z1a. I1ac1. Bepo'rep11111v1oc'1*L. 011a c'raJ1a oc11o1ao1‘«'1 pe. I111r1«1o3Ho1‘»’1 11oJ111'r111c11 npoc13e1ne11111.1x Monapxoa. I/ I3 cyz1e6Ho171 11pa1c'r111c11 11c1copem1J1cs1 y>1<acH1.11‘«'1 nepe91<11'ro1c CpeI111ene1coB1.a — 111.1'r1<14, 11pe1cpa111aJ1ac1, «oxo-ra Ha Be, z1bM». BMec're c 'reM Ha mJ; e1o 11poc13e'r11'reJ1e1‘»'1 06 o6111ec'rBe111»1oM ,11oro13ope Mo11apx11 c1v1o'rpeJ111 1ca1c Ha cor. r1a111e1111e, no 1co'ropo1v1y Hapon p; oJ1>1<e11 61.131 11o.1111oc'r1.1o 11M 11o11q111151'r1.c51. «Kopo11ona11m.11‘i q)11.I1ocoq)» <I)p11,z1p11x II. Ko- poJ1enc'rBo IIpycc1m 13o311111c. r1o 13 Haqane XVIII B. nocne O6'be, I1I/ IHBHPHI 1cypq)1op111ec'rBa Bpa11p; e11— . 6ypr 11 11pycc1c11x 3eMeJ11;. Ero 11epB1.11‘«'1 KODOJII: I 1 CDp1111p11x I PoreH11oJ1J1epH 003113.71 o, z1Hy 11x caM1.1x M11oro1111c. I1e11111.1x 11 11yq11111x 13 Eapone apM111‘«'1. I‘J1a13111.11v111 1caqec'rBaM11 npyccrcoro oq)1m; epa, max 11 npyccrcoro r11111o1a11111<a, c'raJ111 Bep11oc'r1. 1copoJ11o 11 6ecr1pe1cocI1oBHoe BBIIIOJII-IeHIrIe cnoero I1oJ1ra. 31a 'rpa,1111111151 11epy11111Mo coxpananacb 11 B 11pa13- J1e1111e (I>p11,z1p11xa II (1 740- 1786). 011 61,111 BI: ICOK0- o6pa3o13aH111.1M ‘{eJIOBeI<ZOM 11 coc'ro11I1 13 11epe1111c1ce c BoJ11.'repo1v1, 11p11e3>1<a13111111v1 name 11o1*oc'r11'r1. K KOpOJIIO B BepJ11111. BI1m1ca171111ee o1cpy>1ce1111e Ha- . = V -«-. 3I>IBaJIO (Dp11I1p11xa II <<(p11J1ocoq)oM Ha Tpoue» 11 ‘=7-"PW9PUx Bal'W-‘PDfl1II>PIX 11- co3,11aJ1o J1ere11z1y, 6yI1'ro 6m ero 1‘I1aB11a:1 I. '(eJIh sa- 1 790 3- 1cJ11or1a. r1acb B 11oc'ros11111o1‘«'1 3a6o're o c13oeM Hapo, z1e. . .‘1 . »1
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  • 191. ~_ KPHBHC «cmporo l'| OP$ll1KA». I-w-w1o MOJIEPHHBAIJHI4 Tefvfa / _, _. ,,’ . _, 3a rnanencrno B I‘epMaHIm. Hpyccxnfi KODOJIB Cbpnnpnx II 6ea O6'bHBJIeHK5I QT-_‘ noI‘z'1Hm saxnamn 6ora'ry1o a13c'rpm‘»'1czcy1o nponnnnmo Crmeamo. Haqanacb Bofina ‘ aa aBc'rpm‘»’zc1coe Hacnencwno (1 740-1 748). Hmcro K MLICJIH He nonycxan, rrro 1oHa. a Hpanmenhmma ornaxcnwcn Ha omop npOTHBHKRaM. Mexcny -reM Maprm Tepesna Heoacnnanno Hpoanmra c'roI? 'ucoc'rb, ee aaeprnx K peIIIPITeJII: HOCTb nbranann naymnenne Hcefi Esponm. OT rH6eJm Ancrpmo cnacna BeHrpHH. CXCBJIKBHIHCL Han Mo. nL6aMH nmnepawpnnu, nenrpm Hpenocwanmm B ee pacnopaxcenne necmrxn TBICJFI o'r6opHmx BOPIHOB H Heo6xonHMy1o cyMMy neHer. Ho H'roraM Hofinu Maprm Tepeann no6m1acL HpH3HaHrm cnoero npasa Ha ancmpuficxnfi -rpon, onHarco Crmeana ocranacr. 3a Hpyccneii. I/ Imnepawpnna He cmnpwxacb c no'repe1'«‘1 HaH6o. nee pasmrrofi 06JI8.CTPI Ancwpnn H aaannna, trro nepHe'r ee, «naxce ecnn pann aworo Hpnnewca o'rna'rL nocnenmoxo xo6rcy! >> Tarcne Imanu HpaBPITeJIbHHI1a Hmena Ha Gynymee. Tenepr. me, nocne o1coHqaHHa Hofinu, y Mapnn Tepesrm nosmmracr. Hoamoxcnocn. aa- HJITBC8 pecbopmamn B nyxe Hpocnemennoro a6co. n1o'rH3Ma. I/ Ix pe3y. r1L'ra'roM c-rano cosnaane 3 Ancrpnn Honmx, HGCOCJIOBHLIX opraaon nnacrn. B pyrcn rocynapcma nepenmo Haxmanne Hanoron, npnqem I-IaJIOI‘0- Hue JILPOTLI , lIBOpfiH PI nyxoBeHc'rna 6mm O'l‘MeHeHbI. I/ IMHepa'rpm1a nponena Hepnym :3 ncropnn c'rpaHm nepenucn Hacenenna H 3eMeJn. Hux Bnanennfi. 0Ha Tarcxce ofinerqlma Honoxcenne rcpenocm-Horo xpec-ru1Hc'rHa, coxpawnn 6apHm- Hy no -rpex nHei«'1 3 Henemo. Focynapcrno Honyqnno Honyro apmmo, cq)op1vmpo- BaHHy1o H3 H8.5paHHbIX Ha HoncHaHeHHy1o cnyxcfiy pexpyron. Mapna Tepesna sanpewnna cpennenerconue IILITICK K orpanmmna IIpHMeHeHKe cMep'rHo1‘«’1 xa3HH. OrpoMHoe Hporpeccnnnoe 3Hat1eHHe muena mxonhnaa pecpopma, sanoxcnnmaa q)yHnaMeH-r HaponHoro npocnemgenna. B peaynyrawe ee ocymec'rB. ueHnH Hosan- nacs c1-pofiaaa cHc'reMa o6paaoHaHHa — or censcxnx nncon no yHnBepc1»x're'roH. Rponomunaa pa6o-ra Ho nponenenmo pe<popM He oanaqana, trro Mapna Te- pesrm npnmnpxmacb c Ho'repe1‘«'1 Cnneann. I/ IMnepa'rpmJ; e ynanocb cxonorwrb
  • 192. Hoaoe ape/ can (aropasv nonoauna xvu — xvm 3.) ‘J ‘M "3 ' I- 1 ‘ 7‘ . . 7-av; . . "=t A . :'iWl‘l“? ,A Lu. 347". "I 1% I Koneiiunmcn ancwpnficxofi apmm annmpyccxyxo xcoammmo, xyna souum Cbpanunx 14 Poccua. Anrvma, cwpemscb He , z1onyc'm'rb ycmxemm Cbpammn, aaxmotmna coxos c Hpyccnefi. Hocne 303- nmcnonerma arnx nayx apaxcneénmx rpynrmposok acnuxayna Cemmxemsm aoiina (1756-1763) — 'rpe'rba ofimeesponeiicxan. Ona Haqanacb xax Bofiaa 3a Cnneamo. Cbpmxpnx II Hanan Ha Ancwpmo, HO yxce acrcope neficraua nepeMec- TPIJIPICL Ha Tepprrropmo Hpyccvm. Ee cwommy spar 6pa. n aaaxcnuz cnaqana pyc- cxne c ancwpnfinamn, 3a'reM neurepcxue rycapm. OT oxconqawenbnoro paarpoma Cbpmxpnxa cnac aueaannhxfi nuxon H3 Bofium Poccmn, two IIO3BOJIHJIO Hpyccma coxpax-urn: 3a coéoii Cmreamo. Petbopmm I/ Iocuqm II. Aacrpuficxufi mvmepa'rop I/ Iocmb II (1780-1790) acne}: 3a caoefi Marepuo Mapnefi Tepesnefi (orm npamum BMec're no cMep'rn nmneparpnuu 3 1780 r. ) cwpemnncs orpa- HK‘~'{PI'I‘b npmzpmenm 3ua'rn n nyxoaencraa. OH pyxoaozxcwaoaanca npnarmuoxvx cozmo npaao mm acexo u ycranonmx paaeucwso uomaanmx nepen aaxonom Heaaancnmo 01* xx cocnosnofi npunazxneoxnocwn. He, uBopa- HaM paapemanocb aazmmarb moéyro rocy- zzapcwnennyxo , Zl0JDKHOC'! ‘I>, Irro owxpmaano mnpoxue noamomaocrn uepen CIIOC05Hb1MYI Bmxozmamn H3 Hapona. Baxcnoe anaqerme mm MHOI‘0H&I1HOH8JIb- H0171 mvmepxm I‘a6c6yproB mueno npo3o3- mamexme Beporepnumocwn. Hpexparnnocb npecnenoaarme npo'rec'raH'roB 14 ymmceune npasocnannofi uepxnn, 61.1110 ynuqwoxceuo enpeficxoe re'r'ro. I/ Iocnq) II pacnyc'rn. n penn- rnoanme opnenm u Mouacrmpn, rcoropme He sannmajmcb «noneauofi nearenbnocrmo» — neqemrem Gonmmx mm ofiyqexmexvx nerefi. Bora'rc'rBa Mouacrmpeii on nepenan Ha Hym-
  • 193. , KPHSHC «CTAPOFO nOP$! £1KA». HA‘-W'1O MOIIEPHPBALIHPI Te ma Bencxuii mzopeu Illeaépyna. XVIII a. 111:! ofipaaonaxnn. I/ IMnepa'rop anen oéaaarenbnoe Gecnnaraoe naqanbaoe o6- pasoaanne mm napona. Peq)opMb1 I/ Iocmba II 6Lum naxcnumn, no qacwo He no Korma npo. zxyManm.1- MP1. Ormerma rcpenocmoe npano, mvmepa-rop ocsofionmx KPBCTBXH o'r Jmqnofi aanncnmocm, no coxpamm nx nonnxnocm. On c'rpeMm1ca cosnan. n MHOI‘O- nanuonanbaofi Ancwpma o6pa3en npocnemennoro aécomo-mama, no npn arom He npmmman no nzmmanne mrrepecm omenbnmx naponoa. I/ Iocuqa II xowen yconepmencwaoaarr. ynpanneane cnomw rocynapcrnom n noaromy cnenan ae- Menxnfi ennucwnennbxm rocynapcraenamm aamxom. <-Metrra-rem. Ha Tpone : » nanesmca, wro : -rro nomoxcer paanum naponam ero rocynapcraa npenpa-rmbcn 3 emmyro nanmo. Onnaxo rarcaa nomrrrmca Haromcuynacs Ha npo'rec'r naceneamx <<J1ocrcy'rHofi mvmepxm» n amaaana nnnxcenne, nanpannennoe Ha paasm-ue nannonanbamx xynyryp. :1‘)/ " XVIII 5. 1/13 socnoMMHaHm3i COBpeMeHHMKa 06 mwneparope I/ Iocucpe II , Y/I Ero HGT Gonbme, rocynapn, Koropbm nenan uecn: acem mop, s:M. M -aenoaexa, xoropbm eme 6one Aenan neon; ecem rocynapnm. .. moan nnoxo ocoanarot, Kaxas: yrpara VIX nocmrna. .. numb uepea ron nyrewecraennvuc cxaxetz «KaKoe npexpacuoe yc‘rpos71cTso u. n<on. éonbr-mu, nopem M o6pa3oBaI-msa! » Manycparaypmcr: «Kaxoe noom- pev-me! » 3eMnenaLueu: «OH caM Tpynuncn». Epemxz «OH 6am Haumm 3aummm<oM». npencenavenm acex aenomcra VI Hauanbumm Bcex yupexnenmfi cxaxcyrz «OH 6bU1 HaLIJV1M nepabwu cnyxaumm VI onnoapemenno HauJMM HaHaJlbHMKOM>>. MMHMCTpbI: «OH yémaan ce6n panm rocynapcraa, nepaum flOJJ. D.aHHblM KOTODOFO. no em cnoaam, OH Gbm. ..» O6mecTao cxaxer: «OH 6am Be|3Hb| M. mO6e3HblM; on npmamo roaopnn; ero Gecenbu 5blJM npmmetcarenbuu; c HI/ IM MO)KHO 5bU'lO npaamneo roaopwrb o6o aceM». Pecpopmu npocnemennmx Mouapxoa nonoacrrrennno nonnnanu Ha monome- xme n c1-pane. Oan cnocoécrsonanu nemoxpamaannn nopxmcon :4 paanmmo npezmpmmMa're. nbc'r3a. Ozmaxo nepezuco aonoenenermn aocmm apemennmfi 191 xapawrep n aaxammnamxcb co cmeaofi npanm-ens. IIocJ1e cmepm Plocmba II norm»: ace npeofipasonamm OTMGHHJI ero 6pa-r n npeexvmmc Jleononbn. “C Bpelvm a6co. ruo'rHmx Moaapxnfi 3 Eapone nponmo. Cnacm nx c IIOMOIIIBIO upo- rpeccnaaux ymepennux npeofipaaonannfi He yzzanocs. Peqropmu ne cmomm npn- ‘ cnoco6x»rr1. crapmfi mcynapcrnennmfi c-rpoii K Hyxcnam Hanoi’: 6yp>xya3Ho171 anoxn. 7 I I 3 )
  • 194. HOBOC BpeM5I (aropasv nonoauna XVII - XVIII 5. ) 1. ‘Imo aaeaao coepeatenuunau ocuqaanua na3ueamb: d>p_z4j§, , , T V _ epeuenuo «dauaocoqrou na mpoue» u «¢e. nb6¢e6e. —ueJI¢ I. _. 2. Houeuy c npuxoaou rczemzcmu Mapuu Tepe3u¢gAecm1gu3z ” _ ? .. Jldcb e zuasax npaeumeneii paad eeponeficzcux cmfrziu 3 ‘v T I Coomeemcmeoeaao am smo ucmurino. uyInoJwaIce'nino? ‘~ ; - . {,1 v vi‘ 3. Ho rcarcuu npwumau‘coepe. ueuuu1cu ' 34414 Hag ‘ ’ , __-""‘-§. "__. t:-r II ‘ 1. Ha ocHoaaHm4 aasetual-ma cbpmzpuxa II nonurairrecb ycranoaurb, B -: eM, Kax rocyzzapb, OH amen caoe npuaaarme. Moxno nu npmuel-mrb K npyc- cxoMy K0pOJ1IO cnoaa, Koropue Kama-ro cxaaan o ce6e Apyrofi Mouapx — fhozzosmc XIV: «F ocyaapcrao — am 9»? A ecnn H61’, TO no-4eMy? Kaxoe racy- Aapcrao npyccmfi KODOIII: cquran o6pa3uo3brM? 2. Mcnonbayn orpbrsox M3 aocnoMm4aHnfi coapeMeHHm<a 06 Vlocmpe II, au- acrmre, '-ITO 60/1ee acero ueHm aarop MCTO'-IHMKa B pe¢opMax I/ Iocmpa II. KaK caM mwneparop ouermsan caoe Mecro B rocyaapcrse M qeM aro, Ha saw sarnsm, o6b;1cHsmocb? 3. Onwpancb Ha Marepnan y-: e6Hm<a, cocraabre cpaarmrenbuylo ra6nm.4y «Pe¢OpMbI3I1OXM npocBeLueHHoro a6co1uom3Ma». j wow» ~ j * 2 POCCI/ I51: OT IIPEOBPASOBAHI/ IH . . K MOFYIIIECTBY Crpenenrcne 6yn'n.1. Hepnme IIOIIBITKI/ I BHec'rI«1 nameuenna B oprannaanmo mcynapcwnennofi Bnacrn B Poccpm nponaomnu no n'ropoI'«‘I nononnne XVII B. Hapz. IIOJIy"-IPIJI TIzITyJI «cauonepncen» , npexparxmca coabm 3eMc1mx co6opoB, B apmm Bosnmcmx uomm «nonoro cmpoa». BBIJIO OTMeHeI-IO Taxnce Mec'rHnqe- CTBO — aamrrne , z1oJmcHoc're1‘»'1 B aanncnmocrn o'r :3Ha'r- Hoc'm nponcxoxcnenua; 11.113 cnoco6m>1x Jnonefi OTKDBIJICH zxocwyn K ynpaanenmo c'rpaHo1‘»'1. Bce 3'ro osnaqano, rrro 13 Poccxm Haqanca nepexon o'r COCJIOB- Ho-npe11c'raBn'reJn. Ho1‘»'1 Monapxxm — camonepmaana c Bonpcxoifx J1yM0fi — K qnuonnnqbe-naopsmcrcoifx Monapxrm — a6coJno'rn3My. l'Ioc. ne Hezzonroro npannenna tbenopa A. ne1cceeBu- ‘I8 (1676-1682) TpOH nomicea 61.1.11 nepefiwn K ero N- ! Hapehmln 6pa'ry I/ Inany. Onnarco 15-. ne'rHm7I napenuq OK8.3aJI- 1T¢TPA: Ie1cceenu, '1 ca 50JIe3HeHHI>IM, n 6oape pemmm nponosrvxacwrb KKBQKA-"F“°°¢33“-" I1apeM cbma Anerccen Mnxafinonnqa n ero B'ropoI‘»'x M"W“""°P“- menu Ha'ram«m Hapbxmxnnofi Ilerpa - anoponoro, Hepsau non. XVIII 3. Kperucoro 14 coofipaswrenbuoro 10-J1e'rHero Manbtmxa.
  • 195. Tom! 1 KPHSHC «CT APOFO l'| OP$1flKA». HA‘-IAIIO MOD. EPHH3ALlHH B 6opb6y aa nnacn. Bcrynnna ymaaa n aneprmmaa napenaa Codma, namepe- naamasca upamrrb nMec'ro cna6oyMnoro 6pa-ra I/ Isana. Cnwyanna n Mocxae, me naapenano noccranne HGIIOBOJIBBHX cnoman naqanbnuxaun crpenbnon, cnoco6c-rsonana ocymecrnneamo ee l. U!8.HOB. Cwoponnuxn Coqxbn pacnycnum cnyx, 6y1rro 61.1 Gospe-nameanmm 3anynm- Jm uapennqa I/ Inana. Boopyxcennue CTPOJILIJJ. -J c 6apa6annb1M 6oeM Bc'ry1mJm 3 Kpenunu. ‘-I'ro6m ycnoxonu nx, Ha maopnonoe KDBIJILIIO nuneun o6onx napenm qefi, ncunux H nenpennmux, no 310 He oc-ranonuno noccranna. Ono Gymenano Tpfl mm, nnacm. 3 Mocrcae oxaaanacb n pyxax c'rpeJu. non. l'Io nx wpeéonanmo napanm naperum I/ Inana n Ilerpa, a perenrrnefi no nocwmxenna mm conepmen- nonernn c'ra. na Comm. B roam npalmenna Coqnan (1682-1689) 1'Ie'rp BMec're c Marepmo man 3 nomuocrco3- aux napcrcnx yca, zu.6ax. Ilapenmx pano upo- annn cxnoanocu. K noennomy neny u now- -rn ace npemx nponozum 3 noennux nrpax. Cnennanbno 1111:: max 113 oxpecrnux cen - Ilpeoépaacenctcoro H Cemenoacrcoro - co- 6pa.1m MaJIb‘lHKOB B cnorexnnmeo nomcn. Co npemenem om! npenparnnncs 3 on; ao1»1MeH- Hue nepaue raapneiicrcne nomcu, xcowophxe npenc'raBJmJm anaqurenbnyxo cvmy. B 1689 I‘. I'Ie'rp xcenmzca H c Tex nop crurrancn coaepmenaonernnm. Tenepb on maen ace npana Ha npec'ro. n. Cmmcuoser-zme c COQ)bei7l H ee croponnmcamn cranonunocb nenaéexmum. Ozmaxczzm aarycroncxoii H0‘Ib! O IIe'rpa pa36y1mJm :1 cooémmm, Irro ; _ ‘, A v , ,( crpeneuxue nomm nomurru no Tpenore :4 roroam CXB8'I‘PI'l‘b ero. Herp 6ex<a. n 1101: 3a- ' I‘-‘M , ’ '4 "' -: :mfI'¢ ‘ mvrry Moummx c'ren Tpouue-Cepruenoro ” ' V ’ Monacwmpa. Bcxope c paaaepaywmmn anamenaxvm crona npmmm nuanannme mvx npenarmme Hpeofipaxcencmm H Cemenoncxnfi nomcn. l'Ie'rpa non. z:ep>xa- ‘JIPI 60JIb[1IKHCTBO 6051]) PI JIBODSIH, MOCKOBCKPIfi nawpnapx I! name EECKOJIBKO crpeneuxnx nomcon. Codms oxcasanacb B nsomuum, ee 3aT0'-XHJIH 3 MOH8C'l'I-alpb. Tpon nepemen K I'Ie'rpy, c'raBmeMy nocne cMep'm B 1696 1''. maps: I/ Inana em»! - noanacrnum npasnrenem Poccnficxofi nepxcaam. Bemucoe noco. m.c'rno. C3010 masnyro aanaqy Hemp amen B nponodvxemm noifmbx c ICpr. moM, Haqanmeiicn eme 3 npamxerme Cocpbn. Onnaxco n3-3a o'rcy'rc'r- mm xopaénefi uepnmfi noxon Ha Typeuxyxo xpenocn. A303 aarcommnca ueynatmo. 193 Ilerp anepmtmo rrpnnsuxca 3a c'1'pom'em, c'rBo qmowa. B mqenne rona 651.110 coopy- xceno uecrconsxo 60.TIbflIIrIX n comm Manux cynon, a Tamxe nmaoe ynemmena apzvma. Bnoxnpoaan A303 c Mops, pyccxcue nasmn era 3 1696 r. Mencny 'reM Hewp uonnman, two aofima eme He aarconqmlacb. Cwpemacb y1cpe- III/ {Tb I'IOJIO)KeI-IP16 POCCMI/ I M C0103 IIDOTPIB Typmm, 8 TBKJKG HaJI8.lIHTI> Toproaue, 7 Bcemwpuzm ucmpmn. 8 xn
  • 196. I ‘J LIA C Tb Hosoe ape/ ~12 (sropan nonoBuHa XVII — XVIII B. ) Texnnriecxne n xynyrypnme cnxan c paaBn- TLIMPI rocynapcwnamn, naps oprannaonan Bemmoe HOCOJILCTBO mm noeazncn 3 Banan- Hyro Espony. Ono BxcJnoqa.1Io 250 qenonerc u uMeJIo uenmo Ha6pa'r1. miocwpaanux cue- 1maJmc'roB mm coananaemmx IIe'rpo1vI HOBLIX apmma K qmowa, a Tamice saxcynrrrb opyxcne, npnfiopm, rcaprbr. B coc'ran nocoJ1hc'rBa Bxommn HGCKOJIBKO MOJIOJILIX maopsm mm ofiyqermsz 3a rpammeii BoeHHoMy zzeny K 1copa6JIec'rpoeHmo, a Tamxe cam naps. On ownpannnca B noeamcy non nMeHeM ypazp Hmca Hpeofipaxcencxoro nomca I'Ie'rpa Mnxafinosa. Ilapcxyro netxawb, cneuuanbno n3ro'roB- nermyxo mm noesmcn, Bearxana 1<pacHope- v-msaa Ha, z1n1»1cL: «H yqenmc K may ce6e ytm'reJ1efi>>. I'Ie'rp ofiyqanca K0pa6eJIbHOMy Mac'repc'rBy Ha Bepcbax I‘oJ1J1aH; mn n Aur- mm, noceman Myaeu 14 Kpenocrn, nnconm 4 _ H Monernme maopm, Manyqnawrypu n 06- f , - . ] cepBa'rop1m. OH o6maJ1c5I c rocy, u;apc'rBeH- ~, ' ‘g. I"“" ' _ HLIMPI Mys~KaM1»I, yt{eHLIMI»I, 1lPI1'IJIOMa'l‘aMPI, Basrme Aaoacxou xcpeuocw. Muuuammpa 05I: I‘{HbIMId Mopsucaxvm n xopa6eJxaMn; He- y'roMnMo pa6o'ra. II I/ I nsnnex 143 npefibmanna : .M_WM_‘m. “_F5 u_ ‘N A, ‘ 3 Espone Marccnmanbnyro nonbsy. |1[“1u_. -I In u. ,.1;; ,;: .., h-, , $3 B 1698 r. He'rp I Bepnynca H8. pozmny. ; _‘. s.n'{ {"1 ‘ " u R’ ‘; |5,f7£‘){-}M}: u'j3‘*': ,_ II‘ Paaurenbnbtn 1coH'rpac'r Mexczty 3arpa- u;1(. :;; or. x;. ;_~. .;= _w; ‘._: ,2.) I HINHLIMH Bneqawnennamn H poccnficxon Ixeficmsurenbnocrbro ycnnml B Hem xcaxcny npeo6pa3oBaHm‘5I. Hap}. PIBJISJI yrcas Hocwrb eaponeficxyro onexcny, 5pPI'I‘b 6opo11L1. JIe- Tocqncnenne Haqann BCCTH yxce He o'r COTBO- pemm xvmpa, a or Poxczxecnaa Xpncrona, 'r. e. Honbxfi rop; npa3,z1HoBa. Im He 1 ceH'ra6pa, a 1 amaapa. Y He'rpa cnoxcmmcb H Honme npencraxmenna o nenax Bnemaeifx IIOJIIrI'I‘K- Kn Poccnn. Tenepb on Bnpgen nx B 6opL6e co I. IIBenI»Ie1‘»'I 3a BBIXOJI K BaJ1'rm'7IcIcoMy M0pI0, rrro npmaeno rc Cenepnoii soiine (1700- l721), Icoropaa Tarcxce CHJIBHO nonnnana Ha xapawrep newponcxnx npeofipaaonanufi. l'Ie'rp I H3118}! yxaa 5pI: ITb éopozzm. .. Jlydox. 6' rocynapb-pe(b0pMaT0p. B X0116 BOKHBI pyccxan apmnn aaxnarrma yc'rbe Hesm. 194 3J1ecL B 1703 r. I'IeTp ocaonan ropop; Camvr-IIeTep6ypr — 6_vnymy1o cwommy, Mopcxne Bopo'ra I/ I CI/ IMBOJI H0301? Poccmx. Onepncan no6e, z1y Han HIBe11ne1‘»'1, Poccna no ycnonunm Hnmram-cxoro Ivmpa nonytmna Bmxozz K BaJI'rm}’1cxoMy Mopro. I'Ie'rpy Iyzzanocb <<npopy61»1'rb oxno B Eapony». B oI<'rs16pe 1721 r. Poc- ,9 cm: 6bma nposoarnamena nmnepnefi. «Hon cryrc Touopa I/ I I‘p0M nymex» (A. C. l'Iyum1«m)oHa npezparnnacb B Hacroamyro Mnponyro nepncany, c xoropofi . <. I I
  • 197. , KPHBHC «CTAPOFO noPsLc1KA». HAqAno MOIIEPHHBALIHM Te Ma Canter-Herepfiypr. XVIII a. Tenepb nonxcnm Gwm ctm'ra'rLcn Bce espo- neficxne c'rpam.1. B Teqenne Bcero upamrerum He'rpa upo- nozmmxcb peq)opM1.1. I/ Ix xapawrep 14 H3.- npannennocn. I‘JI8.BHbIM o6pa3oM onpez: e- JIKJIHCB IIOTpe5HOCTflMPI Cenepnofi Boiinm — Boopyxcarb, uopmm-1. n onenawb apmmo 14 « [7’ q). no'r. Cnennanhnoro rmaaa npeo6pa3oBa- I “ Hm‘? ! He cymecrnonano, uoa'roMy om: He ' ncerzza olcaamnamxcb IIOCJIBJIOBETCJILHBIMPI 5 u aanepmennmmn. Hanfionee 3aMe'rHI-.1e nsmenemm npo- / naomnn B npommmnenaocrn. Boanmuro ' oxono p; Byxco'r Honmx MaHyq)aK'ryp, oco6eH- ’ ‘ HO 6mc'rpmMu 'reMna1vm paannnanncb Me- Tannyprna K TGKCTPIJILHOB nponanoncmso. Ycnemno pa6o'ra. nn Hosme owpacam — cyp; o- crpoenne, memconpazxeane, n3ro'roBJ1e1me crexna H q)apq)opa. 1‘ocno, z1c'rBo rcpenocrnnqecrsa 1cpa1‘»'me orpammmaano PIC- nonbsonaane B HPOMBIIIIJIGHHOCTPI aonbnonaemnoro Tpyna. C06C'I‘BeHHPIKaM Manycparcryp npuxommocb noxynan rcpecwhan 6e3 aewm 121, ocwanamx nx rcpenocrnbxmn, nepecemrrb Ha aanozzu. 9'ro 'ropMo3mIo CTaHOBJIeHHe B Poccnn rcannwannama. He'rp I coszxan nonme opranu rocypgapcwnennoro ynpaanenna. BMec'ro Boapcrcofi z1yML1 noaamxca CeHa'r, Kowopmfi pa3pa6a'rmBaJI Honue aarconm, 1con'rpoJmpoBa. n rocyzzapcwnennme qmnancm n anmmmcwpanmo. Ha cMeHy rpomoanxoii n 3any'raHHo1‘»'I cnc'reMe npmcaaon npmmm 11 1coJIJIerm‘«'I. Raxcnaa H3 nnx ynpannnna onpenenenaofi 0Tp8.CJILIO2 Konnerna nnocwpammx gen — Bnennmmn ownomennamn, A, t:M1«xpa.11're1‘»’xc1caa — q)J1o'roM, Bepr-rcomlerrm - Mewannypmqecxofi IIDOMBIIJIJIGHHOCTBIO PI 'r. ,z1. Crpaay no, z1e. rn»1Jm Ha ryfiepmm, 195 me Bnacn, nonnocwmo cocpenowoqnnacb B pyrcax ryfiepnaropon. J, “ Pnasnmm ycnosnem mm nponnuxcenna no rocynapcwneanofi cnyxcfie c'ra. n ((“ npmmxm Jlmmoifl BBICJIYPPI, 3aKpen. neHHLx1‘& B <<Ta6eJm o panrax» 1772 r. Ta6eJn. paanemma Bce aonxcuocrn Ha 14 panron. ,lIoc'r1»1txL xaxcaoro nocJ1e,11y1om; ero~ Momno 5bIJIO TOJIBKO nocne npoxoxcnenna Bcex npepgbuxymnx, trro orxpmnano Jffau Maptc Hammbe. IIe'rpI
  • 198. LIA C Hoaoe BpeM51 ( sropaa nonoauna XVII - XVIII 3. ) __ . V ny'rb nanepx Jnonam cnocoéamm H npennpnnwmnum. Cnyxcanme nonyqann manonaabe n nonnocruo sanucenn o'r rocynapa H rocynapcrna. Cnoeo6pa3- nofi xonnernefi c'ra. u Canon — xonnernanbnufi opran ynpannerma neprconuo. Llaph co3na. n ero, ormexmn JIOJIJKHOCTB manm pyccxoifix uepxau — narpnapxa. Hanaop 3a nenrensnocwmo Cmxona ocymecwnnan rocynapcwneunmfi tumou- muc, two c'ra. no eme onnvm marom Ha nyrn nontmnemm uepmm rocynapcrsy. B pe3ym. 'ra're anax npeoépaaonamxfi 3 Poccvm cnoaxnnacb ennaax nna scefi cwpanm nempwmaonannan cncuema ynpalmemm. Pemaxomyro pom. B nefi m*pa. n Monapx, a onopofi eMy cnyxcmxo naopsmcrno. Ilpu I'Ie'rpe pyccxaa apmmx PI q). no'r BOIJIJIH 3 rmcno cnnbnefimnx 3 Enpone. Ilapb snen pexpy-rcxyno nonnaaocnz 20 upecwsancrcnx nnopon Bmcraanxnn , Ha noxcnsnermyro c. r1y>x6y onnoro percpy-ra. Tax 651313 coanana perynapnaa apmna, nocrnrmaa x xonuy nerposcxoro napcwnonanna oxono 200 rue. rte- i noaex. Conepxcarme apn/ mu 'rpe6oBaJ1o orpomnmx cpencwn. ‘£70651 o6ecnerm'rb nx nocwyrmenue, H0885! nonamaa pecpopma Baena nmecro nonnopaofi nonynmyro nonarb. Ee exceronno rma'rn. no Bce Myxccxcoe Hacenerme — o'r Mnanermen no cwapmcon. I/ Imenno Ha l'IJIe'~IK nonwmoro aacenenna Jxerna ocnoanaa 'rsmcec'rL nerponcxnx petpopm, npononmmmxcn c Hecnuxauuoii acecroxocrmo H neon- Hoxparno conpoaoxcnaaumxca Haponnunm 6ym*aMu n soccrannnmn. I'Ie'rp I — nonxmmmfi npeo6pa3o3a're: u. Poccvm. Bnaronapa ero petbopmam Momnufi 'l‘0JI‘!0K nonyrmno paaawrne npomhxmnennocnx, 6uJm cosnanu 60e- cnocoénaa apxvmn n qmor, nosnmc neficrnennufi rocynapcrnenamfi annapar, a cama Poccna npno6pe. na nmporcoe Mexcnynaponuoe npuanarme. Fnanaan OC05eHHOC'l‘b nerponcxnx upeoépasonanuii cocrowr B TOM, Irro orm aarponynn BC8 cnon o6n1ec'rBa — o'r 3ua'moro éoapnna no fiennefimero rcpecwbannna. I/ Ix nponenelme - Baxcnmfi pyfieac 3 ncropnn Poccnu, paanennnmnfi ee Ha none'r- poncxyro u nocnenerponcxcyzo anoxu. . —:<_. ...4 Jlnopnonue nepenopo-rm. B 1 722 r. l'Ie*rp Hanan yxcas o nopanzce npec'rono- aacnenoaanmz. Focynaps Jmtmo uaanatzan npeem-mxa u Mor namenwn. cnoe pemeune, ecnn naéparmmc He onpasnunan ero Hanexcn. Ho cam Hemp He ye- nen pacnopannnca poccnficxoii xoponofi, noawomy 3 Teqetme 36 new nocne ero cMep'm 3a ofinanarme exo Benacb aemannaa 6ops6a. Ona conponoxcnanacb naopuonumn mrrpnramu, aaroaopamn PI nepesoporamn. IIpec'roJ1 B a'ro'r ne- pnon npunanneman npenmymecraeuno xceammxam u ne'raM, npn xoropux orpomnyro p0Jlb nrpann q)anopu'ru. Hepnofi Ha Tpone oxaaanacb xcena l'Ie'rpa Exarepuna I (1725-1727). Ona He mvxena cnoco6Hoc'refi rocynapcwnennoro nemena, noa'roMy nna Jryumero ynpalmenmi crpanofi H3 finuxcafimero orcpyxcerma IIe'rpa 6121.71 cosnau Bucmnfi rocynapcmex-mmfi opran - Bepxonnufi Tafinmfi cone'r. Onnn K3 ero tmenoa, BJIac'romo6n- aufi :4 xopmcmmfi Anexcannp Menmmcon, c'ra. n tbaxwmxecxnm npanwrenem Poccun. Hocne xoponcoro uapcraoaaaus Exarepnnu Tpon nepemen K 12-nernemy Bayxy uorcoiinoro mu- nepawopa — Henry II (1727-1730). 011 61.1.1: CLIHOM uapemma Anexcea, Kaauennoro B csoe apema no oénvmenmo B aaronope nporna orua - I'Ie'rpa I. _ K __ Ionmii nMnepa'rop He l'IOJIy‘lPI. Il J. IOJI. '>! <'. HOI‘0 o6pa3o- 5 1'9'¢PW‘5£I-’‘39-W§- 333‘ Baum; n Mano nnrepecoaancn rocynapcwnennuuu “Pm” 1- E°"' XVI" 5- JIBJIHMPI. Ero nonnuunofi c'rpac'rmo oc'raBaJ1acb neo- 196
  • 199. KPI/ |3|/ IC «CTAPOFO FIOPHHKA». HA‘-{N10 MOHEPHHBALIVH/1 Baa oxo'ra: mvrea 360 co6a1c, He'rp II miorna name cnan pmzom c nnxvm. TeM BpeMeHeM nonoxceune B cwpane Bce 3aMe'rnee yxyzzmanocb. He 3aBepn1eH- Hue IIe'rpoM I npeofipaaonamm 6511114 3a6pome- Hbl, cpJ1o'r rmm Ha fieperax Henm, Poccns Tepsma nonnwnqecxnfi sec. Heoncmxanno IIe'rp II 3a6o- JIeJI PI B 15-J1e'meM 13o.3pac're yMep. Jlrmacwmx Po- Manonmx no Myxccxofi Jmnnn npexpawnnach. Ha npec'roJ1 npnrnacmln Imemnnnnuy He'rpa I Anny I/ Ioannonny (1 730-1 740), Bmnannyxo reorga- 'ro 1'Ie'rpoM 3aMyx< 3a repnora Rypmmncxoro. Ona pano 0B110BeJIa, notrrn 20 new xcmxa B I'Ipn6aJrm- me 14 He mvxena Ha pomme nonwmqecxcnx caaaefi. 3T0 nosnonano Ha11eHTbC5I, trro Honaa nMnepa'r- pnna c'raHe'r nocnymuofi m*py1m<oI‘«'1 B pyrcax Tex, rvro nocazmr ee Ha Tpon. Anne npmmlocb noo6e- man He peman, rocynapcraennux gen 6e3 yqacma Bepxonnoro Tafinoro cone’: -a. Ho, nonyqma macwb, ona BOCIIOJII>80BaJIaCb nomzepmxofi m3opaHc'rBa, He11OBOJIb- HOI‘0 aacnnbem apnc'ro1<pa'r1«m 143 Bepxoanoro Tafinoro co13e'ra, n Boccranonmra camonepxcanne. Haplma Mano nnrepeconanacb rocynapcwnennmmn nenalvm. I‘J1anm.1M qenonexom B mvmepzm CTaJI ee qwanoprrr — Hemeu Bnpon, H3-aa qero Bpexvm npazmenmx Am-m I/103.1-IHOBHLI nonyqrmo Hasaaxme «finpononmnna». Bce mnotxenbxe uosumm B c'rpaHe oxaaamncb B pyxax nnocwpanuen. HocJ1e Konrmnu Arms: I/ I081-IHOBHBI upecwon HeHa, z1o. r1ro yuacnenonan CI-JH ee nnemannnum Mnanenen I/ Ioaxm Axrrononxm (1740-1741). 3a'reM B pe3yJwra- Te maopnonoro nepenopowa Icopoaa Poccuficxofi umnepmx nepemna K noqepn IIe'rpa I E.7m3ane're Hewposne (1 741-1 761). OHa He ommmana ce6a rocyz(apc'rBeH- HBIMPI zxenaxvm n nepezzonepmla nx q)aBopn'raM — 6pa'rLxM Paaymoscxnm, Uly- Banonmm PI Bopouuosbm. Ha cMeHy nHoc'rpaHuaM npnmam pyccxme BGJIBMOXCPI, pacmnpmmme npnannernn maopancwna: TOJIBKO eMy paspemanocb Bnanerb 3eMJ1e1'7I 14 xpecrbsmamn. BMec're c rem 61.11114 C0311aHbI finaronpnawnme yC.7I0- Bna pgna passnmn pyccxof/ I npomumnennocm 14 Topronam, Hayrcn PI xynyrypm. Anna I/ I08}-IHOBH8. 1 730 2. E A. /zerc'cea Anmponoe. l'Ie'rp III. 1 762 2. I I‘e(p Xpucmocpop Fpoom. EJm3aBe'ra Herponua
  • 200. 137.7: LIA C Tb H0506 apema (sropas nonosuna XVII — XVIII 3. ) "~ Poccuiicxnfi TDOH E. rm3a3e'ra aanemana cnoemy nJIeMax-mmcy lIe'rpy III (1 761-1762), Koropbxii Bbrpoc 3 Fepmamm 11 He m06vm qyxcofi 111151 Hero POCCHH. I'Ie'rp III He pas noawopsm, trro Jrytnne 65111. uomconmucom npyccxofi apxvmn, qeM poccnficxum xmnepawopom. 3'ro He MOPJIO He amsnan. nenononbcwna. Oqepennofi rocynapcwaenamfi nepeaopor aaaepmmlca y6vu‘&c'r30M IIe'rpa IH P! B0386- nermem Ha npec'r0.n ero menu Elcarepnnm II (1762-1 796) — noqepn Memcoro Bnanewens onnoro H3 Hememmx rcnmxecm, yqacmunm aaroaopa npornn caoero Myxca. «Hpeemnma nemnma Ilewpona» . O6pa3- . . V IIOM Exarepmxa ctm-rana naps-peqropmawopa IIe'rpa I. H0, 3 ornmme 01' Hero, Exa'repn- Ha Hmena nporpammy npeofipaaonamm n 3 Tetxerme caoero npononxcwrenbnoro npaa- I nemm c-rpemmxacb nonnomawb ee B xcuanb. I/ IMuepa'rp1»u: .a npommna yM n cn0co6Hoc'rn neaaypszmoro rocynapcraennoro gem-eam. Ona nepenncmnanacb c B0.rn: 'rep0M H ero enn- HOMhI1]IJIeHHHK8MH, cosewonanacb c nmvm 0 rocynapcnzennmx nenax n npoaozuma no- mrrmcy npocsemeanoro a6c0.rn0'm3Ma. Ozmofi H3 nepaux pecpopzvx c'ra. n paanen Hoeauu Banmucm JIa. unu EeHaTa_P_a_£(T. aPT aMf3fl13’-L 3T0 ynyqmnno Cmapwua. Exampmm H ymsmrnenne crpafzou, H0 JmnmJI0 Cenaw aaxononawenbnon Bnacrn, K0-ropaa ne- penma K umnepawpnue. B 1764 1*. 61.1110 0'rMeHeH0 re'rMaHc'rn0 H8. Yxpanne. Ercawepuua nmcannnpoaana aaronommo Vrcpaxmbt, ywnepxcnaa, trro Boa cwpana Aomxna nmerb emmoe ynpannenne. Ilapnna warcxce cercynapnsonana nepxonnoe mvxyuxecrao PI Bnena aep0'reprmM0c'n. . Hepnooqepezmoe ammaxme Exawepnna ynemma aaxononawenbcwsy. C'I'peMfiCb <- ycrauonmb mmnny n cnorcoiicmne» 3 c'rpaHe u yxpenn-:5 csoe 1101102:-ceane Ha TDOHB, Moaapxmm 3 1767 r. coanana Komnccmo mm cocranneanx HOBOFO caona saxonon Poccniicxoii mvmepxm. IIJIH pyxoaoncwaa ee pa60T0i'I Exawepnna l1011l"O- Toanna crIe1ma. nLHLn”4 «~ Haxaa» , aamsxm 0 cB0eM Hamepemm BOUJIOTHTB men upo- cBe'rn're. nei'x B 3a1<0Hax Poccnficxofa mvmeplm. Meaqxy 'reM GOJILIIIHHCTBO tmenon Eomuccmx fibum He I‘0'I‘OBbI BOCIIDPIHHTB nneanbx Ilpocaeuxemmz cxasamacb 0'rcy- TCTBPIG OIIBITG. napnamexrrcxofi nememmocm 14 nnaxnfi xynurypnbrfi yposem. 60.m. nmHc'rna 11eny'ra'ron. Cnycm ron, BOCIIOJII: »3OBaB1IIHCb Haqanom Bofinm c Typ- Imefi, Konmccmo pacnycnum. OCYIIIGCTBKTB o6n1yx0 pecbopxvty 3ar<oHo, z1a'reJu. c'rna He ynanocb, no pa60Ta Romuccmx He nponana napom. Co apeMeHeM oaa nossomma Exarepnae IIpPIHH'I'l: pan aaxoaon 3 mnepecax pasawma poccnficrcoro 06ruec'r3a. Hyraqencmifx 6y1rr. B 1 773-17 75 IT. B crpaae paapaannocb Boccrarme non npennogmrenbcmom noucxoro xaaaxa Emenbnna Hyratxeaa, ofiwmnnmero ce6x nMnepa'r0p0M I'Ie'rp0M III, <- qynom» cnacnnmcsi o'r m6eJm. Hyraqen 061:- anmx 0'rMeHy xpenocmoro upana :4 co6pa. u Hacroanxylo apmmo as xaaaxcon, xpecwban, pa6o'rm-Ix . m0,z1ex‘«’x, me psmom cpaxcajmcb npaaocnannme, MycyJn. Ma- He, aahmumcn. Boopyxcemime nnyrvm necsrmmxm nymex flOBCTaHIJ; LI oxpyxcmm Opeuéypr 1»: ycnemno npomnocroann IIOIIb! TK&M CHfi'I‘b ocazxy. Cnycm nonrona npaBwreJu. c'rBeHm-1e cmm cM0r: m nanecwn nyraqennam nepnoe nopaxcenne.
  • 201. , KPHSHC «CTAPOFO noPsu1KA». HA‘-{N10 MOIIEPHHBALII/ M Tefvia C ue6oJu. nmM owpanom I'IyraqeBY Vila- JIOCB orofirn aa Ypan, me on cnoaa co6paJ1 Mnorormcxqnoe noficrco n nsnuyncx c mm Ha Raaanb. Hnams Marexca acnmxnyno c -. nonofi cmxoii: Bcxony noannsumcb owpxnm «nyraraexb , nbmmm msopsmcxcne ycanbfim, mm: pacnpaau c nomemmcazvm. Fopona K nepenrm Bcrpetxann «rzocxcpecmero nMnepa- 'ropa>> xne6oM-coJn.1o n KOJIOKOJIBHBIM ano- HOM. Ilyratxen nonomen x Raaamx. Bea oco- 6bxx ycunnfi on sansm ropon, no Kpenocn. nepxcana ofiopony. Hanyrannan Taxmvr pas- Maxom Boccranna, Exarepxma cpoxmo aa- muoqmxa Mnp c Typnnefi n épocmxa nporma Hyratxena 11onoJ1nn'reJn: .nL1e cmxu. 15 mom: 1774 r. napcxmvx Boficrcam ynanocb BbI5PITI> noncwannen 143 Kasann. Oc'ra'r1m nyratxeB- nen nepenpanmmcb qepea Bonry n cnoaa 3a HGCKOJILKO Henem. npenpawmncb 3 MHOI‘0'l‘hI- cmmyxo apzvwuo. Ilyraqen oxmn sa 11PYrnM aaxnawmaan ropona, onnarco nonbrrxa onnanen. Ilapnuuaom ycnexom ne ynentxanacb. Jlne Tbxcatm nyratzennea nomfinn na none 605:, mecn. mom nona- J1}! B nnen. Camoro Hyraqeaa cxaamnu xx Bunann mxacmm ero xce croponnmcn. B nepeaanuofi x<JIe'r1<e camosnauna npmaeann B Mocxny H mm xaanmm. Bocc'ra- rme 61.1110 nonasneno, a nan ero yqac-rnmcamn yrmnena xcecwoxaa pacnpana. Ilyraqeanmna narmuzno nponemoncrpnposana myfiorme npornnopeqna 3 poccuficxom o6n1ecTBe. Ona aacwamma Excarepnny II nposecrn pecbopmu, Hanpanneuame Ha yxpenneane CHC'I‘eMbI rocyzxapcrnennoro ynpannenna. Emenbm-1 Hyralxen Petbopmu Ercarepnnm II. Ilpecnenya nenb yxpennrb anmunncwpawnsnufi annapaw n o6J1er'= m'rL nanaop 3a naceneunem, nmnepawpnna ynenmxnna 110 50-1‘? ! Konmxecmo I'y6epnm71. Bo mane ux crosum x*y6epHa'ropbI. nomnu-Iennue Hence- pencmenno Monapxnne. B ryfiepmmx aoanmuln noaue opranm MGCTHOPO ynpa13- Jxenmx, ccpopmnponannbxe magnum o6pa3oM no maopsm, trro conefxcrnonano yen- oval , _ ’uuiI, ‘* Ill non ‘ml! ' . ~., ‘.2 ‘. V‘ V} . ' ‘_. .. . .‘ _ “V “. . <1>pu.0pux , £Irop(pe. vzb0. Mocxconcxufi Kpewrb. Fpamopa. XVIII 3.
  • 202. I) I I Ir’ J H0806 BpeM$I ( Bropasz nonozauna XVII - XVIII B. ) I I ‘~‘; "xJ1eHp11o pom: nnopancwna B rocynapcrne. Ilapannenbno nposozxmmcb Mepbx 111151 If coazxaxmsi Tpe-rbero cocnonnaz qacwnaa C05C'I‘BeHHOCTb 1»: CBO6OJ1a npe1mpnHnMa- , ’ 'reJ1bc'rna nepexomum non oxpany saxcona. Ozmonpemenno c ocnoaanuem ry6ep- 314:7: 651.71 coanan cocJ1oBHLn‘«'1 cyn. mm maopsm, ropomau 14 CB0601IHI>IX KpeC'I‘b5IH ranomumcb omennnme cynefinme yupexmenua, ozmaxo KpeIIOCTI-Ible ocwanucb non cyneéaofi Bnacwmo CO5CTBeHHPIICa-1'IOMeU. U/IKa. OH MOI‘ czzenawb c HPIMPI Bce, trro yromioz KYIIPITL, npo, z1a'rr. , nponrpan, B'I{ap'I‘I>I, 06MeHHTI> Ha co6a1<y mm I<'. aKyI0-T0 Bemb, no6n'rL, nacrmbno xcenprrb, ompanwrb Ha xawopry. B 1785 I‘. Ercawepnna nonnucana eme Inaa Ba}KHbIX zzorcymerrra — }Ka. noBaH- Hue 1*paMo'rb1 m3opaHc'rBy 1»: roponam. Hepaaa 143 Hnx o6ec11etmBa. na poccm‘7IcIcoMy nnopancwny cao6ony peman. — Hecrn mm He Hecm rocynapcwsennyro cnyxcfiy, OcB060)! C1I&. JI8. era 01' mmnmx HaJIOI‘0B 14 Tenecnmx Haxaaannfi, npenoc'raBJ1:ma npano aanumarbca 'ropr~oB. ne1‘»'1 n npezznpnnnmarenbcwaom 14 npucnamaana Ha3Ba- rme «6.naroponnoe>> . Tarcoe aaxcouonarenbnoe aaxpermenne npm314J1empoBaHHo- ro nonoaxenna msopsmcwna, 1co'ropoe nocne 6yH'ra Ilyraqesa cqmanocb rnaaaofi onopofi Irpecrona, c'ra. no nepmnnofi ero «aonorom Bexa». Hocrenenno I-C maopsmam c'raJ1a nepexomrrrb n mcnoncwayromaa pom B nonnwnqecxofi ncnsrm Poccmx. Bwopaa rpaMo'ra onpe, u;eJmJ1a npasa n o6s13aHHoc'r1»1 ropozzcrcoro Hacenenvm PI tpaxcrnqecrcn nposoarnacnna nanmme B Poccnu Tperbero cocnospm — ropoxcan. Eicarepnna 3a11yMa.1Ia BBGCTPI B c'rpaHe Bceofimee o6pa3oBa1me 14 BOCIIPITBTI: «nonyio nopony Jno11e1‘»'1>> . I/ IMnepa'rpm1a npnmacnna H3 ABCTpMH onmmoro ne- narora — npasocnannoro cep6a fir-nconrma ne Mnpneno. OH coszxan B l'IeTep6ypre V= m'reJIbc1cy1o cemmapmo, me Bnepame 13 Poccma c'ra. rm POTOBYITL ytm'reI1e1>'1. Bcrcope 13 roponax OTKDLIJIKCL o6n1eo6pa3oBa'reJ1LHue n , z1oc'rynHme mm Bcex nnconm - Haponnme ytmrmma. B 31-nx yrmnnmax ypoxn naqnnaumcr. snmofi B 8, a Jxe-roM n 7 qacon y'1-pa H npozzonxcanncb no 11 ‘IaCOB. 3a'reM nenanu nepepbna, a c 14 no 16 cnosa yum- JIKCB. Ilpexcne Y‘-IKTeJIb aannmanca c xaaxnhxm yuenmcom ownenmo, 143-3a qero B nomememm c'roaJ1 Henpepunnmfi mym. Teneps on pa6o'ra. u co Bcexvx xnaccom. Ilpenonananue Benocb Ha pozmom asmce — Tarcoro eme He 6r. n3a. no. B xnaccnofi xomna-re noammacb nocrca, Ha xowopofi nncamx Menom; 3 Haqane yporca , I.'[eJIaJIK nepemrmncy. Kxro xo're. u o'rneqa'rL mm trro-H1460 cnpocwrb — nonnnman nesyxo pyrcy. H3 mm npemerm upmmm K naM 1cJ1accm. u'»'x xcypnan, arcaamezm, rcanmcynbl. Bce arc npnnyman K nnen <I>enop I/ Inanomm Shnconrm ne Mnpneao. Exawepnna H He ycnena OCYIIIGCTBKTL nce cnon npoercrm, no no npany Bomna B poccuficrcyro ncwopmo Icarc omm ms cammx ycuemnux pe(bopMa'ropoB. Ona peannaonana Hemano ma aanymaanoro, nsfiexcaa npn 3'I‘0M cepbesnmx no'rpa- ceanfi B o6mec'n3e. XVIII B. HaI<a3 Mmneparpwuw EI<arepI4HbI II, I'lpe, aCTaBJ1eHHbIl7I KoIvmccm4 any cocrasnermn HOBOI'O c3o, z1a 3aKOHOB Jlnn BBGABHVISI nyuwux 3aKOHOB He05XO, DMMO yMbI Henoaeqecme K TOMy npm- yroroamb. .. npMI'OB0pbI cynefi AOl1>KHbl 5blTb Hapony maaecmbn, Taxxe Kax D. OKa3a- Tenbcraa npecTynHw<o3, -+1065: acm<m7I l’pa)KD. aHI/ IH Mor CKa3aTb, taro OH )KVlBeT non 3aumToi51 3aKOHOB. Henoaexa HeJ'lb351 CHMTaTb Bl4HOBHblM no npmroeopa cyneficxoro. .. Hec-Iacmmao T0 npaanemae, 3 KOTODOM p. on>I<Ho yCTaHOBVlTb >KeCTOKl/ le 3aKOHb| ... Pa3,ueJm l'IoJn.1m1. Ercawepnna II cnoco6c'rBoBa. na 'roMy, q'ro6L1 nonscxnfi 'I‘pOH aamm ee cwannennnx Cranucnan Anrycr. Bcrcope poccnficxaa nmneparpnua
  • 203. KPVBHC «CTAPOFO FIOPFUIKA». HA‘-iN'lO MO£lEPH| r13ALl| /1H '7 6 ‘ (9 W O Calm-nerepfiypr 5 Peaem, (c 1721 -: Poccuu) OBOAO In I’ 'Q’ nmeou-M9 0Hoarouon $9 .11‘-E. a'f? §’TL2. ,9 “.2412: g 0 If ,0,_; },£a ‘ new pocnaunb '; zO4': ’?. '”v74§’: ' _ O . ‘ I/ J Vna»-, cx ’ Mécua 5 O CKew: c.'i»: :‘: ' ‘ V [7 / K1 -. Qflcnmqogo N - » Fmoneucu " 92?). , . - 0 P933 (952 mm? flz ‘ 1 3 OAMDYC080 MO 9 , -4 . - M‘yVNC. ( . ‘ < *9 H 1 0 1 1 0 p «om, “ ’ 5 A J? ,, a,, ~W 5 E n A P 3/«,0 b , _ OW . 0 ‘iw ('3' - / — J O 11"” O69:-cw ' I I - I , OTpy6~4eacx Q ‘S’ “*2, 3 7 2 1 ’ ‘ '. ||v]{, ‘fl‘1,'u- ' “Kpum [ll K {E499-«arose rnygf Kéucx 3090"“ ms o"‘ BOflbiHb BMW r . ‘ X c- Beua r: ,)>/ ; ’7J'h%: e i du wt! {<)K. ,,9E Amiga 2, 3609125 0 Ospamcnaaa '43 (/ 0 94, <>, .%x7 y 3 K P A M H A o Yxropono4»°, ) / -9 Kaue»«eu- n°’"393 426 _/ Sn°fl°“bC“‘-" Hrarnoaunc M80 6 213% ; ABCTPHFICKAH 0%, ‘ ‘ 3IAH0P0>KbE. = fl’) a I’ . " " 3anopox8xas: > / M_ 0 H‘ A P x u 31 v, L/ ‘'‘x “W ‘ v A385 e‘ ‘x } : : °’b2m (C’?7“~r791.; r-occ"“‘ mm/ = ~/ / ” OCMAHCKAH 3:«na? ~‘“" °”"°”"°"°“” ""3" o /1 Sax-mcapafi ’x 5 H 34 n E P H H 0 »- Ilonncrcoe rocynapc-mo 3 XVII-‘XVIII an. 1 Teppmopma Pew Flocnonmoia x 1622 r. Fpaunuu Teppwropmfi, npwcoeamnenublx x Poccvwn a pea nbtare nepaoro [:1 TeP6p2M2T? pVIfl Mocxoacxoro uapcraa paaaena Pew ocnonmom (1772 r. ) a . Fparmuu Teppnropwfi. HDMCOBAVIHEHHHX Bocro-man rparmua Pe-m rlocnonmofi no K Poccmu a pea nbrave aroporo cnoavmm Mmascxoro Mmpa co Luaeunefiu paanena Pew ocnonvnofi (1793 r. ) j 1622 r. , yrpa-«nena nnaoo-ms: ) M ommoacxoro Mwpa c Mocxoscmm —4—; Tef)7pm‘o1pnn Pew: flocnonmofi uapcnsom (1634 r. ) _ 4 3 93- 795 rr. r'——1 Yx avmcxoe xaaauxoe roc napcreo no I’ armuu tperbero paanena Pea-m ____l 3 opoacxomy Aoroaopy 1 49 r. ocnonmofi Mexézy Poccnefi, Aacrpuefi M Flpyccmefi (179 r. ); nnxamnauwa Fpannua Mexcny Pe-«mo nocnonmofi nonbcxofi rocynapcraeunocm M Mocxoacxmm pcnaoM_ crauoanermas Hnpycoscxvw cornaureuuem ‘ ~ A yrvue rep vnopma npvlcoenwnennble ¥667 r. VI aaxpennerman 46‘ K goccvm 3 §)(V| |I a. ' Be-mum MMOM 1686 r. Bunnnnyna nepen Hmvr 'rpe6oBaHne ypannsrrb 3 npanax npasocnanumx n 1ca- 201 "7 TOJIHKOB. KODOJIL, r1oMHa, rcomy on o6si3aH rcoponoifx, comaclmca. Honaxn re; IIOJIHSIJIKCL npornn poccnficxoro BMema're. nLc'rBa B Aena cnoefi cwpanm. B o'rBe'r F. /A Poccmt, Hpyccrm 14 Ancwpna nop;1mcaJm B 1772 1*. noronop o nepnom paanene ‘ IIOJILCKOFO 1'IoMopL51, Poccna — qacrb Benopyccnn.
  • 204. . '-MCTb 1; ll Hozarm Banmucm Jlamzu Cmapwuit. C'raImcJ1aB ABryc'r Honmoncxnfi Hoaoe ape/ ~15! (aropan nonoeuua XVII - xvm 5.) IIo'repaB Hemano aemenb, Petu, IIocnoJm- Tax cwapanacb cnacwn T0, trro ynanocr. c6e- perm. B cwpane IIDOBOJIHJIPICB rrporpeccmanue petbopmbr, naqanca axouomuuecxnfi uozrbem, pacnpocrpanmmcs nnen Hpocsememm. l'IoJu. c2<m‘«'x ce171M npmmn rconcwnwyumo. uowopaa Jmrcammposaaxa «caoéozmoe Be'ro» , ynmo Honbmu H Jlwrahx, yxpemma Bnacn. rcopona. Ho awn usmenemm Hpamumcb z1a. ne- K0 He Bcem nommam. Ilpownnuuxu peq)opM épocmmcb 3a nomzepoxxoifx B I'Ie'rep6ypr. Apmm Ercawepmiu II rrroprnacb 3 Honbmy. Conpornnnenue nonmcon oxasanocb cJ1a6uM, noima — xoponcofi. Pyccxue Boifxcxa saus- Jm Bapmaay. B 1793 1*. npouaomen 3'ropo1‘»'x paanen HOJILIIIH. Poccua r1oJIy1m. na l'IpaBo6e- pexcnyxo Vxpanuy M u, eH'rpa. ru>Hme o6J1ac'm Benapyccym c roponoxvx Muucrcom, K Hpyccuu o'ro1m1a Bea Bananaaa Honbma. Omannnyro nonbrncy cnacrn rocynapcrso upennpmum Taneym Koc'r1ou1- KO. Honbcxnfi na1'pno'r nonmm aoccranne, no uanpannennaa Exawepnnofi II 1<apaTe. r1LHan apzvms non xomamzonaanem Anexcannpa Cynopona nowonuna uapozmoe Bucwynnenne 3 pexcax KpOBH. Ymmceunan H saaoesaanax Honbma 11o>mu3a. ua nocnexmne mm. B 1795 1*. Poccnx, ABCTDHSI H Hpyccmi nonnucann noroaop o ee 'rpe'rseM pasnene. Aac-rpm; aaxaanuxa xomnme o6J1ac'm crpanbx, Hpyccxm — ee uenrpanbuyro qacrb c Bapmanofi, x Poccuu OTOIJJJIH Jlwraa, 3a- nazmaa Benapyccxm H Bonbmb. HOJILCKOC rocynapcmo ncqeano c enponeficxofi rcaprbx, ero npoc'ro nonennnu Mexcny co6ofi Monapxu Tpex c'rpaH. Camonnacwue Hanna I. Home Bneaannofi cMep'rn Exarepnau H Ha pyccxnii r1pec'roJI Baornen ee 42-new-mi’! CBIH Hasen I (1796-1801). He 3'roro Momerrra
  • 205. KPI/ I3|r1C uCTAPOFO | '1OP$lflKAn. HA'~4N'lO MODEPHHBAUHH on man 3 c'ronu= moM npenmecrbe - I‘a'r= mne, xowopoe Man: nonapnna Hanny. =rro6u uaMepeH- no o'rnanu'n. em or zuzopa 3a xpnnucy ee npa13ne- xum. Hanen I 61:1)! oépaaonanabm qenonexou, nmen npexpacaue Mawemawnqecxne cnoco6Hoc- TH, ao ownomenne Exawepuuu II npenpawnno era 3 peaxoro, neypannonemeunoro H BcIIbIJII: ‘!FI- noro qenonexa. Bce 3'ro Hanoamno o'rneqa'ro1c Ha npaanerme HOBOFO umnepawopa. Yace nepnme mam cnnnewenbcwnoaann o ero nameperum B0 seem neficwnosan. aonpexn nonwrnxe Marepn. Ilanen Kare 6yn'ro c'rpeMnnca aaqepxuyn. npenunymue 34 rona poccuficxofi ucwopnm, O5'1>XBPITl> nx cnnonmofi oumfixofi. OH nanan yuan o uepexone npecrona 3 Hacnencrao Tonbxo no Myaxcxofi nmmu. Toma nae Hmuepamp j-‘emfl my, ‘,nuéh I, coxpawnn fiapnmny no Tpex 1111814 B Henemo. ‘ B uenom s'ro npxmecno oénemerme xpecwbauam, HO Ha Yxpanne, r', z1e éapmvma cocrannnna Tonmco nna nan, nx nonoxcenne, Hao6opo'r, yxynnmnocs. Hacwynneuue Hanna Ha nnopancuue npmmnermx n o'rMeHa uercoropmx nonoatcer-um 9KanoBaHno1'«'1 rpamowu Buamaann Bosmymexme nnopnacwaa u ycunerme ero neaanncwn K uaplo. Oxonqawenbno ero mancylo noannmo no- nopnann npeoépaaonamm 13 apmm, nonroromcy 1<o'ropoi'1 Hanen I ocuonunan Ha éeccmucnennoii Mynrrpe. I/ Imneparop Bnen neynoényro u cwparmyxo nnn pyccxcoro connara tpopmy — nnnnnufi Mymmp, trynxn c naxoammn 6amMa1ca- Mu n uanynpeanmfi napmc c Kocofi. ABTODPITGT Hanna I B apmnu peaxo ynan. flame noscemiennyxo xcnanb nozmannmx Hanen I IIO, l1‘{KHHJI CYDOBBIM [ID8- nnnam. Paspemanacr. onexcna TOJIBKO onpenenemimx xbacouos, aanpemanocb nocnn. rcpyrnme mnanm, Tanuenawb aanbc, Becenwrbcx nocne necyrrn Beqepa. 3a Manefimym nponnnnocn. nxoéofi aenbmoxca MOI‘ 3 Mmosenue oxa npeBpa- 'm'rbca 3 aaxnxoqennoro. B crpaae aouapunacb a'rMocq)epa nocwonuaoro cTpa- xa, a nonwrmca H nonenexme Hanna Bmamaann pesxoe HGJIOBOJIBCTBO. Cy, u.b6a nmnepawopa éuna pemena: 13 Hour. Ha I 1 Mapra 1801 r. rpynna saroaopmmcoa y6una em. Bnoxa Hanna sanepmnnacb nocnezumm 3 ncmopma Poccma nnopuonmm nepenopowom. Ha 'rpoH Baomen ero CHE Anexcalmp I (1801-1825). i ' Rynlrrypnue npeoépaaonamm. Ha py6e>1ce XVII-XVIII BB. Poccna 3c'ry~ xmna B Honoe Bpemn. Ecnn B sanannoenponeficxnx cwpanax nepexon or Cpen- HGBCROBBSI pacmayncn Ha non'ropa c'rone'rna, T0 3 Poccmx on nponaomen arpemwrenbuo — B Teqenne JKHSKPI onnoro uoxconemm. Bcero 3a Hecxonmco necnwnnerufi pyccrcaa xcynurypa npenpawnnacb K3 uepxoanofi B cnewcrcyxo. Pasnue xynoxcecmennue c'runn, xoropme B Enpone nocnenonawenbno cMe- usnn npyr‘ Apyra, n Poccun cymecwnonanu onaonpememxo nnu c paapmnom Bcero 3 aecxonuco new. B XVIII 3. sneer. pO, lUrIJI8Cb 11 non Bnmnmem nneii Hpocaememxn pasannanacb aonan rcynyrypa. Peqnopuu Herpa I ICOCHYJIHCI: He 1~onm<o nonxrrmm u arconomucu, no 11 Kym»- Typu. Cnercxnfi xaparcrep npuofipeno o6pa3oBa1me. Oéyqetme rpaMo're 11e'rei’x 203 nnopnn c'rano oénaarenbnum. IIe'rp I name sanpeman JKGHKTBCSX rem, x'ro yxnonsnca or ofiyqemm. BOJIBIIIYIO p0JIb B paanwrun oépaaonannn curpano anenerme 3 1798 r. rpaxcnancxoro mpndrra BMECTO wpyzxnoro nnn trrenna 11ep1<oB- nocnannncxoro. O'r Hanncamm tmcen 6y1cBa1m nepemnn x ncnonhaonanmo apaécxnx nmbp.
  • 206. E I I "IACTb HOBOG BPCMSI ( aropan nonoauna X VII - X VIII 3. ) I/ I3 xxsopsmcrmx 11eTe1‘»'1 B IIIJmxe'rcrcoM rcopnyce POTOBPIJIPI oqmnepon, a B Hamecxcom — rocynapcwseaamx tmuonnmcon. Bacnyrofi Exawepxmm II CTaJIO ocnosarme B IIe'rep6ypre Cmommoro m1c'r1»rry'ra, nonoxcnnmero naqano ncencrcomy mxommomy o6pa3oBaHmo. Cosnarmaa Toma axe Memmnncxaa anazzemna Bnepnme B Poccxm Havana nonrowonxy npomeccuonanbnux apa- qefi. HOHBPIJIHCB gxecsrrxn nncon mm , z1e're1‘& Hennopancxoro uponcxoxcnenna, no B I.1eJ'10M o6pa3oBaHne ocrasanocb cocnosnmm. B Icorme XVIII 3. B Poccma yqnnucs JIPIIIIL mzoe H3 'I‘bIC5i‘{PI qenonex, a omensame cocnonna (rcpeuocrnme rcpecwbane) 65mm nowrn nonnocwmo Jmmenm BO3MO>i£HOCTPI IIOJIy‘IKTI> o6pa- sonarme. / XVIII B. M3 aanncox MBaHa Hennioeaa o qaawe 3K3aMeHa nocne / aasepwenvm O5}/ '-IGHI/ IS? 3a rpaHwuea71 30 among 1718 r. nonyumnm Mbl or Konnervm npw<a3 SIBI/ |TbCfi Ha 3K3aMeH. .. B BOCeMb Hacoa rocynapb cxaaan Ham: «311opoao, pe6nTa! » 3aTeM. .. anycrwm Hac 3 accaM6neIo. .. Kax npmuen M0171 uepen, rocynapb nonowen KO Mae I/ I.. . cnpocunz «Bcemy nvn Tbl Hayuvmcn, pm: Hero 6bU'I nocnan-1 3a rpaHnu. y?». Ha ‘-ITO n orsemnz «Boe- Ml/1I'IOCT| r1BbIl7| rocynapb, yumncn 9: co BceM BO3MO)KHblM npvme>o<aHvIeM, HO He Mory noxaanvnbcn, «no acemy Haytwmcn. ..» f1poM3HocsI am cnoaa, $1 onycmncn Ha KOIIGHI/ I, a rocynapb, npomnya pyxy. .. nan ee nouenoaarb M npm 3TOM Monamn: «Bvmmub, npyxox, XOTb 9 M uapb, H0 M y Mensa Ha pykax Mosonu; a ace or TOl'O, HTO5bl nan: aaM npvmep :4 xom 651 non cTapoc'rb yamnerb p, ocToL7u-Ibvx I'|0MOLLl. HVlKOB M cnyr OTe-aecraa». Flocne oxon-Nanvm acex paccnpocoe. .. Haanatwm Merm MODCKMM nopy-mxom. .. Cnycm r<opoTKoe spew: rocynapb cnenan MeHSl Hap. cMoTpumu<oM VI I<oMaHp, mpoM Han crpomenbcraom Mopcmx cyp. os. .. Bancnmm C06I>ITHeM B xcnsnn c'rpam. I c'ra. no orrcpbrrne B 1 755 I‘. MOCKOBCKO- ro ynnnepcwrewa. Bmnaromymca pom. 13 em co:3,zxaH1m cmrpan Mnxamx JIoMo- HOCOB — yqenmfi, Bnecmnfi mcnaz: 13 pasawrne Mnornx Hayx: qmamcn, xmvnm, Ma'reMa'rm<n, reorpaqnm, ncwoprm, aabucoanamm 14 npymx. B ocnonnofi 11eH'rp Hayrcn npesparlmacb Axcanemmz Hayx, o'rrcp1.1'raa B 1725 I‘. no unmana- Tmae IIe'rpa. Ee Boamlanmxa nepnaa B Poccrm xcemunna-npe3np; eH'r, copaunrxua Exawepnnm II Excawepuna Ilanncona. C mvxenem IIe'rpa cnasano coanazme nepsoro npnponno-ncwopnqecxoro Mysea -— Ryacncamepm. Examepuna II 38.JIOJiCPI- J18. ocnosm onnoro 143 nanecwnefimnx Myaeen - 9pMu'raxca. Bo B'ropo1‘»'1 uononnne XVIII B. B Poccnn pa- 6o'ra. rm TaJIaHTJIHBbIe nao6peTa're. nn. Esau Hon- synon Ha 20 new onepezmn JI. Ya'r'ra PI Acoanan nepnyro naponyro Maumny, ozmarco 3 ycnonnax Kpenocwmmecrna ona He Hanma npamwmecxoro npnmenemm. I/ I cerozum nopamazow yma3n- 'reJIbHbIe 1«13n; eJmx Hnana ICyJm6una - npoexcr 300-Me’: -ponoro Moc'ra qepes Heny, caMonommMa- xomeeca xpecno-nnqrr mm uapnum, Mexammec- rcne nrpynncn. C BBIXOJIOM B CBGT ra3e'rL1 «Be, uoMoc'rn» (1702) B Poccrm aapommacb nepnommeclcaa In M. B. Jlononacoéfi’ 1 757 2. ’
  • 207. KPI/ |3MC «CTAPOFO | "lOP9|. E1KA». HA‘-{N10 MOHEPHHBALIHH -: —, . .. — . -. . . . “r. .. . ... ..___j_—. -. _r_ L-. .. ... - - npecca H ncypnanncruxa. Houynapriocrmo IIO. TIl>3OBaJIHCb ncypnanu «Tpy'rem. » n cficnnonucem, nanananmneca ommm H8 spqafimnx npencraauwenefi poccnficxoro Hpocnemenna Hmconaem HOBHROBHM. C pesrcofi KpPI- Tmcofi Kpenocrauqecrsa BI: -ICTYIIPIJI peaoJuounonep- pecnyénnxanen Anexcaunp Pammxea. Pyccxyro mne- parypy XVIII B. o6ora'ruJm cnomun nponsaenenuamu Auelccaxmp Cymapolcon, Hmconaii Kapamann, llemlc dionnuaun, Panpuna Ilepaxanun u npyrne. __ , B apxnwewrype nepnofi nononnnu XVIII B. rocno, zx- _ _ I ' c'r3oaa. no Gapoxuco. Ero ncxycnefinmm M&CTepOM 3 Poc- }li mmwm cm! 651:1 nranbaneu no nponcxoxqxenmo Bapronomeo ‘ ' " Pacrpemm. On sue‘: -poxm 3nMHm‘i nnopen 14 Cmonbabxfi MOHaCTbIpb 3 I'Ie'rep- 6ypre, zmopnm 3 Ilapclcom Cene n IIe'reproq)e. Bo Bwopoii nonomme XVIII 8. Ha cmeny nunmomy fiaporuco npmnen crpomfi Icnaccmmam. ‘iyzxecubnvm apxu- 're1<'rypHmMn coopyxcermamn yxpacmm Mocrcsy 'ra. naH'r. nm3b1e pyccxne aomme: Bacmmii Baslcenon noasen IIOM Ilaxmcoaa (Hm. -xe Poccnficxaa rocyz1apc'r3en- Han 6n6Jmo'rer<a), a Marneii Kasaxcon - analme CeHa'ra B I€peMJ1e H crapufi rcopnyc Mocxoacrcoro yuusepcwrera. B pasnwrnn pyccxoro uaofipaswrenbnoro ncxyccma 6om. my1o pom. campa- no ocnonarme 3 1757 r. Axanemun xynoxcecwn. Ycnexu xmnonncu ocoéeauo apxo IIDOSIBIEUIHCB B nop'rpe'rax, nanucannux tbenopom Poxo-ronum, llxvnn-pnem Jlenmucmu u Bnannmupom Bopomnconclcnm. B nx pa6o'rax pacxpbrr 6ora'rbu}‘1 Bnywpennnfi Map qenosexa 14 em nenomopnmax nnnunnxxyanbnocn. Coxparm- JIHCB H Haponxue xaprnnxn —~ nyfiorc. CICYJILIITYDHBIMPI pa6o'raMn npocnamumcr. d>e11o'r IIIy6nn (nop'rpe'rm Jlomonocona, nMnepa'ropa Hanna 1) n Muxaan Koanonclcni (namm-aux Cynopoay). Eme 3 nerponcrcue apemeua noamuc 1‘ea'rp, me cnemamm nanann na semen- xom aamxe. B 1750 r. 3 flpocnanne Oenop Bomcon oprarmaoaan nepnmii pyc- crcm'«'1 upotbeccuonanbaufi 'rea'rp. ‘-Iepea mecn. new tmcwb ero axcrepos Bomna B coanannmfi B IIe'rep6ypre no napcxomy yrcaay nepamfi pyccrcnii rocy11apc'rBeH- Hmfi 'rea'rp. Onnonpemermo 6ora'rb1e aenbmoxcn cofinpajm co6c'rBeHm.1e 'rea'rpL.1 as xpeuocwnmx arcrepon. Cpenu aux ocofiermo cnannnca 'rea'rp rpaqm I. l.Iepe- Meweaa B Ocmmcnuo, aa cnene xaroporo Bmcrynana rananwnuaaa xcpenocrnaa awrpnca llenarea Hfienmyrona.
  • 208. 1 £‘- ‘ V‘ '5 I " L/ /I. C Tb HOBOE BpeM}7 (Bropas nonoauna XVII — XVIII B. ) B XVIII B. sapom411c11 pyccrcnfi 6a11e'r, 3 IIe'1'ep6ypre o'r1cp1.111acL nepnaa 6a- 11emas1 1mco11a. B1.11114 1:1oc'ran11e111=1 nepnue onepnue c11e1<'ra1<1114, c ycnexom I ' _ J‘ HCIIOJIHKJIPICB IIDOPIBBBIIBI-II/ IX 1<oMno314'ropa IIMHTDHK BODTHHHCKOFO. I/ Iamenenrm n 61.1'ry. Bepnynnmcb c Be1m1c14M IIOCOJILCTBOM 143 Enponu, I'Ie'rp I 3a11pe'r1111 BCeM My21c1414naM, 1cpoMe p; yxoBeHc'r13a 14 xpecnan, HOCHTB 50pO, l1I>I 14 , z111141111L1e nonocm. He1<o'ropL1M nenoxopnum 6o11paM naps co6c'rneHHopy1111o C'I‘pHI‘ 50p0}1bI 11 o'rpe3a11 n1114H11y1o opgeaxzxy. l'Io13ceMec'rHo BBo11141114c1-. 6o11ee 11pa1c'r14t1H1.1e eBpo1'1e1}’1c1c14e Hapsmu. Paapemanocb rcypenne, 1<o'ropoe panee c1111'ra11oc1. yro11o13111.1M npec'ryn11e1114eM. MGCTOM Bcrpeq 14 pa31311e=1e1114171 c'ra1114 Bnenennue IIe'rpoM oco6L1e co6paH1411 — accaM611e14. Ho npn- rcaay naps c HeMe11,1<oro aamca 61.1110 nepeaeneuo cr1e1114a111.11oe py1co13o, z1c'rBo o npaB1411ax xopomero 11oBez1e1114a — «IO11oc'm t1ec'r11oe 3ep11a11o»>, 1cy, z1a He-rp Bnep co6c1'Be11111=1e 11o11o111~1e111»m. C 1 amzapa 1700 1'. B Pocc1414 11aI1a.1114 r1pa3;1- HoB*a'r1. HoBL1171 r011 14 c'raB14'r1, e111c14. l'Ie'rpoBc1c14e 11peo6pa3ona1114a 1cocHy- JIPICI: Tarmce 'rpa11141114171 n14'ra111411. Bxom41114 B MOIIY 6111o11a, np14roToB11e1n1b1e no 3a11az1- HLIM pe11e11'ra1v1. HoaB141114cL Honme, 11141cor, z1a panee He Bnzzannue nponywrm. Fopoxcane 11p14BL11<a111«1 111411; t1a1‘«'1 14 Kocbe, yc'rpa14Ba1114 3BaH1.1e o6ep; L1 11 y11c1411b1. Kpec'r1.11He B oc- HOBHOM y11o'rpe611111114 paanme rcanm, n14po- r14 14 p1.16y, a MHCO e11v1 peznco. I/ I3 111011 14 qypyxcros ro1'oB141114 11a1co1v1c'1Ba — 11ac'r1411y 14 co1c14. E1114, cnna Ha 11aB1<ax, sa 11epeB111111L1- - - M14 I-IGIIOKPLITLIMK c'ro11aM14. C1ca'1ep'1'11M14 ' 11011114 He l'IO. IIb80BaJIIrICI>. 061331110 e, z1y cra- I > I 1 3141114 Ha c'ro11 B MPICKB, o'1'1<yz1a HGCKOJILKO '~Iac1,1, Poccu, q_ XVIII 3, '1e11oBe1c t1epna1114 ee 11epeB5IHHhIMH H0310- KRMPI. Haau Ep. nenee. ICpecTb1111e 3a o6e11oM. 1775 2.
  • 209. L-4‘A, LI KPHBHC «CTAPOFO l"lOP9U1KAn. HA‘-INIO MOflEPHH3rLlHH , ' Pyccxan caa; u.6a. XVIII a. Becnoii H Jxe'roM 3 nepxosnue npaaxmmm ycrpaunann napozume I‘_VJI$IHbfi, Heuamenrmm pasnnetxeunem Ha xoropmx 6mm: xaqema. Bponmme aprncwbr cxomopoxn paaurpmaaum nepen aaponom cnewraxnn, nepemco c y11ac'rueM npeccnponanubxx anepefi. Bnmoii xaranucb Ha camcax K xonmcax. MoJ1o, z1e>1-:1. crpomra cnexmbre xpenocwu n, paanennnmucs Ha nae rpynnu, 6pana xxx npncwynom. I/ Iazxaana mofimuofi norexoii oc'ra3aJmcb Kynarmme 60:1. Co ampoii nononunm XVIII B. 3 Bmcumx cnonx pyccrcoro o6n1ec'rBa 60JIb1IIyIO no- I UYJIHDHOCTL npno6peJ1a Kapycem: — noexmaa Hrpa non 0’I'KphI'I'bIM He5OM. Hon snyxn opxecrpa nepezz aprrrenamu noxmmnncb yqacmmcu rcapycenn n conpoaoxcnemm na- xcefi H opyxceuocuen. Orm zzomxmn 65mm upo11eMoac'rpupoaa'rb caoe ymerme B. ~‘Ia, I1CTIn opyxcueru — H8 IIOJIHOM cxaxy IIOH8C'I'b B KOJII->110, CHRTI: IIIJIGM C I‘OJIOBbI MaH€KCl{8 mm ommm MaXOM o'rpy6n'rb eMy ronosy. IIo6e, zm're. rxefi >x, z1a: m uenume Harpruxm. Bce qoxonu, nonytxemme o'r rcapycema, mm B noxvronn. 5e, lIHbI1VI. Hocnennan TaK85I lcapycem. COCT05IJ'I&Cb B Haqane XIX 3. Ha cmeny ex‘? ! npmmra mias xapycenb: Boxpyr nep'mxca. ru. no ycwanonnenuoro mec'ra 6e>xaJm npyr aa npyrom zxepeasmume pac1<pa- memme nomanxu. Kaxuxmfi MOI‘ cecn. n nomizanaca Ha cmme Taxcoro cxaxyua. BMec're c aaumcrnonauuem aanammx oéwzaen 3 maopsncxyxo cpeny npu- mna 21106031. x pocxomn. Hpn Ennaanewe a'roMy cnoco6c'rnoBa. n npmvrep camoiix umnepawprmmz ona ocraamxa nocne ce6a 6oJ1ee 15 Tue. nnarben. fifinnbxmn nrpymxamu 3 uapcxnx nnopuax n nomax anam 6mm myrm. B nonynapnoe pasnneqeaue npespamsmcb c nerponcxux npemen 'I‘8.HI1bI. CBe'rcKoe Bocnn'ra- nne 'rpe6osa. no, q-rofim naopsmcxne new ofiaaarenhuo Y‘-IHJIHCB TaHI1eBa'I‘b. IIoc'rene1mo cwapunnmfi pyccxnia 61.11 yxoznm n npoumoe. 1. Ho aatuenzy All-£6?)-(U10, us Icatcux coo6pa9IceHufz Hemp I omnpaau. rzcfl. c B(>. '1u- mu: noco.1bcmeo. w nod Ityavtum u. ueue. u? HoI¢e. wy anewan1.'1(*mu1 am no- eaaxu 3a epanuuy ycuauau e nan cmpemxwuue ocyugecmeumb 6 Poccuu npeoopasoeamuz? 2. Hpoucxoéuxzu Jzu cepbeauwe u.3.-yteueuwz noc. /Le rcaxcaozo ouepedmm) deopuoaozo nepeaopoma? 207 £1‘ ,3 '11.
  • 210. VA H0806 BpeM$I (sropas nonoeuna XVII - XVIII 3.) Ifarcue Mepbl Eicamepunu II Oarom ocuoeauue cltumamb, umo oua npo- eoduna noaumuxy npoceemeuuozo a6coJuomu.3.ua? ‘Imo cmaao npuI¢u- not"; ueyéauu Koanuccuu 6.11.2 cocmaenenun uoeozo ceoaa aaxouoe Poc- cuficrcozi uunepuu? 4. ‘Ie. u MOJICHO oduwnumb mom rparcm, umo soccmauue Hyzaraeea aauo moJworc npoeeaeuuto peqbop. u? 5. Han 61>; cu nasaanu aeacmeua Poccuu, Hpyccuu u Aecmpuu, uanpae- Jleflltble Ha pasaenu Honbwu? 6. Howeuy nozzumuxa Haema I ue uauuza noadeprucrcu y pyccrcoeo aaopancmea? 7. Bee nu usueuenua e pyccrcou 6umy dbmu nonoaxumeabnuuu? 3A11AHI/ IFI 1. I70 Marepnanam y-4e6Huxa cocrasbre ra6/muy «Pe¢opMbI Flerpa I». 2. I'IpoaHaJm3Mpy17rre orpusox M3 «Haxaaa» Mmneparpmual Exarepm-lb: II. Ka- Koe npaaner-me oua cvwra/1a 6l7aI'OI'IOJ7y'-IHbIM? He amznre JIM Bbl nporm3o- pe'-my Mexcay yTBep)K.11eHueM nmneparpuubl, wro 11106013 rpaxaanvm A011- 1 I )KeH )KMTb no, a samurofi 3aKoHa, M coxpaHeHueM 6ecnpaBHoro I'IOJ'lO)KeHMfl , KpeI1OCTHbIX? I 3. Aarop paccxasa 0 caaqe aK3aMeHa Hear: Henmoea nponcxqqpm M3 Mel1KOI'O gaopnucrsa. Kame cnoaa I'Ierpa I nponasezm Ha Hero oco6oe ane4ame- Hue? Kax Bbl cwrraere, Monogofi cneuwa/ mcr 6bIJ'I Ha3Ha -ten uapeM Ha sax- ” HbIl71 M ors-ercraeHHbu71 nocr 6naro, aapn caoefi pqaosnrocm mm ananmm? F 4. Mcnonbayn . aono/ mnrenbuyro Jmreparypy, nogrorosbre paccxaa o6 OAHOM E M3 npencraeurenefi pyccxofi Kyl1bTypbI XVIII B. 2 CEBEPHAH AMEPI/ IRA: . . PO9K, Z[EHI/ IE HOBOFO FOCYILAPCTBA Amepmcanclcoe ‘Iyno. Owxpbrme Amepmcn PI ee corcposmna He oc'ranmm enponeifmes pasuozxymammu. IIo'roIc nepeceneanes B Hosmfi Cae'r noc'rom-mo poc: 3 1640-1790 rr. nacenenne xononnfi yBe. ru«Irn»1.nocL c 25 THC. no 3,9 mm qenonex, T. e. B 156 pas. Cpepgu Tex, wro pemunca B noucrcax nyqmefi , Z(OJIPI uepe- ceqb orcean, 6Lmo Hemano cpparmyaon, ro. uJ1aH, zm. eB H Hemnen. Hpeoénanann, onnaxco, anrnnqane, momannnm n npnaunnu. Ho'roMy co Bpemeaem o6nmM fi3bIK.0M mm Honmx o6n'ra'reJ1efi Amepmcn c'raJ1 aurnnficxnfi. Bce awn moan noxnnann pommy no paamaxm npntmnam. Omm c'rpeMmmcI> paa6ora're'rL, pgpyrne cnacamacb or pennrnosnmx npecnenonannfi, Hexoropme 6ex<a.1m o'r npanocymm. Om: o'rnpaBJm. n1»1cL B p; aJn. Hm‘»'1 ny-rs, IIOHPIM8.. $I, Irro B tzyncnx rcpaax nx xcnyw nauypnwenbnmii Tpyn n onacnme ncnsrrax-ma. l'Ipeoz1o- JIeTb nx 61.1110 no CHJIBM TOJlbK0 monam CMGJIBIM, anepruqnmm 14 npennpm»1M= m- Bum. Hemanoro Myoicecwna 'rpe6oBa. ua n )! CPI3Hb 1-Ia HOBOM Mec're. Henpm3Lm- Hue Icxmmanmecrcne ycnoana, Henanecrnme Goneanu, nocroannue cruqxn c Mec'rm.1M nnneficxnm Hacenezmem 'rpe6oBa. nn o'r npnfimnmnx BLIHOCJIHBOCTPI, Kpemcoro anoponba 14 smnyncgxann nx neficrnonarb rconnewrnsao. Bce a'ro.
  • 211. , KPHBHC uCTAPOFO I‘IOP‘/ LUK, -», HA‘-{AHO MOIIEPHHBALIHH TGM3 cqnopmupoaano B xapaxwepe Gynyumx amepmcaanen Tarme qepnx, max He3a- BHCHMOCTB, cBo6o, z1oJuo6ne, cr1oco61xoc'rb nonararbcs Ha co6c'r3enm.1e cmlm u I‘0TOBHOCTb no Korma orcwanaawb cnon mrrepecm. I/ Icwopmcn cqnraxow, trro Amepmca c'ra. rIa csoeofipaanbm xomom, B KOTOp0M B egmaoe uenoe uepemlanmmcb ofibmau, Mopam. n Mnponosaperme paanmx aaponon. I/ I3 Taxoro cunaaa pommacb Honaa opnrnnanmas xyawrypa. Ona éarmponanacb Ha enponeficxoii, no Bo6pa. na B ce6a Tpannunu MHOPKX Ha1mo- Hanbuocreii 14 r1o'roMy npno6pe. na cnoeoépasnmfi xapawrep. Bce awn nponeccm nonyunnn Haaaanne «amepmcaacxoe uyzzo». Ero peayJu>'ra'r — poxczzenne Ha npocwopax Cenepnofi Amepmm uosoro napozxa n nonoro rocynapcrna. Anrnuiicxne KOJIOHHH. B Honom CBe're anrmman npunnexano Hesansrroe MCHRHIIBMH Arnawruqecxoe nofiepexcbe Cesepnofi Amepmm. Ero rnasnoe 60- rawcmo coc'ran. rm: m He nparouennme Mewamm, a mxonopozmbxe aemm, 3ace- nennbxe Muoroqncneanmmn muxeiicxumu 11.71eMeHaMn. Eme 3 XVI B. nepame anrnnfacxne xononucrbx I‘IOI‘IblT8JIHCb ocecu. anecb, no He cmomm Bbtaicnwb 3 cyponblx ycnonlmx. Haqanoxvx nacronmefx Konoanaaunn c'ra. n Mai»? 1607 r. , rcorna 120 aaxvmqan ocnosann nepnoe nocroannoe nocenexme — q)op'r I[xce171Mc- Tayn. Ero Haarsaam B neon: xoponn Hrcoea (, ZIxce1‘»‘1Mca) I C'r1oap'ra, K on c'ra. n nempom nepnofi afirnnficxofi KOJIOHHPI B Amepmce — Bnprmum. B 1620 r. cenepnee Bnpmmm npwxeumn Manenbxnfi rcopaénb « Me1‘«'1q)J1ayep» (<- Maiicmm unerox» ). OH , uoc'ra8m1 rpyrmy Hoamx noceneuuen — anrnuficxnx uyprrrau. 12 new Ha3a, z1 om: 6e; xa. rm or pemxmosnux npecnenoaanufi 3 l"oJman- nmo H Tenepz. uanennncb, two B Hoaom C3e're cMory'r csoéomzo ucnonenoaan. caoxo pesmrmo u BHOBb uoqyacnaosan. ce6s amvumauamu. 3'ru l1(, ‘])CC9.TIL‘HU, LI Boumn 3 HCTODIHO non Haananuem <«0'I‘I1bI-lJH. TIH! ‘pPIMbI>) (I1a. r|o. mHu<n). Ilpexczxe qem coi'1'm H8 aemmo, onu uozznncanu comameane, on- p0;L(-mm n Hem KOH€'~IHy1O n. eJu. CBOBPO rlpuébrma: <<MbI coazzaxmm K Baenem Ta- Imo <~mmn<‘, 'x. v1nm.1e 11 onnnaxoame 111151 Bcex 88I<.0HbI, KO'I‘OpbIe c'raHy'r Hanfionee I1u;1*-; -m; m;n: ~.: n n coo'rBe'rc'n3y}oumMH Bceo6H1eMy 6.nar‘y K0110]-mi’! H I-COTOPHM Mbl (nwIII; u“ 1‘. !(‘; '{()BaTb u 1'10;1llHH. F{TbC51->. A1-n*. 'n1i'1cmn”: }: ~:u. n= ~ . . l'mmmp(1. OK. 1680 ‘L‘ ‘mu 3-‘ , ’.' Va . __ _ >| ‘.‘. :
  • 212. Hoaoe spam (sropasv nonosuua XVII — xv/ /1 3.; «Oran-nnnnrpnmuo nocwponnn Ha no6e- pexcbe nooenetme Honufi I'I.1mMy'r. Tax 3033;41:- .718 eme ozma ICOJIOHYDI. 110 1700 1*. 6om. maa qac'rb Awnanrnqecnoro nofiepexcbn CIIIA 6h1J1a yxce ocaoena zconouncramn. Ha : -rrofi éonbmofi weppwropnn BOBHHKJIPI nepxame 13 m'ra'ron, ee c'ra. rm H8.3bIBa’I‘b Honofi Anrnnefi. Omomenna xonoancwon c Mecrnmm Hacene- rmem CKJI8,tlbIBaJIflCb no-paanomy. Oman mimeti- cxne nnemena Gbum nacrpoenm Mnpomoénno, zxpyrue — xpaifme npaxcneénoz om: He MOPJIPI cmmpwrbca c rem, vrro npnmenbnm 3axBa'r1.1Ba1o'r nx aeMJm. Onnaxco xpoaonpomrrnue nofiuu aaxonqnnncb nopancermem nnnefinen. I/ Ix 01*- TBCHPIJIH B I‘JIy6b crpanu, a nocenemm pa3py- mmm. Penxocmoe ucmnoqerme coc'raBJmJ1o nosezxezme ocnosawenn Herxcmxmaannn ammu- qarmna Yunbnma I'IeHa. OH CMOI‘ naéexcam. Kouqmnwra c nnneifmamn, aamuotmn c HEMP! Aoroaop o 11o6pococe11c'rae a name ynnawnn (xora u Heéommme) zzensru aa samrrme zcononncramn aemm. Anrnnficxne xonoann B Amepuxe paanmaanncb maymx nyumu. Ha Cenepe npeoénanama Memme qxepmepcxue xoaaficma. npoune-ram»: npommmneanocn H Topronna. Ha IOre Ha orpomuux nnanwaunax, o6pa6a'ruaaeMmx paéawm, aupamnnamx xnouox, Taéatc H puc. HOULITKH nopa6o'm'rr, mmeiimen oxaaanncb Heynavmmmnz o'r Henpnnbmnofi Harpyaxn om»: 6oJIe. rm 14 ymnpama. Toma Ha nnarrraunax Haqanu ncnonbsoaarb TPYJI eaponefiuen — npenmymecrneuno Hnnmx :4 éponar. xcowopue crpemmmcb nonacn: B Honufi C3e'r, HO He nMeJm mm 3'roro neaer. Kanwranm Kopafinefi 6ecnJ1a'rao nepeaoamm nx n npozzanama amepmcaucxnm aeunennanenbuam. llanexo ae ace arm moan oxaauaanncb 3a oxeauom no co6c'r3euHoMy xcenamuo. B AHPJXHH cymecmonan uenufi upommcen — noxmneuue nerefi, a xmorna n B3p0CJ1hIX 111151 nponaxm 3 Amepmce. Ha 5-7 new Taxme Genme x<a6am. m.xe cnym — cepnerrru — nonananu 3 nonnoe pacnopmxerme uosux xossien, o'rpa6a'runa- Jm y aux c3o1o ccronmocrbo :4 TOJIBKO IIOTOM CTBHOBKJWICB cnoéozmuxvm. Bcxope KOJIOHHCTBI aamenmm rcafianbnmx cnyr Ha 6oJ1ee zxexneaylo pa6o- qyxo cxmy — cnnbnmx H nmnocnnamx aerpon. Hepaux Henonbnmcoa-aq)pu~ Kauuea B 1619 1*. nocrannnu B Hoaufi CBe'r J! €P! 'I‘e. TIPI , l1ace1‘»'1Mc'rayHa. JIIOAH c'raJm 'roBapoM, a pa6o'roproBJm — l'IpPI5bIJII>HbIM 6nanecoM. B Aq)pm<y cuapm xcanncb cnennanbnue cyna, 1<oMaH. zu.1 xoropmx ycrpannanu nonmo Herpoa, max mumx munorumx. Pa6o3 upononacann BblBO3Ir! Tb as Acbpmcn no 1863 r. . noxa B Amepmce He o'rMemum pa6c'rBo. Pauuee amepmcaacxoe o6u1ec1-no 61.1110 nonommo necwpmm. Ero Bepxymxy cocrannanu 6ora'rue aemneananenbnu, Manyq)ax'rypnc'rm, xyneqecwao u 6an- Kflphl. K cpenneii npocnomce npnnannexcana ocnoanas txacn. Toproauea, qwepmepoa 14 pemecneunmcoa, a Taxxce ytm-rena, apaqn, cynbn, cnamexmmcn. Ha rmamefix crynenbxe counanbuofi . nec'rHnn; u aaxonmmcb Memme xpecrhane u pemecnenamcn, a Tamxe Hanfionee fiecnpaauue rpynnu nacenemm - 6em.1e K&68.J'lhHbIe cnym H Herpu-pa6m. Bo mane xaoxnofi 143 xoJIoHm‘i c'rosu1 r'y6epHa- Top, Haauaqennmfi anrnuficxofi Koponofi. Hapsmy c HHM ;1efic'm3oBaJm accaM6-
  • 213. KPHBVIC «CTAPOFO HOPSUJKA». HA‘-IAIIO Mo11EPHH3AuMM I 3 ; : 11e11 — 11pe, z1c'ran11're111.11b1e opranm, 1136pa1111L1e ; ?’f_''. { 7: n011H0npaB11h1M11 6eJIbIMPI My>1ct11111aM11. ? KeH- -K‘ W” }‘. ff: f“, .'. IIIHELI, nnnefinm 11 Herpu 1101111'r11r1ec1c11x npan ‘Ix. .- . . . ' _ 11e nMe1111. / ‘ ‘.2 LZ_'. : Ba. >1c1101‘«’1 0c06e11110c'r1.10 a1v1ep111<a11c1c0ro o6111e- ' *“ cnsa c caM0r0 11ar1a11a ero cymecwnonanna 651110 1'0, rrro 'ry'r 11101111 11011111 ycnemnee, 11eM 3 C'rap0M CBe're, n0111,30Ba'1-1:011 pe3y111.'ra'raM1«1 cnoero 'rpy- ’ 1. " ~' 11a. IIp0'rec'ra1-1'rc1cas1 Bepa 11p11y11a11a 11x 11 'rpy11o- ‘ 1‘ 111061110 11 6epe>1c1111Boc'r11. ‘Iec'r110 Ha1cor11Ie11110e , 0, . “ - ~ 60ra'1*c'rB0 cr111'raJ1oc1: r1p113Ha1coM Bo>1cbe1‘»'1 M1111oc- jj" 1 ‘ ' TH. I'I0a'r01v1y 0c110BHas1 Macca amepmcamxen I1p11- " ' ‘ ‘ ’ 06pe'ra11a C05C'l‘BeHI-IOCTL y1:10p111.1M 'rpy110M. Kondamucr c Me1'pono1n1e1“1. K cepez11111e XVIII B. a11r11111?'1c1c11e 1co11o111111 13 CeBep11o1‘»'1 A1v1ep111ce yxce r1epec'ra1111 61:111. Ma11e111:1c11M11 1v1a110111011111>1M11 cpop'ra1v111. I/ Ix 11ace11eH11e yBeJIPI‘{PIJIOCb .110 1 MJIH _ _ » qe11o13e1c, B1.1p0c1111 ropona, 1Ipo1113e'ra11a 'r0pr0B1111. ‘ “ " '~ , '- Pa3B11na1111c1. 'ra1<>1<e o6pa30Ba1111e 11 1cy111.'rypa: 11av1a1111 BbIx0,z111'r1. c06c'rBe1111L1e ra3e'r1.1, 0'r1cpL113a- 113,1-on Baum Cegepo- 111101. 1111101151 11 1c01111e11o1c11, nos113111111cb BbI. lIa101I111- aMep111caHc1me 111111e1”1111.1 ecu MLICJIKTCJIK aMep111ca11c1coro I'Ip0cBeme1111s1 1103511 pu6y. XVI e. Be111121caM1111 <I)pan1c1m11, ToMac Ilxcetbcbepcon, Iblcon A, z1aMc. Bce 3'10 ca11,z1eTe111.c'r1301;a11o He T0111.- 1<o 0 Ma'rep11a111.111.1x, H0 11 0 JIYXOBHLIX 1303110911110- c'r11x a1v1ep111ca11c1cor0 o611.1ec'rBa. O611J;11e 1111'repec1.1 11 o6mee 6yz1y111ee cn0c06c'rB013a1111 y1cpe1111e111110 - cB113e1‘2'1 Mexcny KOJIOHPIHMH. I '1‘ 1"" v _ K0110111111 B11a, z1e1111 0I‘p0MHbIMPI 3aI1acaM11 ‘ ‘, 4.. 11110110po, z11101‘«’1 3eM1111 11 11eca, 111v1e1111 c06c'r1;e1111L1171 (111101 n Bb11111aB11a1111 1/7 MHp0BOI‘O 11p011313o1J; - c'raa 11y1'yHa. 01111 61.11111 3 c0c'1*011111111 06ec11et111'r1> J. / ce6a 11p011oB0111.c'r1311e1v1, 113r0'1'0311111111 011e>1c11y, J Me6e111., 110cy;1y. «Ma'rL-Bp11'raH1111» n011y11a11a 113 g 1101101111171 Mex, 11meH1111y, ,L1peBec1111y, '1'a6a1<, p1.1- ‘ 6y 11 0'rB0111111a 11M pom. <<(I)epMbI, 11eca 11 pynnnxa BeH’”““M““ ¢p‘““""“H 11M11epm1>>. A111'11m‘»'1c1<a11 1<op011a name 3a11pe'r111Ia aMep111ca1111aM cn060,z111o 'rop1*o13a'r1. c 11;pyr11M11 c'rpa11aM11 11 pa3Bm3a'r1. 06pa6a- 'r1.1Ba101uy10 IIPOMLIHIJIBHHOCTL. R011et1110, 3101‘ 32111011 1100105111110 Hapymanca, 110 ace ace 1c011011111»1 321311061111 01' MGTPOHOJIPIKZ Hem. 95% 11x Hace11e111111 3a1111Ma110cb ce11Lc1c11M x0ai11‘»'1c'1'B0M 11 5113111111001: n0'1'pe611're11s1M11 a11r11m‘«'1c1c11x IIpOMI: IIJIJIeHHhIX Tonapon. H0c11e 11o6e11L1 11a, u; CIJpa111111e1‘»’1 B Ce1v11111e'r11e1‘«’1 no1‘111e Anrnna 11p11c0ez1111111- 11a 6L1Bnme q)paH11y3c1<11e 3eM1111 B Kanane 11a 3a11a11 0'1 A1111e1*a11c1c11x mp 11 _ c'ra11a 11o11HoB11ac'r110171 x03111‘«'11c0171 Ce13ep1101‘1 A1v1ep111c11. B xone 1301711111 1c01101111c'rh1 2 1 1 “ a1c'r11BHo c011ei'1c'rB0Ba1111 a111'111ma11aM 11p0'r1113 q)pa1111y30n 11 11a11e:11111cb 11o11yt111'1'L , f.; —, 3 Harpany ca1v1oy11pa1311e1me 11 npano caM0c'r011're11L110 011pez1e11s1'r1. 11a110r11. f ( O, r111a1c0 1351111110 c0BceM 11Har1e. KOPOJIB I‘eopr III 3a11pe'r1111 aMep1»11<aHn; a1v1 caM0130111.110 11epece11s1-11.051 sa A1111era111.1, onacancb, trro 110c11e pacces1H11s1 no 11p0c'r0paM 3a11a, z1a c max 11eB03M0>1c11o 6y11e'r B3111v1a'r1. 113110111. , HOIIOJIl'-IKTGJIBHBIM Q “_; ") 8' ‘
  • 214. Hosoe Bpemsr (aropan nonoauna xvn - xvm a. ) — rpyaom Ha rmeqn xononncwon nemo conepacanne anrnufxcxnx noficx, 1<o'ro- pue uocne oxconttanna Boeauux neficrnnfi ne aepnynncb nomoii, a OCTBJIHCB 3 Amepmce. Hocnennefi xannefi 3 name Tepnennn c'raJ1o pememae aamnficxom nap. uaMeH- Ta 0 nnenermn B 1 76 r. repéosoro c6opa B xonommx. OTHBIHG 3a xanmyro 'ropro- nyro czxemcy, ocbopmnenne Aorcymerrron, nmnycx netxawnbxx usnannfi, notrronme ownpannenns KOJIOHHCTBI 6511111 oéaaaum n. na'rn'rb nosufi Hanor 3 rocyz1ap- c1-aezmyxo rcasny Bprrrannu. B o'rBe'r no amepmcancxnm roponam npoxarunacb nonna Mwrnnros non Jxoaynromz «Hmcarmx uanor m3gnnwenb- crggo. Kononncwoa noamyman He paiaiaep Hanora (noaonbno neéonbfifiéy, a can q)a1<'r ero ywnepmnenns napnamezrrom, xyna npencwannreneii cenepoaMe- pmcancxmx xonomxfi ne norryclcamx. Amepmcaauu coaepmeano cnpanemmao 'rpe6ona. rm: mm orm 6yz1y1- mwe-rb cnonx neny-ra'roa 3 nanare ofinmn, mm napnamenw owxaaxewcs 01' nanoroofinoncenna xonoanifx. Bnepnue 13 amepmcancicofi xwropxm Ha ynnqnbxe Mwmam BBIIIIJIH orponmue Maccm Hapona. Pnasnmm oqarom conpomnnenns c'ra. u BOCTOH. Bnecb noanmcno o6n1ec'r3o GICLIHOBBR cnoéony» , npnanamnee amepmcarmen «He 6bI'l‘b 6o. ubme pa6aMn anrvmqam. Uoncemecwno amepmcarmu ynwrroxcaam repéonyxo 6y- Mary, npnneaennylo us Mewpononnu mm oqaopmnennn nanora. l'Ipo'rec'r 65m nacronbxo Monmum. vrro Anrmm upma- Jtocb noiirn Ha necnuxaunufi mar — o'r- xaaawbcx 01' repéonoro c6opa. Bnpoqem, 3-ra ycrymca nocmra npemennuii xapawrep. Yxce qepea msa rozxa aumnficxnfi nap. na- Merrr npmian aaxon o aoaux Hanorax. Oco6oe paanpaaceane KOJIOHHCTOB am- aBa. no Bnenenne l'IOI. IIJIPIHbI Ba 3303 TOBBDOB us Anrmm. Amepnxanubx owrcaahxsanncb uoxynarb nx u uanannnn xonrpafiaunnyxo TODPOBJIIO c npyrumn eaponeficrcrmn c'rpana- Mn. B 11exa6pe_}l'Z§ r. )KPI'l‘eJIH Boc'roHa ue nanu pasrpyawn. npufimnmnfi us Amzrmn xopafim. c qaem. Hoqmo necxonbxo qe. no- aex nepeonenucb urmeiinamn, nponmum Ha cynno n no-romum norm c qaem B Mope. Coébrrue nonyuuno naanarme c6oc'roac1coe Ilaexnrrmeo. Bpixwancxnfi napnamenr cqen ero cepbesnbm npec'ryn- no aneneno qpeanmqafinoe nonoaxenne, xoponeacxnfi qmow Gnoxnponan nopw. Cm-yanmi naxcammacb. Ha-zano noiinu. Ocenmo 1 774 r. npencwanmenu xonoaufi co6pa.1n»1cL 3 (Dana- ztenbqaxvm Ha IIepBLn‘«'x Komnnenwanbnufi Iconrpecc. OHM aaxawm, trro oc'ra1o'rca BBDIIBIMH nozmannnmu amvmficxcom xopons, no aucrynaxorr nponm noc5xra- TBJIBCTB Merpononuu na camoynpamietme. «amass. caoéozxy u co6c'rBeHnoc'n. » amepmcaxmen. Cwpemscb aamumn awn npana, uonrpecc BBGJI sanper Ha 'roproB- mo c Mewponwmefi. B xononnsx Haapenan B3pbIB. Auepmcaxmm 'ra1‘«'mo cofinpamx opyxcne :4 co3zx, aBa. m«1 orpanm noépononbuen. 3m auanano Tpenory y anmvman, nonwranmnxca paaopyxmwb Hecrconuco orpmxoa n apecrosarb nx Icomammpon. 19 anpemt 1775 r. nenonanexy or BOCTOHB. nponsommx nepnme cwuqxn. Cuatzana npenmymecmo I-IaXO, lIPIJIOCb H8. cropoae aumnqan. Ozmaxo ux soanpameane Ha3a, u npeapawmocs B xcy-ncoe 6erc'r3o non HGIIDODBIBHLIM o6c'rpe- JIOM noscraauea, ycrpanaanumx aacanm 3.210111. zxopor. Amepnxamm nerxo
  • 215. ,-«:1 1 KPI/ l3HC «CTAPOFO ['| OP$U1KA». HA'-{N10 MOIIEPHI/ l3AL1l/ ll/ I Te/ vxa .1. . _ . ___—. _$: _:. .. .:. -. . ;.. __. ... ._.1.. . ‘be " — , ‘a H a (6pm. c1763r. ) ! '.1°"9€fl. "b~‘. 23/ . -'1 ‘ "X177r; " . . ‘ "T" K-—'. ._ 0, H'.1araDa 39', ,, ,~/ ‘,4-"’53c e. n . -1 '1 , > 3 x , ‘. _; '-f}l1>RHI1I All '0 _ C 1 ‘ 1 . . ! 1717*‘), wm1.: ,,IIV1f. ,fi-. -'4_, f/_, 9 = I “o , "’_"! ‘“_‘3". ";“}“. " ' ' Bur to . ‘ . I | I ’ '1 ‘DO’ " 2 1 | :' . ‘ 9 1 I I ‘I 1 . ' ' ' " 70.’ . -' 1 ‘N I y, /' / '3' ii I/ ~‘l‘fv‘Ixo»a; :eooI . _ xx“; so-/6 KEHTVKKV1 Baum: .13 m-. mxmcm1oc'n. anrnlliiclcxlx 1<n.1omn“| n Cenepnofi Amepmce. Coanaime CIIIA Afl1A"t; P Am m: miu. .~. ~ mnomm F1Ct3EE'[. )HO15lA| 1E| );1kt’9 u~, pe: m1He ‘(VIII 3. 1 ‘up: K<f: !v. ’,; ':-"‘-»! mn0Hnc. rar. - 3H4'i; )t': uLf<lJ'1DCb 3aHv1M31'b 3eMnM no xoponeacxomy yxaay 1763 r. ‘ 13,2‘. ;: ;, ~ = :.1.1n'—, -hm: Kum 0ev. :«“« : »,Elern: a;). mxw. Ht-"s; —u<; L4(,1v1Moon/1(4 wonn 1776 I’. ). coanarme CLLIA , L1ew: ra-. m . w,: :a r, vwmun, x cvopon B 1776-1781 rr. 11,, 1* .1111; _' A T, '1‘w(: }'H1I';1mj><L'l. < 13/m<; r' anrnnficxnx eoficx ______ _, <£»: mHu = =»'-L ------V anrnvlficxoro cbnora , L : :», 89:; -'v~m‘1u. »'. x 6L4.1'B »: «w.1r‘, v.v«9mmv1 F)’1(—1BHb| )( cvm aHrnm"4cKol7I apuwm B 1781 r. , "in ; mm_~um. »x Ulmroa Amepmm no Bepcanbcxomy MMDY 1783 r. L 1 l.4ouL~‘; H. 1.1 :1 ", n'3M¢2H8 rzonaztann B uenb, noc1<o. nm<_‘ 6pu'raHc1<ne coJu1a'rbI Hocmm 3aMeTHbIe nsnanexa (7115. xpacnble Mynzmpbl c 3+: eJ1’1‘oi~i oT,1em<oI‘»’x. KOJIOHHCTLI y11a= IHo PICIIOJIBSOBEJIPI ! ( noaanmcrraonaunyzo _v u1x, ru: i'1uoB Tarvrmcy paccbmnoro c'rpo51. OHM a'raKoBaJm ‘ " aumwzan H3 yxpbrnxii. a .1:; _m‘e. w MPHOBBHHO ucL{<>.321.. "m. t1'I‘06LI Heo>icI«I, z1aHHo “' Hanacrb yme B 11P_VI‘OM >. :ec're.
  • 216. H0806 Bpe/ H51 (aropan nonoauna XVII — XVIII B. ) B Mae 1775 r. B <Dn. na11e. m.q)nn orxpmnca Bwopofi Romnnenwanbumfi Konr- pecc. OH npmum pemerme o co3;1am»m perynspnofi aplvnm K nasnaqxm ee unanno- rcomarmyxoumm onbrrnoro oqmuepa Ltacopmlca Baumnrrona (1732-1799). K3 paanomepcmoii Tonnm xcononuc-roa Bamnnrrouy ynanocb coanan. 1mcunnJ1mm- ponamryxo 6oecnoco6Hy1o apmmo, ocnoéozmsmyro Becnoii 1776 r. Bocron. Boe- B0171 zxyx amepuxancxnx co. ruxa'r nommMa. n naMq). ne'r Tomaca Hefiua c311paBbn‘& cmucm. B HEM orcwannanocb npaso amepmcanuen Ha Boopyxcermyxo 6opL6y upo- Tnn Me'rponoJmu. A cnoaa Hefina. trro Tonbxo Hesanncnmocn H pecny6Jm1<an- crcoe ycrpoficwso z1a. z1y'r Amepmce Benmcoe fiynymee. oxasamxcb npopoqecxnwm. Ba)KHbIM I. I18.I‘0M Ha rxy'ru x caMoc'roa're. m;noc'ru c'ra.1Ia llexcnapaumx He3am4- cpxmocnx. Ocnosuyro '-IaCTb ee Texcra Hanucan cammfi Mononoii neny'ra'r, 33~ne'r- auii ToMac Ilacetbcbepcou (1743-1826) - ropatmii noxnonnmc eaponeficxoro Ilpocaememm. Ilexnapaxma ofinmuma aarnnficxoro xcopona n napnamear 3 TH- pamm, npoaoamamana ofibezuweune xonoaufi. ux o'r11e.21em1e o'r Anrnnu H npeapamenue B «cnoéozmue H Heaaaucpmue m'ra1*1.1». 4 mom: 1776 r. , Roma ona fibma onoépeaa xonrpeccom. c'ra. no ; meM poaxneana Coemmennbxx 1H'ra'ron Amepmm, rnannmm npaammxom amepmcax-xcrcoro Hapozza — Ilnem He3aBPICPIMOC- TH. Ilercnapaumx aesanncnmocrn — 3'ro nepaaa npatcruqecxan nonbrrxa BOIIJIO- TKTB B JKPIGHB npaaa qenonerca 3 nyxe nneifx llxcona Jloxrca H qmalmyacxnx rIpoc- 3e'm're. ne1‘»'x. Bnpoqem, no 'rpe6oBaHmo qacm ;1erry'ra'roB Konrpecc ncxmotmn us 'rexc'ra llexnapauun cnona 06 ocyxcnermn pa6c'n3a. M3 / Jexnapauun Heaaaucmwocm 4 mans: 1776 r. Mb! ctmraem oueavmnbumm Tame MOT! /lHblZ ace noonm coananbu paBHblMM M ace OHM o. uapeHbI CBOMM Taopuom Hexoropbmm Heowyxnaembumm npaaamm, K KOTOpbIM omocmcn )Kl/ l3Hb, csofiona VI crpemnenme K cuacrboo. 11:19 oéecneuenvm amx npaa cpemn monefi ycranoanenu npaamenbcraa, MCTOHHI/ IKOM cnpaaennmaofi anacm Koropux ecrb cornacne Tex, n<eM orm ynpaanmow. Ecnu >Ke Taxasa ¢>opMa npaamemr cTaa cranoamcn ry6vnTenbHoI71 mm arofa uenn, TO Hapon mvleer npaao vaamemma WW1 yumroxmrb ee M y~cpep, mb Hoaoe npaavnenbcmo. .. , ‘t '1. 4 '7 ~ I " ' - I_ I ‘Iap. u . Vu. r|cou ! Iu. n.lIx<op1ux Banumnou. I 777 2. I Araxa anrnnficuoro qmowa Ha auepnxaacxne nosmum some Banxep-Xmma. Fpaempa. 1775 2.
  • 217. KPM3Mc . .cTAPoro I‘IOP‘z'l£1KA». HAHN1O MonEPHM3AuMM 1-9» ~': -? HaLuM KOIIOHIAV1 Taloxe nonro M TepnenMeo nepeHocMnM paanbue npMTecHeHMn, M TOJ'IbKO Heo6xonMMocTb npMHy>KnaeT Mx Tenepb Vl3MeHMTb caoso npe>Kmo»o ¢opMy ynpaaneuwa. .. Oobmsnnem or MMeHM M no l'lOI1HOM0‘W| I0 Hapona, ~n'o HaLuM COe, D.V| HeHHble KonoHMM ne- nsuomsa M no npaay 6yny'r enpenb CBO50.D. HblMIr1 M He3aeMcMMbIMM uJTaTaMVl. .. l'Iepe. noM n noiine 11 ee sanepmenne. Hpnnsrrne llercnapannn He oaHaHa. uo orcoaqamm Bofmm. Anrnnficxoe IlpaBPITeJIbCTBO Hanpammo 3 Amepmcy 3Ha- ‘-IHTGJIBHBIB Boficrca, Icowopmm npenc-rosmo <<0I‘HeM H MeHoM>> ycmnpwrb Mi! - Texcnme Kononnn. B THJKGJILIX cpaxcemmx aHrJ1HHaHe 3axBa'rmm Hmo- I7IopK. AMepHHaHcxHe connawm Haqann Maccono noxnnars apMmo, ofimacnsm a'ro HaMepeHHeM nepnywbcx noMo1‘»'I H samnmau. «cson» m'ra'rb1. BamnHr'roHy ensa ynanocb cnacwn cnoe noifrcxo o'r noamoro paanana. C'ra. no Hcno, trro Heo6- xonmuo 1I0,D; H5I'I‘I> 6oeBoi«’I nyx coJ1na'r. I/ I Torna Konrpecc npnnsm pen1eHHe: nocne o1coHHaH1m Bofinm rcaxcnmfi H3 ee yHac'rHmcoB nonyqnr yqacworc 3eMJm. Hon 3HaMeHa Bamnnrrona BHOBL c'raJm CXO, lIHTbC${ nofipononbnu, ero apMmI 6bICTpO pocna. Bcxope amepmcanum orcpyxcnnn 3aH5rrLn‘»'1 aHrJmHaHaMH q)op'1' Capawory H Bunynmm ero Kannrynnponawb. B 1:meH nonano 6 Tue. aHrJIm‘«'I~ cxnx BOPIHOB. Ycnex Bosponmx y aMepmcaHn; eB Hanencny Ha oIcoHt1a'reJ1LHy1o nofieny. TeM BpeMeHeM 1Ipo'rm3Hmc nponomican ynepncnnam; H510-I7Iop1c H nepayro c'roJmI1y CIJJA — dbnnanenbcpnro. Ha noncrynax K Heir co. nna'raM BanmHr'roHa nprmmocz. nepexcnwb Ha penxocrh cyposyro amuy B ]. IOJIHHe Bemrn-Cbopnxc. Apxvma nnoxo o6ecneHHBa. nacL nponononbcwnnem H onexcnoii, xcwrb npuxonH- JIOCL B Jrerxnx 11a. ua'r1cax. AHrJmHaHe name He crmwann Hymnmm a'ra1coBa'rL nnoxo o6ycTpoeHHmfi Jxarepb aMepmcaH11eB H rosopmm, wro xonon cneJIae'r 3'ro nytnne nx. ,IIe1‘»'1c'r13n'remaHo, ymepnmx 0'1‘ 6oJIe3He1‘»’I H Mopoaon 651.110 He Menn- me, Hem nornfinmx B 6oax. Popbxaa namsrrb 06 a'rnx Hcnhrrannax oc'raJ1acL B cnonax connawcxofi necemcnz «I€'ro 6b13a. r1 Ha Bemm-Cbopnxc, 'ro'r He 6ox4'rcH nercna». Hepsme ycnexn H c'ro1'»'xHoc'rb coJ1na'r npnnann yBepeHHoc'rH Mononofi amepmcaucrcofi apmrm. 11.113 oxoHHa'reJILHo1‘»’x no6enL1 aMepmcaHnb1 HYJRJIBJIPICB B nomonm cum, - HLIX coroanmcon. Jlytune Bcero nna aroro nonxonnna Cbpanuna, c'rpeMm3ma- aca yrcpenwrb co6c'rBeHH1:1e noammn 3a cHe'r 0CJIa6JIeHP[. fl naBHero Bpara — Bpn-raH1»m. OHa nonnucana c CIIIA noronop o Toproane K BoeHHo1‘»’1 nomomn, nocne Hero (ppaHuy3c1cm‘»'1 q)J1o'r o'rI<pm. n BoeHHb1e neficwnna npo'rH3 aHrJmHaH. Bcxope npo'rnB HeHaBHc'rHo1‘»'I <<BJ1anL1HHnb1 Mopefi» Bmcwynnnn Ha c'ropoHe aMepmcaH11eB I/ Icnamm H I‘oJ1J1aHnm1. B amepmcaacrcnx nor‘/ xczcax HOHBPIJIPICB connarm H Bonomrepm (nofipononbnm) notrrn H3 Bcex c'rpaH Enponm. B xoHue 1776 1*. B Hapmic nus o6cyxcneHHa Hepcnewrnn fiynymero COlO38. IIpK5I: IJI B Haqecrae Hocna BeHn>xa1vmH <DpaH1cJmH (1706-1 790). Bméop He ony- Haifxao nan nMeHHo Ha Hero. <I>paH1cJ1HH — 'ra. naH'rm»1BLu‘»’x yqenmifx H HHCBTCJIB — aananca ‘IJIGHOM anmniicrcoro Vqenoro KODOJIBBCKOFO o6mec'rna PI enHHc'rBeH- HBIM aMepm<aHn, eM, xopomo Hasecmum 3 Enpone. Bo Cbpamnm <IJpaHrcJmH nponomxan xonwrb, xax B Amepmce, — B crcpomnofi rcopnqneaofi onexcne, c manxo saqecannbnvm Bonocamn. OH He HOCKJI HaHynpeH- Horo Hapmca, max TOPO 'rpe6oBa.1Ia esponeifxcxaa Mona. ‘-I'ro6LI ero OTCYTCTBHE Menbme Gpocanocs B maaa, <DpaH1cJmH Hmcorna, name B nomememm, He cHHMa. n Mexonofi mamm. Bnpoqem, no cbpanuyscrcom o61Hec'rBe cnmnamn K noBc'raHU, aM R
  • 218. OK.838.J'IHCb HaC'l‘OJLbK. O CPUIBHBIMH, 3 IIOIIYJIHPHOCTL <Dpaa1cJmHa T8K0fi 5OJ'II>I. I10H, VITO B Hapmxe GPO He TOJIBKO KGBHHPIJIK 38 CTOJII: HGIXDPIBBI‘-{H08 IIOBGJIGHHG, I-IO name CIIGJISJIH ero KOCTIOM O5p&3IIOM MOJIBI. Bcrynneane corosnmcon B aofmy xpyro nsmeruuxo ee xon. Oceauo 1781 r. oémeannennan thpamco-amepmcaacrcaa apnma oxpyxcrma I7Iopx'rayn H nhmynmxa K xanwrynannu 8 THC. connar PI Marpocoa. Cmru Aarmm 65mm ncromenm, cpezzcra mm cnapmicemm Honofi apmm ona He mvxeata. Boem-me nefxcwnna npercpawunncb. Anrmmane cazvm npennooxmm amepmcauuam Hanan nepero- Bopm. OHM npononxcanncb JIOBOJIBHO nonro H saaepmwmch 3 cerrrnépa 1783 r. nommcanuem Mnpnoro noronopa. Bprrranns npnanana Coemmeunue I. II'ra1'u Amepmcu CaMOC'I‘0iiTeJIbHblM. neaanucrmum rocynapcraom 14 sasuauna o nonnom Bmnone c ax 'reppn'rop1«m ncex cnoux aoficx. Banannaa rpamaua CIIIA ébma ycranoanena no perce Mnccucmm, 'r. e. Teppnwopua Mononofi pecnyémnm ynemmnnacb nocrrn B-rpoe. Coanaune qrezxepanmnoro rocynapcwna. Eme B xone 30171351 ésumme xonomm npeapawnnncb B m'ra1'u c pecnyfinuxancxofi cpopmoifx rrpannerms. Cnatnma mm XOTGJIH o6'be1xmm'rbcn 3 Iconq)enepa- mno — coxoa omenbnbrx rocynapcns, Kaxcnoe K3 K0- Topmx coxpaasmo Heaanucnmocn. :4 co6c'r3enm=1e opranm BJIaCTPl. CoBMec'mo mm pemama 61:1 TOJIBKO aonpocu Imemuefi noJm'rm<n. Ilpoewr nepnoii amepnxancxofi KOHCTPITYILHH B 177 5 r. cocwannn Benzmcamun tllpamcmm. Ha ero 11opa6o'rKy nonanoémxocb not; -m mecrt. new. Roma no- xymem npnoépen cpmy, c'ra. no xcno, ‘rro on yxce He co- o'rBe'rc'r3ye'r 'rpe6ona1=ms1M Bpemenn. I[I'ra'raM, neficwayxomum nopoaub, He y, uaBa- JIOCI: HaJIa,11HTb 'l‘OpI‘0BJ'IIO n cbnnancm. 1'Ipeo, L1oJ1e'rb nocnesoennuii axconommxecxnfi yuanorc MOJKHO 6mJ1o TOJIbK.0 npn Hannqnu cnnbnofi ueawpanbnofi Bnacm. JIe'roM 1787 I‘. npencwaanrenn Bcex m'ra'ro3 co6paJmcb Ha rconserrr (c'be3,z1) B Cbnnanenbtbuu H pa3pa6o'ra.1m aoayro xoucruwyumo. Ee npnnsrme 3acBu, z1e- I Ilepnaa uoaewa CIIIA I ICanm'yn: nma nanepana Kopayommca some Hopi: -rayna. 1781 2.
  • 219. KPI/ BHC «CTAPOFO FIOPSIIJKA». HAHADO MOflEPHH3ALMH 'rem. c'rao3a. no, trro o'r Kontbenepannn CIIIA nepeumn K qnnepanna - recnomy corosy urra'roa. no c coxpaneauem 3a xaacnum us aux nocrwroqno nmporcoro camoynpaanenna. Bucmnm opranom aaxononawenhnofi nnacm GT8)! Konrpecc. On cocwoan as nnyx na. na'r: aepxnefi - ceaara PI Hmicaefi - na. na'rLI npe11c-ra13wre- Jlefi. Kaxcamfi nrra'r. Heaanncnmo o'r cnonx pa3MepoB, u36upa. n 110 mm ceuawopa. B uaJIa'ry npencranurenefi , z1eny1'a'ru nxonnnn npouopnnonanbno rconnqecrny nacenenna mm mm rmoro m'ra1*a. I/ IcnoJm1»rre:1baan nnacrb npnnannencana u36paHnoMy Ha qewupe rona upeamxewry. Hepnbm npesnnerrrom CIIIA c'ra. n , IIncop, zmc Bamnnrron, ocraaanmnfica H8 cnoem nocwy Ana cpoxa. 3'ry rconcrnrynmo CIIIA Hmcoma He o'rMeuaJm. Oua 11e1‘»’1c'rBye'r no cnx nop, no Bpenm 01' npemenn B nee anocsrr nonpamm. B 1791 I‘. Ronrpecc arcnroqun 3 xoncwrrynmo naxcnme nemoxpanmecxue nonpamcn, nonyuunmne uaanaxme «Bantu. o npanaxo . Oan rapan'mpoBaJm amepmcanuam cBo6oz1y cnoaa, neqam, coxosos n cofipanufi, Henpnxocaoneanocwb Jxmmocnt, xcmmma H qac'r- nofi CO6CTBeHHOC'I'H, cao6o1xy nepoucnonenanml, npano Ha nomerme opyxma. Bofiaa aa aeaaancumocrb npnnena K poxcnenmo nepnoro Heaanncmvxoro ro- cynapcwna B HoBoM Cae're M nepaoii zxemoxpanmectcofi pecnyfinmcn Hoaoro apemerm. Ee yc'rpofic'rno BOlIJ'I0'! ‘PIJ'IO nonnwxmecxue nneanu anoxn IIpocae- means. BMec-re c 'reM, no HBCTOHHHIO nnaarawopon IOra, o'r KOJIOI-! Id8.JIbHOI‘0 npomnoro 61.1110 coxpaueno pa6c'r3o. 3'ry cepbeanylo npo6J1eMy amepnxazmam eme npencrosuxo pemawr. 3 éynymem. C coananneu CIIIA aasepmnnca 170-nernnfi Kononnansnmfi nepnon ame- pmcancrcofi ncropnn. 3a 3'1-o npema nponaomno yanxansnoe (aeuoaropumoe) 3 Mupoaofi ncwopnu coébrrne — pommacx. nosas nnammaaxma, a xcuwenn aar- nnficxnx xononnfi, npnexaanme clona n3 paaaux c-rpax-1 Enponu, npeapa'rn- Jmcb 3 ennnmfi Hapon. ‘Imo e XVII -XVIII ea. cmaao npu-mum} peaxozo yeeauueuun nomorca nepeceuenuee e H oaufi Csem? Ho-aeuy anaauuaue aaceuau aeaum Ce- aepuoa Axepuxu? Karcoic mun zocydapcmaa ouu aéecb cosaaeaxu? Bau- i JUL Jzu penueuoauuh dbaxmop ua axonouuuecxoe paaaumue cmpauu? 2. C rcaxoa qe. /mo Auzaua npenamcmeoeaaa paaeumuro npouaaoacmea e xoaouuax u sanpeugaaa um ceoooauo mopzoeama c apyeuuu cmpauanu? 3. Ilaueuy saxou o aeeaenuu nedoxwwoeo no paauepy zepdoaoeo cdopa aus- aaa pesxoe eo3.uyu4euue xonouucmoe? Kauueu npemxuoeeuua cmaa can c6op uuu cymecmeoeaaa uuaa npu-tuna? 4. ‘Imo cocmaa. ruuuo cuzwuue u czzaaue cmoponu axepurcaucxofi apatuu? 111:5: -aezo Bmopozi Houmuneumaabuua rcouzpecc npuruu: petuenue o paaaane seueua yuacmnurcam eoimu? Bnaeoaapa ueuy amepuxanuam yaaaocb uaamu comsnuxoe e 6opb6e npomue Auzauu? 9‘ 3A, LIAHMfl 1 . Brmmarenbuo npoqurafire orpuaox H3 llexnapauun Heaaaucmuocm. Kame men Flpocsetueumv npocnexmearorcn a Hem? Moxuo / m cvmana, «no npoao3r- naweuuue 3 flemapauuu caodqqu M npaea cm/ m eceo6u. mMu M pacnpocrpa- HFU'MCb Ha Bcex xmrenefi Luraroa? Cxaaanncb / m cm Ha nonoxeum m-mefiuea ‘ M Herpoa? Aafire oueuxy 3Ha'-IBHMSV flemapauuu aim CLUA M Ann Mnposofi ; ucropuu. 2. FIo. ayMai1re, noqemy nepe. a CLUA soar-mxna norpednocrb B npnusmm «Emma o npaeax». Kax au ouenneaere ero anaqet-me?
  • 220. —. -v . / Ct‘. /‘/ I. 8 CTPAHbl » - BOCTOKA I B XVI — XVIII BB. 9‘! M Y C }’f7bMAHCKPII/ “I MHP I/ IHBHH HOE TFDKE CT bIO 3ABOEBAHHI/ "I «3AKPbITbIE» CT PAHbI H/ ‘U'IbHEI'O BOCTOKA fr 1 , _r: HOBOE BpeM5I (aropan nonosuna XVII — XVIII 5. ) I V, - . ... _.-V :1 ‘B , , MYCYJIBMAHCICI/ I1‘/ I ~ MPIP Ocmancxcaa mvmepua K ornop Enpoma. B Haqane XVI B. Ocmancxax mvmepna npenpamnacb B Morymec'r- BBHHOG rocynapcrso c 6oJn. Ino1‘& Teppnmpnefi. l'Ioc. ne Baa- ma B 1453 r. ICoHc'raH'rnHonoJm 'ryp1m-ocMaHL1 nmmnn 3a npe, u;eJ1b1 A3141»: n norcopmm Banxancnnfi nonyocrpos. Orm 3aBJIa. z1eJm Tarcxce Ma.7Io1‘»'1 Aanefi H Kpmmczcnm XaHCTBOM, qyBc'rBoBa. m»1 ce6x xoaaeaaxvm ‘iepnoro Mopa. Y apa6on TYDKPI aaxnwrmm Cnpmo n qacn. Apaamr nMec're co csamennmmn mm Mycynbman roponamn Mex- rcofx 14 Mennnofi. C 3aBoeBaHneM Emma B cocwan OcMa- HCKOPO rocy, z1apc'rBa Bonvm 3eMJIPI Ha cenepe Atppmcn I/ I xonrpom. Hap; naxcnmmn 'roproBuMn 11eH'rpaM1»I Cpe, zm- aemnomopm. Horcopenue qyxcnx sexvxem, n nocwoannoe pacnmperme rpamm nmnepxm oéecnetnrrnamwr Monmme apmna PI (1)1107, a Boemzraa , qo6Lr=1a 6Lma maBHmM HCTO'-I- nmcom nononnenna rocynapcmennofi xcaanm. Bepnmuu cnoero Morymecwna Ocmancrcaa nmnepna zzocrnrna B npannenne cymana Cyneiimana Bemuco.1Ien- noro (1520-1566). I/ IMe1-mo wax aa Mnorormcnennue no6e1u.1 H pocxomb nnopa Haamnann ero eBpoue1‘«in; m. Homaname ace nMeHoBaJm Raaylm (3a1coao, ua'reJ1h) 3a nananne csona sarconon. I‘. naBHaa oco6eHHoc'rL awo- ro 3aKOHO1IaTeJILCTBa coc'roaJIa B paanene Hacenenna 1»1Mnep1«m Ha Mycynbman H nemycynhman, xoropue co- OTBBTCTBBHHO nMeJm paanme o6s13aHnoc'm n npana. Cyp; Haxognmca B pyxax Mycynbmancrcoro nyxoBeH- c'r3a 14 Bee nena peman Ha ocnone aanonenefi ncnama. Cynefiman nponozum ynarmyro 3aB0eB8.TeJII: I-IyIO IIOJIPITPIKY, Jmqno yqac'rBoBa. n B 13 noennux 1caMna1m- ax, np1»meM 10 P13 HKX npoaen B Enpone. Ty'r mxannbrm npormaamcom cynraaa 62.111 mvmeparop Rapn V I‘a6c- 6ypr. I/ Ix conepnnqecwno paanopaqnnanocb Ha semmx
  • 221. CTPrHbI BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. fa I “I I‘ I‘—I II" - I I v 2 I ' . =' ‘. .". ,., " ' MI I « 1,! " ‘ '-Z» * ' In‘ TH ' " ‘ . ' I . ‘ I ‘I ('1' ‘I. ‘ I “X ‘ H J‘. ‘ _I‘_V"‘| ." / “l:7”. -, I I : » I ' ‘—~* 1 I w » -~ I _ ‘ ". '. _ “I I '+"r. ..'~. ' ,1 ' I" I ' ' ‘. * V .7 ‘v’/ ‘ . 9 I ' ‘ ‘I I: : u ‘ 4‘ AI‘! ‘ ’/ I , _ ' , '1: III , '. _‘ . V' I ‘ I ' ‘I. 7 '~ . J. " I II "I II ’ I‘ -I». -“ '4 5' . - _ I fi__< , _, _ -_, ’~‘; ,’, .o ‘ I" L . _ "32.’ ““"“: ; ‘'-. ‘——'’V 2. xxx. ‘ ‘~0‘ ‘ 7‘ I ’ v4 CTaM6y: x. XVI 6. Bearpmx, Ancrpnn u 3 Cpezmaemnomopbe. Caaqana orpoxvmaa Typemcaa scrcanpa ocap; n- 11a ocrpoa Poaoc. OH npnuazmeaxan puuapmvp rcpecronocuam opuena noaamrron, xowopme Aepxcann non xoarponem socrotmoe Cpenm aexvmomopbe n Memama r<oH'ra1<'raM C1'aM6y. na c ocmancxcmm Bnaneansmn B Apamm n Erna- 're. B xozze aaramnofi ocanm aamwmmcu oc'r- pona — 600 pbmapefi :4 5 Tmc. comma? — repou- qecxn oéopousumcb. Ctm'rae'rca, trro ocmanm norepsum oxono 80 Tue. qenoaex, H0 see me sbtnynnnu rcpenocn. xannwynnpoaaws. Cy- Jxefman, ynamaa xpa6poc'rb pbmapefi, o'ruyc— Tm: xx us nnena. I/ Ioamurrrm nepefipannch H3 Manyry, nae nx opnen nonytnm Honoe H8333- Hue - Ma. nb'rm"1crcm'»'x. Cnycm Hexowopoe ape- Ms Cyneiiman nonmranca aaxnawwrb Mammy, Cy.1ex"man Be.1HKo.1enabIi'1 no 6e3ycnenmo. Ilanee ocmancxoe Boficxo nepemno , IIyHax‘»'x n 3 6x«mae y Moxaqa Haronoay pa36mIo Benrpon. B 1529 r. apmm Cynefimaaa Bssma 3 ocany c'roJm11y I‘a6c6ypro3 - Beny. Fopon nhxcwoan, no c aworo MOMBHTEI a B Tetxerme nayx nocneny1o- umx c'roJ1e'rm‘/1 rparmna Mexcny Cnxmennofi Pmvxcxofi n Ocmancnofi nmnepmnvm npoxo; m- na acero B HCCROJIBKPIX necancax rcmxomerpon or Hero. Orpxnm Typemcoii rconnnnu noc'ro- mmo Hanerann Ha Mnpuue nocenemm, cex Ha cBoeM nym CMEDTL n paspyxy. Morymecwno Ocmancxofi nmnepmx nep21ca- JIOC1: Ha orpoMno1‘»’1 apzvmu. Ba Bepnyro cnyxcfiy BOYIHLI nonyqann or cymana nacnencraennbre aemenbnbxe nnanenna - Tumapm n onpe, z1e. r1eH- Hyro qacn. Boemxofi noébmn. Hpnsnnemponanaofi txacruo H ynapnofx cmroii 'rypeu- xoro aoficxa 6mm ammxapbr — ypoxceaum noxopennmx ocmanamvm o6J1ac're1}'x ~— (npenmymecraenno Gamcancxux). Ho naanemy o6bma1o ux eme Manbqurcamn Ocmancxmfi xpyr: n.11"4 mm. XVI 3.
  • 222. H0506 BPCMH (eropan nonoeuna XVII -X1-“III 5.) I Ocuancxne nmeuu n xonbqyra. XVI e. XVI 8. o'r6upa.7m y ponnwenefi :1 nocnuwbxsann B qaanawnquofi rIpe11mm()("m n(: .r1aM_v. Honapocnen, om: npespamamxcb 3 cyponmx u éecnouxammx Bmmoa, x<o1~o- pue yxte He nomarmu csoero rxponcxoxcneumz H aoenann nponm (‘O6("l‘BeHHO- ro oreqecma, name He nonoapenan o6 3TOM. XVI 3. M3 nucbma Cynev': MaHa Be/ mxonennoro ¢>paHuy3cKoMy KODOIIIO d>paHLmcKyI dlpanuvucx. .. Bbl oépamnmcb c f'lVlCbMOM. ..BbI Aoeenw no Hamero ceeneuvm, two Henpmmenb osnanen aatuefi crpanovu m -410 Bbl cawm Haxogmecb. .. 3 nneny. M Bbl ofipamrmcb coona 3a I’IOMO| .ublO M cpencmamm mm eamero oceoéoxneumn. Her Hmero ynmamenbuoro e TOM, -no umneparopbu Tepnm nopaxeunn vu nonananor a nnen. Mrax, Myxamecb M He naname nyxom. Haum cnaanbae npenxu. .. Hmxorna He npexpamanm some mm TOF0, ~+To6bs oTpa3u/ ma apara M noxopmb HO8ble aewm. V1 Mbl Tanoxe cnenoaanm nx npumepy. Mu Henpecrarmo aaaoeauaanm npoavmuuu VI cnnbuue Henpncvynuue xpenocm. Jlnem M H0‘-(b| O Ham KOHb crom ocennan, vs Mbl onosacanu cafinefi. Haqano ynamca Ocmancxcoii umnepnu. Henpepuaame Bofinbl 'rpe6onaJm orpommx 3a'rpa'r. Hemauue cpenc'raa nornoman Taxxce pocxomnmfi nnop cywraaa. 31-o aunyacnano npannrenbcrso ycmmaa-rs nanoronufi mew. 3mm- 'roe noc'roam-rum nbnconaqnaauuem neaer na Hacenemm, ono coacem He 3a6o- THJIOCI: o coazzaama énaronpmrruux ycnonnfi mm pasnwrna Topronnn, upo- MBIIIIJIGHHOCTK n cenbcxoro xoaafic-rna. Ennacraenaum Bmxozzom npanmnne xpyrn cqm'aJm nponomxenne saxnarnnuecxnx Boim, oéemaanmx 6ora'ry1o nofiuqy H Honue aemm mm Bamwamm nonawefi.
  • 223. CTPAHbl BOCTOKA BXVI - XVIII BB. Menczzy 'reM pacwymaa axonomuqecrcaa o'rc'ra. noc'rb Typrum cxasanacb ua Texumxecxom ocuamex-rum oc- Maacxoro aoiicxa. Emy cranonnnocb ace Tpyzmee nporuaocroarb nytune noopyxceanbm esponeficrmm apmmm. K 'roMy me Gonbmux ycnnufi Tpe6o3aJIo ycxvmpemxe noxopeunmx Haponon n noaannenne noc- crannfi aaywpn crpaau. B peaynm-are yxce c xoaua XVI B. Typxcn c'ra. nu 'repne'rb cepbesaue nopaxcexma. Heyzxarmo aasepnnmca noxon npeemnmca CyJIe1‘«'xMaHa Bennxonennoro - Cenmua II (1566-1574) Ha Ac'rpa- xanb. B 1571 r. oémennneaaue cmmx I/ Icnamvm PI Bene- mm paarpomwm 'rypen. rcm‘»'1 ¢. no'r 3 aamuae JIenaH'ro. I/ I xo'ra Ocmaucxaa umuepna ace eme ocwananacb cum, - HLIM rocynapcmom, ee Boemaax MOIIIB 61.ma nonopnana. B cepemme XVII B. aoficxam cymana 14 em naccana, KDBIMCKOPO xana. ynanocs necxonbxo pas a'roprHy'rr. - ca B Ilonbmy n Yxpamry H zxoifrrn no camoro Ilaenpa. Orcphmenuan ycnexom Typmm ownaxcnnacb Ha H0- nylo nonbrrxy paccnpanwrbcn c ABc'rpne17x. B 1683 I‘. 6o. nee ‘-[GM 100-Thxcaqnaa Typemcaa apmm nonomna 1c c'renaM Beam. Ocana ancwpnficrcofi c'roJmuu upo11o. n- ncanacb Asa Mecsma. Ha uomoms efi c HeMHorormcJ1en- I-lbIM, no xopomo noopyxceuaum no! ‘/‘xcxom npmnen nonbcxnfi xopom. flu Coéeccxnii. OH pasrpommr Typo}: :4 amnymm Hx o'rc'ryIm'rb o'r Beau. 3'ro nope- xcenne noxommno c Typemcnm rocnoncrnom 3 Eapone. C Tex nop Ocmaucxas umnepna c'raJ1a nocwenermo Tepmr. cnon aanoenamm. I/ Ipan 3 npannenne 1mnac'nm Cecpemulon. Boc-row Hofi cocemcofi 14 nocwoannofi coneprmnefi Typumx ébma Hepcus. B Haqane XVI 3. Ha ee Tepprrropnn cyxnecwnosano HGCKOJIBICO CRMOCTOHTGJIBHBIX nnaneaufi, me He ywnxann nayrpemme pacnpn. Omm as upaswrenefi — meixx I/ Icmaxul Ceqaenn — cmxofi opynma O6'be1[HHHJl ocnafinennue Mencnoycofinnamn Memme nepxcanm 14 nponoamacnn ce6a maxom. On ocnonan zmnacrmo Cecbenunon (1502-1736) 14 co311a. n cmlbuoe rocynapcrno, Kowopoe c'raJm H&3bIBaTb I/ Ipanom. Hpu I/ Icuaxme aaqanucb H B Teqeune Bcero XVI B. noqm Heupephnmo uum noifmu c Ocmancxoii nmnepnefi. Ho Cecbenancxaa nep- xcana c ee o'rc'ra. nofi opraxmaauneii aoficxca n npnmnrnnnoifx noenaofi Texunxoifx He cmoma JIOJIJKI-IblM o6paaoM I1pOTPIBOCTOi{Tb npary. Typxu aansum notrm ace 3axaBz<a3Le, nx 1copa6Jm xcomponuponann cynoxoncmo B Kacnuficxom Mope. Hecxonqaemme noiium 'rpe6oaa. rua orpomaux 3a'rpa-r, noaromy npeemumcn I/ Icmamxa nocroaano nosumann nanom. Hacenerme o'rneqa. no noccraanamn. Bnemaue nopaxcelum n o6oc'rpexme naywpennefi cwryannn conponoxcnanncs yuamcom sxonommcn. Cwpaaa ace 6o. rxee oxaamnanacs B cnoxcuom nonomeann. Boccwanosneune Morymecwaa Ceqrenuncxofx nepacanu npouaoumo npn Inaxe 221 A66ace I Bemncona (1587-1629). I‘o'ro3acb K pemurenbaoii aoiiue c Typnneii, A66ac coamm orpomnyxo HOCTOHHHYIO apmno as 120 me. qenonex. Ee ynapnofi cnnofi 6bma 10-Tucmman Kouunua. cocroanmaa us rynamon — nonaon, nono6- aux ocmancxma aubmapam. Fynamamn cwaaoaunucb MaJII>"-IHKPI, HRCKJIBHO o'ro6pam-me y ponnwenefi-xpncrnan (npenmymecwneuno rpysna n apmm) n
  • 224. H0806 ape/ vm (Bropan nonoeurva XVII -XVIII a ) , _. = >x 3.9. . . . . . Ba. >00 3 ll .2. __>x-_>x axzwzs . . >383. >: o.. o:oxuo.2 . _ . ._ 89 x 5. = >un| —.>N H un= n< lug . _ mam. .. 2 . d . _ 1.2:: ._ . .o. ?=c6.. ~0 >m»u9.. d>uo. . . . . wzzxmzxdaoosnc . ssao§a%» : .. 39 x — z1.: E.. s.= ¢oo: ac . :xao§aae» . ._ _>x 2a. a.. .. . . . . . . E $m_-a8_ . ~§-3.. .. . . ‘ s. a§s§. §s¥ §. ..: _ .52 , °z. s§w§_. ofibnns eoxgoxuoi . . 39 x , ‘ ‘ . ‘ . xsnmczx S§. EE flisaam : o<: :o9¢0 om. ..ona<>oo. _ d = >x m . :F. .>xo. _. >104 x1.HS. o.nxm2 , . . . 1 . . uzfiuacaqoz . :sao§oaw» . ,_. .€:5_. ... o£A, .: sooE8u. — . , . . 3:922 . s.. .u. _m, ... ... r%nn : o:o: .._2oOt mh. :aw_.5_uom. .:. . ._ man. .. .. =>x wnmlwxm » . . ‘ mmm. _>xo. _. m. =.o. .;. :.. u . :._xe5.: m ; oa>vi. .:_. .I w: x.. wQ. m<fl , . ‘ . ... . . wmn— m . mam. x xzmzaaoo xxzocu xx. .. wxnvcls . ‘ . . V 3:052 . .:: z.. m . ... .§a: m = ... ::_. :.uomn. n . :sao: .aa. # E. o~m. -n_m_ m . u _>x wamrwx . _. 959.: .. .é6.. .m doze: : asawczs unxoxmzoo :3.. . O . ¢o.3._5E §e. x5.. n uxnocix uxaoczs uS. o:a! uO ~. :_: <. W S 1 S C_. C>~. .S. ..x . ,:. .o: ..x C 0 WC .521: . ..: :.C : um_. . Bum xi é. 05.. C23; azaamns d C . . . .:. s .3 sux, :., b.— 0.. . x: : .u. H<O ‘. .¢x: cE: _ / K.. / 0 . /7 .9.¢u. ,.. . . ‘ , _e.3.. , . x ma. ... :O , , m: ..£xm&
  • 225. CTPAHbl BOCTOKA B XVI - XVIII BB. nocnwraauue 3 nyxe cbauanmnoro ncnama. A66ac Bnen 3 cnoeM Boficrce oruecwpenbuoe opyxcue u ap'm. n.nepmo. 3'ro oéecnerumo emy no6e. z1y Han Typrmefi n noanonmxo nep- HYTB norrm ace ywpaqennue reppmopun, 3 TOM vmcne Ppysmo, Apmeumo, ‘{aCTb A3ep6aI‘»'um<aHa, Kypnucrana n npyme. Hpn A66ace I/ Ipan Ben OJKHBJIEHHYIO TO- proamo co nmommn cwpanamx - I'Iop'ryra- Jmefi, Ponnannuefi, Anmneifi, Poccnefi, Kwraem n npyrumu. Illnpoxmm cnpocom HOJILSOBRJIHCB nepcuncxne xonpu, men- xoame, mepcmnme u xnomconue ncann, Merammtrecxue nazzemxa. B roponax upon- aerano oprarmaoaaunoe B uexu pemecno. A66ac Igepenec c'roJmuy 3 I/ Ictparaa (conpe- : .‘£§hQnng Mennmn Terepaa), nacemm ropon xyuuamm n pemecnennmcamn H3 npymx paiionoa c'rpam.1, yxcpacmx ero npexpacummu coopyxcemmmn. Ilmx yz1o6c'rna 'ropro3Jm A66ac npoxnanmnan nopom K coopyxcan Mocru. Hpoaonnnnch 'rar<>xe fionbmue nppnraunounue pa6o'ru: CTDOKJIKCB nonme n pemonrnponanncb crapue xaaanu H opocwrenbaue cncwemm. Kpecrbaue B ocnonnom ampamnnanu aepnonme, paanonmm tppyxronme canm. CaMa Hepcmx xaaanacb m3e'rym; nM canon B aacymamnom orcpyxcenmx. I-Ia Bocwoxe nepmm 737 .7 ‘ oaqgnne cJ1q3‘_a. .', i1-; .6y1_¢, nu ’_n; ;-. o-gno- cngmcn 1: ‘f ' _"T J , ixa. n.um~pa<pua. --Pyuonngn yupamann‘ mmggpun-gnnaanogaun, 4 nunwxnenxsxmn c ynnqnwensnzmkgonepmencrnou. Manna-nopn neppnnc xynoxcnmcon - spans. nunoroune-1r; :x_»g; ‘e, ;2i’; oxc_a.2:s1ae an r A napmi IIP€! <Pfl°3&’! 39639» T8339 PYROHIIOJI npenpamaamcs 3 nommsahte ' menenpn ncxycc'u'3'a. ‘ 3nanctpemmaa. npnnneqLxce6enacnyxc6yxaxuoacno6oubmexynoamm<on n B. nnopnu n uetx__e'm Hpaxanopaxcann caoefi pocxonmo, Goran-at pacrmenhnuu reoue-rpmxecrcxm opnanen-rou. Jxennnnofi, xepannmecrcoit Moaamcofi. ¢3anoena1~eJn. nmpa» H8JIl! p°! lI8X. Hogrbem I/ Ipaaa npononxcancn Hezzonro. Ilpu upeemnmcax A66aca ocnaénenne maxcxofi anacwu smasano o6oc'rpe1me Meaqzoycoénbxx pacnpefi 3 cpene snam. B Taxnx ycnoamrx xoasmcwno cwpanbx npnxozmno 3 ynanox. I/ I cpaay me nonnmm ronoay Bouncrnennme cocezm: c aa- nana ycn. rm. rm nannenne wyprm-ocmaahx. a Ha nocwoxe aoanmcna yrpoaa co empo- uu Icoqenux xuxemea acbranuea, aa cenepe noanwrcx aosmfi conepnmc - Poccna. B npamnoc'roannn c awmvm I‘p08HhIMH npomnunxamn I/ Ipan no'rep5uI summ- TBJIBHYIO qacn. caonx Bnanennfi. Kaaanocb, c'rpaHa HRXOJIHJIECB Ha Kparo m6e. rm. Ee cymaéy Kpyro uamemm Tananwnunufi nomcosonen Hump-xax-1. OH o'raoe- nan notrm ace ywpaqeanme 'reppm~opm4 n c'ra. n npanmenem I/ Ipana non nMeHeM 223 Hamil)-Inaxa (1736-1747). Ero He cJIyqa1‘v'mo upoanamd 3a3oe3a'reneM Mnpa. I/ Imemio Hagmp-max pacmnpun nnanenna I/ Ipana, npncoezuumn K mm o'r11e. m.- Hme o6JIac'm I/ Immn, Cpennefi Aarm :4 Baxamcasm. Henctmcnnmme 6ora'rc'rBa, aaxaaqennme B noermbrx noxouax, Hump rrycrcan Ha conepaxarme apmm n Ha Jxmmue Hyxcnm. Rpmxamaa pocrcomb zuaopa cocencrsonana c yxcacaxomefi Hume-
  • 226. H0806 i3p€M$1 (Bropan nonoauua XV/ I - XVIII n. ) T. T wofi npocronxonnnon. Onnaxo nener ma nmnnar orpowmoi‘: apmm — rnaenofi onc- pe maxcuofi nnacrn — nce panno He xsa'ra. no. Haxmp ynenvmun Hanom, wro BbI3Ba- no nonoemecmoe nenonoJn. c1'3o PI Ml~IOI‘0‘{HcJIeHHbIe MRTBDKH. Bo Bpemn ozmoro M3 tmx maxa yfimm. Pocynapcwno Hannpa paCfl8.7IO('. b Ha omenbnbxe rmanemm. XVIII e. M3 Memyapos cppanuyacxoro nocna B 1741 r. npocnaanel-mbu71 M Ha| 'py>KeHHbll7| 50l'aTCTBaMM, Hal‘pa5!1eHHbIMV1 B Hp. MM. Ha. u,Mp-max npM6un B ).1ep6em. Ero apMWR. CW'IbH0 abspocwan so spew: MHOf'0- Hucnermux noxonos. Hacwmaana 150 mac. uenoaex M coctonna M3 oTp$1)1oB MHp, MMuea, Tarap. yafiexoa M a¢vraHu. ea. .. nepcoa 6blnO Hewmoro. OH peLuMn Hanacrb Ha ne3rMH — Hapon, Koropbnuh >xMaeT a ropax, M noromy ero mxeno noxopurb. .. Fopuu npMau~mu x rpa6ex<aM, flO‘~ITl/ I ace OHM I/ ICKYCHO ananeuor ome- CTpel'| bHblM opy>KMeM M yMeno Be11yT Mem<MM 6001.. . Ha aepLuMHax He, D,OCTy| "lHblX cxan OHM pa3MeCTMJ1M caoMx x<eH, nerefi M ueHHocTM M Ha-4anM yCTpaV| B8Tb 3aC8.l], bl. .. CHVIM8Tb KOHBOM. a onuaxnu HOHHO 0CMeJ'llr1!1MCb araxoaan. narepb camoro maxa. Sacmrnymfi apacnnox. rocynapb 651:1 auuyxnen orcrynmb. Ben ero apMMn a éecnopnnxe 6e>o<aJ1a, M no6enMTenM aavum auaumeneuyso [106bNy. 1. Moenu nu xpucmuane Ocwaucrcoa uamepuu paccrcumbzeamb ua aau4u- my aarcouoe Cynefmaua Bezzuxonenuozo max Jtce. wax u Mycyabmaue? I 2. Kozaa u noueuy ua-taaocb ocnadaeuue Ocuaucrcofl zunnepuu? Ifarc amo noeauaao na xoa mypeuxux aaeoeaauua? 3. ‘Imo noaeouuuzo waxy A66acy I eoccmauoeumb . nozyu4ecmso Ce¢eeu6- crcofl aepxcaeu? 4. M02 Jm noétex, uadmoaaawullcn 3 Hpaue 6 npaeaeuue Haaup-uuaxa. npoaomacambca 00.420? Omaem odocuyame. 3A, £lA HM}? 1. BHMM8TeJ1bHO npocmrafire orpuaox M3 oraera CyneMMaHa BenMKonenHo- ro H8 I'mCbMO xoponn d>paHuMcKa I, 3 xoropom ror odpazuancn K cynrauy c npocbdofi o noMou4M M c npeanoxeHMeM 33KflIO'-MTb COIO3 Mexay ¢paH- uMeM M Typuuefi. Kax nu Moxere oxapanepuaoearb TOH nucuua Cyneimaua ? ‘-Iro aror npasurenb ctmva/1 mm ce69 rnaaubm? 2. Ha ocHosaHMM coo6LueHMM wpanuyacxoro nocna o saaoeaarenbnom noxqae Ha, aMp-Luaxa nonurafirecb BblflCHHTb, Morna /1M apMMn, a Koropyto axoawm npe. acraaMrenM pasuux noxopeuuux Mpauou Hapoaos, 6am: Haaexnofi M npeaam-Iofi? 27 I/ IH1II/ I51 non THHCECTLIO o BABOEBAHIIII/ I . Coananne MOPOJIBCKOPO rocygxapcrna. B Haqane XVI 3. Hanna, me upo- M 224 >! <HBaJ10 orcono 100 mu: =1eJ1., ocrananacb onaoii K3 Icpym-xefimnx crpan Mupa. ‘ Mnoxcecmo naponon n mxemen, aamcon n oéhmaen npnnanann efi aeuonwopumoe cnoeoépaane. Bonbmyro cnny coxpansma 'rpa. zmum1. Rare :4 coruu new Hasan, cymecrnonanu Henpeonomiuue rpanunu Mexcny unnuficxnmu rcacramn. He- IISMEHHBIM ocwananca n samxnyruii xaparcrep cenbcxofi oémnnuz ncem neo6- xommum ee ‘menu ofiecneqnnamt ce6x caun.
  • 227. CT PAHbl BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. O11HoBpeMeHHo B nonnrnqecxofi mnsnn I/ Iugmn nponsoumn Bancnue u3MeHeHm1. Crpana pacna- Jlacb Ha omenbubre rocy11apc'rBa, npaawremwl K0- Topblx IIOCTOHHHO Bpaxmoaann Mexcny co6oI7I. Ycofinum pasopmm xo3sn71cTBo, nc'ro1n; aJm CPIJIbI Hapona PI ofinemann Bwopxcerme saxsawqnxon. B 1526 r. Cesepnylo I/ Inzxmo norcopmx nonxononen Ba6yp. OH 5bIJI npanpannyxom 3aBoeBa'reJm Tnmypa PI . c[aJ1eIc1»IM IIOTOMKOM ‘lmxrncxana, no- 3'roMy em 14 Bcex, rvro npnmen c I-IPIM, c'raJm Ha- amaana Moronamn (ncxaoicemioe (<MOHI‘0JI>)). Talc BOBHPIKJIO rocynapcwso Moronon, coxparmnmee CBOI0 BJI8.CTb 3 I/ Inmm 6oJ1ee mayx c'roJ1e'rm‘»’1, norca cwpauy He saaoeaann anmmzane. Ba6yp npanml Bcero Tpu rona, 65m oqenb o6pa- sonar-mum qenosexom, onapennmm IIO3'l‘0M H TOB- KPIM uenwrenem pxcrcyccq-13a. IIpaBn're. rIL oc'raBm1 nocne ce6a aBTo61»1oI‘paq)mo <<Ba6yp-HaMe» , Hann- cazmyro IIDOCTBIM PI acnmm HBBIKOM. 3'ro npon3Be- nenne — ozmn us Hau6oJ1ee uennmx ncwoqnnxon o CO6bITPIHX PI Mnpoaosapemm mo11e1'«’1 TOPO BpeMeHPI. XVI B. M3 aerodnorpacpmn 5a6ypa «5a6yp-HaMe» Flpmsbna K 6010 npoasyqan, Korna conuue nonun- I1OCb Ha abucory KOl'IbF| ; 6:/ urea npononxanacb no no- nyp. Hs: . B 3Ty nopy spar 5bU'I no6e>o<J:1eH M nonaanen, a D. py3b9l panoaanmcb VI Topxecrsoaanm. Benm<vu71 Foc- I‘lOJ1b, no csoefi Mvmocm I/1 Gnaroeonenmo, cnenan mm Hac nermm aro Tpyp. Hoe , o,eno: CTOJ'Ib MHOFO‘-lVICJ1eHHOe Boficxo on 3a nonmm cpaeunn c 3eMnei«'1.. . KaK 9 M Hanenncsa, Benw<vu71 Focnonb. .. nomor Ham OD. OJ1eTb cvmbnoro Bpara VI aaaoeaarb Taxoe 6onbuJoe rocyp, apcTao, Kax VI: -mun. 0 »Mynuam7opa. B KOHIIG xcnsnn Ba6yp pa3p; eJI1»m CBOH Bnanenns Mexcny CLIHOBBHMPI. B c'rpaHe Bcnmxnynn Mexcnoycofinbre nofinm. Hpannenne Benmcnx Moronon. CrIorco1‘«'1c'rBne yCTaHOBPIJIOCB Hecrcopo, TOJILKO nocne npnxona 1c BJIaCTPI Bnyrca Ba6ypa - A1c6apa (1556-1605). Vnacnenonaa Jlmm. HBCKOJIBKO pasopennmx Bofinoii nponuaunfi, on B0 MI-IOI‘0 paa yBeJIIrI‘HrIJI Teppwropnro MOI‘0JII>CKOI‘0 rocynapcwna. A1c6ap aanoenan 14 npncoennmm K cnomvx BJIa, ZIeHYIfiM orpomnue nnnnficxne npocwopm n GOJIBIIIYIO qacwb atprancrcnx 3eMem. . B coanannoifz HM cmmnofi n; eH'rpa.1m3oBaHHo1‘»'1 nepxcane A1c6ap BBeJx ennnufi xanennapb PI txencyro cnc'reMy panron Ha rocynapcmaeanofi cJIyxc6e. A1c6ap ax-rmzno nozmepxcnaan pemecna K 'I‘0pl"0BJIIO, ynopmxormn Hanom, 3Hatm'rem. - H0 pacmnpml nppnraunonnyro cnc'reMy n ce'rL Aopor. Bce 3'ro aacnyaicenno oéecnetmno npanwremo cnany BBJIPIKOPO peq)opMa'ropa. Ero npannenne o'rMeqe- H0 Bo3ne, u;eHneM B c'roJ1m1e Moronon — ropone llenu - rpammoanux msopnon n npannrenbcrnennux anannfi. Arcfiap Tarcxce Bcsmecrcn noomgpsm TaJIaH'l‘JIIrIBhIX mozxeii 1»: cnammca II1e, El; pbIM Meuena'rc'r3oM. I/ Imermo 13 em npannenne rocy, z:ap- CTBO Moronon , u;oc'rmv1o Hamsmcmero pacnnera PI c'raJ1o nmnepnefi Benmcnx Moronon. 225
  • 228. ~ . ‘. ,. I - a ; ~- :9 ‘ha / I I/ IMnepa'rop A1<6ap naénronaer aa nonneii nmcoro cnona. M unuamropa. XVI e. -1.. .’. l , , if" 3' ‘ _ - . -. - . . , ‘ . : W , > . ‘H. j’. ,«. ‘ _. J ‘.7 . L IF; _‘I'’, . J J ‘I l. — . ‘ " ; - . ,fl '. ,.. v- . . _ " . ._ L - -: ." ’ , - 1-” wfi' ‘ , -. I "3 52-. 1 / ‘ - « —-' _ , ' > '-. . . ‘ <4“ T ~~*“<~. ~. «*1 _ ' . - i "' _ . _ , . . J . . . ' - *- -4.. ( . ‘) " ‘t _ ‘ . 1 7A. 3.3:‘ T’. (T ‘rl: /' - ’ . ‘ . _. . _ / . HOBOE ape/ ~12 (aropasi nonoauna X VII — XVIII B. ) ‘*5 . . 1.. : ’ . J. I3op npaawrensx Axfinpa R MOMeH'I'y nonapetmn A1c6apa Mycynbmane ananenn I/ Innnefi yxce necrconmco Bexon. 3npa- nufi cmucn noncrcaaunan, rrro ynpannsrrb 'reppI«1- Topnefi, rne npeofinanaromaa qacrb Hacenenna ncnonenyer Imnynsm, Moxcno JIPIIIII: npoannna nepo'repnnMoc'r1.. Onnarco rm onnn H3 npanme- nefi He ocmennncn Hapymmu. cmapunnmfi nopn- norc YHKJKGHPIH «neBepm.1x». I'Iep3mM namerm-rr. o'rHomeHne K HHM omaaxcnncx Arcfiap. B ownmme o'r cnonx npenmecwnennmcon, A1c6ap npercpawnn ronemm Ha nocnenoBa're- nefi nnnynama. 111151 nnnnficxoro Hacenelma 61.1.71 waxcxce omenen oco61.n‘»'1 nonymnmfi nanor — nxcaana, o'r YIIJIHTLI rcoroporo panee ocBo6ox<- nanncb TOJILKO Mycynbmane. B 1593 I‘. , 'r. e. eme aa nan, new no npnnsrrnn no tbpammn Ham'- crcoro anmvra, npanm-ens I/ Innpm IrI31I8.. H yxaa o pennrnoanofi nepo'rep1mMoc'rn. BceM cnomvr nonnannmu on rapaxrrnponan nonayro cBo6ony neponcnonenamm n c'rporo sanpernn npecneno- nan. npmsepxcennen n1o6ofi Bepm. Pennrnosnan peq)opMa — rnannoe nesnme A1<6apa. Bnaronapa ee npoaenenmo on nomen 3 Haponnylo namrrb Icarc Arcfiap Bennxnfi.
  • 229. CTPAHIDI BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. Te; /18 Tami: -Maxa. n. Cepeauua XVII 3. Aepa. I/ Influx B I/ Innmo Havana npneaxcawb Muccnouepbx-neaynwbx. OHM ownpannanncb B «napaapcrme cwpanu», éynyrm rowonm K naneaarenbcrnam H My1caM. BMGCTO aroro nx oxcnnan nbrmnmfi npnem npn maope Axcéapa. Benuxnfi Moron He TOJIb- R0 paspenmn xpnc'maHaM cBo6o, z1Ho npononenonarb, H0 14 caM OXOTHO Ben c HH- Mn éecenu. Omm-neaynwbt name npnrnacmm rxpannweam I/ Immn B caoro qacoamol Kart ace OHM Gbmn Luorcnpoaanm, Roma Boium B nee, Axfiap cnaqana ocemm ce- 6:! KDBCTHLIM anamermem, 3a'reM crcnoumxcn nepen pacuwmem 3 Mycym. MaHc- ROM noxnone H, Haxouen, cnoxmn pyrcn B Monnraennofi nose mmycoa. Bnyrc Axéapa Illax llmaxan (1628-1657) BCIO >iCIrI3HI: npoBeJ1 B Bofiuax. l'Iocne upncoezmnenna HM IO>1cHo171 I/ Inmm Teppwropnanbnbxe npenenm rocy- napcrna Bemnmx Moronon Marccnmanbno pacnmpmmch. Onnarco cnoe um: IIIax Ilncaxan o6eccMep'r1»u1 He I"pOMKIrIMI/ I r1o6e, qaM1«1 Ha nonax cpaxcennfi, a coopyncennem B ropone Arpe ycmnanbnnum mm ymepmefi xcenm - Mansonen Tamx-MaxaJI. Hoc'rpoeHHL11‘»'I I/ I3 BGJIPIKOJIGHHOPO 6e. noro Mpamopa, yBeHtIaHHLn7x nsmcrcannmmn xynoJIa1vm 14 Mnuapewamn, Taxmc-Maxan xcnnonncno o'rpa>xcae'r- ca B npozzpatmoifx B0118 cocezmero 6acce171Ha. Apxn're1c'rypH1=n‘«’1 namsrrmm yz1nBn- Tenbnofi xpacowm, on annaewca no, z1JmHHo17I Jxemqyxmnofi MPIpOBOI‘0 ncxyccmna. Co B'ropo1‘»'1 HOJIOBHHBI XVIII 3. Bennxne Moronm Hatzama nocreuenno 'repx'rL 6b1.noe Morymecrao. Mencny CBIHOBLHMI/ I Illax Ilxcaxana paaropenach 6ecno- mannaa 6opL6a aa TpOH. 1'Io6e1m'reJIeM 143 nee BBIUJGJI Aypanr3e6 (1658- 1707) — tzenonerc cnnbnbxfi 14 Boneaofi, H0 oxecwoxnfi 14 xonapnmifl. Hphlfi My- cynbmannn, on upmxommr Hemano ycmmfi, q'ro6bI no.1moc'rb1o Bbmopqesawb 221 pocmn Bepowepnnmocm, napamennme ero npa, z1e/ z1oM A1<6apoM. Aypanrsefi npn- ‘B Ka3aJI paspymn-rb Hnnyncrcxne xpamm, a na nx 1<aMHe1‘?1 nocrpomx Metiern.
  • 230. H0806 Bpe/ ~15! ( Bropan nonoauna XVII — XVIII 3. ) Hpanwrenb 3anpe'r1«m JKHBOIIPICB, Myabncy I4 'rax-H.151. OH name He noanomm 3HaTHI: IM 1»mz: m7maM e3,lIPITI: » Ha cnonax, Wm B ux rnaaax BhII‘JI. 'r'{,11eJ'I0 c'rpam- HBIM oc1cop6JIeHneM. Roma me AypaHr3e6 BI-IOBb BBeJI Henanncwnyro , z1>1ca3mo, no c'rpaHe nporcarmxacb BOJIH3. Hap0l1HI: IX Boccrannfi. Tenepb Bce cmm nomomana 6opb6a c HHMPI. Hocne cMep'm AypaHr3e6a mvmepna Benmcnx Moronoa q)a1<'rwqec1<1»I pac- nanacb. Ero npeemnmcon Tpynno Haanarb CaMOCTOH'I‘eJ'IbI-IBIMPX npanwrenamn; cxopee, orm 6mm l'IOC.1'Iy1III-IBIM opy, zmeM B pyrcax Bpaaxnyromefi anawn. O'r He- Komxa Morymecrnermofi p1Mnep1»m Bemnmx Moronos 0CTaJIPIC1> JIMLIIL BOCIIO- Mnnannn. Henpecwannme Mexcnoycofinnm o1coHqa'reJ1bHo nonopaanu cmrm rocyaapcwna PI npeapawnnn em 8 Jrerxyro nofibmy mm anrmman. Bprrrancrcoe aanoenamle I/ Iumm. I/ Imma nazxam-Ia npnsnexana enponefinen npanocmmn, Kpacnrenamn 14 Benmconenuhrmn 'r1caH51M1«1. CHaqa. na nopTyraJn. - um, 3a'reM romxannnm, a co BpeMeHeM armmuaue H tbpamxysbx épocmmcb crona B norone 3a npnébxammn. C XVII B. oco6y1o a1c'r1»uaHoc'rL paaneprryna anrnuficxaa Oc'r-I/ Inzxcxaa Komnamm. B roponax Manpace, BoM6ee, Ranbxyrre u npyrnx ona ocnosana 'I‘0pI‘OBbIe nocenenna — qaaxropnn, ylcpenmz uexoropme H3 HHX crum- I-IBIMPI rcpenocmmn. Boxpyr q)a1<'ropm‘«’1 Bosamcanu Trcamcue noceneana. B onnofi RaJ1br<y'r're Ha ICoMnaHmo pa6o'ra. rm 8 Tue. Txaqefix. OHM narowonnann 11115! ammu- qau Txanu, nonsaonanmneca mnpoxnm cnpocom Ha enponeficxnx pumcax. B o'rJIwme 0'1‘ Jxpymx eBpone1‘»’meB npe11c'raBH'reJm anrnnficxofi Oc'r-I/ Iuzxcxcofi Icomnamm CTDGMHJIPICB He c'rom. xo IIOJIY‘-IHTB B I/ Imum Topronme npnnlmernu, CKOJIBKO Henocpencmenno pacnopsmcamca 6ora'rc'rBaM1»1 crpanbx. Bro BI>I3BaJIO npownsoneficwane rnasnofi conepmmm a1-xmxmzan — cppauuyacxofi Oc'r-I/ IH, uc1<oi»'1 rcoxvmamm. O6e Bpaxczxyxomne croponm nMeJm B CBOGM pacnopmxemm Boficrca, cq)opMnpoBaHHL1e 143 Haemnux connaw-nnnnfiuen — cnnaes. KoMaHzJ; oBaJm mvm coowaewcmenno anmnficrme mm q)paxmy3cxne ocbmzepm. Mexcny Komnammmn pasropenacb Bofma. Vcnex B xone B081-II-IBIX , z1e1‘&- c'rBm71 Bmnan Ha 2101120 aurmman. B 1757 I‘. 800 anrnuifrcxnx coJma'r n 2 TLIC. cnnaes B 61«m3e y ropomca Hneccn Haronony pasrpommm coroanoe cppannyaam ‘ I iPnéfi§5E-ryfiepnafop Ybppen Pacmnrc 68-Tmcsqnoe cnnaficxoe Boficxo. ‘{ep'ry non anrno-cbpannyscxofi 6opL6ofi 3a I/ Immro nonse- na CeMm1e'rHsm Bofma (1756-1763). Cbpammn coxpamma 3a co6o1‘«'I Jmmb HeCKOJIbK0 npn6pexc- Hmx roponon. Bce Jlpyrne Bnazxenna efi npm11- JIOCB ycrynnn. anmmqanam. Hpmmnoifl no6em.1 Anrmm Han <DpaHLu4e1‘«'1 c'ra. rIo ee IBKOHOMPI‘-IeCKOe upeofinanaune, nyqmne, '-[eM y npornsnmca, apmm 14 qmo'r, 6onb1uas{ 3anH'repecoBaHHoc'rb npaBn're. nLc'rBa B rconommx. Tenepr. y anrmman He 0C’I’aJIOCb conepnmcon B I/ Iumm. B 1773 r. anrnnficxnfi 11apJ1aMeH'r nsnan «Awr 06 ynpannennn I/ Inzxnefi» n anen zxojmcnocu. reHepaJ1-r'y6epHa'ropa, xcowopyro samm ozum P13 pyxononnrenefi Ocr-I/ Inncrcofi Komnamm. Tax 651110 ysarconeno npeapamerme Romnannn H3 Toprosofi oprauuaamm B Hac'ro- amgero xoaanna crpanm. Haqanocb 6e3yp; ep91c- Hoe orpa6JIeHI»1e I/ I1-mun 14 rxepercatmnarme ee 6ora'rc'rB B Anrmuo. B o'rBe'r B I/ Inmm ogmo 3a
  • 231. { CTP. -Hb| BOCTOKA BXVI —xvm BB. TCfvh'. ) npyrum BCI1bIXHB8.. "IH HSDOJIHLIC BOCCTBHPIH. Anrnnqane 6e3>Ka. noc'rno no1xan- , ,_ mum nx p}'l{£1II}I cnnafxcx-coro Boiicxa. Am~: nu”xc1<ui‘t naprmmem oésmxmx r'y6epaa'ropa Beuramm, JIOp). I8 Po6ep'ra I{Jmi7usa B '1‘(). :. um name n(>6e; .Lbx y Hneccn on npucaovm xaauy Genranbcxoro npamrremx. Ha c_w1e 1{. r1m"m aamamx: «Bora1*hn71 ropon Haxommca y MOKX nor, MOI‘yIueC1‘rwI1Hoe r‘0c_V1xapc'I‘B0 62.1110 B Moefi Bnacm. Mae OJIHOMY 6mm o'rKpu- Tb! no, z11su. nn K-azznbl. IiEIfIOJ1H(‘HHbI€? CJHITKaMPI 3oJIo'ra, cepefipa H 11paI‘oneHHoc- "mmn. fl u; m;1 Bcero 200 Tue. thyrrron CTBDJIHHPOB. lI>! ceH'r. nbMeHb! , 5! no cnx nop y; um: xmn<-1. <'<>6(*TBeHH0ii (‘h'[)('). IHOCTH! o. C_v;1 npxxamu 3a I{,1-2-. i'n= .ou coaepmeuue psuxa 11pec'ryImenm”t, no OTMSTIUI, Inc on o1<22:xa. r1 Oonbxune H , :1ocT0iim, re ycnyru Amvmn-2» , n ocBo6o11mI 0'1‘ Harcaaaami. 1. Holtmry Amfiap nepmwz 11.; .wycy. 'zb. uancrcux npaeume.1e1‘1 Huduu omen- . »ru. rzcn Ha nporsedemw pe. vuzuo. moiz pe<pop. mu? [fax em ouenueaeme amom. wae Ha (pow pe.1ueuo. moao npomueocmomtua. npoucxoéueweeo (3 mo epenuz (3 Banaduoiz Eeponc? 2. Co6‘oi1cmsoeaJLa . rzu nwzumuxa Aypanzseda. nanpaeneuuaa ua ynw¢mo. wce- Hue 6epomepnu.1mc'mu. g/ rcpr*n.1euu. )o ezo 6JlaCmll u ycwleuulo cmpanbt? 3. ‘(mt om.1 u rzagz l((, ‘h umu anmuuan 6 I/ Iuauu om ycmpemzuenua Opyzux ee- pone‘izzu>6? Ho-w. ~.: y u. wmm am'.1uI£aua. 'u yaa. /tocb saeoeaamb cmpany? .1. I14 rrurcux ca; ;(3pu: m»;1zzi1 mponcizcrrue .3axeam-tuxu ucnonbaoeanu npomue uuduizuos 8013 um, (‘(})Op.1!l1pO(ia){rlb! P u3 coomeuecmeeuuuxoe-cunaee? 3A, £lAHl/ IF! 1. Ol'7VIp8FICb Ha ¢>parMeHr ma «5a6yp-HaMe», nonbnafirecb BbI57CHMTb, Kax ero aarop omocmwcn K aoime. KoMy on 6:. -./11 6/1aro. aapeH 3a no6e, ay? Kax 5a6yp caM ouemaaan caow aaaoeaarmn? 2. I/1CI‘IOfIb3}/9 Marepwan ywe6Hm<a, nozzymafire, no~IeMy cy, a aHmm71cKoro nap- namenra ocaoéozm/1 /1op, aa K/7817133 or Haxaaamm. Caofi orser odocuyfire. . ’ ’. f‘) <«3AKPI>I'l‘bIE» CTPAHBI , / - .1 Jj[AJII>HEI‘0 BOCTOKA Rzrraii n anoxy Mun. B natxane XVI B. B Rrrrae npoxcnaano caMoe 6o. nLmoe mm TOI‘O npexvzerm xonnqecmo nacenenmt — 6o. nee 100 MJIH qenonex. Bnacn. Haxonunacb 3 pyxax xmuacnm Mun (1368-1644), 3 npannerme xoropofi na- 5J1lO1IaJIOCb yxpennerme rcwraficxoii sxonommcn. B cenbcxom xo3m‘«ic1'Be 3Harm- Tenmo pacumpmmcb nocemme rmomama, ynyqmnnacb TGXHHKB aemnenenna, Aeficrnonana omaxcennan cncwema ucxyccrnermoro opomemm. B MnoroqHc. nen- aux roponax npon, Be'ra. :m Toproana n peMec. na, pa6o'raJm xpynnue Manyq)a1<'ry- pm. Mnoromoxxabxe ropona nopaxcwm unocwpannen orponmhrmn paamepamn 21 neofibmaofi apxnrexvrypofi. 11a. uexo aa npenenamn Kwras pacxoammcs smoo- xoxaqecraenuue xnonxonue K menxonme 'I‘}CaHK, éymara, nsnenna us tbapcbopa, K _ c'rex. na xx Me'ra. u.uo3. Hocroannbxii cnpoc Ha Bnenmnx pmmcax cymecnsonan V Taxace Ha <<xn'ra1‘&cKm‘& Hauwrorc» - qafi. C nanrmx Bpemen B Kwraii npomucmm paanme penumn. B TOM tmcne xp1»Ic- 7 " 'rnaHc'rBo u PICJIaM. Ho rocnoncrnymmefi c'ra. no xonq)yunaHc'rno, Hasnannoe
  • 232. Hoaoe ape/ wit (eropaz nonoBuHa xvu - xvm a. ) Tax no menu ero ocHoBa're11a Ro11q>y111151 (Kyx-day-n;31.1 - My, z1pe11 Kyu), 1co-rop1.11}‘1 >1<1111 13 VI—V 133. 110 1-1.3. Ocnony 1co11q)y1111aHc'rna coc'ra131m1o'r BLICOKPIG M0paJIb- Hue 11p11111111nb1: r1ec'rnoc'rL, cnpa13e1111111aoc'1-1;, 13ep11oc'r1. 11o11ry, npez1a1111oc'rL. Ero 11eo6xoz1mv1L11v111 yc11o1311aM1»1 annaewca not111'raH11e po, u;11're11e1‘«’1, ynaxcenne 1c c'1-ap11111M, 3a6o'ra o MJ1a, zm111x, KCKDGHHOCTB 11 I'yM8.HHOC'I‘b. Kpome TOPO, 60111.- maa pom. o'r13o1111'rca o6yr1eH111o, 1160 0110 co13ep111e11c'r13ye'r t1eJ1oBe1ca. I('. o11q)y1111a11c'1'Bo 1311ec11o B 11c113H1. 1c11'1'a1‘»’111e13 =1e'r1c111‘»'1 11op11,u; o1c. Raxcnmfi 113 max 61,111 o6113a11 311a'1'1. caoe Mec'ro B o6mec'rBe 11 He Hapymawb yc'ra11oB11eH11L1x HODM. 3'10 o311at1a11o, trro 11eo6xon11Mo cwporo 11p1mep11c11Ba'r1.c:1 cy111ec'r13y1o111e1'«'1 coc11on11o1‘»'1 11p1111a, z111e11c11oc'r11. flame 1311,11 o,11e11c,1:L1 - B1.111.111'r1.1e Ha He1‘»'1 1:| ;Be'r1.1 141111 >1<1113o'1'1=11.1e, qwacon 101101311010 y6opa, q)op1v1a noaca — , z(o1111c11L1 6511111 nom1ep1c11- BaTb 11o11o>1<e1me r1e11oBe1ca. O61.1t1111.1M 1110115111 (KpeCTb£HaM, peMec11eHH111ca1v1, 1cy1111a1v1) sanpemanocb 11oc1rr1= 11paro11e11Hoc'r11, yrcpaman. CBOPI noma 11 name IIOJIb- 30BaTbC. iI noporofi 11ocy11o1‘»'1. I'Io1cop1-1oc'r1> 11M1Iepa'ropy 61=11Ia 6e3oro13opoI1Ho1‘»’1. I'Iot1'r11 copo1c 11e'r 11M11epa'ropaM , z111Hac'r1111 M1111 ,1(o13e11oc1. 6opo'rLc11 c 5111011- CKHMH n11pa'raM11, 111.11 nocwoannme 11a6er11 o11yc'ro111a1111 np111v1opc1c11e pa1‘»'1oH1.1 R111-aa. C 50JIbHIPIM Tpynom 11paB11'1-e111,c'1'13e11111.11v1 1so1‘»’1c1<a1v1 yz: a11ocb 0'-IPICTPITI: no6epe11cbe 0'1‘ a11o1111eB. Ho Bcxope R11'ra1‘i BHOBB c'roJ11c1-1yJ1c51 c H11o1111e1?'1, Te- nepb yxce Ha 3eM11ax Kope11. B 1598 r. 1<1=1'ra1'»'1c1c11e Boficrca 11oMor1111 1cope1'»’111aM 1131*Ha'r1. anoncnnx 3axBa'r=1111co13. 3'ra Bofina c'ra11a 11oc11e, z111e1‘& 311ar111're111.1-1o1‘»‘1 nofienofi 11Mr1ep1111 M1111. Ona c'ro1111a K11'1'a1o 601151110171 1cpo1a11 11 or1yc'ro11111J1a r'ocy, u;apc'rBeHHy1o 1ca311y. ,II11:1 namcxanna ,11e11er npa1311TeJ11.c'1'Bo 3331111111110 Ha- 11or11. B o'r13e'r c'rpa11y 3ax11ec'r11y11a 13o1111a Haponnux 131.1c'ry1111e11111‘«‘1. Ozmonpemenno 11a cenepnux rpammax K11'ras1 3o311111cJ1a Hosaa yrposaz aa- 13ep1.u111111 cnoe o6'1.e, u;1111e1me 11 11epe1n1111 B Hac'ryn11eH1»1e 1111eMe11a Manmmcyp. I/ Ix rpa611're111.c1c11e Hacrcorcn Ha 1c11'ra1‘»ic1cy1o 'repp11'1'op111o c11e11a1111c1. O5bI‘{HI>IM a1a11e1111eM. C'rpa11aH1111 1<111'a1‘»'1c1coro 11aceJ1eH11a yc1«111n1111c1:, H0 npaB11're111.c'rno I ‘-Iafinas 1111a1rra111151 13 Kwrae
  • 233. CTP/ Hbl BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. I Hpnrnamenne K r-Iaxo. XVII 3. Man 651110 He B coc'ro5mm»1 nan. Bpary ornop. Henc- BOJIBCTBO nmneparopcxofi Bnacmmo oxsarmro BCIO c'rpaHy 14 Bmmnocb B umporcoe Boccrarme BO mane c 6b1BmnM CGJIBCKPIM Icyaneuom Jln II3hI-‘leHOM. OH co6pa. n 6oJILmoe noncwarmecxoe Boficrco, 3axBa'rmI 13 6oax pan nposnnunfi 14 nposoarnacnn ce6n nMnepa- "I‘Op0M. 3a'reM JIM 11351-wen oprannaoaan rxoxozx Ha He- rcnn K B 1644 r. omaaen rc1»I'raficxoI}’1 cTom«mei»’1. Mun- cxaa nnnacwna npexcpawnna c13oe cymecmaonanue. JIM 1131.1-wen ocBo6o, zu»1J1 Kpecwbau 01* Hanoroa, a nenbrn, Heofixozmmue mm conepncanna apMm4, Banman c 6orat1e1‘«’I. Hpannenne camoasanoro nMne— pa'ropa nponomicanocz. Bcero 42 mm. Hanyramiaiz noccraxmem snark o6pa'rmIacb 3a nomommo K we pannmm Bparam — Manbtmcypam. Te c POTOBHOCTBIO o'r1c. nmcHy. unc1. n BMec're c MPIHCKPIM Boficxcom pa36n- Jm noBc'raHn; e3. Onnaxo nocne no6ez: b1 Manbtmcypm saanmm, nrro 3a6paJm Kwrafi y fiyrrronmmcoa, a He y Hapona, 14 o'r1ca3aJmcL norcnnyn, c'rpaHy. Tax npumna K 3J1ac'rn Maabtmcypcxaa nuuacwua Hun (1644-1911). I/ Imnepmx I. Ixm. B 3aB0eBaI-II-IOM Kwrae BO mane rocynapcraa c'ro5m Hacnencwaennmfi Monapx c Heorpannqeuuofi nnacwmo — Mauhqxcypcxnfi nMnepa'rop (6omoxaH). Hpnnnnemposannoe nonoxcenne 231 ' npunamrexcano Manbqxcypcxofi snarn, y, uep>xnBa3me1‘«‘x B cnonx pyxax ace Bmcmne nonxcaocwn. B snare norcopnocwu Manmmcypm 3aC'l‘aBJ'IfiJIPI 1<n'ra1‘»'1- crcnx Myaicqmi 6pm'b qacn; ronosm 14 Hocwrb 11.rn«IHHyIo Icocy. TeM, wro o'rKa3u- Banca BBIHOJIHHTB 3'ro ynnsnwenbnoe Tpefioaaxme, Ha Mec're o'rpy6a.1m ronoay. BMec're c 'reM Manbrmcypm He qunmm npwrecHeHm"x pennmoanmm qyBc'rBaM I Kuwaficxnfi qnnonnmc. XVII 3.
  • 234. "; '."‘ Tb H0808 BpeM$I ( sropa: -1 nonoaurw XVII — XVIII 5.) ‘ "1’. n npanam MeC'l‘H01"0 Hacenemm Y! He nocaranu ' ' , _ Ha ero crapunnme Tpannunn. Hao6opo'r. MHOPO B qewx aanoeaaremi cawm I1oaanMc'r- _ A. ., aonann y xuraiiuea Ol'IbI'l‘ rocyzxapcmeanoro I . ‘ 'r)‘, » ynpannemm, ux Bepoaamm H nocwnxcenua -_ . Maoronerconou Kynurypm. , ’ i Srcaowmxecxme 6oraTc'rna Rmaa — Itafi, '°: .. _,. ‘_ _ ' I memc PI chaptbop — uananna npnnnexanu en- ’ ' ’ poneimen. Kynum H3 l'Iop'ryraJmn, I‘oJmaH- ‘ 3.‘ mm, Amxrmn H rbpamum ocnosuaanu B . 7 npn6pex<m. xx roponax caou qnaxropxm. C . 1 I XVI B. Ha‘Ia. TIOCb npomucaosexme 3 cwpaxy xawonnqecxux xvmccuoaepoa. Ilnaacrna . [Ina npomarinacb poc'ry espoueiicxom mm- smmx PI nepeuma K nomrrmce <«3ar<pbn'm1» . -. - v cnonx 'reppm'opm‘& mm m-Iocwpannen. Cas- " ’ f? Hana 1c1rra17nJ. aM aanpernnu T0pI‘0B8.'I‘b axe I , .’ npenenon U, nHcKo1“1 umnepvm. Hon c'rpaxoM - . ‘ . - ‘ 1-I cmeprn HM He paapemanocb C'I'p0HTb 60:15- ‘ ume cyna, cnocofiubxe BHXOJIKTL 3 OTKpbITOe Mope. 8a'reM npex<pa'm. rxca 3511303 P13 cwpanu Me'raJ1.no3 H menxa. xpaiine orpanmmnacb , ' , npozxaaxa Han. Omxonpemenno 113 Kxrrax BbIC- . a. JIaJIIrI Mnccnonepos, a xpxvicmancxne XpaMI: I . 3 - ’: . 4. -. . (6oJIee 300)3a1<pwm : m6o paspymmm. Xvlunbtmcypcxaa mvmepawpmm B 1757 I‘. no npmcaay 6oI'110xaHa sax- pmnncb mm unocwpmmofi TODFOBJIH ace Mopcxne nop'rb1 Kwraa, xpome Fyantnxoy (Kaxnona). Ho PI Tam esponeifxum He nMeJm npana npoxmnarb 3 caMoM ropone PI 6mm: BbIHy3K}1eHbl cenwrbca 3a ero npe11e. r1aMu. I/ IM 3anpe1'H. rm 'x'ax<>z<e nayqan. xnwaficmxfi nsbuc, a Tex Knwaifxnea, wro pncxosan oéytxarb « aamopcmxx qepreii ~», K83HHJIH. Bnonb Bcero noéepexcbn max éyzrro nonmmacb Heapxmaa, no npoqaaa Kxxrzaficxaa creaa c exxrancwaennofx msepbxo — Fyammcoy. Tax sanepnmnca npouecc <: ~3aKpbI'I‘PIH I llxmcxoii nmneprm. OH nponxaopetmn no'rpe6Hoc'rsm crpanm 11 o6per< Kwrafi H8 Texnwxecxoe, arcoaowumecxoe u xynurypnoe o'rc1*a- Barme o'r Banana. Bce nary6nbIe IIOCJIBJICTBHH aroro oénapymwmcb B XIX B. OGBGIIXIHGHIIB Hnomm. Eme c Korma XII B. B flnomm cnoxcmracb cBoeo6- paanan cHc'reMa Bnacwu. thopmanbno rocynapcmo aosrxrxannan nmnepawop, oxmaxo peanbnofi Bnacm on He nMeJ1. Ona aaxozumacb a pyxax Boennmx npa- Bwrenefi — céryaos, ocuosnofi onopofi rcoropmx nnnanncr. caxvxypan — cpemme n MCJIKHB co6c'rBeHHm<u-noxmu. B peaynyrare npoxxonxcurenbuux Mezmxoycofmbrx nofm Hnomm pacua- J'I8Cb Ha 0'I‘11e. IIbHbIe Kuaxcecwaa. Bonee cwonenm Mexcny mmn Inna 6ecnpe- pbxanaa 6opL6a, ncwomanmas cmrm napona H conpoaoxcnasmaxca MHOI‘O‘lHC- Jxennmmn soccwannamn. Kasanocb, Crpana Bocxonxmero Comma nancerna norpyamxacb B éesnny Gecnopaznca I/ I pacnpefi. Bepnywb Hnonmo K Mnpaofi xmann MOPJIH Tonbxco ee o61.e, zn»meHne PI ycmlenue uerrrpanbnoia nnacwn. Hepsme ycnemame warm 8 BTOM Hanpanneurm czzenan Menxnfi semnennanenen Heanarnoro Irponcxoxczxennn Ona Hofiyuara (1534-1582), Kowopmfi paarpommx csoux masuhrx npomnnmcoa u cram q)a1<'rmxec1mM rnasofi Hnomm. CYPOBBIMH
  • 235. CTP/ HbI BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. I flnoncmifi 110M. XVIII 8. y1<a3aMn 14 pacIIpaBaMu Ho6yHara npercparml Me>1c11oyco6mu.1 Ha snatmwenbnofi Teppwroppm Hnomm, HO caM noru6. O6'be, zumeHne c'rpaHb1 npozxomxnn ero 6Jm- xcafimufi coparamc T01”1oToMM Xzmeiiocu (1 536- 1598), BbIXO, Z1eI.1 1/13 1<pec'rbaH. OH c'ra. r1 eunuc- Jmqnblm npaBm'eJ1eM flnomm 14 pazm y1<pen- nemm rocy11apc'rBa IIpOB€JI pm: peq)opM, Ha- npasnennblx Ha o6Ho13JIeHHe 3i<oHoMw{ec§<o1‘»’1 mnanu. flpn Xunefiocn 6bIJIH Bbtnymenbl HO- Bble 3OJIOTbI€ H cepefipsmme nenbm, Bmpocnn nnomann O5pa5a’I‘bIBa€MI>IX 3eM8JIb 14 yponcan, uoompmrocb passwme pemecna u 'I‘0pI‘0BJIPI. B c1'paHe aouapzmocb rxommzmecxoe cnoxoflcwsne. Bnemmm me rxonwrmca Huonmx, Hao6opoT, c'raJ1a Becbma arpeccmanofi. Bupoqexvx, 3T0 He npnnecno ycnexa: Bofma npowna Kopen 3aBep— mmlacb 111151 Hnoama II030pHhIM Mnpom. Henononbnaa Tarcnm pe3yJ1b'ra'roM suam, Bocnonbaosasumcb czvxepwmo Xpmefiocn, [I011- I-{$1.118 Msrrexc. Toqxy B Meaiczxoycofinofi Boime IIOC'I‘aBHJI Hency Toxyrana (1542-1616). Pas- rpoMm3 Bcex cor1epH1»u<o13, on B 1603 r. IIpOB03I‘- Jlacml ce65'-.1 ceryHoM. Hoablfi r1paBHTeJIb B nepsyro oqepem; 3a6o'mJ1ca 06 yxpennennn co6c'rBeHHoI71 Bnacrn: pa311aJ1 3eM. rm CBOHM C'I‘OpOHHPIKaM, a y IIp0'I‘IrIBHIrIKOB O'I'O6paJI qacu, mm ace p1Mymec'rBo. I/ IMnepaTop, 14 6e3 TO1"O I Ceryn I/ Iency Toxyrana
  • 236. Hoeoe epemz (sropasv nonoaul-Ia xvu — xvm 5.) nnmennmfi peanbnofi B. nac'rn, 61,111 IIOJIHOCTLIO naonnponau o'r nonnwnqecrcofi xcnsnn. Mec'ro npefimnamm cnoero npanrrrenbcwna I/ Ieacy nepenec 143 Rnoro, me HaXO1IPIJIC5{ nMnepa'rop, B 3,110 (fiynymnfi T0!-CHO). Ilocrenenno a'ro'r ropopg, me I/ Ieacy ocaonan 6n6Jmo'reIcy c ynnxanbnofi Konnexunefi pyrconncefi K Icnnr, upenpamancn B xpynnefimnfi nonwrnqecxnfi Pl xynyrypnufi nerrrp crpanu. I/ Ieacy TOJILKO nna rona ocraaanca cerynom. 3a'reM on owxasanca o'r -rn'ry- na 3 nonbay cuna, a caM yrnyfinncs B nayqerme ncwopnn. Onnarco fimnmnfi npannwenb JIKIIIB MHKMO ycrpanmrca o'r gen: B z1e1‘&c'rBn'reJ1LHoc'm an 01:30 Baxcnoe pemenne He IIpPIHHMaJIOCb 6ea ero yqacnm. Bnoxa, Roma npanmm Hacnepgnnxn I/ Ieficy, npononxcanacb 264 rona P! uanecwna I<.8.I€ cérynaw Tony- rana (1603-1867). XVII 3. I43 «3aaeu4aHum» Mency Toxyraaa CeryH LlOJ'| )KeH ocveperarbcn, H'ro6u ero He aaonwm B 3a6ny>o<. u.eHMe pop. cT3eHHvu<vI. .. npmHyx<p. a9 l‘| OI1b30BaTbC'i-I ycnyrawm Gnuamx MM nmu. M npeHe6pe- ran ycnyrawm nmu 3acny>xeHHbIx. Flpaamenm nonxmu seem ce6s1 coo6pa3Ho caowvu p, oxop. aM M He pockotuecraoaarb. B 'r'| noHm1.. . Haym, no cpaaHeHwo c npvrmmm cTpaHaMm, eme Haxonsrrcn Ha HM3KOM ypoaHe. Orxpbmnem umon M pacnpocTpaHeHweM o6pa3oaaHvm cnenyer cnenarb Sinc- Hwo M3BeCTHOl7l. Ecmn rocynapb He 3HaeT mror caoero Hapona, a Hapop, He 3HaeT 3a6oT caoero rocy- napn, T0 aonHeHvm BO3HMl(aIOT cawm no ce6e. Ecnm rocynapb -cenoaexomoéua, B ro- cynapcrae Her 3a6oT. Ecnm no-nm6o ma MOI/ IX Hacnep, Hvu<oa VI3MeHMT emu: npaamnam, TO rem CaMblM npon- Bl/ IT caono Hecnoco6HocTb 5blTb ceryHoM. 3T0 yxe He 6y, neT M061 p. ocTot7IHbu71 Hacnep. Hvu<. Camosaxpnrme C'rpam.1 Bocxozmmero Comma. B XVI B. Huonna nom1ep- xcnaana Bnennme caxan c Haponamn mecrnazmawn c-rpan. Hnonnu 6mm»: npexpacnumn Mopennasawenamn, 14 Ha Bocrorce notrrn He ocranocb Mec'r, xy- zza 51:1 om»! He nponmum c Topronmmn mm 3aBoeBa'reJn. m.1M1«1 uenamu. B caoxo oqepepgb n Hnomm npunnercana mioc'rpam.1;eB. Hepnmmn npn6Ln3- ummm cxona esponefinamn c'ra.7m nopwyranbuu. Bcnez: 3a HPIMPI uoanmrncb ucnannm, ronnannuu n anrmmane. Toprowm c rmmn pasnnnanacs 6ypno 14 npnnocmxa 6o. nb1nne npn6mJm BceM y=1ac'rHmcaM. 3a xymzamn o-rnpanmmcb Mnccnonepu-neaywrzn. Cnaqana nx Bcwpetzann BIIOJIHO npyxcemofino, sens om»! o'r1cpmBa. nn 6ecn. na'rHme 6oJ1bHm1L1, mxonu, npmorm mm cnpor. Bonee TOI‘0, qac'rL mIoHn; eB-6y, zuu»Ic'roB, oco6eHHo B pafionax a1c'rnBHo1‘»’I Topromm c enponefinamn, npmmna xpnc'maHc'rBo. XVI 3. I43 «flnoucxwx nmcem» Meaywra CDpaHuMcKa Kcaebe 9lnoHubu 0'-leHb p. pyxemo6HbI, ,n, o6po>KenaTenbHb| M He 3Il05Hbl, u. eHs1T Hecrb VI AOCTOMHCTBO, crass: wx npeabnue acero. B OCHOBHOM OHM 6ep. HbI, H0 5e1J. HOCTb 73/1 He 'npe3vIpaeTcH. .. 9InoHubI BbICOKO ueHn'r opyxme M o~+eHb nonaranmcn Ha Hero. .. OHM He 234 no33onmoT ce6e OTHOCI/ |TbCFI K KOMy-I'll/ I50 OCKOp6MTeJ1bHO M npeHe6pe>KMTenbHo. Ihonvl nepxarcn c AOCTOMHCTBOM, c 6onbu. MM yBa>xeHMeM oTHoc9Tc$I ADV! " K gpyry. C0 BpeMeHeM CHTYBIUKIH PI3M8HPIJI8Cb. KaK-TO OJII/ IH HCII8.I-ICKHIVI MOPHK XBaC'I‘8.JI B HIIOHCKOM IIOpTy, ‘ITO BJ'IaJ. IeI-II/ IH KOpOJI. 'iI I/ ICIIKHPIH HOCTOXHHO pac- IHIJDHIOTCH. Roma ero CIIPOCKJIPI, noqeMy Tax HPOPICXOJIHT, ncnanen OTBBTHJIZ
  • 237. CTPAHbI BOCTOKA B XVI — XVIII BB. 3% m ~ w: 7 1 . .vun. ... u " ‘-uc¢-u-up-o- : . , 1}‘. .__H I Hnnepnaancxoe roproaoe npencwaawrenbcrao a Haracam-I. 1690 2. «Cnauana npnxonsw Ivmccnouepu, a 3a'reM COJI, lIa'I'bI xoponao . O6 a'roM HeMen- Jlel-II-IO nonoxcunu ceryny Xnnefiocn. Tow owpearnponan Mruonennoz Bcex Muc- cnonepoa nbuxyzumn uoxunywb fiuoamo. Cerynu nnnacnm Torcyrana cnenn KoH'ra1<'rm c nnocwpauuamn no Murm- Myzvxa. Oxm sanperxmn He Tonbxo xpncrnancmo, no n 31:83}! uaocwpaanen a Hnomuo. Plcrcmoqeune 6u. no cnenauo Tonmco mm ronnaaauen, xoropue no- Momm nonaanwb Moumoe xpecwwmcxoe Boccwanne, H mm cocenefi-xwrafiuen. I/ Ix ropronue cyna, xora n 3 orpaxmqennom xcommecrne, Momm saxozurrs B nop'r Haracaxn. Cammu smonuam non yrposoii cmeprnofi xaarm He pa3pema- JIOCB noxunawb npezzenu o'reqec'rna. a raxxce crpown. fionbmne, npnronuue zms zxanhnero lmanamm x<opa6Jm. Tax 3 1639 r. Hnomm sanepmmxa nepexop; 1c nonwrmce camousonaunu o'r nuemuero Mnpa. Hercoropoe npemx am Be Me- mano paanuwmo semnenenna, pemecna n TODPOBJIH. B XVIII B. 3 c'rpane name nosammcb TGKCTPIJILHBIG, coneaapnue 14 6yMaxcHue MaHyq)aK'rypm, Hatxann z1e1‘»'1c'rnoaa'rb éamcn, 'r. e. aapomnanncb anemerrru fiypxcyaanoro cwpox. «CaMo3a1cpb1'r1«Ie» flnonvm npononxcanocb 215 new K cnacno ee 01' eBponei'1cxo- ro xononuansnom nopa6omenmx. Ho 3 ycnonnax, Roma 3 Eapoue paaaopaqw nancs npommmnenumfi uepenopor, uaonauna ofipexcna crpany Ha Texnnqecxyro o'rc'ra. noc'rb. Paapua Mexcny Hnormefi K Esponofi ace 6o. nee ynennqnnancn. B Kouue XVIII B. BOIIPOC 06 COTKDBITPIPD Hnomm Bc'ra. n co Bcefi ocrpomfi. Tpannuuu anoncxcoii xynbrypu. B xcnann anoanen oco6y1o pom: Bcerna nrpano ucxyccwso. Orpemnerme qyncraonawb rapmonmo c oxpyxcaronmm Mn- p0M, ymenue BHJIBTL xpacowy Boxpyr ce6a, K 'roMy me name B ofiwmmx Bemax — ecrecraeunme qeprm smouctcoro xapawrepa. B XVI-XVIII BB. nocrnrna pacnaewa aacaM6.neBaa apxnrewrypa, B 1co'ropo1‘»'x 3 o6mee uenoe coemmeau samorc n pacuonoxcenumifx Boxpyr Hero can. 3aM1m c MHOPOHDYCHLIMK nsornywmmu Kpumamn H8.1'IOMKH&JIH napaumx 3 He6e mun. B canax xynoxcnmcn cram. ucxycao pasmemann nepesba, xyc-rm, Kam- Iam n pytnm, trro ax coaepnaane coanasano qyncrno noxon H o'rc'rpanennoc'm 01' noncenaennofi cyerm. flnoncxne xyzzoxcamm yxcpauuum aacrennoii pocrmcbro zmopnbx upa1m're- net? 14 anawu, '1-ymuo Hanocmm pucymcn Ha menxonue 14 6yMax<m.1e cnwmn, Ha nabxcxaanme Beepa. Bucoxo IIGHHJIPICI: Tarcxce xapwuuu-mupmm, cnyxmn- nme nexopawnnnmmn neperopozmamn Mencny 1coMHa'ra1vm. Honynapnmm an- nom xcunonncn 61>ma rpamopa - neqaruufi on-uczc pncymca. uanecexmoro Ha
  • 238. I Huoncxaa aaaa. I ono. uypaHuuce12.Hpe11Me'm XVII 8. mm qafinofi nepemomm zzepeniumyro nocrcy nun Meramlnqecxyxo 1mac'r1»1Hy. Ha Hnx naofipamann arc- Tepon B 'rea'rpa. nLHL1x o6pa3ax, anoncxnx rcpacamm :4 cuenm n3 I'IOBCe1IHeB- Hofi JKPISHPI. Omm H3 ocHoBa'reJ1ei»’I xnoncxofi rpamopm — Kwrarana yramapo (1753-1806). IIpocJIaBJIeHHbn‘»‘1 xyzxoxcnmc coszzan ngenyro ranepelo ncencrcnx o6pa3oB - Bonnomenne Haunonanhnoro nneana KpaCOTbI. Bucorco IIBHHJIOCI: Tarcnce ncxyccwno Kammrpaqmn. C XVII B. B ofinxon anonnen nmporco Bomam Hemce — Maneumme dmrypxcn 143 nepena, Icamna, cnononofi KOCTH, tbaptbopa. I/ Ix nosumeuue caaaano c “rem, Wm B nannoaanbaom anoncrcom rcocnome — mmono — new xapmanon. Hoammy ace neoéxozmmme Memcne npe;1Me'rL1 (rcmotm, xcomenerc, xopofiormy c nercapcraamu, 'rpy6Ky) npmcpenmum K noacy c nomomuo 6peJIoxa-Hexme. C XVIII B. Hemce naqann HSPOTOBJISITB nsnecmue Macwepa, n c Tex nop om»: rrpespa-rmmcr. B npon3- nenenna nercopanmnoro ncrcyccrna. Hemce zxenann 13 range 6oro3, nofipmx zxyxon, xcunownux; nx C‘IPITaJIH nmncmaaamn, npxmocamnmn ynaqy. Hnonum Bepmm, trro noasmo nppuxymajm 60m, noa'roMy ona Baxcnee nposm — n3o6pe'reH1451 Iienonelca. H03'1‘bI coqmuum 1<opo'r1<ue cmxn 6e3 pmbmbl, HO Kam- pgoe cnono B Hnx mweno rJIy6oKm‘»'1 CMLICJI 14 snatxerme. Bonbmofi nonynapnocwmo nonbsosanca nnoncxnifx 'rea'rp, rue awrepamn 62.11114 'I‘0JIbK0 Myxcvmnbx. C XVI B. oco6oe pasmrme npno6peJIo ncxyccmo pasmememm ULBGTOB 3 Ba- 3ax — m<e6aHa («xcnanb nBe'roB>>). 3HaMe1m'n.1e Mac'repa coazzanann pasnme 314.1151 mceéanm, Bcerzxa BKJIa}1bIBa5i B max onpegxenennoe cozzepxcaune. Hanpmvxep, qenonex, aanepmaxomnfi o6pa3oBanne, nonytxan B nozzaporc rcomnosuumo, pa3Meu1eHHy1o B cocyne B Bmze Jronomcn — cnmsona <«m,1xo;1a B 0TKpbITOe mus- Hennoe Mope» . Kaxczzoe pacreuue Bonnomano B ce6e xomcpemoe noxcenanne: cocna PI posa — JIOJIPOJIBTPISI, nnon PI 6aM6yx — npouneraupm I/ I Mupa, xpn3aH're- Ma 14 opxuzzes — pa1:oc'rH. Boanmc o6L1qa171 06fi3aTeJIbHOI‘O ofiyqenma nenoqex ncxyccmy coc-ranneuna 6y1ce'roB. O'rp; e.nLHoe Mec'ro B nnoncxofi Kynmype 3aH1«1Mae'r uepemouna qaenwrxm. C XVI B. ona npesparnaewca 3 Hacromuee ncIcycc'rBo. 3,1160}: Bce mvleno 3Haqe- Hue: pacnonoxcenne qafinoro nasmlbona I/ I can BORpyI‘ Hero, BhI60p mcefianbl n nocynm, npe, z1Me'rL1 o6c'raHoBxn PI xaxcnbrfi meow xoaapma. He cnyqafino
  • 239. . CTP. »HbI BOCTOKA BXVI _ : <'. m SB. Tema '3 I. N9 12. (3, ‘I s_ ‘ )-", ‘F V I *5 I1 ° - " - _‘ -’ I‘ /531’ "I #2:». I E . ’ " . 7. I" . . . ‘ . 5‘ "i-" I I ‘ ‘ _ ‘,4 " ‘ _ . . ‘ ’ I I M q- . . V II‘ 9 dx , _ _ ; I. .7; 1. 2'. ’ -. r V‘ 1”" . ‘'‘l ' ' I, ‘ I: 1 I " , ’. / / I I . ~ ‘ Humazaea Ymanzapo. T. Kuaoxupo. ‘iafinan Tpn saameumbxe xpacaannu uepemomm xypgoxcnmcn, oxboplvumsume qafinme nommcn, name nonyqann noqernoe asarme «Mac'rep Han». Hnoncrcaa Kynyrypa XVI—XVIII BB. Bca npormaana c'rpeMJ1ex1I»1eM I-. xa1'«’I'rn rapmonmo B ornomennax Mexcny qenonexom H npnpozxofi. Ona ncnonnena xcenanmx ynnnewb rcpacory xarc B 50JII>1IIOM, Tax 14 B Manom. 1. II ortemy aaeoeeamezzu-Manbrulcypbz nosaumcmeoaaxzu y rcumaauee onum zocyaapcmeeunozo ynpaeyzeuun, ux aepoeanua u xynbmypnbte aocmualcenus? 2. C Item 6blJl cen3aH nepexoa Ifumaa rc «aaicpbtmulo» 0./ m zu-Locmpanuee? 3. Hoqemy cnoea UCIIGHCICOZO Jnopmca a mom, rcmo ecxzea 3a Muccuonepaazu uaym xopwteecrcue coJ16ambL, no6y6uJLu ceeyua X uaezlocu omdamb npurcas o ebtcbume xpucmuaucrcux . uuccuoH. epoe? 4. H3 tcarcux coodpaalcenua nnouuam aanpeuganocb cmpoumb 6oJzbuzue Juopcicue cyéa? 3AflAHMFI 1. Cpe, Lm noyHeHm7 KoHq>yLu4n ecrb raKoe: « Fl Hacro , aHw Hanponer He eM M HO‘-M Hanponer He cnmo, ace , qyMa: o, H0 or sroro Her FIOl7b3bI. /7yHuJe yx y-mrbcn. y‘~IMTbCfl M He pasmbuunarb — rpara epemerm; pasmbuunnrb 14 He y-mrbcn — nary6Ho». Kax Bbl noHMMaere am cnoaa? K He/ vty OHM I7pM3bIBa- I714 KoHd>yuMaH? 2. Mcnonbayn OTpbIBOK H3 «3aBeu4aHm7» Vlency Toxyrasa, nonb/ Tafirecb BbI- 9cHm'b, c xaxoir uenbno OH Hacramsan Ha Heo6xo, cmMocm pacnpocrpamarb 3 FInoHm4 o6pa3oaaHMe. npnaepxwearbcn Kamx npasmn M no-4eMy rpe6o3an or caomx npeeMHvu<oa nepeblfi ceryH Toxyrasa? 3. Onmpancb Ha coo6u4eHMe I/13 «FInoHc; <wx nuce/ w» CDpaHuMcKa Kcasbe, emac- Hme, Kame qeprbl 3 xapaxrepe FIFIOHLIGB npomsee/ m oco6oe sneuar/7eHne Ha asropa ; zoKyMeHra. BbI3bI8aIOT / m OHM yea>I<eHwe y sac?
  • 240. 0 BCEMIIPHA5I IEICTOPI/ IH Hosoe ape/ Mn H. r. no11AmaK : ‘~; Q )1’? . -' :3 I r’ ’» » ‘ ~_ ! “ "”’ , ‘. éj _ - V h - ‘*4’. ../ /‘ _ - . f, . ~ ' ~‘ "4. - _/ /1 T. " A ‘ J’ 2.. .’: l . . : , _ ‘ ‘H I’ ‘Mr 7 ' _r . ' A 71‘, _ __fi 4 x. _- - ~ — , j « 1 ~ _- A. f 3 . aoporne peéma! 5 W 331 ‘ Parmee flonoe Bpemi qAC7-b J. “ .3; (Konreu X V - nepaafl no/ wanna X VII 8.) TGMEI 1. BEHHKHE FEOFPAd>H‘1ECKHE OTKPHTHH: BCTPE‘-IA Lll’| BI’I('ll’I3Al. ll’Il7‘l ' 8 § 1. Mopcxne 3KcneaHum4 nopryranbues n ncnanuea < 8 § 2. 3aBoeBarme H ocsoerme Hosoro CBe'ra ' I9 Tema 2. HEHOBEK B MEHHIOLIIEMCH MHPE XVl—XVll BB. 2 28 I § 3-4. Hacenerme, MaT€pMa{lbHblFl Map :1 Kamrrannsm 28 , § 5. Iloacem-Ieanaa )KH3Hb 3anaaHoF1 EBpOl'lbl 2 4! Tema 3. EBPOHEFICKOE BO3PO)K£IEHHE 52 § 6. Hoaan Kynbrypa 2 52 § 7. Hcxyccnso BblCOK0l‘O BO3p0)K[1€HHfl 58 Tema 4_ PEGDOPMAUHF! Pl KOHTPPECDOPMALIHFI B EBPOFIE 70 § 8. Pecpopmaumi B Fepnarmn 70 § 9. Pacnpocrpanerme Pecpopmaunn H Karonnuecxan pecpopma - 80
  • 241. H. r. |'IO£I. A!19IK KoHeu XV—XVIIl B. COLlEP)KAH M E - Tema 5. EBPOIIEFICKHE FOCYAAPCTBA <4; 5 /4‘ B XVI — HEPBOFI IIOIIOBHHE XVII B. “ 86 I ; , § 10. cbpanuma Ha nym K a6como'rH3My 86 ‘ § 1 I. Mory1uec'rBo H yna, c1oK Hcnarmn 9.3 § 12. Hnaepnanabl B 6opb6e 3a CB060£[Y I 99 § 15. Anmml B anoxy Txoaopoa 106 § 14. Me)K, cwHapoL1HbIe oTHoLueHrm: Ha nonnx cpa)Kermr'x I-1 BO aaopuax Monapxos I I3 TeMa CBET I4 TEHYI: EBPOFIEPICKAH K)’{]bT)/ PA KOHLIA XVI — IIEPBOPI I10{IOBHI1bI XVII B. 120 § 15. 11oc'rmKeHmI HayKH H 6p€Mil cyeaepmi 120 § 16. HeMepKHyume O6pa3bI nm*epa1'ypb| n HCKyCCTBa I27 Tema l10(IbCKOE FOCYIIAPCTBO I’! MOCKOBCKOE LIAPCTBO: B HOHCKAX CTABI4(1bI'IOCTl’I 1.34 § 17. I1onbcKoe rocyfixapcnso: uepes BO3BbILU€HHe K caoeaonmo 1.34 § 18. MocKoBcKoe uapcmo: nnxonerbe Tnpancma H CMy'rbI ‘ I42 ‘A . flonoe sperm 4-[ACT]; 2 ' (Bmpan nonoamia X VII - X VIII 8.) Tema 8. Kmsnc «CTAPOF0 IIOPHLIKA». HA‘-IAIIO Mo, aEPm13Aum1 ~ 154 § I9-20. Pesomouna XVII B. H npoMb1LuneHHbn71 nepesoporr B Anrnrm 9‘ 154 § 21. <DpaHunn B senwre Morymecma 167 § 22. Cnmme npocaemennn ‘ 174 § 2.3. npocsemennbm a6CO(lIOTH3M * 186 § 24. Poccna: arnpeoépasoaannfi K Molymecmy I 192 § 25. Ceaepnan AMepHKa: po2K. c1erme HOBOFO rocy, c1apcTBa 208 TeMa CTI’A]'Ibl BOCTOKA B XVl—XVIII BB. I 218 § 26. MycynbMaHcKm'4 MHP 218 § 27. Hanna non Tfl)K€CTbI0 3aBoeBaHm7I 4 224 § 28. «3aKpbI1'bIe» CTpaHbl[1a{IbH€I‘O BocToKa 229 K I I‘! c u
  • 242. - 7’ . —.~ 4 Tpudzmmzumlzmm 6’omm 3a61'; nueItu¢' <<¢‘l1.!03flK}7blllIIl}l » flnonuu Ane. mz‘u'Kzm 6}/ p;; c_1/n3nn; I pc(f0.uozum 5/n1({vp; KdcHm' 6 Kunmc Mrlrtzmxg/ pcK0z'z dzmncmuu Llzm Hponzcmnopanz O, m6cpa Kpomicwz 6 Aucvmu I1pn(Lwuue 60 (bpmuguu J7ro0o6m<a X I V [10 m; +cm1zm mg/ pox no Benoit '«C, m6’mm pc(fo. no1;m1» 6’ Auazzm I7pn(f,1cIuzc Hmzpzl I 6’ P0111111 CL’1>’L’pIum (1'o1’um CL’. lll. It’))II! }!}l 5(‘Il1I! II Ha tm. I0 3ab’0v6nnzm I/ Iuduu A112/1m'z‘1 Hmuuo Izpoubrzuxzcvutoao nepL’6’opon1n 6 A Man: u [1pn5/Ienue EKl1HI(’pllIlbI ll 6 Pomm B01?/ m 3n nc3n(1’ucuMocnzb 6 Lv6vpu0z’1 / .m'puKv I1p0(2'o3e.1azumzu’ He3a6ucu. munu C LUA 1618-1648 1639 1640-1660 1 644- 1653-1658 1661-1715 1683;‘ N16; 1688"6“ 1689-1725. 1709~i? ?1 1756-1763 ; 17576 1 6 _ 1 ‘17;60—efi23‘Q,1;l '3_1762.-1796: 7, 1 :17f3;1763‘6 ' 1776, i_4’ll£0;lfl 6 / POHOHOII/1t1EC1<A;1 TABIII/ II_I, A BC'l’. M1'1l’HA}I M(‘TOI’H}l HOBOE BPEMS1
  • 243. A "‘ g. H'HbI‘ ' %-2 . , ’ % '5. rn‘r. nour-E ’ C F sud