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8 ir d-sfery

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  5. 5. BBEAEHHE )J.oporVIe pe65lra! 8bl OTKpbtnVI yye6HVIK, KOTOpbl~ nOCBflW,eH OAHOMY Vl3 Ba.>KHe~WVIX nepVIOAOB B .>KVI3HVI Hawe~ CTpaHbl - VICTOpVIVI XIX B. 8 6 VI 7 Knaccax Bbl y.>t<e n03HaKOMVInVICb C OCHOBHbi- MVI 3TanaMVI CTaHOBneHVIfl VI pa3BVITVI5l pOCCVI~CKO~ l...lVIBVInVI- 3al...lVIVI, BblflCHVInVI OCHOBHble OC06eHHOCTVI ee VICTOpVIYeCKOrO nyrVI. B reYeHII1e AOnroro speMeHII1 Pocc111fl 6btna VI30n111poBaHa or ocranbHoro M111pa. n111wb s XVIII s ., nocne roro KaK nerp I «npopy6111n OKHO B Espony», OHa He TOnbKO VICnbtTana Ha ce- 6e MOW,HOe nonVITVIYeCKOe VI KynbTypHOe BnVIflHII1e 3anaAa, HO VI crana BenVIKO~ eBpone~cKO~ Aep.>t<aBo~. 6e3 Koropo~. no o6pa3HOMY Bbtpa.>KeHII110 COBpeMeHH111Ka, «H111 OAHa nywKa B Espone Bbtnanii1Tb He cMena». Bcrynafl B XIX B., PoccVIfl cy- Mena COXpaHII1Tb CBOIO YHII1KanbHOCTb 111 CBOeo6pa3111e 111CTOp111- YeCKOrO nyr111 VI so6parb B ce65l see ro nporpeccii1BHoe 111 HO- soe, YTO Aano e~ o6w,eHVIe C 3anaAOM B XVIII B. Ha npOT5l.>K€HVIII1 B€KOB POCCVIfl cpopMVIpOBanacb KaK MHO- roHal...lVIOHanbHafl crpaHa, MOW,Hafl espa3VI~CKafl Aep.>t<aBa, B06paBWafl B ce6fl AeCflTKVI HapOAOB VI npeACTaBII1Tene~ npaKTVIYeCKVI scex M111pOBbtX pen111r111~. rapMOHII13al...lVIfl scex 3TII1X CnO.>KHbiX OTHOW€HVI~ CTana OAHO~ 1113 Ba.>KHe~WII1X 3a- AaY pocc111~cKo~ Bnacr111. XVIII seK cran Anfl Pocc111111 BeKOM npocBew,eHVIfl, KOrAa Tflra K 3HaHII1flM, crpeMneHVIe YYII1TbCfl cranVI OAHOiii 1113 xapaK- repHbiX Yepr BpeMeHII1. BnepBbte Bnacrb CAenana war BnepeA HaBCTpeYy npOCBeW,eHVIIO WVIpOKVIX CnOeB HaCeneHII15l. 3TO np111Beno K cpopMVIpOBaHVIIO OCHOB OTeYeCTBeHHO~ HayK111, BbiABVI.>KeHII110 nneflAbl 6neCT5lW,111X pOCCVI~CKVIX yYeHbiX. Pa3BVITVIe crpaHbl He 6blno npocrbtM. 0Ho wno Yepe3 MHOrGYII1CneHHble BO~Hbl 111 noTp5lC€HV15l, Tfl.>KKII1M 6peMeHeM nO.>KVIBWVIeCfl Ha nneYII1 HapOAa. 3TO Bbl3b1Bano HapOAHble BbtcrynneHVIfl, ysen111Y111sano VI 6e3 roro HeManyiO A111CTaHL..lVIIO Me.>KAy BnaCTbiO VI 06W,eCTBOM. Tenepb BaM npe.o,croVIT Y3HaTb o Ha1116onee sa.>t<HbiX co- 6biTII1flX, npo111cwe.o,w111x B Pocc111111 B XIX B. rnaBHbiM BeKro- poM ee pa3BVITII15l CTaHOBII1nOCb pecpOpM111pOBaHII1e ycrapeB- W111X nop5l.O,KOB B 3KOHOMII1Ke 111 nonii1T111K€. oe3 3TOrO Henb35l 6btno AOCTVIYb AanbHe~wero nporpecca. 0AHaKO, crpeMflCb cpaBHII1Tb ce6fl c .o,pyrii1MII1 crpaHaMVI VI Hapo.o,aMVI, npV16nii1- 3VITbCfl K HVIM, HaWII1 npeAK111 CTapanii1Cb COXpaHVITb npVI 3TOM CaM06biTHOCTb. >KenaeM BaM ycnexoB B 1113yYeHVIII1 111crop111111 Hawelii Pop,II1- Hbt B XIX B.!
  6. 6. -==MOH BCTOPH'IECKBE C::: HCCJIE,l(OBAIUUI c:::: a:::: -== PA&OTAEM C Y'IE&HHKOM ,II;aHHhiH y-qe6HHK COCTOHT 11:3 4 TeM, Kamp;aR 11:3 KO- TOphiX pa3p;eJieHa aa rraparpalt>hi. Ilaparpalt> Ha"tJ:n:HaeTCR C BBO,li;HhiX py6pHK <<Bhi y3HaeTe ••. >>, <<BCIIOMHHTe.•. >> 11: BCTYIIHTe.JihHOI'O TeKCTa, cop;epma~ero I'JiaBHYIO H,ll;eiO Kamp;oro ypoKa. Py6pHKa <<Bhl y3HaeTe ••. >> II03HaKOMHT BaC C OCHOBHhiMH BOIIpOCaMH, KOTOphie rrpep;CTOHT H3y- "t£HTh. Py6pHKa <<BcrroMHHTe•.. >> rro3BOJIHT rrosTopHTh Ma- TepHa.JI rrpep;hi,li;Y~Hx ypoKOB H ocsemHTh B rraMRTH Ma- TepHaJI, He06XO,li;HMbiH ,li;JIR YCBOeHHR HOBhiX 3HaHHH. OcHOBHOH TeKCT naparpa¢a conposomp;aiOT py6pHKH <<liCTOpHqeCKHH 6JIOKHOT>>, <<MOH HCTOpH"<IeCKHe RCCJie- ,li;OBaHHR>> . Py6pHKa <<McTopHqecKHH 6JIOKHOT>> cop;epmHT HHTepeCHhie cpaKThl H p;pyryiO ,li;OIIOJIHHTe.JibHYIO HH¢op- MaiJ;HIO. Py6pHKa <<MOH HCTOPH"<IeCKHe RCCJiep;osaHRR>> ITOMOmeT BaM HayqRTbCR aHa.JIH3HpOBaTh lt>aKThi H C06hi- TH5I, cpaBHHBaTb 11: COIIOCTaBJIRTh HX. B OCHOBHOM TeKCTe rraparpa¢os MO)RHO BCTpeTHTh py6pHKY <<liCTOpH"<IeCKHH ¢oKyC>>. 0Ha HJIJIIOCTpHpyeT TeKCT KOHKpeTHhiMH llpHMepaMH HJIH Bhi,ll;e.JIReT 06~yiO 3aKOHOMepHOCTh. Psrp;OM C OCHOBHhiM TeKCTOM Bhl BCTpeTHTe CChi.JIKH C 6yKBOH A. 0HR rroKa3hiBaiOT, "<ITO H3y-qeHHe p;aHHoro Ma- TepHa.Jia HeB03MOmHO 6e3 pa60Tbi C aTJiaCOM. 3asepmaroT Kamp;biH rraparpa¢ <<Borrpochi H 3ap;a- HHR>>. 0TBeTHB Ha HHX, Bbl OIIpep;e.JIHTe, HaCKO.JihKO XO- pOlliO YCBOHJIH MaTepHa.JI HOBOI'O ypoKa. Iloc.Jie,li;HRR cTpaHHn;a Kamp;oif TeMhi cop;epmHT py6- PHKY << Ilop;sep;eM HTorH >>. B Heif Bhip;eJieHhi caMhie sam- Hhie H,ll;eR R BhiBO,ll;hl TeMbi.
  7. 7. rnaaa 1 BHYTPEHH515l nom1H1KA AJlEKCAHJ].PA I B 1801 - 1806 rr. BHEWH5l5l nom1TV1KA B 1801-181 2 rr. PECDOPMATOPCKA5l J].E5lTEnbHOGb M.M. CnEPAHCKOrO OTE4EGBEHHA5l BOiiiHA 1812 r. 3ArPAHV14Hbllil nOXOJJ. PYCCKOiil APMV1V1. BHEWH5Hl nOnV1TV1KA B 1813- 1825 rr. BHYTPEHH5l5l nOnV1TV1KA AJlEKCAHJJ.PA I B 1815-1825 rr. COUV1AJ1bHO-3KOHOMV14ECKOE PA3BV1TV1E nocnE OTE4ECTBEHHOiil BOiiiHbl1812r. 06Ll.lEGBEHHOE J].BV1>KEHV1E nPV1 AJlEKCAHJ].PE I J].V1HACTV14ECKV1Iil KPV13V1C 1825 r. BbiCTYnnEHV1E J].EKA6PV1CTOB I ( 00 mASH 0TeYeCTB€HHafl BOiilHa 181 2 r. fiBJlfi€TCfl s:lpK111M npii1MepOM, nOA- TBep>t<AatOLl111M, YTO He OTA€IlbHbl€ Jlii1YHOCTII1, a HapOA - rnaBHbllil TBO- pel{ 111CTOpll1111. /11crop111K A.B. C!>aP.eea
  8. 8. 0 HaYane npasneH!Ilfl 111Mneparo- pa AneKcaHApa I 0 pecpopMax HernacHoro KOM!Il- rera s HaYane XIX s. KaK Ha3blsanii1Cb BbiCW!Ile opraHbl snacr111 np111 EKarep!llHe Ben111Ko~? Tepp111rop111fl crpaHbl 6b1na cronb o6w111pHa, YTO nocnaHHbllit nocne cMeprlll EKarep111Hbl Ben111Kolit ro- Het..~. npeoAonesaswllllit s cpeAHeM 180 sepcr B AeHb, np111Be3 secrb 06 3TOM C06b1Til1111 B V1pKyTCK nlllWb cnycrfl 34 AHfl, a Ha KaMYarKy n111wb Yepe3 rp111 MeCfll..la. 1.1. 0CH061ible COCJL06UJL Poccuu 6 na'LaJLe XIX 6. BHYTPEHHAR nonMTHKA AJ1EKCAHAPA I B 1801-1806 rr. Y>Ke B nepBble ro.o,bl npasneHIIlrl AneKcaH.o,pa I nporlBIIl- nocb era reep.o,oe HaMepeHIIle c noMOW,btO pecpopM 1113- MeHIIlTb K nyYweMy nono>KeHIIle .o,en B crpaHe. B Ha~ane XIX B. PoccMsr 6biJia KpynHefirueH KOHTMHeHTaJibHOH .n;ep.maBOH MMpa. 0Ha npocTMpanacb OT BanTMKM .n;o TMxoro oKeaHa, ..... oT ApKTHKM .n;o "Y:epHoro Mopsr M KaBKa3a. ...,.. CTpeMHTeJibHO poena M HaceneHMe cTpaHbi. K Ha~a­ ny BeKa OHO COCTaBMJIO 43,7 MJIH ~eJIOBeK. Pa3Me:m;eHHe aToif MaCChi poccM.HH 6hmo HepaBHOMep- HbiM. 3a YpanoM npo.mMBano JIMrub 3 MJIH ~enoBeK . Boc- TO~Hasr CM6Mpb M .II,anbHMH BocTOK 6hiJIM e:m;e rro~TM He OCBOeHbl pyCCKMM HaCeJieHMeM. CTpaHa 6biJia MHOI'OHaD;MOHaJibHOH - Ha ee rrpo- CTOpax npomMBaJIO 6onee 100 Hapo.n;oB. OHM HcnoBe.n;o- BaJIM rrpaKTH~eCKM Bee ocHOBHbie MMpOBbie penMrMM. O.n;- HaKo 87% HaCeJieHM.H 6biJIM rrpaBOCJiaBHbiMM. OcHoBy aKOHOMMKM cocTaBJI.HJia <Peo.n;aJibHO-KperrocT- HM~ecKa.H CMCTeMa xo3.HHCTBa. OcHoBy rroJIMTM~ecKoro C'l'posr - caMo.n;ep.maBHasr MOHapxHsr. HMrrepaTopy npH- Ha.n;ne.mana BC.H TIOJIHOTa 3aKOHO.D;aTeJibHOH M paCIIOp.H.n;H- TeJibHOH BJiaCTM. • locyAapcrseHHble KpecTbf!He 40-45% KpenocrHble KpeCTbf!He 40-45% • Mell.aHcrso 4% • Ka3aYecrso 6% )J,sopfiHCTBO 1 % • npasocnaBHOe AYXOBeHCTBO 1 % • KyneYecrso 0,5% B pe3yJibTaTe .n;Bopn;oBoro rrepe- BopoTa MapTa 1801 r . Cbi H y6MTOI'O HMIIepaTOpa IlaBna I A.neKcaHop B B03pacTe 24 neT BCTYIIMJI Ha poc- CHHCKHH rrpecTOJI. AneKcaH.n;p I nonaran, ~To Heo6xo.n;MMO rrpoBe.n;eHHe KopeHHbiX pecpopM c n;enhiO o6HOBJieHM.H cTpaHbi. Crro.n;- BHJKHHKaMM-pecpopMaTopaMH CTaJIM CBepCTHHKH MOJIO.D;OI'O n;apsr, C KOTOpbiMM OH HeKor.n;a BOCIIMTbiBaJIC.H H ~HJIC.H. Cpe.n;M HHX 6hiJIH rpacp IIA. CmpozaHOB, H .H. HoBocuJtb- ~eB, KH.H3b AA. q apmopbtucKuu, rpa¢ B.II. Ko'l.y6eu. BMecTe c AneKcaH.n;poM I OHM cocTaBHJIH TaK Ha3biBae- MbiM HerJiaCHbiM KOMMTeT, Ha 3ace.n;aHM.HX KOTOporo o6- cym.n;aJIHCb npoeKTbi rrpeo6pa3oBaHHif.
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  10. 10. 06 OCHOBH~X HanpasneH~~X BHewHelil non~r~K~ AneKcaHApa I 0 soeHHbiX KaMnaH~~x Pocc~~ s Espone ~ Ha KasKa3e KaK~e BHewHenon~T~YeCK~e 3a- AaY~ 6bln~ peweHbl so sropolil no- nos~He XVIII s.? 1.3. H anoJteon Bonanapm B cpa:>t<.eH~~ np~ Ayaepn~u,e om~­ Y~nacb pyccKa~ rsapAelilcKa~ Kasa- nep~~- ,[l,Ba 3CKaApOHa KOHHOiil rsapA~~ onpoK~Hyn~ 6aranbOH cppaHU.Y30B ~ 3axsar~n~ 3HaM~ (op- na). P~AOBOiil KOHHOrsapAeeu, las- p~nOB noAo6pan 3HaM~ y c6~roro C HOr cppaHU,Y3CKOrO OpilOHOCU,a, HO CaM 6b1Jl 3aKOJlOT Henp~~TenbCK~M~ WTbiKaM~. 0AHaKO rpocpelil 6b1Jl noAXBaYeH P~AOBbiM OMenbYeHKO ~ BbiHeceH c non~ 6o~. BHEWHRA non TMKA B 1801-1812 rr. H aYaB csoe u,apcTBOBaHV1e c peWV1TeJlbHbiX AeV1CTBV1ill npor111s HanoneoHOBCKoill <DpaHLJ,V1111, AneKcaHAP I 6blfl nOCTaBJleH B AaJlbHeillweM nepeA He06XOA111MOCTbiO co103a c Heill. TV1Ilb3111TCKV1ill MV1p pa3BfBan pyKV1 o6o111M COI03HI!1KaM B HOBbiX repp111TOp1!1aJlbHbiX np11106peTeHV1s:lX. 3TO, B CBOIO OYepeAb, Hel!136e>KHO BeJlO K 060CTpeHV110 npOTV1BOpe4111ill Me>KAY HV1MV1. CMeHa HMrrepaTopoB rrpHBeJia K rrepeMeHaM BO BHemHeM: IIOJIHTHKe. .AJieKcaH.D;p I B0306HOBHJI ToproBmo c AHrJIHeM:. BhlJIH OT03BaHhi Ka3a~hH ~aCTH, HarrpaBJieHHhie IlaBJIOM I B rroxo.D; Ha 6pHTaHCKHe BJia.D;eHHR B MH.D;HH. 0,D;HOBpeMeHHO YXY.D;IDHJIHCh OTHOIIIeHHR C <f>paHn;HeH. B 1801 r. PoccHR 11 AHrJIHR 3aKJIIO~HJIH KOHBeHIJ;HIO <<0 B3aHMHo:i1: .D;pyJK6e>>, HarrpaBJieHHYIO rrpoTHB BoHarrapTa. C IJ;eJihiO o6e30IIaCHTh ce6R OT QJpaHIJ;Y3CKOI'O BTOpJKeHHR Ha ocTpoBa AHrJIHR cTpeMHJiach rrepeHecTH 6oeBhie ,D;eHCTBHR B KOHTHHeHTaJibHYIO EBporry. ,ll;JIR 3TOI'O B 1805 I'. 6biJia C03.D;aHa O~epe,D;HaR (TpeTbR) aHTHqlpaHIJ;y3- CKaR KoaJno~lUI B cocTaBe AHrJIRH, PoccHH, ABcTpHH r. ll lliBeiJ;Hll. ..,. HarroJieoH 6biJI BhlHYJK.D;eH rrepe6pocHTh CBOH OCHOBHhie CllJihi B IJ;eHTpaJibHYIO E Bporry. 3,D;ecb <1JpaHIJ;Y3hl cHa~aJia pa3- rpoMHJIM aBCTPHHCKHe BOHCKa B cpaJKeHHH rro.D; Y.ll.b.M.O.M. H 3aHRJIH B eHy, a 3aTeM HaHeCJIH rropaJKeHHe aBCTpo-p yCCKOH apMHH (B KOTOpOH HaXO.D;HJIHCh aBCTp HMCKHH 11 poccHiiCKHH HMrrepaTophi) no.D; Aycmep- .ll.Ul{e.M. (20 HOR6p R 1805 r .) . PoCCHR IIOTepRJia IIO~Tll 15 TbiC. CBOHX COJI,D;aT H OQJHIJ;epOB. TpeTbR KOaJIHIJ;HR p acrraJiaCh, O.D;HaKO CBOeH n;eJIH OHa .D;OCTHI'Jia: BTOpJKe- HHe H arroJieoHa B AHrJIHIO TaK H He cocTORJIOCh. __j 0.D;HOBpeMeHHO PoccHR rrpoBO.D;HJia aKTHBHYIO IIOJIHTHKY Ha KaBKa3e. B 1801 I'. B ee COCTaB .D;06pOBOJihHO BOIIIJia BocTO~HaR rpy3HR. B 1803 I'. 6bi- Jia 3aBOeBaHa MlmrpeJIHR, B 1804 I'. - MMepeTHR, r y - PHR H rRH,D;JKa. B 1805 I'. B XO,D;e pyccKo-rrepCH.D;CKOH BOHHhi 6biJIH 3aBoeBaHhi Kapa6ax H lliHpBaH. B 1806 r. 3aBepmHJIOCh rrpHcoe.D;HHeHHe oceTHHCKHX 3eMeJih. CTpe- MHTeJihHOe npoHHKHOBeHHe PoccHH B 3aKaBKa3be o6ecrro- KOHJIO He TOJihKO TypiJ;HIO H IlepCHIO, HO ll eBpo- r,. rreM:cKHe ,LJ;epJKaBhi. ...,-
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  13. 13. IlocJie aToro H8'iaJIHCb rreperosopbi o MHpe co IIIse- n;HeR. CorJiacHo no,n;rrHcaHHOMY 5 ceHTSI6pSI 1809 r. MHp- HOMY .n;orosopy, PoccHH nepe.n;asaJiaCh BCSI TeppHTOpHSI <l>HHJISIH,ll;HH, IliBeD;HSI IIpHCOe,D;HHSIJI8Cb K <<KORTH- ..,. HeHT8JibHOR 6JIOKa,D;e~. ~ Ha nepBOM aTa- rre BORHbi (1806- 1807 rr.) Typn;HSI soesaJia npoTHB Poc- CHR B COI03e C <l>paHn;HeR. BoRHa npRHSIJia 38TSI.>KHOR xa- paKTep. IlepeJIOM B BORRe HacTynHJI B 1811 r., nocJie Ha3HaqeHHSI rJiaBHOKOMaH,n;yiDID;HM pyccKHMR BORCK8MH M.ll. KyTy3oBa. CTpeMHTeJihHhiMH ,n;eRCTBHSIMR OH cy- MeJI OKpy.>KHTb Typen;KyiO apMHIO H BbiHY,D;HTb npOTHBHH- K8 nepeRTR K neperosopaM o MHpe. B 1812 r. B Byxa- pecTe 6hiJI ITO,D;ITHC8H MHpHbiH AOJ'OBOp, IIO KOTOpOMy Beccapa6HSI ocso6o.m,n;aJiach oT Typen;Koro BJia,D;bi'ieCTBa H npHcoe,n;HHSIJiacb K PoccHH; Typn;HSI TaK.me o6eiD;a- ...... Jia o6Jiel'"t{HTh rroJio.meHHe Cep6:a:a. ~ 3Ta BORHa Ha'iaJiach no HHHD;HaTHBe IlepcHH. PyccKyro K8BK83CKYIO apMHIO so3- rJiaBJISIJI BHa'iaJie reHepaJI H.B. Fyooau•t. B KOpOTKHR CpOK ero BOHCK8 CyMeJIH IIOKOpHTb rSIH,ll;.>KHHCKOe, Ille- KHHCKOe, Kapa6axcKoe, IliHpsaHcKoe, Ky6HHCKoe H Ba- KHHCKoe X8HCTB8. 0,n;H8KO IIOCJie Hey,D;a'iHOJ'O IIITypMa ro- po,n;a 3pRB8HH (EpeBaHa) B 1808 r. KOM8H,D;YIOID;HM 6hiJI Ha3Ha'ieH A.II. Top.Jttacoa. B 1810 r. IlepcHSI H Typn;nSI 38KJIIO'iHJIR coi03 rrpo- THB PoccHH. B 1812 r. pyccKRe BORCKa aTaKosaJIH ap- MRIO nepCOB H o6paTHJIH ee B 6erCTBO, ITOCJie qero 38HSI- JIH ApKeBaH H JleHKopaHh. 3TR rro6e.n;hl peruHJIH Hcxo.n; soRHhi s rroJib3Y PoccHH. B 1813 r. 6hiJI rro,n;nHcaB FIO- JtucmaHCICuu MHpHbiH .n;orosop. Illax rrpH3HaJI aa PoccH- eft TeppHTOPRH rpy3HH, ,II;arecTaHa, IliHpBaHa, MRHrpe- JIHH, llMepeTHH, A6xa3HH H rypHH. OB 6hiJI BbiHy.m,n;eH aaKJIIO'iHTh c Pocc:aeR soeHBhiR coroa H rrpe.n;ocTa- ..,. BRTb eR npaso cso6o,n;Horo rrJiaBaHRSI Ba KacrrHR. ~ TRJib3HTCKHR MHp 6biJI BbiBy.m,n;eHBbiM H ITOTOMY He MOr 6biTb npoq- HbiM :a ,n;oJirose'iHbiM. B 1809 r., so speMSI HOBOR <}lpaH- Ko-ascTpHRCKOR BORHhi, PoccHSI xoTSI H o6'hSIBHJia soft- BY AscTpHH, BO aKTHBBhiX ,n;eRCTBHH npoTHB Bee He rrpe.n;npHHRMaJia. Y'iaCTHe PoccHH B <•KOHTHHeBTaJibHOR 6JIOKa,D;e>> 6hiJIO H8CTOJibKO 3KOBOMR'ieCKH o6peMeBHTeJib- HbiM ,ll;JISI Hee, 'iTO B 1810 r. OB8 <}laKTR'ieCKH OT- ..,. K838JI8Cb BbiiiOJIHSITb CBOH 06SI38TeJibCTB8. ~ B anpeJie 1811 r. npoH30IIIeJI paapbiB <}lpaHKo-pyc- CKoro COI038 H H8'i8JI8Cb yCHJieHH8SI IIO,ll;J'OTOBK8 o6eHX CTpaB K HeH36e.mHOR BORRe. 1 .5. PoccuucKue noJLKoaoau,bt Ha'laJLa XIX e.: a) M.H. Kymy.Joa; 6) M.B. BapKJLau ae TOJLJLu; e) II.H. Bazpamuon B YeM COCTOSUla cneu.111cp111Ka M€>K- AYHapOAHOrO nono>KeHII1H Pocc111111 B HaYane XIX B.? Ha30BII1Te np111YII1Hbl 111 nocneA- CTBII1H 3aKmoYeHII1H Ti11nb3111TCKoro M~t~pa Me>KJJ.y Pocc~t~eLII il1 <DpaHU.VIeLII. 4eM MO>KHO o6bRCHi11Tb 060CT- peHil1€ OTHOW€Hi11LII POCCVIVI C nep- CVI€111, Typu.111eii1 il1 WB€U.i11€LII B Ha- Yane XIX B.?
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  19. 19. 38HCKHM OTPH.U., opraHH30BaHHbiH KperrOCTHblM repaCUMOM Kypw-tbtM rro.u. MocKBOH. 8TOT OTPH.U. BKJIIOl.JaJI 5,5 TblC. qeJioBeK H He pa3 ycrrernao rpoMHJI ,li,OBOJibHO KPYIIHbie CHJibi peryJIHpao:H apMHH HarroJieoHa. BcepoccH:HcKyiO l13BeCTHOCTb CBOHMH OTBamHbiMH ,1.1,ei1:CTBHHMH IIpOTHB BORCK rrpoTHBHHKa rrpHo6peJia KpecTbHHKa-napTH38HKa CbPieBCKoro ye3,1.1,a CMoJieHcKo:H ry6epHHH BacuJLuca Ko- :JfCUHa. JlHmb 3a rrepBbiH MeCHU. nocJie Bopo,li,HHCKoro cpameHHH HerrpHHTeJib IIOTepHJI OT ,ll,eHCTBHH rrapTH:38H 30 TbiC. l.JeJIOBeK. ,I(ame rrpH OTCYTCTBHH aKTHBHblX 6oe- BblX .u.eiicTBHH B nepHO.U. npe6biBaHHH B MocKBe HanoJie- OH TepHJI eme,li,HeBHO UOJITOpbi TbiCHl.JH l.JeJIOBeK. HanoJieoH TpHm,ll,bi UbiTaJICH Hal.JaTb rreperOBOpbl 0 M11pe, HO OTBeTa Ha CBOH II11CbMa TaK 11 He rroJiyqHJI. Tor.u.a oH B npe.u..u.BepHH 3HMbi pernHJI ocTaB11Tb MocKBY 11 ,li,B11HYTb ocTaTKH apMHH Ha Hepa3o- peHHbiH IOr PoccHH. 6 OKTH6pH cppaHU.Y3bl UOKHHYJIH MOCKBy, HO Ha HX nyTH BCTaJia oKpenrnaH pyccKaH apMHH. IIopameH11H, HaHeceHHbie cppaHu.y3aM rro.u. TapyT11HOM H ManoHpoc- JiaBu.eM (3TOT ropo.u. BoceMb pa3 rrepexo,1.1,11JI 113 pyK B py- K11), BbiHY.U.11JI11 HanoneoHa noBepHyTb BOHCKa Ha w. HM me caM11M pa3opeHHYIO CMoJieHCKYIO .u.opory. ~ 0TcTynaiOrn;ero K 3arra,li,HbiM rpaHHU.aM Bpara rrpecJie- .U.OB8JI11 pyccKaH apM11H 11 napTH38HCKHe OTPH.U.bi. PaH- HHH 11 cypOBaH 311Ma CTaJia em;e O,li,H11M 6e,li,CTB11eM ,li,JIH cpp8HIJ.Y30B. «BeJI11KaH apM11H>> rrpeBpaT11JiaCb B HeyrrpaB- JIHeMyiO OrpOMHYIO rOJIO,li,HYIO 11 3aMep3myiO TOJIIIY. IlpH nepenpaBe qepe3 peKy Bepe311HY HarroJieoH noTepHJI em;e 30 TbiC . CB011X COJI,ll,aT. rpaH11II,y cyMeJI11 nepeHT11 JI11illb maJIK11e OCTaTK11 <<BeJI11KOH apM11H>>. B KOHn,e .u.eKa6pH 1812 r. M .M . KyTy3oB ,li,OKJia,ll,biBaJI n,apro: «BOHHa OKOHl.JHJiaCb 3a UOJIHbiM 11CTpe6JieH11eM He- UpHHTeJIH>>. 25 ,ll,eKa6pH u:apb l13,1.1,aJI MaH11cpeCT 06 113rHa- H1111 Bpara 113 Pocc1111 11 OKOHl.JaHHH 0Te1.JeCTBeHHo:i1 BOHHbi. 1.10. IIupmu.Janbt 1812 z. Xy{JOJICflUK B.B. 360pblKUfl 111Mneparop HanoneoH, 6poc1.1s solilcKa, 6e)l(an a napt.-1)1(. Bcrpe- TV1BWV1M ero npV1ABOpHbiM Ha BO· npoc o TOM, rge )l(e apMV1fl, OH 6bl1l BbiHY)I(AeH OTBeTV1Tb: «ApMV1V1 60JlbWe HeTI» 1 .11 . IIepenpaBa pycc~eou ap.J.tUU •tepe.J H e.J.tan 6 ae~eaf5pe 1812 z. Xy{JoJtCnuK II. J{nwaoB OxapaKrepV13yli1re ocHOBHble npV1- YV1Hbl KOHcp11V1KTa Me)I(Ay Pocct.1eli1 1.1 <DpaHl..(V1eli1. noYeMy BOii!Hy 1812 ~ Ha3~Ba­ IOT OTeYeCTBeHHOii!? Kro, no saweMy MHeHt.-110, BbiV1r- pan 6opOAV1HCKyiO 61.1rsy? 0npeAeJlV1Te OCHOBHble npV1YV1Hbl no6egbl Pocct.1t.1 s soli!He c Hanone- OHOM. KaK no6eAa pyccKOro opy)I(V1fl B BOiiiHe 181 2 r. MOrna nOBJlV1fiTb Ha AaJlbHeiltwee pa3BV1TV1e POCCV1V1?
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  22. 22. BencKuu Konzpecc anOAHCTpHSI VloaHH 1776-1831 PyccK~~ ~ rpeYecK~~ rocyAapcrseH- Hbl~ AeRTeJlb. PyKOBOA~Jl BHeWHe~ non~T~Ko~ Pocc~111 B 1816-1822 rr. nepBbl~ npaBII1TeJlb He3aBII1CII1MO~ rpeu111~ B 1827-1831 rr. E~e EKarepvtHa II a caoe apeMs:~ crpeMvtJlaCb K C03AaHvtiO Ha oaJlKaH- CKOM nonyocrpose, KoropbiM snaAena Typuvts:~, npaaocnasHo~ rpeYecKo~ vtMnepvtvt. Aa:>Ke caoero aroporo sHyKa oHa Ha3aana KoHc- TaHTvtHOM B YeCTb OCHOBaTeJlS'l KoHcTaHTvtHonons:~ 111 HaMepeaanacb nocrasvtrb ero so rnaae 3roro 6y- AY~ero rocyAapcraa B KoHn;e pa6aThi BeHcKoro KOHrpec- ca ero y"<IaCTHHKaMH 6hiJIO IIpHHHTO perneHHe BpeMH OT BpeMeHH npOBOAHTh HOBbie 06J::D;He BCTpe"<IH AJIH o6ecne- "<IeHHH HepyiiiHMOCTH IIOCJieBOeHHOrO IIOpHp;Ka. AneKCaHAP I BhiCTymm c npep;JiomeHHeM C03AaTh C6RU{ennbtil co103 B HHTepecax o6ecne"<IeHHH MHpa B EBporre H crroKoi1:- CTBHH BHyTpH rocyp;apCTB - "<IJieHOB COI03a. 14 CeHTH6- pH 1815 r. TaKOH co103 6hiJI C03AaH. ITepBoHa"<IaJihHO a Hero BOIIIJIH PoccHH, ITpyccHH H ABcTpHH. BcKope K CBHIIJ;eHHOMY coi03Y npucoep;HHHJIHCh npaBHTeJihCTBa Bcex eBporrei1:cKHX rocyp;apcTB, 3a HCKJIIO"<IeHHeM AHr- JIHH, OcMaHCKOH HMnepHH H nancKoro rocyp;apcTBa. Y"<IaCTHHKH co103a 3aKpenHJIH 3a co6oi1: rrpaBo BoeHHO- ro BTOpmeHHH B TY CTpaHy, rp;e npOH30Hp;eT peBOJII0- D;HH, BHe 3aBHCHMOCTH OT MHeHHH npaBHTeJib- CTBa CaMOH 3TOH CTpaHhi. 9 1 Op;HaKo yme K Ha"<IaJiy 1820-x rr. Bee "<IaJ::D;e CTaJIH p;aBaTh o ce6e 3HaTh nponlBope"<IHH Memp;y cTpaHaMH - y-qacTHHD;aMH co103a. KaMHeM npeTKHOBeHHH, npuBep;- IIIHM K pa3BaJiy CBH~eHHOrO COI03a, CTaJI BOCTO"<IHhiH Bonpoc. BocTO"<IHhiH Bonpoc 6hiJI Bhl3BaH ocJia6JieHHeM H HaMeTHBIIIHMCH pacnap;oM OcMaHCKOH HMIIepHH (Typn;HH) H 6apb60H eBponeHCKHX p;epmaB 3a pa3p;eJI ee BJiap;eHHH. ITocJie pa3rpoMa HanoJieaHa AJieKcaHp;p I aepHyJicH K :ap;ee co3p;aHHH Ha BaJIKaHax rpe"<IecKoro rocyp;apcTaa IIOA noKpOBHTeJihCTBOM Poccuu. B 1821 r. BCIIhiXHYJIO BoccTaHHe B rpe'-leCKHx o6JiaCTHx OcMaHCKOH HMrrepHH. A B 1822 r. rpen;HH 6hiJia npOB03rJiaiiieHa He3aBHCHMOH pecrry6JIHKOH. llhiTaHch rrop;aBHTh BOCCTaHHe, TYPKH mec- TO'-IaHIIIHM o6pa30M pacupaBJIHJIHCb C era y"<IaCTHHKaMH. rpa¢ H. KanoaucmpuR. OKa3h!BaJI Heo6XOAHMYIO nop;- p;epmKy BOCCTaBIIIHM. B pa3rap BoccTaHHH PoccHH rrpep;'hHBHJia Typu;u:a Tpe6oBaHHe rrpeKpaTHTh npeCJiep;OBaHHH rpeKOB H ITpH- 3HaTb He3aBHCHMOCTb rpeD;HH. 3BepCTBaMH TypOK 6biJIH B03Myrn;eHhl H B p;pyrux eBponei1:cKHX CTpaHax. PocCHH Ha'-laJia ycuJieHHO roTOBHThCH K HOBOH ao:Hae c Typu;ueH:. Op;HaKo nop;p;epmKa BoccTaBrnHx rrpoTHBope'-IHJia npHHD;HIIaM CBH~eHHoro cai03a. K TOMY me HH AHrJIHH, HH ABCTPHH He meJiaJIH yKpenJieHHH no3HII;HH PoccHH Ha BaJIKaHa.x. BocTO'-IHhiH Borrpoc, TaKHM o6pa3oM, TaK H He 6h!JI peiiieH, a CaH~eHHhiii co103 oKa3aJicH Ha rpaHH pacnap;a.
  23. 23. Cesepo-3ana.n;aa.H AMepHKa 6hiJia OTKpbiTa pyccKHMH 3eMJierrpoxo.n;n;aMH B Hat.IaJie XVIII B. Tor.n;a me TaM rro.HBHJIHCb nepBbie pyccKae noceneaa.H, a 3TH 3eMJIH sowna a cocTaB PoccHH. YKa30M Ilasna I B 1799 r. 6biJia co3p;aHa PyccKo·AMepwcancKaJL KOAtna- HUJL C npaBOM nOJib30BaHHJ'I IIpOMbiCJiaMH H nOJie3HblMH HCKorraeMbiMH Ha .AJI.HcKe (B PyccKoii AMepaKe). B n;apcTsosaHHe HMnepaTopa AneKcaH.n;pa I PocCHSI )l;06HJiaCb 3Hat.IHTeJibHbiX ycrreXOB B OCBOeHHH CBOHX aMe- pHKaHCKHX sna.n;eHHii. B 1804 r. ropo.n; HoBoapxan- zeJLbCK (c 1867 r. - CHTKa) 6biJI o6'bJ'IBJieH n,eHTPOM pyccKHX sna.n;eHaii Ha AJISICKe. B 1808 r. PocCMJ'I ycTa- HOBaJia .n;HrrJioMaTHt.IecKae OTHorueHMSI c Coe.n;MHeHHhiMH lllTaTaMH. B 1812 r. B KaJIMcpopHHH pyccKHMH nepece- Jiean,aMH 6hiJI ocaosaH Q:>opT (KperrocTb) Pocc. 4 ceH- TSI6p.H 1821 r. AneKcaH.n;p I no.n;nacaJI MaHHcpecT o6 acKJIIOt.IHTeJihHhiX rrpasax Poccaa Ha AJIJ'ICKY cesepaee 51-ii rrapaJIJieJIH. BepHHroso MOpe 6hiJIO o6'hRBJieao BHyTpeHHHM MopeM Poccu:H. 1.14. <l>opm Pocc llHTepechi PoccHH B Cesepaoii AMepHKe rrocTeneaHo BXO)l;HJIH B npOTHBOpet.Iae C HHTepeCaMH paCTYIIJ,HX l1 Ha- 6HpaiOIII,HX cHJIY CIIIA. He.n;oBOJihCTBO aKTHBHOCTbiO pyc- CKHX rroceneHn;es B AMepaKe rrpo.HBJISIJia a AHrJIHSI. KpoMe Toro, ocsoeHu:e a co.n;ep.maHHe TaKHX .n;aneKHX TeppHTOpHH Tpe6oBaJIO KOJIOCCRJibHbiX cpep;CTB, KOTOpbiX y Poccau: He 6hiJIO. llMeHHO no3TOMY AneKcaH.n;p I no- wen Ha 3aKJIIOt.IeHHe B 1824 r. )l;OPOBOpa C Coe.n;u:HeHHhiMH IIITaTaMu. ITo HeMy 6hiJia soccTaHosne- Hhi cso6o.n;a MoperrnasaHHJ'I a pbi6Hoii JIOBJIH B BepaHro- BOM MOpe, a pyCCKHe BJia)l;eHHJI 6hiJIH orpaHHt.IeHbi 54-if rrapanneJihiO. B 1825 r. 6hiJia no.n;nHCaHa pyccKo-aarJIHHCKaH KOH- sean,aJ'I no AJIHCKe, KOTopaJI pa3pewana, B t.IaCTHOCTH, cso6o.n;Hoe nnaBaHu:e aHrJIHHCKHx cy.n;os B BepHHrOBOM MOpe. Bee 3TO CBH)l;eTeJibCTBOBaJIO 0 Hat.IaJie IIOCTeneHHOrO yxo.n;a PoccHiicKoii HMnepHH c TuxooKeaHcKoro rro6e- pe.mbJI CesepHoii AMepHKH. O c8oeHit1e ce8epo 3anagHoV1 AMe- p1t1Kit1 6blno genoM Ype3Bbl'-laV1Ho CnO>KHbiM lt1 OnaCHbiM. noCTOHH- Hble Ha6erlt1 lt1HAeV1l.(e8 CT0111nlt1 pyccKit1M noceneHL(aM He TOnbKO HeManbiX cpeACT8, HO 1t1 >Kit13Hit1. TonbKO 8 1802 r. np1.1 non~TKe C03AaTb noceneHI-1e Ha ocTpo8e CI-1TKa 6blno y61-1To 6onee 200 ne- peceneHL(e8. Ha3081-1Te OCH08Hble npi-1'-11-1Hbl 3arpaHit1'-IHoro noxoga pyccKoV! ap- MI-11-1. KaKit1e l.(enl-1 npecnego8an C8H- ll.eHHbiV1 (01037 B YeM 6blna np1-1'-11-1Ha Tore, '-ITo eoCTO'-IHbiV! eonpoc TaK 1-1 He 6bln peweH np111 AneKcaHgpe I? KaKit1X BHewHenoni-1TI-1YecKI-1X yc- nexoe go61-1nacb Pocc1-1H a oceoe- Hit11t1 AMep1-1Kit1?
  24. 24. 0 pecpopMaTOpCKV1X HaYV1HaHV1S'IX AneKcaHApa I noCJle 80ii!Hbl 1812 r. 0 npV1YV1Hax c8opaYV18aHV1S'I pe- cpopM 8 KOHI...e npa8neHV1S'I V1Mnepa- ropa AneKcaHApa I 0 rocyAapa8eHHbiX pecpopMax HemacHoro KOMV1Tera V1 M.M. Cne- paHcKoro 8 HaYane l...apCT808aHV1S'I AlleKCaHApa I noYeMy 60JlbWV1HCT80 npoeKT08 pecpopM npaKTV1YeCKV1 He 6blllO pe- anV1308aHo? .lJ.ns:~ npV1HS'ITV1S'I KOHCTV1TYI...V1V1 V1M- neparop AlleKCaHAP I 11V1YHO npV1- exan 8 Bapwa8y 8 181 5 r. OH npeACTan nepeA ny6nV1Koil1 o6na- YeHHbiM 8 nonbCKV1il1 MYHAV1P V1 ne- penos:~caHH~ill neHToill nonbcKoro opAeHa 5enoro opna. Bee ::no npV1- 8eno nOJlbCKOe A80ps:!HCT80 8 CO- CTOS'IHV1e 80CTOpra. Opoen BeJLozo opJLa BHYTPEHHRR nonHTHKA AnEKCAH"-PA I B 1815-1825 rr. H ecMoTps:! Ha TO YTO MHOrV1e pecpopMaTopCKV1e HaLJV1 - HaHV1s:J TaK V1 He 6blflvt sonnow,eHbl s >KV13Hb, npoeKTbl pa3pa6oTaHHbiX no nopyYeHV1fO AneKcaH.Qpa I npeo6pa - 30BaHV1~ IOTOBV1JlV1 nOYBY ,[J,Jls:l MaCWTa6HOIO pecpop- MvtpOBaHV1s:l POCCV1V1 B 6y.QyW,eM. IIo6e~a B BoiiHe c HarroJieOHOM, Ka3aJioc~:>, OTKpbiBaJia 6JieCT.HIIJ;lie B03MO.JK- HOCTH ~JI.H rrpoBe~eHH.H B CTpaHe KpyrrHI>Ix pe¢opM. Pe- <PopMaTopcKHe HaMepeHH.H u;ap.H COBII8~8JIH C 06III.HM O.JKH~aHHeM rrepeMeH BO Bcex CJIO.Hx HaceJieHH.H. CBo6o- ~OMbiCJiaiii.ee ~BOp.HHCTBO Me"'!T8JIO 0 KOHCTHTYII.HH. KpecTh.HHe Ha~e.HJIHCb Ha OTMeHy KperrocTHoro rrpaBa. C 3THMH HacTpOeHH.HMH A.rreKcaH~p I He MOr He C"'IHTaTbC.H. Ho OH ~oJI.meH 6~:>m yqHTbiBaTb H ~pyroe : KOHcepBa- THBHbie CJIOH ~Bop.HHCTBa BocrrpHH.HJIH rro6e~y Ha~ Ha- IIOJieOHOM KaK O"'Iepe~HOe CBH~eTeJibCTBO rrpeBOCXO~CTBa pOCCHHCKHX IIOp.H~KOB Ha~ 38II8~HOeBpOIIeHCKHMH, He- HY.JKHOCTH H Bpe~HOCTH pe¢opM. C y"'IeToM 3Toro AJieKcaH~p I , He OTKa3biBa.HCb OT H~eH pe<t>opM, 6biJI BbiHY.JK~eH BeCTH HX pa3pa60TKY B cTpo.maiimeM ceKpeTe. IIepBoii 3~a-qeif, KOTopyiO rrorrbiTaJIC.H pemHTb A.rreKcaH~P I rrocJie OKOH- qaHH.H BOHHI>I, 6hlJIO ~apoBaHHe KOHCTHTYII.HH IIoJI~:>me. Pa3pa6oTaHHaa B 1815 r . KOHCTHTYII.H.H rapaHTHpOBaJia HeiipHKOCHOBeHHOCTb JIH"'!- HOCTH, CB06o~y IIe"'IaTH, YHH"'ITO.JKaJia Ta- KYIO ¢opMy HaK83aHH.H, KaK CCbiJIKa 6e3 cy~a, 06.H3bi- BaJia HCIIOJib30B8Tb IIOJibCKHH .H3hlK BO BCeX rrpaBHTeJ!bCTBeHHbiX y-qpe.m~eHH.HX H H83Ha"'!aTb Ha rocy- ~apCTBeHHbie, cy~e6Hhle H BOeHHbie IIOCTbi TOJibKO IIO~­ ~aHHbiX IJ;apCTBa IlOJibCKOrO. fJiaBOH IIOJibCKOrO rocy- ~apCTBa 06'b.HBJI.HJIC.H pOCCHHCKHH HMIIepaTOp, KOTOpbiH ~OJI.JKeH 6biJI IIpHHOCHTb IIpHC.Hry Ha BepHOCTb IIpHHHMa- eMOH KOHCTHTyn;HH. 3aKOHO~aTeJibHa.H BJI8CTb rrpHH~Jie­ .JKaJia ~ByxrraJiaTHOMY ceiiMy H n.apiO. H36HpaTeJII>Hoe rrpaBO 6biJIO Orpa.I!H'IeHO B03p8CTHbiM H HMYIII.eCTBeHHbiM u;eH30M. IIoJ!bcKa.H KOHCTHTYII.H.H CTaJia rrepBbiM rro~o6- HbiM ~OKYMeHTOM Ha TeppHTOpHH PoccHiicKoii HMnepHH H CH.HJia Ha BpeM.H Haiip.H.JKeHHOCTb B OTHOIIIeHH.HX Me.JK- ~ BJI8CTbiO H IIOJibCKHM HaCeJieHHeM.
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  28. 28. 0 npV1YV1Hax HapacraHV1S1 o6w,ecr- seHHaro ABV1:>KeHV1S1 nocne OreYecr- seHHO~ BO~H~ 1812 ~ 0 L(ellS'lX nepBbiX ra~HbiX o6w,ecrs B POCCV1V1 0 AeflrenbHOCTV1 pocc111~CKV1X npocser111rene~ B npasneHV1e EKare- pV1Hbl Be11111Ka~ 0 HanpasneHV1S1X BHyrpeHHe~ no- 11V1TV1KV1 AneKcaHApa I nocne so~Hbl 181 2 r. !}aii'~Pfh 21:1/.. ~ ~ eCTenb nasen lflsaHOBIII~ 1793-1826 PyK080A~TeJlb IO.lKHoro o6w,ecr8a. YYaCTHii1K OTeYeCT8eHHOiil 80ii!Hbl 181 2 r. ~ 3arpaH~YHoro noxoAa pyccKolil apM~~. B 5opOAii1HCKOM cpa.lKeHii1111 npOS1811111 He3aypflAHOe My.lKecrso ~ 6bl11 Harpa.)t(AeH 3ono- rolil wnarolil. C 1814 r. necrenb npoxoAI!1Jl cny.lK6y 8 M~Ta8e, a 3a- reM 8 TynbYII1He. B 1821 r. oH no- nyYii1Jl 3BaH~e nonK08H~Ka ~ 6wn Ha3HaYeH KOMaHA111pOM 8RTCKOro nonKa. O&II.IECTBEHHOE ABM>KEHIIIE nPM AnEKCAHAPE I 0 61l..eCTBeHHoe AB111>KeH!I1e s Ha'-lane XIX B. noA snii151 - HV1eM npOTV1BOpe'-1!11BO~ BHyTpeHHe~ nonii1TV1KV1 AneKCaHA- pa I npowno cno>KHbl~ nyrb or no,I:VJ.ep>KKV1 pecpopMaTop- CKV1X HaYV1HaHI!1~ BnaCTV1 K BbiHaW!I1BaHV110 nnaHOB ee Hacl!lnbCTBeHHoro csep>KeHI!151. ' .O~Hoif H3 HaHooJiee xapaKTepHhiX -qepT nocJieBoeHHoro nepHo~a n;apcTBOBaHHH A.rreKcaH~pa I cTaJio HapacTaro- ID;ee o6ID;eCTBeHHOe ~BHmeHHe . ITepBoHa"<IaJihHO ocHoBy ~eHTeJihHOCTH y-qaCTHHKOB B03HHKIITHX TOr~a KpymKOB H opraHH3an;HH: cocTaBJIHJIH JIHoepaJihHhie H~eH . BoJIHa JIH- 6epaJihHhix H~eH: npHmJia B PoccHro B nepHo~ 0Te"<IecT- BeHHOH: BOHHhi 1812 r. H oco6eHHO 3arpaHH"<IHoro noxo- ~a pyccKoif apMHH. Ho H JmoepaJihHhie pecpopMaTopcKHe npoeKThl caMoro n;apH AJieKcaH~pa I, o6cym~aBmHecH BCeMH o6pa30BaHHbiMH JIIO~bMH, a 3aTeM H pecpOpMbl CnepaHcKoro TaKme roTOBHJIH no"<IBY ~JIH aKTHBHoro ITpOHHKHOBeHHH H~eif JIHOepaJIH3Ma B C03HaHHe nepe~O­ BOI'O ~BOpHHCTBa. TaifHble o6ID;eCTBa, CTaBHB- IITHe CBOeif n;eJihiO ITO~I'OTOBKY H OCyiD;eCTBJieHHe npeo6- pa30BaHHH, ITOHBHJIHCb ITOCJie OKOH"<IaHHH 3arpaHH"'IHOI'O noxo~a pyccKoif apMHH. IIepBbiM H3 HHX CTaJI Co103 cna- cenuR- (1816- 1818). Ero ocHOBaTeJieM OhlJI MOJIO~oH: ITOJIKOBHHK reHepaJibHOI'O IITTaoa A.H. M ypa6be6. BcKo- pe Ha ero ocHoBe B03HHK Co103 6JLazoaencmBuR- (1818- 1821), HacqHTblBaBIITHH OKOJIO 200 "<IJieHOB. llpor- paMMa Coro3a oJiaro~eHCTBHH OhiJia H3JIOmeHa B ero yc- TaBe, ITOJIY"<IHBilleM Ha3BaHHe <<3eJieHaH KHHI'a>>. CBOIO 3a~a-qy "<IJieHhi o6ID;eCTBa BH~eJIH B no~~epmKe pecpopMa- TopcKHX nJiaHOB BJiaCTH. Coro3 6Jiaro~eHCTBHH OhiJI pac- nyiD;eH, Kor~a CTaJio HCHO, "<ITO npaBHTeJihCTBO AJieK- caH~pa I OTKa3aJiocb oT pecpopM. BMecTo no~~epmKH n;ap.a-pecpopMaTopa Tenepb CTaJIH BbiHaillHBaTbCH ITJiaHbl BOeHHoro nepeBopoTa. B 1821- 1822 rr. OhiJIH co3~aHhi ~Ba HOBhlX o6ID;eCTBa - I0JICH.oe :a CeBepnoe. • ~ha opraH:a3an;nH oo'be~nHHJia ocp:a- n;epoa 2-H: apM:an, pa3MeiD;eHHoii Ha YKpaHHe. PyKoBo- ~HTeJieM IOmHOH ynpaBbl ObiJI ll.H. rrecmeJLb. CBOIO nporpaMMY ITecTeJih Ha3BaJI << PyccKoH: npaa~oH: >> . 8To 6hiJI nepBhiH B HCTop:a:a Pocc:a:a n;eJihHhiH rrpoeKT pecny6- JIHKaHcKoH: KOHCTHTYD;Hll.
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  34. 34. Bb Y3H E E 0 HanpaBneH~;~s:~x BHyrpeHHeiil no- n~;~mK~;~ ~;~Mneparopa H~;~Konas:~ I 0 KpecTbs:IHCKOiil pe¢opMe n..o.. K~;~­ ceneBa 0 C03AaHI;IV1 Ill OTAeneHI;Is:! V1 Ae- s:~renbHOCTV1 nonV1TV1YecKoiil nonV1L(V11;1 B POCC1;1V1 cnoM TE 06 OCHOBHbiX pecpopMaX B HaYa- ne XIX B. KaK pewancs:~ Kpecrbs:~HcK~;~iil Bon- poe npV1 AneKcaHApe I? H V1Konaiil I (1796-1855) - rpe- r~;~iil CbiH naBna I. np111 ABYX crap- WV1X 6paTbs:IX BCTynneH~;~e Ha npec- ron H~;~Konas:~ naBnOBV1Ya 6blno ManoBepos:~THbiM, no3TOMY ero ro- TOBV1nV1 K BOeHHOiil cny>K6e. 8 181 7 r. OH >K€HV1nCR Ha AOYep~;~ npyccKoro Kopons:~ Wapnorre, no- nyYV1Bweiil B POCCV1V1 I;IMs:l AneK- CaHApa <DeAOPOBHa. 2.1. HwcoJiaii I u u,apeeu11. AAe~ecaH.iJp. XyiJoJimuK B.Tl. BuJLJieBaJLbiJe BHYTPEHHRR nOnMTMKA HMKOnAR I rnaBHbiMIII HanpasneHIIIflMIII BHyTpeHHerir noniiiTIIIKIII H111 - Kona5l I nan111 yKpenneHIIIe nono.>r<eHIIIH ABOpHHCTBa 111 60pb6a npOTIIIB peBOniOU,IIIOHHOrir yrp03bl. YKPEnJlEHVIE rQCYAAPCTBEHHOrO AnnAPATA B nepsble ro- ,LJ,hi npaBJieHHS:I HOBbiH n;ap b CTpeMHJICS:I CaM pemaTb He TOJihKO Ba»<HeHmHe, HO H He CJIHIIIKOM 3Hal:fHTeJibHhie BOTipOCbl. }J;JIS:I JIHl:fHOrO KOHTpOJIS:I Hap; p;eJiaMH MHHHC· TepCTB H Be,li;OMCTB OH paCUIHp HJI 06JiaCTb p;eS:ITeJihHOCTH Co6cmeennou E zo H MnepamopcK.ozo Be.11.uttecmea K.an - l.f€1t.~tpuu , KOTOpaS:I CTaJia Hrp aTh Bep;ym;yro pOJib B p;e- JI8X rocyp;apCTBeHHOrO ynpaBJieHHS:I H BO MHOrOM IlO,li;Me- HS:ITb Ka6HHeT MHHHCTpoB. B S:IHBape 1826 r. u;apb co3p;aJI II oT.n;eJieHHe KaHu;eJIS:IpHH Bo rJiaae c B03Bpam;eHHhiM H3 CChiJIKH M.M. CnepaHCKHM. rJiaBHOH ero 3a,LJ,aqeii ,li;OJI:>K- Ha 6bma cTaTh rro.u;roTOBKa CBo.n;a 3aEOHOB. B 1830 r. 6bi· JIO orry6JIHKOBa.Ho rrepBoe IloJIHOe co6pa.HHe 3aKOHOB Poc- CHiicKoii HMIIepHH B 45 TOMaX, a B 1832 r . - CBO,ll; p;eHCTBYlOI.U;HX 38KOHOB rocyp;apCTBa. B .u;eKa6pe 1826 r . H HKOJia:H: I co3p;aJI ceKpeTHbiH Ko- MHTeT rro.u; npe.u;ce.n;aTeJibCTBOM B.II. Koqy6eS:I. B ero 3a- p;aqy BXO,Ll,HJIO paCCMOTpeTb BCe npOeKTbl, He peaJIH30BaH- Hhie npH .A.rreKcaH.n;pe I, H HaMeTH Th mHpOKyro nporpaMMY peQ:>opM. MHoroe 6hiJIO c.n;eJiaHo, HO e:r.u;e 6oJihiiie rrpoeK- TOB OCTaJIOCb HepeaJIH30Ba.HHblMH. M344•hi#i~lii•1*!~ttd5:t•'~*·'•r•14HU!i&r•>·!4:tiJ:!'ltl HHKo- Jian I y.n;eJIS:IJI 6oJibmoe BHHMaHHe 3ap;aqe yKperrJieHHS:I .n;BopS:IHCKoro cocJIOBHS:I. OH TIOilblTaJicS:I ynpol:fHTh MaTe- pHaJibHoe TIOJIO»<eHHe BbiCIIIero COCJIOBHS:I. }J;JIS:I 3TOrO 6bi JI H3MeHeH 110pS:Ip;oK HacJiep;oBaHHS:I KPYTIHhiX HMeHHH, BKJilOl:faBIIIHX He MeHee 400 KpeCThS:IHCKHX ,li;BOpOB. 0HH Tellepb He MOrJIH 6b1Tb pa3p;p06JieHbi Memp;y HaCJie,li;HHKa- MH HJIH rrpop;aHbl 11 Ilepep;aBaJIHCb B IIOpS:Ip;Ke HaCJie,LJ,OBa· HHS:I CTapmeMy B pop;e. BbiJI IlOBbiiiieH HMyiD;eCTBeHHbiH u;eH3 ,li;JIS:I yqaCTHHKOB Bbi 60pOB B ,li;BOpS:IHCKHe opraHbl Ca· MOyllpaBJieHHS:I. C 1828 r . B cpep;HHe H BbiCIIIHe yqe6Hbie 3aBep;eHHS:I MOrJIM 6bi Tb rrpHHS:ITbl TOJihKO p;eTH ,Ll,BOpS:IH H qJiHOBHHKOB. 8TH Mepbl 3aMeTHO IlOBbiCHJIH aBTOpMTeT H poJih .n;BopS:IHCTBa B :>KH3HH cTpaHbi. nonbtTKVI PEWEHVIst KPECTbstHCKOro BOnPOCA HHKOJia:H: I npeKpaCHO llOHHMaJI, l:fTO rJiaBHOH np06JieMOM OCTaBaJICS:I KpecThS:IHCKHii Bonpoc. OH pemnJI Hal:faTh c npeo6pa3oBa- HHii, HarrpaBJieHHbiX Ha y.rrytiiiieHHe IlOJIO:>Ke HHS:I roc yp;ap- CTBeHHbiX KpecThS:IH. 8TH peQ:>opMhi rrpoBeJI II.~. KuceJLeB.
  35. 35. rJiaBHhiM IIYHKTOM rrpeo6pa30BaHHH, ocym;eCTBJieHHhiX B 1837- 1841 rr., .HBH- JIOCb BBe,ZJ;eHHe KpeCTb.HHCKOrO CaMO- yrrpaBJieHH.H. B .u;epeaa.ax CTaJIH co3.u;aaaThC.H mKOJihi H 60JihHHIJ;hi. TaM, r.u;e 3eMJIH ae xaaTaJio, Haor.u;a rrpH- HHMaJIOCh pemeaHe o rrepeceJieHHH KpeCTh.HH aa cao- 6o.n;Hhie 3eMJIH B .u;pyrHe paHOHbi CTpaHbl . JJ:JI.H TOrO 'ITOfihi o6e30IIaCHTh KpeCTh.HH OT HeypO)Ka.H, fihiJIO pe- meHO OCTaBHTh '18CTh 3eMJIH H8 << ofim;eCTBeHHYIO 38- rramKy>>. Ha 3TMX yq8CTKax KpeCTh.HHe p860T8JIH coo6- m;a H IIOJib30BaJIHCh IIJIO,ZJ;aMH ofim;ero Tpy.u;a. KpoMe Toro, 6bma 3anpem;eaa rrpo.u;8)K8 KpenocTHhiX 38 .u;oJirH; 3anpem;aJiacb TaK*e <•po3HH'IH8.H >> npo.u;8*a qJieaoa o.u;aoii ceMhH. B 1842 r. 6hiJI rrpHH.HT yKa3 o6 ~ o6.a38HHhiX >> KpecTh.HH8X. ITo aeMy rroMetu;HKH MOrJIH OCB060)K,li;8Th KpeCTb.HH IlpH 38KJIIO'IeHHH C HHMH ,ZJ;OrOBO- pa 0 rrpe,u;OCTaBJieHHH HM 3eMeJihHhiX Ha,ZJ;eJIOB B H8CJie,u;- CTBeHHOe BJI8,ZJ;eHHe. 3a 3TO KpeCTh.HHe 06.H38Hbl 6hiJIH abi- IIOJIH.HTh pa3JIH'IHhle IIOBHHHOCTH B IIOJih3Y 6hiBIIIHX BJI8.n;eJihu;ea. O.u;aaKo 3THM CBOHM rrp8BOM rroMer.u;HKH IIO'ITH HHr,ZJ;e TaK H He aOCilOJih30a8JII1:Ch. Tor,ZJ;8 )Ke rro- Mei.U;HK8M 6biJIO ,ZJ;8HO p83pemeaHe ocao6o*.u;aTb KperrocT- HhiX 6e3 3eMJII1:. O.u;aaKo, aecMoTp.a H8 ace 3TH aoaoaae.u;eHH.H, Kpe- nocTaoe npaao a PoccHH npo.n;oJI)KaJIO coxp8H.HThC.H . 60Pb6A C PEBOI110 r.-10HHbiMVI HACTPOEHL-1~MVI 0,!HHM 113 Ba)KHeHmHx aanpaaJieHHH n;apcTaoaaHH.H HHKOJI8.H I cTa- Jia 6opb6a c mo6biMH npo.aaJieHH.HMH aecorJiacH.a c rro- JIHTHKOH aJI8CTeH. IJ;apb IIO-HOaOMy OpraHI1:30BaJI )J;e.HTeJibHOCTb IlOJIHTM:- qeCKOH IIOJIHIJ;HH 11 IIOCTaaHJI ee IIO,ZJ; CaOH JIH'IHhiH KOHT- pOJih. B 1826 r. 6biJIO C03,li;8HO III OTAeJieHHe II;8PCKOH Kaan;eJI.apHH. EMy rropyqaJIHCh ace rroJIM:TH'IeCKHe .u;eJia 11 KOHTPOJih 3a aacTpoeHH.HMH yMoa. Opraabl III oT.n;eJieHH.H fihiJIH C03,ll;aHhi 11 Ha MeCTaX. JJ:JIH H8Be,ll;eHHH Hy)KHOrO aJiaCTHM rrop.a.u;Ka a pacnop.a*eHHH me<Pa III oT.n;eJieHHH H8XOAHJiach 11 aoopy*eaaa.a cHJia Kopnyca maa.u;apMoo. IIIe<PoM III oT.n;eJieHHH H Kopnyc8 )K8H.u;apMoa 6hiJI o6Jie- 'IeHHhiH oco6hiM .u;oaepHeM n;8p.a reaep8JI A.rte~ecanap XpucmocjJopoeutt Ben~eenaop(jJ. IIo.n; *ecTKHM KOHTPOJih 6hma rrocT8aJieH8 rreti8Th. IJ;eH3ypHbiM yCT8B 1826 r. 6hiJI MeTKO H83aaH COBpeMeH- HHKaMM ~ qyryHHbiM>>. BhiJIO 3arrper.u;eao npHHHM8Th KperrocTHhiX KpecTh.HH B cpe,ZJ;HHe H abiCIIIHe yqe6Hhie 3aBe,ZJ;eHHH, orpaHH'IHa HX o6pa3oaaa11:e rrpHxo.u;cKHMH ytiHJIHIII;8MH c OAHHM KJiaCCOM 06yqeHH.H. HeAOBOnbGBO BbiCWIIIX cnoes npe- o6pa30BaHIII51MIII K111cenesa npiiiBe- no HIIIKOnafl I K y6e:>K.D,eHIIIIO, YTO xoTb KpenoaHoe npaso 111 f~BnReT­ CR 3Jl0M, HO nonbiTKIII ero HeMeA- neHHOiil OTMeHbl rpo3RT nporeaoM co aopoHbl npiiiBep>KeHLeB Kpeno- CTHIIIYecrsa: «HeT COMHeHIIIR, YTO KpenOCTHOe npaBO B HbiHeWHeM ero y Hac nono>KeHIIIIII ecTb 3JlO, AJlR BCeX OUWTIIITeJlbHOe Ill OYeBIIIA- HOe; HO npiiiKaCaTbCfl K OHOMY Te- nepb - 6bln0 6bl 3JlOM, KOHeYHO, ell.(e 6onee r1116enbHbiM». 2.2. AX. BewceuiJop(jJ aonPOCbl MA: IB YeM npof~BIIInacb AeflrenbHOab npaBIIITenbCTBa HIIIKonaR I no yKpen- neHIIIIO rocyAapa seHHoro annapara? C KaKolil l.eflbiO npoBOAIIInacb pe- cpopMa n .,I],. KlllceneBa? noYeMy HIIIKOJlai1 I He peWIIIJlCR OTMeHIIITb KpenoaHoe npaso? noYeMy Ill OTAeneHIIIe nonyYIIInO GOnb WlllpOKIIIe nonHOMOYIIIfl?
  36. 36. E 0 HaYane npoMblwneHHoro nepe- sopora B POCCII1111 BO BTOpOJil Y€TBep- Tit1 XIX B. 06 3KOHOMV1Y€CKV1X npeo6pa30- BaHV1flX np111 H111KOnae I 0 npOMbJWneHHOM nepesopore B 3anaAHOii1 Espone 4TO TaKoe 111HAyCTp111anbHO€ o6- t ~eCTBO? 2.3. JlepeaR :JICe.!l.e3naR 8opoza H a H111KOnaescKoli1 >Kene3Holi1 AO- pore crpovnenf!Mit1 6bJnlt1 nocrpoe- Hbl 34 CTaHLJ,It1111. B MOCKBe 111 ne- rep6ypre B03BeAeHbl ABa BOK3ana no npoeKTY apX111TeKTopa K.A. To- Ha, KOTOpbi€ f!BnfliOTGl TOYHblMI/1 KOnll1flMII1 APYr Apyra. 2.3. JJenu.Hzpa{}c~eu u BOK3a.!l. 6 AfOCKBe COQMAnbH0- 3KOHOMH'IECKOE PA3BHTHE B 1820-1850-e rr. 3 KoHOMII1YecKoe pa3BII1TIIIe Pocc~~tlll np111 H~~tKonae I cs~~t­ ,n,erenbcrsosano o ,n,anbHeillweM Kp1113111Ce cpeo,n,anb- HO- KpenoCTHIIIYeCKoill CIIICTeMbl. 3TO BOBCe He 03HaYano 3KOHOMII1YeCKOrO ynap,Ka 111n111 pa3Bana 3KOHOMIIIKII1 CTpa- Hbl. Hao6opor, 1830-1850-e ro,D,bl 6blnll1 speMeHeM nOCTOs:lHHOrD noaynarenbHOro pa3BIIITII151 Ill npOMbiWneH- HOCTIII, Ill cenbCKOro X03s:lii1CTBa. 0p,HaKO 3TII1 ycneXIII 6bl- nll1 ,D,OCTIIIrHyTbl 3a CYeT pa38111TII151 HOBOro, Kanii!TaniiiCTIII - YeCKoro yKna,D,a pOCCIIIillCKQi/1 3KOHOMIIIKII1. HAYAflO nPOMbiWflEHHOro nEPEBOPOTA Ilo.n; npoMbim- JieHHbiM nepeBOpOTOM ITOHHMaiOT HCTOpH'leCKHH nepHO)l; nepexo,n;a OT MaHycpaKTypbi - npe,n;npH.HTH.H, OCHOBaHHO- ro Ha py'IHOM Tpy.n;e, - K MamHHHOMY nponaao,n;CTBy. B Poccnn npOMbiiiiJieHHbiH rrepeaopoT Ha'laJIC.H B 1830- 1840-e rr. B XJIOII'laT0- 6yMaJKHOH IIpOMbiiiiJieHHOCTH, r,n;e K KOH- u;y 1850-x rr. napOBbiMH )l;BHraTeJI.HMH IIpHBO)l;HJIOCb B ,n;ei1cTBHe yJKe 6oJiee 1,6 MJIH BepeTeu. BbiCTpbiMH TeMITaMH pa3BHBaJIOCb MaiiiHHOCTpOeHHe. C cepe,n;HHbl 1830-x rr. Ha'laJIOCb JKeJie3HO)l;OpOJKHOe CTpOHTeJib- CTBO. BcJie,n; aa rrepao:i1: JKeJieauoif .n;oporoif na IleTep- 6ypra B ll,apcKoe CeJio, rrocTpoeHHOH B 1837 r., 6biJIH rryru;eHbi BapiiiaBcKo-BeHcKa.a (1848) H HnKoJiaeac- Ka.a, coe.n;nmiama.a IleTep6ypr c MocKBoif (1851). Paa- BHBaJIOCb rrapoxo,n;cTBO Ha BoJire, ,II;Herrpe, BaJI- .... THHCKOM, qepHoM n AaoacKoM Mop.ax. '"l" O.n;Ha:I<o Ha'laJIO rrpOMbimJieHHOro nepeaopoTa He CMor- JIO IIpHBeCTH K npeO)l;OJieHHIO TeXHHK0-3KOHOMH'leCKOrO OTCTaBa:HH.H Poccnn oT p.a.n;a cTpaH 3a:rra,n;Hoif Eaporrbi. nOMEU.U·1'-IbE l-1 KPECTbSIHCKOE X03SIIiiCTBA Hn rroMeru;HKH, HH KpeCTb.HHe yJKe He MOrJIH 060HTHCb 6e3 IIpOMbiiiiJieH- HbiX TOBapOB. qT06bi KYITHTb 'ITO-TO He06XO)l;HMOe, OHH 6biJIH BbiHYJK)l;eHbl npo,n;aBaTb CBOH rrpo,n;yKTbl Ha pbiHKe. MeJK,n;y TeM .n;oxo.n;HoCTb 6oJibiiiHHCTBa rroMeiiJ;H'lbHX HMe- HHH rrpa rocno,n;CTBe I<penocTHoro Tpy.n;a H oTcTaJioif Tex- HHKe OCTa:B8JI8Cb HH3I<OH. B HeKOTOpbiX ry6epHH.HX CTa- JIH IIpH6eraTb K BOJibHOHaeMHOMY Tpy,n;y, )l;8B8BIIIeMy 6onhmyro oT,n;a'ly. Ho rroaceMecTHoro paaB:HTR.H 3TO Hat.m- HaHne He HMeJIO: He XB8T8JIO CB060)l;HblX pa60'IHX pyK.
  37. 37. ITpoHHKHoBeHHe B eeJiheKoe xo3HReTBO TOBapuo- .rr;eueacul>Ix OTHOWeHHH BeJIO K poeTy KpeeThHHeKOrO npoH3BO.LJ;eTBa. CTpeMHTeJihHhiMH TeMn8MH npoHexo.rr;HJIO p8eeJioeHHe KpeeThHHeTBa. PH.rr;oM e M8eeo:H: 6e.D;HHKOB poe eJIOH «KallHTaJIHeTLIX» KpeCTL$111. 0HH 38HHM8JIHeh TOprOBJieH, pOCTOB~eCTBOM, BKJla,ll;hlBaJIH eBOH .LJ;eHhrH B npOMhlillJieHHOe npOH3BO,ll;eTBO. ll3 6oraThlX KpeeThHH BhlXO.LJ;HJIH KpynHhle npe.rr;npHHHMaTeJIH, KOTOphle BhlKy- II8JIHeh H8 eB060.D;Y 38 60JihillHe .rr;eHhrH H 38BO.LJ;HJIH eBOH cp86pHKH• .HpKHMH npHMepaMH MOryT enymHTh npe,ll;llpH- HHM8TeJibeKHe ,11;HH8eTHH Mop030BhlX, r8peJIHHhlX. CI>VIHAHCOBASI nOilVITVIKA E.CI>. KAHKPVIHA MHHHeTp cpH- H8HeOB E.~. KanKpun npoBO.LJ;HJI IIOJIHTHKY noKpOBH- TeJil>eTBa p83BHTHIO OTe"tJ:eeTBeHHOH IIpOMhlillJieHHOeTH H ToproBJIH. B 1839-1843 rr. OH rrpoBeJI .rr;eHemayiO pe- cpopMy. rJI8BHhlM IIJI8TemHhlM epe.rr;eTBOM eTaJI eepe6pH- HhlH py6Jih, H8 KOTOphiH MOmHO 6hlJIO 06MeHHTh 6YMam- Hhie accurua~u. roey.rr;apeTBeHHhlH 6IO.rr;meT BnepBhle 38 .LJ;OJirHe rO,ll;hl eTaJI 6e3.rr;ecpHIJ;HTHhlM (ero .LJ;OXO,ll;hl npeBhlillaJIH p8eXOAhJ). PecpopM8 K8HKpHH8 YKPenHJia .rr;eHemayiO e:aeTeMY Poe- eHH, erroeo6eTBOB8JI8 poeTy 3KOHOMHKH. O.rr;HaKo BeKope BHOBh H8qaJioeh neq8TaHHe 6yMamHhiX .rr;eHer, He o6eene- qeHHhlx .rr;paron;eHHhlMH MeTaJIJI8MH. P8eXO,ll;hl roey.rr;ap- eTB8 B 1855 r . IIO"'ITH B.LJ;BOe npeBhleHJIH ero .LJ;OXO,ll;hl. lie]gie]:ln;M IToMHMo HPM8poqao:H: ToproBJIH, npHeym;e:H: 8rp8pHoMy o6xn;eeTBY, B PoeeHH BO BTopo:H: qeTBepTH XIX B. HaqaJI8 pa3BHBaTheH noeTOHHH8H (B Mar83HHax, Ha phlHKax) TOproBJIH, HBJIHIOID;8He.H .HpKHM IIOK83aTeJieM 06- xn;eeTB8 HH.D;yeTpHaJihHoro. PoeJia H .rr;eHemH8H Maeea, Ko- TopyiO H8eeJieHHe MOrJIO HeiTOJih30BaTh .LJ;JIH IIOKyrrOK. Ee- JIH B H8qaJie XIX B. Kam.rr;m mHTeJil> PoeeHH paenoJiaraJI B epe,I1;HeM 17 KOIIeHKaMH .LJ;JIH npH06peTeHH.H TOBapOB, TO qepe3 50 JieT 3T8 eYMM8 YBeJIH"'IHJiaeh .rr;o 20 py6Jie:H:. ll Bee me enpoe H8 IIpO.LJ;YKII;HIO IIpOMhlillJieHHOeTH B yeJIOBHHX KpenoeTHOrO npaBa, eJia6oeTH IIO.LJ;a.BJIHIOIII;ero qJ£eJI8 KpeeTLHHeKHx xo3HHeTB YBeJIHqHBaJie.H Me.rr;JieHHo. 3TO TOpM03HJIO IIpOMhlillJieHHOe pa3BHTHe eTpaHhl. ITpo.rr;oJim8Jia paeTH H BHemHHH TOproBJIH. ITo Mepe pa3BHTH.H OTe"<IeeTBeHHOH npOMhlillJieHHOeTH MeHHJIHeh Ha- HMeHOB8HH.H BB03HMhiX TOB8pOB: 60Jihille eTaJIO IIOeTaB- JIHTheH MaiDHH H IIpOMhlillJieHHOrO o6opy.LJ;OBaHH.H, ehlphH, MeHLme - roTOBOH npo.rr;yKn;HH. CoKpaiiJ;8JieH BhlB03 H3 PoeeHH MeTaJIJia H JlhH.HHhiX H3,ll;eJIHH, 38TO HeyKJIOHHO yBeJIH"<IHB8JIHeh o6'heMhl BhlB038 xJie68. B To BpeMH KaK 6hieTpO Haebiiii;a.Bill8.HeH eo6eTBeHHhlMH TOBapaMH 3ana.D;- H8H EBpon8 Bee MeHLme Hym.rr;aJI8eh B poeeH:HeKHX TOB8pax, ro.rr; OT ro.rr;a p8emHp$[JleH BhlB03 HX B A3HIO. aHKpMH Erop <t>paH~eBM'f 1774- 1845 POCCV1iiiCKV1j;i rocyAapaseHHblj;i AeR- TeJlb. B 1812 r. - reHepan-V1HTeHAaHT 1-iil 3anaAHOiil apMV1V1, a c 1813 r. - rnasa V1HTeHAaHTCKoj;i cnyx6bl scej;i AelilasyiOU(eiil apMV1V1. MV1HV1CTp cpV1- HaHcos s 1823-1844 rr. ) B 1852 r. o6beM roprosn111 Ha KpynHeiilwetil s crpaHe HV1>t<eropog- cKoii1 S!pMapKe COCTaBII!Jl 57 MJlH py6neti1, a B MOCKS€, rge S!pMa- pOK He 6~no, o6beM roprosn111 npeB~CIIIJl B 3TO Bp€MSI 60 MJlH py6neill. 4ro raKoe npoMbiWJleHHbliil nepe- sopor? 4TO HOBOfO nOS!Bit1JlOCb B C€Jlb- CKOM X03Slii!CTB€ B nepsy10 nOJlOBIII- HY XIX s.? 4ro coxpaHIIIIlOCb or npe>t<HIIIX seKOs? .[loKa>KIIITe, YTO KpenocrHoe npa- so cgep>t<V1Bano pocr npoMbiWileH- HOCTIII. KaK noBJliiiS!Ila ¢1t1HaHcosaSl pe- ¢opMa E.cP. KaHKpii!Ha Ha 3KOHOMV1- YecKoe pa3Bit1TIIIe crpaHbl?
  38. 38. 06 OCHOBH~X HanpaaneH~~X ~ AB~)I(eH~~X 06lll€CTB€HH0!71 )1(~3H~ B Pocc~~ np~ H~Konae I 0 nepabrx rai71HbiX o6U.(ecrsax B npaaneH~e AneKcaHApa I KaKOBbl 6brn~ OCHOBHbl€ ~en~ AeKa6p~CTOB? 2.4. 06w,ecmeeHHbte iJeJLmeJw 1830- 1850 zz.: a) C.C. Yeapoe; 6) T H. FpaHoec~euu; 8) AC. XOMJLK06 A a)l(e ~HocrpaHHbre cnoaa. so- weAw~e a pyccKyro peYb, cnaa~­ Ho¢~nbr npeAnaran~ ~CKniDY~Tb ~3 ynorpe6neH~~ (Hanp~Mep, BMeCTo «ranoww> npeAnaran~ ro- sop~Tb «MOKpocrynbr»). O&IIIECTBEHHOE aaHJK.EHHE B rGAbl nPABBEHHR HHKGnAR I 8 1830-1850-x rr. Pocc111H nepe)f(V1Bana nep1110A senlll- Koro V1CTOpV1YecKoro nosopora or arpapHoro o6~ecrsa K o6~eCTBY V1HAYCTpV1anbHOMy. no3TOMY rnaBHbiM BO- npOCOM o6~ecrseHHolit )f(V13HV1 cran sonpoc o Hanpas- neHV1V1 AanbHelitwero pa3BV1TV1H crpaHbl. KOHCEPBAT~BHOE .AB~)f(EH~E rJiaBHbiM H.D;eOJIOI'OM C$op- MHpOBaBmerOCH pOCCHHCKOI'O KOHCepaaTH3Ma CTRJI C.C. YBapoB. BecKOHTpOJibHaH eaponeH3a~HH, no ero MHeHHIO, aeJia Poccnro K o6~ecTBeHHbiM KaTacTpo<t>aM H KpoaaabiM yco6H~aM. H36aBnTb Poccnro OT 3Toro cno- co6Hbl JlHIDb Te npHH~nbi, KOTOpbie npHC~H ee Hapo- .D;y: npaBOCJiaBHe, CaMO.n;epmaBne, HapO,ll;HOCTb. rJiaBHbiM cpe.n;H HHX oH C'lHTaJI npaaocJiaBHYIO aepy. CaMo.n;epma- ane ¥ BapOB O~eHHBaJI KaK CaMYJO 3$$eKTHBHYIO $OpMy BJiaCTH B POCCHH. Ilo.n; HapO,ll;HOCTbiO OH nOHHMaJI HCTO- pH'leCKHe Tpa.D;H~HH H ycTOH pyccKoro Hapo.D;a. Mem.D;Y aapo.D;OM H MOHapxoM, C'lHTaJI Yaapoa, acer.D;a cym;ecTao- aaJio HepMpbiBHOe ,ll;YXOBHOe e,ll;HHCTBO, KOTOpOe 6biJIO H 6y.D;eT rapaHTOM ycnemaoro pa3BHTHH PoccHH. KpynaeiimHMH TeopeTnKaMH KOHcepBaTHBHoro aanpaaJieHHH 6biJIH TaKme HCTopHKH H.r. YcmpR.JWB H M.II. IlozoiJun, nHcaTemi <P.B. ByJLzapun, H.H. Fpe'l, M H. 3azoc~eun. 6EPAJ1bHOE .llBI,1)KEH~E : 3AnA,AHHKH lr1 cnABs:IHOC%>H11bl PoccnticKHH JIH6epaJIH3M 6hiJI npe.D;CTaBJieH B 3TH I'O.D;bi 3ana.D;HHKRMH H CJiaBHHo<'PHJiaMH. IJpe.D;CTaBHTeJIHMH 3alla.D;HH'leCTBa 6biJIH HCTOpHKH T H. Fpa1i06C1CUU n CM. Co.ll.06be6, IOPHCT K.,rr KaBeJl.Uli, nncaTeJIH II.B. Annen~eoB, B.II. Bom~eun, H.C. TypzeneB. 0HH C"t!HTaJIH, "liTO MHpOBRH ~HBHJIH3a~HH e.D;HHa H Bbi- "t!JieHeHHe H3 Hee KaKOH-JIH60 CTpaHbl Be,ll;eT K 3ai'HHBa- HHIO. 3ana.D;HHKH rroJiaraJin, "liTO PoccHH CTaJia D;HBHJIH3o- BaHHbiM I'OCy.n;apCTBOM JIHIDb 6Jiai'O,ll;apH npeo6pa30BaHH- HM IleTpa I. 3a.D;a"lla PoCCHH, no HX MHeHHIO, COCTOSIJia B TOM, 'IT06bl npHMKHYTb K 3ana,Z~;y H o6pa30BaTb BMeCTe C HHM •e.D;HHYIO o6~e'leJIOBe"tleCKYIO KYJibTypHyiO CeMbiO•. CJiaBSIHO$HJibl (ny6JIH~HCThi 6paTbSI K.C. H H.C. A~e­ ca~eoBbL, 6paTbSI H.B. n II.B. KupeeBc~eue, JO.(/J. CaMa- pun, A.C. XoJ.tJLICOB, AH. KoweJLeB), aanpOTHB, OTCTaH- BaJIH H,ll;eiO CaM06biTHOCTH Kam,ll;OI'O HapO,ll;a, B TOM qHCJie n pyccKoro. roaopSI o PoccHn, DHH no.n;qepKHBaJIH oco- 6eHHOCTH ee I'OCy,ll;apCTBeHHOI'O H o6~eCTBeHHOI'O 6biTa, npaBOCJiaBHOH Bepbi. C 3TOH TOqKH 3peHHSI CJiaBSIHO$H-

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