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  • 1. w w w до підручника 0. Д. Карп’юк .4 bo ok .o ІІР Ф И Ир ь 8 ІІІЬ И івен ІО Н rg і і т і с ь т
  • 2. PEOPLE AND RELATIONSHIP 1. 1 . In a family with two children, do you think it’s better to be the older or the younger sister or brother? Why? To my mind it is better to be the youngest child, because he or she always has older brothers and sisters to help. And usually parents and grandparents get the youngest children what they want. 2. Does a child’ s position in the family have an influence on its personality? I think it does. 2 . About the youngest children? (4 ) About the children who have to look after their younger brothers and sisters (2) About Tom Hughes (1) About the only children (5) About the most competitive children (3) 3 . 1. Independent and sociable? — The READING 5a. 1- Competitive people always want to win. 2. Ambitions people want to be successful in life. 3. Spoilt children behave badly because they are given everything they want. 4. Selfish people think about themselves and not about other people. 5. Envious people think that someone loves another person more than them, or want what other people have. 6. Sociable people are friendly and enjoy being with other people. 7. Aggressive people get angry quickly and like fighting. 8. Charming people have an attractive personality that makes people like them. 9. Responsible people are people you can trust. 10. Affectionate people show that they like people very much. 11. Bossy people like giving orders to other people. .4 bo ok .o middle children are. 2. Charming and affectionate? — The youngest ones are. 3. Quite self-confident and ambitious? — The oldest children are. 4. Very organized and responsible? — The only child is. 5. rude — sensitive 6. calm — energetic rg 1. w 4. 1. well-bred — spoilt 2. unselfish — selfish 3. simple — ambitious 4. hard-working — lazy 5b. negative neutral affectionate aggressive ambitious energetic bossy competitive responsible jealous imaginative sociable manipulative moody charming selfish sensitive w w positive spoilt 6a. oldest children self-confident responsible bossy good leaders ambitious middle children independent competitive sociable jealous moody youngest children charming affectionate relaxed lazy manipulative only children spoilt selfish organized responsible imaginative
  • 3. 12. Manipulative people are good at influencing other people to do what they want. 13. Moody people are happy one minute and sad the next, and are often badtempered. 14. Independent people like doing things on their own, without help. VOCABLUARY 2. reliable — f; someone that can be trusted or depended on 3. talkative — h; liking to talk a lot 4. sensitive — g; easily hurt or offended by things that people say or able to feel physical sensations more than usual 5. patient — e; able to wait calmly for a long time or to accept difficulties without becoming angry I 6. mean d; unkind or unwilling to share 1, 1. generous — c; willing to give money, 1 honest — a; someone who doesn’ t lie spend time etc, in order to give them j 8. envious — b; wanting something that pleasure 1 someone else has 2. dis dishonest disorganized in-/im-/ir irresponsible insensitive bo ok .o rg ununambitious unfriendly unimaginative unkind unpatient unreliabe untidy unselfish unsociable .4 3. w w w positive clever relaxed hard-working cheerful honest generous reliable organized ambitious imaginative energetic 4 . Talkative — My friend is talkative because she likes to talk a lot. Honest — I’ m honest because I don’ t lie. Patient — My friend is patient because he accepts difficulties without becoming angry. Manipulative — My youngest sister is manipulative because she always gets what she wants. negative mean lazy stupid unpleasant untidy self-confident moody bossy spoilt envious Aggressive — My older brother is sometimes aggressive when he doesn’t get what he wants. GRAMMAR 1 . 1 . Bob used to work in a factory, but he doesn’t now.
  • 4. 2. 6. D you use to w id ear glasses? — N o, I didn’t use to w ear glasses. D you use to w id ear long hair? — N o, I didn’t use to w ear long hair. W hen did you use to com hom from e e school in a Y ear 1? — I used to com e from school at 2 o’clock. W hat books did you use to read w en h you cam to the place you live now e ? — I used to read book about adventures. W here did you u to live before you cam se e to the place you live now — N , I live ? ow in K harkov. I u sed to live in P oltava. D you use to play dolls/cars w en id h you w ere a little child? — Yes, I did. I used to play dolls/cars w hen I w s a a little child. .4 bo ok .o 1. W e used to have a dog when I was a child. 2. I used to like eating pork but now I hate it. 3. Bob used to play football before he became a dancer. 4. Wales used to be an independent country before it was part of Britain. 5. We used to have several horses. 6. Jane used to be a signer. 7. We used to live in Russia but now we live in Ukraine. 8. It used to work, now it doesn’ t. 6. W here did your parents use to live before they got m arried? 7 D you use to w . id atch T on Saturday V m orning w en you got up? h 8. D you use to get u early w id p hen you w ere a child? rg 2. Mary used to go to my school, but now she doesn’ t. 3. Andrew didn’t use to be very tall, but now he is. 4. Chris didn’ t use to drink coffee, but now he does. 5. We used to play football at the weekend, but now we don’ t. 6. There used to be a market every Friday, but now there isn’ t. 7. They didn’t use to wear a uniform to school, but now they do. 4. w 3, 1. Did you use to go to the same school as me? 2. I didn’t use to have so many things when I was a student. 3. What did you use to study? 4. Didn’t use to have long hair? 5. What did you use to do when you were a child? 6. He never used to be like that. w w L ookin g through the pages o f old magazines one can notice things that refer to the fashion of those days. W om en’ s skirts used to be long and formal. All men used to wear long hair. Children used to dress like adults. Men and women used to dance at formal balls. Women used to have many petticoats under their sticks. Men used to carry walking sticks. 1. Did your mother use to read to you before you started school? 2. Did you use to eat vegetables before you went to bed? 3. W ho used to visit your family at the weekend? 4. W hat did your grandparents use to give you when it was your birthday? 5. Were there a park near your house where you could play? LISTENING 1. A H : ave you ever tried to touch get in w ith your old friends? B Yes, I try to do it. : A W : hy do you try to get in touch w ith friends of your childhood? B W have m : e uch in com on and like to m recollect funny stories about our school life. I’m sure w e’ll stay friends. 2 . get on — ладити; have in com on — м m ати спільне; argue — сперечатися; k eep in touch — підтрим увати стосунки. 3. 1 an actor sh used to like . e 2. a friend she used to have + 3. a sport she used to play + 4. a teacher she used to hate + 5. a film she used to w atch several tim es. 4. 1. W hen did she and R ose stop seeing each other? — W hen they w ere 16. 2. W hen did they lose touch? — T hey lost touch after university< • 3. W hy didn’t she like the F rench teacher? — B ecause h used to be ru e de an didn’t like children and teaching. d
  • 5. SPEAKING 2. Do you speak differently when you are with different people? — Yes, I do. W ho with? — W ith my parents, friends, teachers, little children. Where? — In school, at home. Do you argue with some people? — Yes, sometimes. W ho do you argue with? — W ith my parents. W hen? — When they want me to help with the household chores, but I don’ t have time. They think that I ’ m lazy. Do you feel that you are more talkative with peers than with adults? — No, I don’ t. W hy? — Because I have similar personalities with my friends. .4 bo ok .o 5. How long have you known him/her? — I’ve known her/him for about 5 years. Where did you meet? — We met at school. Why do you get on well? — We get on well because we have a lot in common. What do you have in common? — We both love pop-music. Do you ever argue? What about? — Sometimes. About new songs of our favourite pop-singers. How often do you see each other? — Every week. How do you keep in touch the rest of time? — W e phone each other almost every day. Have you ever lost touch? W hy? When? — Never. Do you think you’ ll stay friends? — Yes, I hope so. rg 4. What happened as a result? — French was the only subject she ever failed at school. 5. W hy did she stop playing squash? — Because it’ s hard and aggressive. 6. W hy does she prefer tennis? — Because she can play tennis with friends outdoors. USE YOUR ENGLISH w w w la. 1- I used to get up at 6:30, but I c. Creative is original, artistic and imaginative. don’ t any more. 2. Did she always use to have long hair? d. Strong has well-developed muscles and can do hard physical work. 3. Did you use to have breakfast before e. Patient is calm and does not get * you go to work? annoyed or frustrated. ! 4. They didn’ t use to have a car, they f. Caring is helpful and sympathetic to '^’Tised to cycle everywhere. 5. He doesn’ t like coffee, so he used to other people. g. Brave is not afraid o f frightening or ■ drink tea in the morning. dangerous situations. , 6. He used to be a teacher, but now he h. Sociable is friendly and enjoys being works for Greenpeace. with other people. 1b. 1. — I used to argue with my boss i. Fair treats everyone equally and is not • but now we get on quite well. influenced by personal feelings. 2. + Lilly used to live in Kyiv but she j. Organized is efficient and good at moved to Donetsk last year. making and carrying out plans, 3.? Did you use to wear a long hair? You k. Fit, is healthy and in good physical look different. condition. 4. +W e used to be really close but now 1. Enthusiastic is interested in and we hardly ever meet. excited about something, 5.? Did you use to play with your parents m. Hard-working is not at all lazy, when you were a child? 2. a. A w ell-educated person has had n. Cheerful is always happy and optimistic. a good education. b. Energetic is always lively and doesn’t tire easily. 9 39 Супер ГД , 10 КЛ., KH. 1 З 3. Nina is jealous. She feels angry about not having what other have.
  • 6. X T >~ a .5 с о .er a го ct X го Iu л X Ol m О. < CQ О < ъи J3 u X < CsJ 5.1. Introduce yourself (name, surname, age). — My name is Bogdan Ivanenko. I’ m 15. I was born o f the 3rd o f June 1996 in Kharkiv. 2. Say something about your family, pets, hobbies, interests, likes and dislikes. — We are a family o f four: my father, my mother, my younger brother and I. My younger brother is ten. Our family lives in Poltava. W e have a nice three-roomed flat. My mother is about 40. She is an economist. We all love dearly our Mum and are always ready to help her about the house. My father is an experienced engineer. He is 42. He is always busy and very often he works overtime. My grandparents don’ t work now. They are on pension. My Granny is fond of gardening and my Grandpa likes to go fishing. Our fam ily is friendly. I like them very much. We don’ t have any pet. My hobby is reading and playing different computer games. 3. Describe yourself (your appearance: hair, eyes, build, what you usually wear). — I’ m tall and slender. I have dark hair, dark eyes, a strait nose and thin lips. I wear spectacles. And has to clothes I like to wear jeans and T-shirts. 4. Describe you character, giving examples to prove it. (Are you reliable, honest, lazy, boring, a coach potato, a chatterbox, bossy, gossipy, hard­ rg s і lazy — 11 j generous — 14 к moody — 5 1 hard-working — 12 m easy-going — 16 n reliable — 8 о cheerful — 1 p sensitive — 6 working, sporty, ambitions, etc?) — I ’ m not very lazy, I think that Гщ an ambition person because I set up high goals for my career, and I try to be a success in school. I am also an outgoing person. I like to go to discos, to parties with my friends. Certainly we talk a lot about life and our problems. 5. Say something about your friends. — I’ m a very sociable person there are a lot of people whom I can call friends. One of them is Oleg. He is seventeen. He left school last year and now he’s a student of University. Oleg is a future economist. He does not have much free time but if he has, Oleg likes to spend it in a good company. Oleg likes to listen to music, dance, watch new film s, discuss them and do many other interesting things. W e often go to the cinema, cafes, concerts and shows. Oleg is a good friend. He’ s always ready to help everybody who needs. My friend knows a lot of interesting facts about music, famous people and history. He is fond o f driving. Now his car is not very new and beautiful but he hopes to buy another one in the future. I am happy to have such good friend as Oleg. 6. Say something about school, your favourite subjects and teachers. — Like many other children when I was a child I went to a kindergarten. A t the age of 6 I went to school. I was very proud when I became a pupil. Our school is a fine four-storeyed building in the center of Poltava. The school-building is not very large, but there are many classrooms and specialized rooms for studying different subjects. We study Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ukrainian, Russian, English, History, Geography and Biology in specialized rooms. Chemistry, Physics and Biology are taught in well equipped science rooms. Schemes and tables are on the walls. There is good equipment for laboratory experiments in the labs. Mathematics is taught in the science rooms on the third floor. There is a special room equipped with calculators and computers. There are many specialized rooms for studying English in our school. Tape-recorders and record- oo k. o О (tj 4. a untidy — 9 b optimistic — 7 с sociable — 2 d talkative — 5 e reserved — 13 f shy — 3 g impatient — 10 h ambitious — 4 .4 b ct w a w w 2 Ъ Jane is talkative. She never stops talking. Taras is shy. He does not say a lot. My grandmother is mean. She hates spending money. His sister is imaginative. She is able to think o f new ideas. My mother is too sociable. She talks to everybody. My best friend is loyal. He never betrays friends.
  • 7. Do you have a close friend? — Yes, I do. Who is your best friend and why? — Lena is my best friend, because she is very cheerful, honest and energetic. What does she do for a good friendship? — She never betrays her friends and never tells lies. Do you make friends easily? — No. I don’ t. W hy do some children have so many friends? — Because they are easy — going and generous. What should friends always do? — They should always help each other and be honest. W hat should friends never do? — They should never be impatient and tell lies. Do real friends share secrets? — I think they do. Do you keep your friend’ s secrets? — Yes, o f course. w w w 7. 39» rg Do you help your friends with their school homework? — Sometimes. Do your friends help you? — Not often, because I do well on my school subjects. Do your parents have close mends? — Yes, they do. Do gossipy children have a lot of friends? — No, they don’t. Is there a b oy /g irl in your class who hasn’ t got a friend? — Yes, there is., Is there a b oy /g irl in your class who’s got a lot o f friend? — Yes, there is. How can you help children who don’ t make friends easily? — I can invite him or her to my birthday party with my own friends. If you have a brother or a sister, do you get on well with his/h er friends? — Yes, I do. Does your sister/brother get on well with your friends? — Yes, she/he does. .4 bo ok .o players are widely used at our lessons. There is the Assembly Hall on the first floor of our school. W e usually gather there to mark holidays. On the second floor there is a gym. W e like our gym, and we like to spend the breaks there. During the breaks we usually played basketball or volleyball there. The dining-room and the canteen are on the ground floor. On the ground floor there is a workshop too. There we are taught to use some tools and machines. 7. Say what you would like to be when you grow up. — Studying to be a lawyer represents the fulfillm ent o f my longest held dreams. Whatever I could do as a lawyer to help people would gave me a great satisfaction. The duty o f the lawyer is not only to punish people for various crimes: from serial murder to terrorism, but they must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society. The lawyers should help those people, who committed an error to find the right road in their life. 8. Say something else that you think is important to know about you. — Sometimes I like to stay home alone, especially when I need some relaxation. Then I listen to music, watch television, read books or play computer games. W RITING 1. Is writing a process or a skill? — To my mind writing is a process. What reasons do we write for? — We write for doing home tasks, planning, organizing our ideas, communicating with other people, passing the exams. W hat kinds of writing do you know? — I know such kinds o f writing as articles, reports, letters, reviews, novels, stories, drafts, compositions and so on. Why is it necessary to study writing? — It is very important to become a good writer for professional development to bring your ideas and thoughts to other people. 2b. I ’ve changed the idea that writing is not only a process, but it is also a skill. 4. The International Pen Friend Club PALMERSTON PLACE Edinburg EN 125BJ United Kingdom Full name: Ostap Petrenko Home address (including country):58 Svobody str. 16174 Kharkiv. Ukraine. Nationality: Ukrainian Date of Birth (day/m onth/year): 3 October 1996 Sex: Male Main interest: swimming
  • 8. a 5a. <=Z d ro iC s I T >v Q. 5 Ъ 0 з го С П 1 H ow lon g have you know n each other? — W e have known each other about 5 years. W hat does your friend look like (physically)? — He is rather slim, not very tall, his hair is brown, his eyes are grey, and his face is oval. W hat is your friend like? (use as many adjectives as you can think o f to describe him /her). — My best friend is responsible, energetic, clever, hard-working, cheerful and honest. W hy is he/she your best friend (what do you like most about him /her)? Taras is my best friend because we have very similar personalities. ok .o го CHECK YOUR SKILLS bo Є < ІС J3 U X < CM EM w w <■ CQ О w ш Q. 4. I used to go to the gym three times as week, but not any more. I’ m too busy. 1 . 1 have a close friend called Natalia. I’ve 5. He didn’t use to like children, but now he’ s the perfect father. known her for about 12 years now. We 6. He used to be very patient, but now met at work she was a colleague o f mine he’ s really impatient. at the company where I used to work, 7. Did they use to go to the bench a lot and we used to have our coffee breaks at when they were kids? the same time. 8. W e didn’ t use to have a long holiday, W e get on well although we don’t have a lot in common, we have quite different but this year we’ re going to the Crimea interests. We don’t work together any for six weeks! more, and when I changed jobs we lost 2. CHOOSE THE CAREER! touch for a couple o f years. But now we keep in touch regularly. W e phone each other once a week, and we see each other LISTENING about twice a month. We don’t often argue, only sometimes about films as we 1 .1 . model have completely different tastes! 2. tailor 2. W hy Learning How to Write? 3. scientist 1. She used to go to the cinema every 4. pilot week, but she doesn’t have time now. 5. lawyer 2. W e never used to eat out but now we 2. 1- work in a fashion industry? — С go to a restaurant twice a week. 2. work with tourists? — D 3. Did you use to wear a uniform when you went to school? 3. work with children? — A .4 VOCABULARY X What do you have in common? — A lot o f things, we both love the same music and playing football. How do you know that you can rely on him /her? (give some examples) He always helps me. When I was ill, he helped me to do homework and when my mother wasn’ t at home he bought me some medicine. Has your friend ever let you down? W hen? W hy? — He has never disappointed me. What about you? Are you a good friend? Can you prove it? — I think that I ’ m a good friend. I if there is some misunderstanding between us I try to make peace as soon as it is possible. W hat do you and your best friend do together? — W e spend a lot o f time together, we often listen to music. Taras is very interesting to talk to, we discuss film s, love, teachers, girls, cars. Have you ever quarreled? If yes, how did you make up with your best friend? — No, we have never quarreled. rg 2 Ъ What sort of person would you like to write to? Energetic, imaginative, sociable. Reasons for wanting a pen friend: to know more about life o f youth in Scotland, its traditions and culture. How well do you write in English? Quite well. Signature Ostap Petrenko.
  • 9. 4. office work? — В 5. work at training courses for adults? — E 4. They need a person who can drive a car — A 5. The applicants for this job need a special education and good analytical abilities — В READING 3 . 1. This work requires an ability to act both independently and also as part of a team — С 2. This work requires both computer knowledge and teaching experience — E 3. They have vacancies for various kinds o f people, but they have to speak more than one language — D -or lawyer actor conductor teacher doctor worker tailor -ist scientist -lan librarian other psychologist accountant nurse artist electrician musician .4 bo ok .o plumber 1 .1 . bricklayer d a skill to build walls 2. carpenter с a skill to make things using wood 3. plumber e a skill to fit and repair water pipes, bathrooms, etc. 4. electrician a a skill to fit and repair electrical things 5. mechanic b a skill to repair cars rg 2. VOCABULARY biologist M y b roth er w ork s in the tou rism industry as a waiter. My sister works in fashion industry as a model. My father works in the building industry as a bricklayer. My uncle works in the shipping industry as an electrician. w 4. w GRAMMAR w 1 . A. W e use the Past Simple to mention about the events in the past. Example: I visited my aunt last weekend. B .W e use the Present Perfect to talk about the results and completed actions or events that are connected with the present. Example: I’ve lived in this town for 6 years. My brother has been to London. Jane has already done her homework. Look! C. W e use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about an action that began in the past and is still in progress or an action that has recently stopped and which explains the present situation. obstetrician pilot architect Example: I’ve been working for this company since 2002. David has been playing tennis so he’ s really tired. Peer Parker is an English language teacher. He was always good at languages at school, so he decided to take his degree in French and German. W hen he had finished his university studies, he began teaching in a secondary school in England. Two years later, however, he met someone by chance who offered him a job teaching English to foreign students during the lon g sum m er holidays. H is students were adults and he enjoyed the work greatly. He soon had found he was more interested in teaching his own language to foreigners than foreign languages to English schoolboys. Since then he has been specializing in this work. He has found that one of the advantages of the job is that it enables him to find work almost everywhere in the world. First he has gone to Africa for 2 years and then he spent a year in Arabia. After this he went to Greece where he has worked for the last 3 years. He has not been to South America yet but he wants to 2.
  • 10. а .5 с о о. го ч; X го J2 X 0> ш CL < CQ О < ъс U X < find a job? B. For three years. It has been really difficult. C.How many jobs have you had? D. About thirty, maybe more I have done everything. I.H ow long have you been standing here today? F. I have been waiting since 8:00 this morning, and I’ m freezing. 1. She has already been working at this pharmaceutical company for 10 years. 2. She is a professional with broad work experience. 3. He chose this creative profession because he was a creative person. 4. They all work as a team. 5. He is responsible for the safety of all documents and files. 6. All his colleagues respect him for this professionalism. 4. 5.1 - Is it necessary to get higher education if you want to become an accountant? — Yes, it is. 2. W hy does an accountant need to get additional education? What ways can h e/she get it? — An accountant needs to present at different seminars, work shops, conferences, to listen to reports and discusses the ways o f applying fresh knowledge. H e/she needs to get additional education in order to learn about new laws and rules and to do financial reports in a proper way. 3. What is the journalist who works in some local newspaper responsible for? — H e/she responsible for writing articles and informing the society about different events and meetings, they also meet different people and take their interviews. 4. W hat way can you characterize the profession o f a journalist? — The profession o f a journalist is exciting, though sometimes may be dangerous. 5. What does the occupation of a system administrator require? — It requires to be responsible for the safety o f all documents and files, to prevent the system from receiving viruses, to develop different programs, to know a lot about office equipment and to fix them if it is necessary. .4 bo ok .o т 5. How long have they been going out together? I have been studying English for eight years. You have been reading that book for months! Have you been waiting for a long time? How long has she been living there? I have been rented this flat for three years. Has she been working here for a long time? w S X 4 . A. How long have you been trying to w пз 3. 1. How long have you been having your car? 2. Ron has been working as a postman for the past month. 3. Mary has found a good job. 4. I have been writing an essay all day. 5. How long have you been living in Kyiv? w 2 Ъ Qj го naljourist — journalist countacant — accountant rg go there next. He taught men and women of all ages and of various nationalities. He also learnt to get on with all kinds of people and to adjust to different ways of life. So far he has not regretted his decision to follow this career. 6. It is Friday evening. One of you has decided to phone the other for a chat. Ask and answer questions about what you’ve been doing this week. A. Hi, there. I’ m tired. I ’ve had a terrible week! B. W hat have you been doing? A. I’ ve been working at my project since 8.00 every morning till late at night. SPEAKING LISTENING ем CJ N CJ 4 2 . ste m s y m in is tr a d a to r — sy stem administrator 1 .1 . W hat’s your name? E.Lisa Sharon 2. How old are you? D. 27 3. What do you do? B . Radio presen ter/reporter for The Word,
  • 11. 2b. A: What is you name? Peter Parker: Peter Parker. Interviewer: How old are you? Peter Parker: 25. Interviewer: What do you do? Peter Parker: I work in a secondary school in London. Interviewer: Do you like your job? Peter Parker: I enjoy my job greatly. 4. a. are normally done by women? — Jobs o f a teacher, a doctor, a tailor, a cooker, a n urse, a w aitress, a lib ra rian , an accountant, an economist are normally done by women. b. are generally well-paid? — Jobs o f a lawyer, a diplomat, a deputy, a businessman are generally well-paid. c. require a lot o f training? — A job o f a doctor requires a lot o f training. d. are very stressful? — Jobs of a surgeon, a militiainan are very stressful. e. have long holidays? — Teachers have long holidays. f . are dangerous? — Jobs o f a trainer of wild animals, a fireman, a submariner, a cosmonaut are dangerous. bo ok . Were there any interesting jobs in the newspaper yesterday? office B: Well, there were an administrator and a porter on ship. A : An office administrator doesn’ t sound very suitable for me but I don’t have any one. B: I’ d prefer the job on cruises ship. A : So do L Visiting Hawaii is my dream. B: And they provide full training and the chance to earn $ 5 ,0 0 0 per month. A : W hat’ s the phone number? B: It’ s 337-35-71. 3. Interviewer: or g a daily magazine programme on London’ s Kiss 100 FM 4. Where do you work? C.Kiss House, Holloway Road, London 5. What do you wear to work? G. Everything goes — casual. 6. How much do you earn? F. J15.000 — J20.000 per year, including TV work. 7. What do you spend it on? A. J 200 rent per month, J 200 clothes, J 50 bank, J 60 petrol, J 40 magazines and books. USE YOUR ENGLISH w w w .4 1. Interviewer; So, how long have you been lived here? Mary: For about 6 months now. I: W hy did you choose Beirut? M: Because John my husband and I have always loved Arab culture and the language. John’s an English teacher and he has got a job here in a language school. I: W hy did you want to take a year o ff? M: Basically I want a break from teaching. I love teaching children but I need change. Also I had drawn and painted since I was little but I had never really had the chance to study drawing. So this seem like the perfect opportunity to have a change and learn to draw properly. I: What have you done here since you arrived? M: We have found a fantastic art teacher, called Fatima, and I have had classes with her since October. She’ s great and she speaks English, which is lucky because I don’t know much Arabic yet. But I’ ll learn. I: Is Arabic a difficu lt language to learn? M: Very difficult! Especially the pronunciation. 3. 1- Floyd has a chance to get the job because he has a current driver’ s license and knows a lot of cars. 2. Helen hasn’ t got enough qualification for bilingual secretary because she can’ t read or write Spanish. 4a. A : Does your job require a lot o f practice? B: Yes, of course. Doctors must have a lot o f practice and besides have an excellent knowledge and education. A : Where did you get the necessary education? B: A t Medical National Academy in Kharkiv. A : Oh, I’ d like to become a doctor too. What do you advise me to do to become better acquainted with this profession?
  • 12. В: Look for an occupation suited for your abilities. I don’t think that this profession suits you. 4b. What го )£. S I т .5 с 0 3 го сг 1 WRITING la . TYPES OF WRITING Personal & Social W riting phone messages р < CQ О < U X < C4J rsJ w (U ш Q. З з . W h a t is the style o f the letter? W hy? What is the purpose of the letter? Is it personal or professional? Name the type of the letter. The style of the letter is formal, because Mary Blake doesn’ t know Jane Smith. Mary wants to give information about her in order to get the job. It is professional letter. It is formal letter. w I Study Writing ( Personal) making notes from lectures w U л rg ; о .4 bo ok .o 2 с: Q. та are the advantages? Is your job very stressful? Is it well-paid? Is driving license essential? Are communication and inter — personal skills required? A problem o f choosing a profession is very important for me. Certainly I have thought this question over for a long time. My parents have their own opinion on it. But as the time o f leaving school is closer, my worries become stronger and stronger. As the most o f my friends and classmates I am going to enter the university or some other higher educational institution. I expect to get a ‘ Certificate of M aturity’ with good and excellent marks. But I realize that a lot of young people will bring their ‘ Certificates’ with excellent marks to the selection committees of the universities. As for me I have no aptitude for mastering the technique. But at the same time I don’t know if I ’ ll manage to get a good job after graduating from the humanitarian department o f the university. I want to enter the department in some way connected with management. To my mind one who chooses this profession must be very communicative. And of course, if you want to gain something in this field, you have to know economics, finance, psychology, law and management. 3b. The places she has visited — 7. I like travelling. I have been to Spain, Italy and Britain. This is my second visit to England. Last year I stayed with my pen friend’ s family in London for a month. Addresses she is writing to — 3. Jane Smith, Happy Holidays, Baker St, Leeds, 247B. Her knowledge of languages — 6. I am seventeen years old and I come from Portugal. A t the moment I am studying at a language school near Bristol. I can speak English, Portuguese and a little Spanish. Professional W riting contracts The things she is good at — 8. I enjoy playing sports. I can play basketball, tennis and volleyball. I ’ m good at swimming, too. I can’ t play a musical instrument, but I have a good voice and enjoy singing. Her personal qualities — 9. I’ m sure that I would make a good h osl^ s. I ’m very sociable and I like helping other people. Sender’ s address — 1. 12 St. John’ s St. Bristol. BR27FU. Reason for writing — 5. I read your advertisement in Teen Magazine and I would like to apply for a job as a Happy Holidays hostess this summer. Sender’ s signature — 11. Signing o f f — 10. Yours sincerely. Sender’ s name — 12. Mary Blake. Greeting — 4. Dear Ms Smith. Date — 2. 16 March. 4. Mary Cooper Happy Holidays Green St. Liverpool L 26RE
  • 13. Dear Ms Cooper, My friend told me about, your advertisement in Teen Magazine and I would like to apply for a job as a Happy Holidays host this summer. I ’ m 15 years old and I have come from Ukraine. Now I’ m studying at language school near London. I can speak English, Ukrainian, Russian and a little French. I like travelling, reading and playing computer games. I enjoy playing sports, meeting new people, working outdoors, helping people, learning more and I like to improve my language skills. I’ m sure that I would be a good host. I’ m very friendly and sociable. I look forward to hearing from you. Your sincerely Taras Petrenko CHECK YOUR SKILLS LISTENING 3a. It is a formal letter. 3b. Name: Irina Fedirko w w w .4 bo ok .o 1. My cousin Liza is an interpreter. She gets a good salary. Liza speaks English and French fluently. She studied at the university and travelled a lot. It helped her to improve her language skills, learn more about culture and traditions. Liza has an experience o f working as an interpreter for seven years. My older brother Denis is a manager. His job is well-paid. Although it is sometimes difficult to get in touch with him during the day, but his profession is very interesting. First he graduated from a university where he got Master’s degree in economics. Denis’ work requires a lot of teamwork. I know he is quite successful. I’ m proud of him. A s for me... W ell, I am a secretary at a textile factory. W e receive many letters o f application, because our factory offers good work conditions. Next years I am going to get a Bachelor degree in psychology and to apply for position of a personnel manager. I know the director needs a person who can help to work with the stuff. a student hostel last September and I have lived there since then. 2. A : Has your brother found a job yet? B: Yes, he has just started work in a hotel. rg VOCABLUARY GRAMMAR 2. !■ A: How long have you been being at university? B: Started two years ago. I’ m in my third year now. A : Do you live with your parents? B: I had been living with them for the first two years but then I moved into Age: 16 Sex: Female Knowledge o f English: have no problem communicating with the Englishspeaking visitors Experience: organized a performance with the school’ s drama group, had an experience in working with young people. Lack of Experience: have no experience in organizing games. Likes: handball and babysitting. Dislikes: not very good at sitting in a classroom for a long. The reason o f applying: to improve English and to get an experience in organizing. 4a. A a. b. c. d. e. junior school teacher in Britain: earns about 16 thousand pound year trains for 3 years works about 9 hours a day starts work at about 8 o ’ clock finishes work at about 5 o ’ clock 4c. How many years did you spend at university training? How many hours do you work a day? A t what time do you usually start your work? When do you finish your work?
  • 14. 3. WHY GO т о SCHOOL? s X T a 5 'c 0 3 >S Q. fO Cl 1 p u J3 X <u Ш < CQ О " 'j < JH u X < ea CJ N CM fcii» um ii:’: * - 2. 1- С W hy do some students like going to school, while others don’ t? 2. E Does school deal only with class activities on different subjects? 3. В What way does school provide students with knowledge? 4. F Where do we spend considerable time with our friends? 5. A W hat’ s the difference between the Internet and school? 6. D What other skills does school develop except the educational ones? 3. 1. Do you like school? — Yes, I do (No I don’ t). 2. Do you know anybody who hates school? W hy does he/she hate it? — Yes, I do. My best friend hates Chemistry. 3. In what subjects are you doing well? — I am doing well in Literature, Ukrainian and English. 4. Are you pressed by your parents and teachers? — Yes, I ’m pressed by my parents. 5. How many friends do you have among your classmates? — I have many friends. 6. What grades do they get in most subjects? In English? ^ From 7 to 11. In English their grades are better. 7. Do you use the Internet? What for? — Yes, I do. It provides different information and I send e-mails to my friends. 8. Can the Internet help in your study? Prove. — Yes, of course. For my last project about pollution o f water I’ve got information from the Internet. 9. W hat extracurricular activities do you or your friends take part in? — As for me I take part in musical performances and my best friend likes volleyball. 10. Do you take part in any sports competitions? — No, I don’t like PT lessons, running, jumping and gymnastics are not for m^. .4 bo ok .o n: w d w d; w iC 2 Ъ Q. re 1. If you ask students about school, their first reaction is usually very different. W hy is that so? — Some of the students hate school, because they are not successful with their marks, and pressed by other parents and by teachers or mayby they don’ t have friends at school. Others like school, they are going to get their education, and enjoy taking part in different school activities. Can you imagine life without school? W h y/w hy not? — As for me school is not only a place o f education. It is an attractive place where I can develop my skills in different clubs. Besides at school I spend considerable time with my friends. That’s why I cannot imagine my life without school. 5. rg READING 1. F .B oth the Internet and school provide students with knowledge. 2. T.School provides young people with critical thinking and social skills. 3. T .If you have an interest in going on to higher education you will find school as an interesting place. 4. F. School is the place of formal education. 5. T. School provides with opportunities to develop students’ talents. 6. T. Friends are people with whom we spend considerable time going to school. 7. T. Everybody should realize that school is one o f the main social environments for young people. VOCABULARY 1. A an assembly hall В science laboratories С a cloakroom. A library, the Headmaster’ s office, an exam. A history room, a subject, a medical room. A student, a stuff room, a recreation area. A gym, a canteen, a classrooms. 2. 1. State school is a school paid for by the government which gives free education. 2. Private school is a non-government school where you have to pay.
  • 15. 1. You must learn this poem. 2. W e must study the map before we start our journey. 3. She is learning to be a doctor by watching the work o f her more experienced colleagues. 4. Mary is learning to swim. 5. We soon learn, to do as we were told in Mr. Hughes’ class! 6. Mike is studying medicine at college because he wants to be a doctor. 7. I ’ m trying to learn Spanish. 8. I learnt to ride a bike when I was five. 1 If I don’t get into university I’ ll be . a shop asistant. 2. I’ ll have a big party if I have enough money. 3. If I pass my exams well I’ ll go to the Black Sea with my friend. 4. We won’t get a plane if you don’ t hurry. 5. If I get my first salary I’ ll buy a gift for my parents. 6. Y ou ’ll fail the exam if you don’t study. 7 . He’ ll be late for work if he doesn’t get the early bus. 1. Don’t wait for me if I am late. 2. W ill you call me if I give you my number? 3. Do you mind if I borrow your dictionary? 4. I get hungry if I don ’ t eat anything. 5. The food spoils if the fridge is turned o ff. 6. Is it OK if I take your bike to the store? ' 7 . W ill they read this magazine if I could leave it? 8. The ground gets wet if it rains. 4. .4 bo ok .o 3. 2. rg 3. Nursery school is a school for very young children, e. g. 1-4. 4. Primary school is a school for young children, e. g. 4-11. 5. Secondary school is a school for older children, e. g. 11-18. 6. Boarding school is a school where pupils live, eat, and sleep. 7. Head teacher is a ‘boss’ o f a school. 8. Professor is a senior university teacher. 9. Student is a person who is studying at a collage or university. 10. Pupil is a child who is at school. 11. Graduate is a person who has finished university and has a degree (e. g. in economics). w w w 5. 1. If Albert can repair his bicycle, he’ ll go cycling. 2. Ben will come to school by bus if he is late. 3. You will not see the square if you look GRAMMAR out o f the window. 4. W e’ll see old things if the history 1. If you drop that plate it will break into museum is open. a million pieces. 5. Mary will not go to the theatre if she If he doesn’t know the answer he can cannot get a ticket. find the answer for you. 6. 1. If she needs a radio she can borrow If you are hungry you can get something mine. to eat. 2. If he goes on telling lies, nobody will If you call them now you can tell them believe a word he says. you’ ll be late. 3. If he likes the house, will he buy it? If Carla doesn’ t study she probably will 4. If you come late, they do not let you fail the exam. in. If I give you my number you can call me 5. He’ ll be late for the train if he does tomorrow. not start at once. If you don’t want to read it I’ ll throw 6. If you put on the kettle I’ ll make the the magazine away. tea. If you hurry you can still get the early 7 . If he is late we’ ll go without him. train. If she arrives late she will miss the opening ceremony. 8. I’ ll be very angry if he makes any more mistakes.
  • 16. 1. 1. In Great Britain school begins at the age o f a) 5-6 2 . The 1st schools to which children go о а го ч; X го J3 X О ) m Q. «а : оо О 2 < ■iC XI U CJ N CJ N .4 bo ok .o a .5 с 3. 1. Primary education includes infant schools and junior schools. 2. Compulsory secondary education starts at the age o f 11-12 and lasts 5 years. 3. Most British children get their secondary education at comprehensive school. 4. Many pupils at the age of 16 leave school and go to a college to choose more practical courses. 5. Pupils who decide to enter a university should pass Advanced level exams. 6. Secondary education is available to all children in Britain. 7. Only less than 5% go to public schools. 8. Private schools where 13-19 years olds study are called independent schools. 9. The schools where pupils live and study are called boarding schools. w s 1 т >> 5. To enter the British university you should a) take ‘A ’ level exams w d: 0 го 10. Many people believe that children should have equal opportunities at the start. w 2 Ъ a го ъа are called c) infant schools 3. They left their primary school when they are b) 11 4. They take the national General Certificate in Secondary Education exams at the age o f c) 16 5. What do you know about the system of education in our country? — Secondary education is free and compulsory. General educational schools have three stages: primary, basic and senior. Is elementary school compulsory in Ukraine? — Yes, it is. At what age do children start going to school in our country? — At the age of 6. What types o f schools are there in Ukraine? — There are primary, basic and senior schools and there are also new types of schools gymnasiums, lyceums and private schools for gifted children. An important role in the educational training schools. Post-secondary education is provided by technical schools and colleges training young specialists and institutions o f higher learning: universities, academics and institutes. Which school subjects do you have? W hy? — We have M ath ,. Physics, Chemistry, Ukrainian, Russian and English languages, Ukrainian and W orld Literatures, History, Geography, Biology, Art, Music, PT and others. rg LISTENING Schooling in Ukraine General secondary education is compulsory. Post-secondary education is provided in different ways. Secondary school has three stages: primary, basic and senior. New types o f schools appeared: gymnasiums, lyceums and private schools. Post secondary education is available by vocational training schools, universities and institutes. Higher education gives different qualifications: junior specialist (Bachelor’ s), specialist. Master’ s Degree. Ukraine cooperates with more than 50 international educational organizations. 4. SPEAKING 1. What does your classroom look like? W ould you like to change anything about your class? — Our classroom is big and light. There are new 16 desks, a black­ board, one table and a chair for a teacher. As for as our classroom is specialized one there is a good equipment for chemical laboratory experiments, schemes and tables on the walls. I don’ t want to change anythink about our class. There are a lot of flowers on windowsills. W hat is your favourite subject? Why do you like it? — My favourite subject is English. I think it very much depends on the teacher o f this or that subject. She is very tactful and patient. W e never see her face angry or unfriendly and she is a very good professional. How do you prepare for lessons? Do you often forget to do your homework? Are you a hard-working student? — When I come home I have dinner, then I rest a little. Sometimes I talk to my friends
  • 17. over the telephone. A fter that I start preparing for lessons. I do not often forget to do my homework. I am neither hard-working nor lazy student. Have you ever been late for school? W hen? W hy? What happened? — Yes, I have. I don’ t exactly remember when but the main reason is the transport, I live far from my school. Would you like to be a teacher? Why? Why not? — I don’t like to be a teacher because I think it is very hard to teach children. What kind of activities do you have at school? Do you participate in any of them? — We have an opportunity to take part in dramatic, sport and art chubs. As far as I like basketball I participate in school and interschool sports competitions. 2. 1. I started school at the age of 7. 2. It was general educational school. 3. I have never changed school. 4. I’ m going to take Math, History, Ukrainian and English. 5. As the most o f friends and classmates I am going to enter the university or some other higher educational institution. USE YOUR ENGLISH 1. 1 She won’ t start primary school e if she isn’t four years old d if she doesn’ t learn hard 3 I’ ll have to go to a new school f I pass my ‘ A ’ level exams 4 If I get home с I’ ll do my homework at once .4 bo ok .o rg 2 She won’t pass her exams 5 I think I ’ ll go on holiday a if I finish my exams 6 Her parents will get her a present b if she gets good marks w w w 2. American Schools Americans have always aimed for equal opportunities in education. Americans spend six years in infant school, four or six years in junior or high school. At the end of every school year the pupil takes a test. If he doesn’ t do well he has to repeat a year once more. If he does well he goes into the next class. School education is free. 1. a) abilities 2. a) infant 3. a) secondary 4. a) writes a composition 5. a) behave well 6. a) pays for school 7. a) education 8. a) successful 9. a) class 10. a) obligatory 11. a) high 12. a) go 13. a) grammar tasks A t more advanced level pupils can choose some subjects. Pupils take an active part in extracurricular activity. Many different sports are also available. At the end of their time at school, most students get a secondary school diploma. If they want to go to college, they take college admission tests. Teaching in the country is usually very informal. Students often work together in groups and go to the teacher only when they do their homework. b) opportunities b) nursery b) primary b) learns a poem b) do well b) behaves well b) books b) advanced b) school b) available b)secondary b) take b) their homework c) success c) elementary c) junior c) takes a test c) pay for school c) does well c) subjects c) fundamental c) extracurricular c) equal c) primary c) make c) need help
  • 18. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3b. 1. pre-school education 2. primary education 3. secondary education a ro X a .5 Ъ Exams School kindergarten Age 1 -6 Grade Secondary school: Primary school (compulsory) 6 -9 first grade second grade third grade fourth grade Literature, Math, History, Geography, Botany, Biology, PT, Labour Training, Music, Physics, Chemistry, English, Russian, Ukrainian, Chemistry, A rt, Music Ukrainian Math English Basic school (compulsory) 1014 Ukrainian Math English Chemistry Geography History Senior school. Vocational Training schools. Technical school, college. Institutions of Higher learning. University, Academy fifth grade sixth grade seventh grade eighth grade ninth grade tenth grade eleventh grade twelfth grade Literature, Math, History, Geography, Botany, Biology, PT, Labour Training, Music, Physics, Chemistry, English, Russian, Ukrainian, Chemistry го et X bo ь jQ X <» L -О U w 4. w 1. How long have you been studying English? — I’ve been studying English for 9 years. 2. What was your last English course like? — We learnt to read, write and speak English. After our teacher had explained us new expressions and words we wrote down new words into our vocabularies. We retold texts, asked and answered questions, made up dialogues. We wrote grammar tests, dictations and compositions. 3. How did you get on with the other students? — I got on well with everybody. 4. Have you tried learning any other languages? How did you find it? — No, I haven’ t. 5. W h o’ s the best language teacher you’ve ever had? W h o’ s the worst? w < .4 Ш Ь. < C Q О ok .o о S rg Q Ъ Subject A rt, Music, PT, Math, Read_____________ ing_____________ Reading, W riting Ukrainian, English, Russian, Maths, Nature, Art, Music, PT, Literature, Labour Training compulsory schooling subject taught exams taken private schools 1517 — My best language teacher I ’ve ever had is my teacher o f English. 5. English is the language o f international communication in many areas of life: trade, air and sea transport, tourism, sport and entertainment. More and more people also need English for studying at universities and colleges. New ideas in science, technology and medicine happen so quickly that it is impossible and very expensive to translate everything into different languages. (1) В So most things are published in English, and if you want to keep up with the latest ideas in any subject, you need English. Millions of people around the world want to learn English. Many o f them come to Britain (and other English-speaking countries) to study at language schools, especially in the summer. There are
  • 19. bo ok . 6. W hy is English important? W hat are some pieces o f advice given to choose a good course? W hat way can you reach better results while learning English in Britain? you university for the next academic year starting in September. G) I am 28 years old and I’ve got a Bachelor’s degree in Art History from the University of Cambridge. I continued my studies and last year I was awarded a Master’s degree. I have always been interested in classical art, literature and languages. As a student at Whitby Secondary School I passed three A level exams; History, Latin and Classical Literature. Since the completion of my studies at Cambridge University I have been working as a curator at Whitby Town Museum. I have enjoyed my job enormously. However, I feel I need to continue my professional development and expand my knowledge of classical cultures. I believe that tfiking a place on the MA Classical Archeology Course would enable me to gain very valuable new insights into the classical period. Furthermore, it would give me the opportunity to do field work, which has been my wish for many years. B) I enclose my Resume with further details of my qualifications and work experience. I hope that you will consider me for admission to the course. I look forward to hearing from you soon. D) Yours faithfully, F) Catharine M. Shelley or g thousands of different schools. They offer courses for children, teenagers and adults. (2) A In particular, you should try to talk to other students from your own country who have been to a language school to find out what you should expect. You should always try to find out as much information as possible before you choose a school. (3) D There are courses in General English, Technical English, Business English and so on. If you go to a language school, you should try to speak English as much as possible. Students usually stay with a local family. (4) С This is a good opportunity to improve your English and to learn a lot about everyday life. You should also try to mix with students from other countries. This will help you with your English, and will also show you how important English is for international communication. w w w .4 7 . 1. If they offer accommodation with an English fam ily I ’ ll attend Lawton College. 2. I ’ ll prefer Bristow College if they organize visits to places o f interest 3. If they provide extra classes in English for Business I’ ll choose Shepton College. 4. I ’ ll apply to Frampton College if they arrange accommodation in student hostels. ЛУКІТІїМС 1. с 5. G 2. H 6. В 3. E 7. D 4. A 8. F C) 6 Henley Street W hitby June, 200 H) Faculty o f Humanities Archaeology Department University o f Durtham E) Dear Sir/Madam, A) I am writing to apply for the MA Classical Archeology Course offered by 3. Victoria Street Poltava 12 May, 2010 Dunstan College Dear Sir, I am writing to apply to the course in Daunston College for full-time summer school in August. I am 15 years old. I’ve finished nineth grade. I want to improve my knowledge of English, because I need it for studding at university after finishing school. I’ m clearly realized that in order to get a good job one should know English. It is the language of communication, business, science and culture. I think English is worth studying. I am sure every well-educated person should speak English. I want to learn English because I want to read Hemingway, Shakespeare, Wild and Shaw in their native language. Your faithfully, Nina Kostenko 4.
  • 20. CHECK YOUR SKILLS 9. Pete doesn’t know whether to go to university or join the army. (T) GRAMMAR 1. I ’ ll help you tomorrow if you still need help. 2. If my parents do not work on Saturday, we all will go skiing. 2 3. If the weather is fine next weekend, Ъ CM we’ ll go to the country. ro 4. I ’ ll always help you this year if you if: need help. 5. Granny sometimes will not hear if ci little Eddie calls her. Ö ro iC s LISTENING I T 2. П З Ct X fO X < u m b< 0Ü О < rg 4. NATIONAL CUISINE 1 . Eggs, bacon, roast fish and meat, chicken, toasts, sandwiches with butter and cheese or sausage, pasta, soup, borsch, rise, porridge, tea, coffee, milk, beefsteaks, buns, cakes, pancakes, salads, ham, roles, pudding, chops, pears. 2 . I see holubtsi, varenyky and borsch. u 1. When does school open and close? (B) 2. How are the boys organized? (E) 3. What about the curriculum, GCSEs and A levels? (A) 4. What languages do you teach? (C) 5. Do you have to play a particular sport? (F) 6. How easy is it to get in? (D) Yes, I can read and understand about education. Yes, I can listen and understand about schools. Yes, I can talk about school life. Yes, I can ask for opinions about educational systems, agree or disagree with them. Yes, I can express your own opinions about schooling. Yes, I can write an application letter for the course study. 4. .4 bo ok .o a w CZ w о 3 . 1. Mike thinks that the exams were very easy. (T) 2. Pete agrees that exams were easy. (F) 3. Pete thinks he failed in some exams. (T) 4. Pete is going to read books now. (F) 5. Mike is going to enter the university in October. (T) 6. Pete has got to pass A level exams. (T) 7. Pete is very successful in his study. (F) 8. Mike likes reading too much. (T) w a g 'c READING W e have borsch almost every day and sometimes holubtsi and varenyky. 4. E 3. What meal times are called in Britain? — They are breakfast, dinner, midday meal or lunch, afternoon tea and sUpper. W hat are the ingredients of Christmas Pudding? — The ingredients are the mixture of flow, bread-crumbs and eggs, raisins, currants, candied peel, chopped almonds and walnuts, grated carrot, brandy, whisky or old ale. РЧ CM 1. breakfast cornflake with milk and sugar, porridge, fried bacon and toast and butter, fruit, cold ham or fish, coffee and roll. meat with vegetables, sweet pudding, stewed fruit, beefsteaks, chops, roast, fried fish and chips. a cup o f tea and a cake. 4. high tea CM M eal the British usually eat 3. afternoon tea < Mealtime 2. main meal of the day X Ham, tongue, tomatoes, salad, kipper, tinned salmon, sausage, bread and butter with strong tea, fruit, a tin o f pears, apricot or pine apple with cream and custard, pastries or a bun.
  • 21. 7. borsch D varenyky F holubtsi С deruny H kholodets’ A salo E domashnya kowbasa G mlyntsi В .4 bo ok .o 6. W hat food was beloved by English people in the Middle A ges? — It was plum porridge. W hat is the method to cook Christmas pudding nowadays? — It is basic mixture of flower, bread-crumbs and eggs, raisins, currants, candied peel, chopped almonds and walnuts, grated carrot and a good measure of brandy or ale. W hat little ‘ surprises’ can we fin d in a slice o f Christmas pudding? — We can fin d sixpenny bits, shillings, a tiny silver bell and a silver horseshoe in it. What does ‘ a good plain food’ mean? — It means beefsteaks, chops, roast beef and fried fish and chips. What social occasion is connected with afternoon tea? — It is an occasion when people often come in for a chat. What does ‘ high tea’ consist of? — It consists of ham, tongue, tomatoes and salad, kipper or tinned salmon or sausage with strong tea, bread and butter, stewed fruit or a tin o f pears, apricot or pineapple with cream and custard, pastries or a bun. rg 5. to consist (o f) is used to say what something is made of an occasion is important social event or ceremony t« stew means to cook something slowly in liquids » course is a particular style of fooking a cuisine is a kind of food that is always very good in a particular area (or restaurant) w 8. W hat is the difference between meals times in England and Ukraine? — Our food is plainer than in England. W e usually VOCABLUARY have breakfast, dinner and supper. Do national Ukrainian dishes differ 1. 2. boiled rice; 6. roast chicken; 3. baked from those o f English? — Some o f them potatoes; 4. grilled sausages; 1. fried eggs; are differ like borsch, varenyky, salo, 5. steamed vegetables others are just the same (porridge, toast. butter, fried fish). 2. Fish/seafood duck w meat 3. w sausage fruit prawns salmon peaches beans strawberries lettuce 1. Food which is kept very cold is frozen. 2. These eggs are fresh, I bought them today. 3. I like my mum’s cooking. Home-made food is always the best. 4. This tea’ s very sweet. Y ou’ve put too much sugar in it! 5. Indian food like curry is very spicy. 6. Takeaway food is food you buy at a restaurant and take home to eat. 7. Sushi is made with raw fish. 8. People on a diet often try to eat lowfat food. vegetables GRAMMAR 1. 1. If you ate less, you w ould lose weight. 2. We would put more English dishes on the menu if we had an English chef in the restaurant. 3. If I were you I’ d prefer pudding for dessert. 4. We could cook more dishes if we had more various ingredients. 5. If I had plums and brandy I would make a Christmas pudding. 6. If you made more cream I’d decorate the cake with it.
  • 22. 5. The room would look warmer if the She’d get а better job if she took tim e walls were painted yellow. 6. The dust to look for one. and noise o f the street wouldn’ t reach us If we had tickets, we’ d be going to that if the trees grow bigger. concert. I ’d forget about it if I were you. If Dick and Jean were here, they’d really LISTENING 5£ enjoy the museums. 2 If you were in a hurry, we’ d get there 1. Can you name: Ъ on time. Qj One red fruit, one yellow fruit, one го 3. 1. I’d see a dentist if I still h ad any green fruit? ic: teeth. tomato, lemon, cucumber. сі 2. If it were less expensive. I ’d buy Two things that a strict vegetarian a helicopter to get to work. 0 doesn’ t eat? 3. If you didn’ t need oxygen, you could го meat, fish. live underwater. S Three kinds of food which are made 4. If Mary studied harder she would get 1 from milk? т better marks. cheese, butter, cream. 5. If we had a car we could get there Four things people have for breakfast? g more quickly. tea, sugar, bread, butter. с о 4. 1. I’d visit her if I had more time. Five things people eat between meals? c t 2. If I were the Emperor of the world, fruit, cake, bun, sweet, sandwich. I would ban work. Six vegetables you can put in a salad? tomato, cucumber, cabbage, onion, Q. 3. They would try harder if you gave Г О them motivation. radish, lettuce. С[ 4. We would get there if we had I Seven things which are usually on a bicycle. a table in a restaurant? р 5. You would be healthier if you stopped и mustard, salt, pepper, bread, napkins, smoking. п table-cloth, menu. I 6. I would visit you if I had the time. ш 2 . Can you cook? What do you know how ш 5. 1 If you w ere in E ngland w hat dishesmake? — No, I can’ t. I know how to to w ould you taste? make tea. 2. Which food would you prefer to eat if W ho cooks in your house? — My mother you were hungry? does. 3. Which English dish would you help to W hat is your favourite dish? Do you if you were in England? know how is it cooked? My favourite < 4. W hich items would you choose if you ъс dish is a chocolate cake. — Yes, I know were proposed an English breakfast? J2 how to cook it. U 5. When would you have substantial 4 . Mix 150 grams of the flour and the egg meal if you were in England? with a fork. Slowly mix in 300 ml of milk 6. A. 1. W e’ d have a pleasant walk if and the oil. Put a little oil in the pan. X the storm was over. 2. They would start Heat the pan. It must be very hot. Pour < heating the rooms if it grew cold. 3. He’d in two table-spoons of mixture. Cook for let me know if he went to Kiev. 4. Harold about 45 seconds. Toss the pancake once. would be late if he walked too slowly. 5. Cook for another 45 seconds. Serve with a The dog would catch the stick if it was little sugar and lots of lemon juice. thrown into the river. w w w .4 bo ok .o rg 2. PQ ем В 1. If it snowed, the streets would be cleared o f snow. 2. If the weather kept dry, we’ d have to water the flowers. 3. W e wouldn’ t see anything if the night was very dark. 4. The child wouldn’t able to sleep if he had a high temperature. 5C. Vegetable soup. You’ ll need tree onions, tree turnips, one carrot, four potatoes, a quarter o f a pound o f butter, a pound o f ham, a bunch of parsley, a spoonful of flour, 4 pints of broth, a pint o f boiling milk, season, salt, sugar.
  • 23. SPEAKING 1. I like salads. The reasons I prefer vegetable salad are: it is not difficu lt to cook them, they are tasty and useful. I dislike pork, one o f the reasons why I wouldn’t choose it is its fat. 2 , 1. What can you say about Ukrainian 4э. The name o f my restaurant will be «New York» Menu Starters Smoked oysters, cantaloupe, shrimp, egg roll, fragrant vegetables and meat or fish bits rolled in pastry salami, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, heats pimientos, anchovies, olives, tuna, pickled beets, sliced, smoked fish, chopped chicken liver or caviar, pickles, onions, tiny tomatoes, cheese, small loaves of bread, juices, seafood cocktails: shrimp, crabs, oysters. Main courses Blanquette de veau, pork chops, pork roast. Brown rice and beef with walnuts, marinated steak and vegetables, roast beef with green sauce, chicken and ham with tarragon, chicken with apricot mayonnaise, chicken breasts in aspic, stuffed chicken rolls, chicken with walnut sauce, soy — sesame chicken with pineapple and onion. Side dishes Mashed potatoes, French-fried potatoes, fried «home style» potatoes, duchess potatoes, scalloped potatoes, potatoes an gratin, baked potatoes, baked potatoes with sour cream and chives, «potato ba r», baked potatoes with bacon bits, cheese, spinach, string beans, peas, beets, cabbage, turnips. w w w .4 bo ok .o hospitality? — Ukrainian people are very hospitable. They are typically kindhearted, friendly and well wishing to both fallow countrymen and foreigners. 2. What are your meal-times? What order o f meals do you follow? — In Ukrainian we have breakfast, dinner and supper. As for me I have breakfast at home before classes, lunch at school, dinner and supper at home. 3. What is the difference between meals and meal-times in England and Ukraine? — In Ukraine we don’ t have afternoon tea. I think it is an English tradition. Our food is more natural and plainer than in England. 4. What is English «afternoon tea?» — It is a cup of tea and a cake or a pastry. For English it is a social occasion when people come in for a chat over their cup of tea. 5. What is your favourite dish? — My favourite dish is varenyky with cherries. 6. How would you lay the table for the guests? What about the menu? — W e Usually lay white clean table — cloth and napkins, put nice dinner and salad plates, dinner forks and steak knives, bread-and-butter plate, butter knife, juice glasses and vine glasses and put a vase with flowers. Our table is always very attractive. 7. What do you generally take for the first (second) course? — For the first course we usually serve different salads with coked as well us uncooked vegetables along with cheese, fish, seafood, meats, nuts with solt, oil or mayonnaise and seasonings. A meat course consists of veal or beef, or chicken. Sometimes meat is made into roasts, sometimes it is made into outlets, small slices o f meat served breaded and fried or broiled and sauced. It is accompanied with mushrooms and canned vegetables and potatoes. After meat course desserts come: apple, fruit or cream pies or cakes, frozen disserts such as ice-cream with chocolate or strawberry and of course tea or coffee with sugar, lemon and cream. 8. Do the national Ukrainian dishes differ from the English ones? — Yes, they do. The English don’t have such dishes as borsch, varenyky, deruny and salo. But they have kholodets and mlyntsi, they call them stew and pancakes. rg Potatoes fried in slices. Large potatoes, lard or dripping, salt. Stewed beef and pork. 2 pounds o f wellso«ked beef, a pound of soaked pork, six table spoonfuls of rice, 4 middle razed onions, a tablespoonful of sugar, pepper, salt, 4 pints o f water.
  • 24. (0 Ct 1 ,'li s ^ £ :: <: O Q О < U >s X < c*s CJ N plump, chilled lemon sou fflü , nesselrode pie, nectarine mousse parfaits, Spanish cream, zabaglione, chocolate fantasy, triple strawberry treat, gelatin molds, parfaits and light puddings, orange yogurt sherbet, pineapple butter milk sherbet cake, plum yogurt sherbet, pineapple sherbet, almond cake with peaches and cream, coffee cheesecake, vanilla crust, cinnamon cheesecake, cookie dough crust, coconut cake, orange fillin g, banana-pecan squares, brownies, meringue kisses, date-nut bars, lace cookies, nut crisps, double­ peanut cookies. rg 5. Red Ukrainian borsch Boil 1 kg of meat in 2 1 o f water, add 1 tsp o f salt. Pill and cut into small pieces one carrot, one beetroot, one onion, fry all vegetables, add 4-5 tomatoes. Put them into a pan; boil up, add cutted cabbage, season with a little pepper. Pill and cut into small pieces 5-6 large potatoes, put them into a pan with meat stock. Served with sour cream and seasoning. .4 bo ok .o 6 w a 5 ‘c 0 5 w ro iC s I T w iC Q Ъ Q. ro green peppers, mushroom caps stuffed with a bread-crum b, egg, chive and cheese m ixture, lemon butter, almonds, tiny white onions, eggplant casserole, sliced tom atoes, beans, fried squash, stewed squash, cooked carrots. Salads Apple-carrot slaw, apple-beet salad, apple-cheese salad, apple, kumquat and cheese cabbage salad, apple slaw with sour cream dressing, asparagus salad, asparagus and pasta, banana-orangeradish salad, Barley salad eastern style. Barley salad with green peppers, barley salad with vegetables, middle eastern bean salad, green beans salad, pinto bean and avocado salad, white beans, Armenian green beans salad, white bean and tuna salad in tomato shells, beet salad with egg, broccoli and Bermuda onion salad, white bean and salmon salad, blueberry-radish salad, broccoli and red cabbage salad, Brussels sprouts salad, celery victor salad, carrot salad with orange, cauliflower-romaine salad. Desserts Fruit desserts Ambrosia, applesauce, baked apples with maple syrup, poached apples, fruit kebabs, summer fruits with lime cream dressing, melon with berries, orange sliced with cranberry sauce, glazed oranges, peaches in raspberry sauce, glazed peaches with strawberry cream, peach-blueberry cake, poached pears in red wine, poached pears with currant jelly, coffee jelly, baked custard, mousse with coffee sauce lemon mold with 6. W hat do you think o f English food? — I think that it is very tasty and plain. Do you think an English restaurant would be a success if it opened in your town? Why (not)? — I think it would be a success, because there are no an English restaurant in our town and English teas and desserts are very popular. In Ukrainian people have a very sweet tooth. USE YOUR ENGLISH 7. Our biggest meal of the day is usually 1 .1 . His diet is terrible: he eats too many lunch. sweet things. 8. She doesn’ t like Mexican food because 2. Strict vegetarians don’t eat meat or it is too spicy. fish. 9. Our typical Sunday lunch is roast 3. Raw vegetables have more vitamins chicken, I especially like the wings. than when they are cooked. 10. W e often buy takeaway food on 4. I love home-made food but I don’t Fridays — either Chinese or Indian have much time to cook. food. 5. She likes her steak well done. 2. 1. If I had lettuce, celery, cucumbers 6. I’ m very busy so I often just buy and parsley I would make a tasty green a frozen meal and heat it up in the salad. microwave.
  • 25. I 3. She’d stay hungry if she was in Mexico because she hates spicy food. 4 . If dinner was ready we’ d sit around the table at once. 5. If I had an English Cookery Book I ’ d prepare som e deliciou s specialties o f English cuisine. w .4 bo ok . 3. Have you ever tried English tea? — Yes, I ’ve tried English tea. Have you ever tried Chinese food? — No, I have never tried Chinese food. What do you know about traditional British food? — In the morning an English man has his breakfast. The main meal o f the days is a called dinner. The usual midday meal consists o f two courses. Afternoon tea means a cup of tea and a cake. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, «high tea», dinner or supper. What do you get if you order traditional English breakfast? — I get conflates with milk and sugar, porridge, fried bacon and eggs, a toast and butter, some coffee and a roll. Do you know what people in America usually eat for Thanksgiving? — They usually eat roast turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes and pumpkin pie. black pudding, bird’s nest soup, shark fin soup, octopus. It seems to me that these items are not tasty and they are not popular in our country. Do you know which countries they are popular in? Would you eat them, if you were starving? I don’t know exactly, maybe they are popular in African and Asian countries. If I was starving I would eat them. What unusual things are eaten in our country? Has Ukraine got a national dish? How do you make it? Mlyntsi, borsch, soup, varenyky, holubtsi, kholodets, salo are usually eaten in our country/Y es, we have got a national dish, it is borsch. In order to cook red Ukrainian borsch we boil 1 kg of meat in 2 1 o f water, add 1 tsp o f salt. Pill and cut into small pieces one carrot, one beetroot, one onion, fry all vegetables, add 4-5 tomatoes. Put them into a pan; boil up, add cutted cabbage, season with a little pepper. Pill and cut into small pieces 5-6 large potatoes, put them into a pan with meat stock. Served with sour cream and seasoning. or g 2 . W e’d can serve a wonderful cake if he did not spoil it. 4 . The USA — Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, w w turkey, chicken, fast food China — rice France — frogs, wine Italy — pizza, spaghetti Japan — seafood Mexico — spicy food 5a. I don’t share that view. I don’ t think that English have no «cuisine* themselves. It is com m on know ledge the English a very fond o f pudding and teas. 5b. If you had been there, which items could you have eaten? I could have eaten frogs’ legs, pigs feet, caviar, tripe, brains, horsemeat, whale, pork, beef, lamb, veal. Which items would you have eaten? Which items couldn’t have eaten? Why not? I would have eaten pigs feet, tripe, pork, beef, lamb, veal. I couldn’t have eaten W R IT IN G 1. Our sch ool trip last Septem ber was a complete trouble. — A bad topic sentence. 2. Only twenty tickets were sold for tonight’s concerts. — A bad topic sentence. 3. Secondary education in Ukraine. — A good topic sentence. 4. The legal age for driving a car should be 21 for several reasons. — A bad topic sentence. 5. A good teacher has 3 important characteristics. — A bad topic sentence. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5 are bad topic sentences because they don’ t introduce the subject of a paragraph. The second sentence has a clear point o f you. 2. 1. A close friend is not always a best friend. 2. Fast Food is very popular. 3. Future Career is the main question for the graduates. 3.
  • 26. a та CHECK YOUR SKILLS VOCABULARY a ro Ct I p и X O ) m < GO О < ъс JQ U X < CJ S 4 . If you were in Poltava you would be invited to taste Ukrainian borsch with halushkas. 5. If you asked me what dessert I’d like to have I would mention about apple pie first. .4 bo ok .o Ct w о w s 1 T >> a .5 c 3 . 1 could make kvas if I would have some dried bread. 1. The English like what they call good plain food. They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Usually they like fish and chips, roast beef, Y orkshire pudding and beef steak. Afternoon tea is taken at about 5 o ’ clock, but it can hardly be called a meal. It is a cup of tea and cake or biscuits. At the weekends afternoon tea is a special occasion. Friends and visitors are often invited to have a chat over a cuji of tea. Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. It is usually eaten at 7 o ’ clock. The first course may be soup though the English don’t like it very much. The main course will often be fish or meat, perhaps the traditional roast beef of old England, and a lot of vegetables. The next course will be something sweet and often cooked, such as a fruit pie. Last of all there may be cheese, often with biscuits. It is common knowledge that the English are very fond o f tea. They like to have ‘ a nice cup o f tea’ 6 or 8 times a day, sometimes even more. On Christmas Day a roast turkey is traditionally cooked for dinner. It is usually followed by Christmas. Long before Christmas housewives begin to plan what cake to make for Christmas. Usually they make fantastic Christmas cakes. w 0 Г О doing the conga when you arrive. ‘ Blue Hawaii’ is basically a barbecue restaurant, you may choose fish or meat with a variety of sauces (teriyaki, red curry) once it’s been grilled. «Blue Hawaii» also offers the expected range of sweet summery cocktails, a lot of fruits and Hawaiian sweets. «Blue Hawaii* has its charms — and guesses what? It’s cheap! rg 2 Ъ 6. In recent years a number of restaurants, bars and cafes have opened in Ukraine, offering excellent food with high standards o f service. ‘ Blue Hawaii’ Kharkiv’ s only Polynesian restaurant. Offering an interior done up like a beach shack and waiters with Hawaiian shirts. You may find guests LISTENING 1. G eorge opened up a restaurant in Canada. (F) They mainly serve international dishes. (T) George thinks everybody knows the English to be excellent cooks. (F) The chef of the restaurant is Argentinian. (T) They have traditional English breakfasts and typical English desserts on the menu. (T) English dishes are not .much popular in Argentina. (T) George misses a wonderful French cheese — Roquefort. (F) Stilton is English blue cheese. (T) READING (1) Cook the beetroot, carrots and green beans in 2 It of water. (2) Add the rest of the cabbage, potatoes, GRAMMAR tomatoes, onion and dill and let them cook. (3) Prepare thickener. 2 . 1. If I was in Bukovyna I would help (4) Add thickener to borsch. myself to brynza. (5) Add cream and garlic and cook. 2 . If I had some dried fruit I would make (6) Taste, add salt. (7) Serve. uzvar or kysil. 4.
  • 27. 5 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES 2. 1. send e-mails 3. do schoolwork 6. play games Two more ideas: read the news and different information, study the programming 1- D different types o f computer 2. С two main elements o f a computer l^ stem 3. F the central idea o f computing ;iystem ^4. В the potential uses o f computers 5. G personal use of computers 6. H the use o f computers in education 7. E e-commerce 8. A the necessity o f computer skills w .4 bo ok .o 3. 7. Computer users make contacts and keep in touch with people all over the world using e mail or Internet telephony, send photos to family and friends through e-mail attachments. 8. HTML is the language which allows to create web pages. 9. A blog is a website where a user creates and regularly updates a journal that reflects the views o f writer. 10. Students use word-processing programmes to write essays and projects, presentations and databases. 11. VLE is a software system designed to help teachers in the management of educational courses for their students by creating a virtual classroom. 12. Through its web site a company can o ffer computer users the opportunity to order and pay for goods and services using their credit cards on the Internet. 13. Computers enable users to make notes, arrange appointments and index details of business contacts. 14. Many career choices are inaccessible without computer skills. rg ^, the best invention ^ the computer ^ the automobile — digital cameras a jet engine the worst invention — chewing gum — touch-up paint for hair the most important invention to you in -your daily life — the telephone — the television — an electricity — the ball pen w READING w 4, 1. A computer is an electronic machine which can be used to store, process and f^sptay data. 2. There are different types of computer: a desktop, a laptop, a notebook, a subnotebook and a palmtop. 3. A computer system consists of two main elements: the machine and rammes. 4. The central idea o f a computing system Is that input is processed into output. 5. The most common current uses of Computers are personal, educational and commercial. 6. People use the internet to access goods 'itnd services, such as booking a holiday Or a flight. 5. 1. CD; 2. CD-ROM Drive; 3. Floppy Drive; 4. Tower Case; 5. Screen /Monitor; 6. Floppy Disk; 7. Keyboard; 8. Mouse 6 . in pu t devices: keyboard; scanner; microphone output devices: speakers; monitor; head­ phones; printer 7. a) The area on the display screen where icons are grouped is called so because the icons are designed to represent real objects on a real desktop. 3 (desktop) b) A symbol that appears on display screen that the user is able to move to select objects and commands. It usually appears on the screen as a small white angled arrow or as an I-beam pointer that is shaped like a capital ‘ Г. 1 (cur­ sor) c) With the help o f this the user can divide the screen into different areas. You can move them around the display screen, and change their shape and size at will. 5 (menus) d) These are small pictures that repre­ sent commands, files or windows. By
  • 28. s; X T > CL .5 с о З го C[ 9. online films; doing homework X < CO о < u >s X < я 1 . 1. an icon; 2 . a menu bar; 3. a window; 4. a desktop: 5. a folder; 6. a cursor: 7. a menu; 8. a programme: 9. an attachment; 10. a file w X <u C Q VOCABULARY 2 . Files can be organised into subfolders and subdirectories or folders and directories. This allows the user to create categories fo r files w hich can be organised and accessed easily. It is possible to create and open files and folders, to save them, rename them, move them or copy them from one area to another. It is possible to compress or delete files, so that they use less space. This can be useful, for example, when sending files via e-mail. File compression programs such as WinZip can be used to do this. w u w p GRAMMAR 1. b) a. move across/dow n/up a web page or other document on a computer screen; 4. scroll across/dow n/up b. show a clear and detailed picture of something or show something in less de­ tail; 7. zoom in /ou t c. put your name into a computer so that you can start using it; 2. log in /on d. connect to the Internet and access e-mails 1 pick up something e. make a copy o f computer information so that you do not lose it; 6. back (some­ thing) up f. finish using a computer system; 3. log o ff/o u t g. get into someone else’ s computer sys­ tem without permission in order to look at information or do something illegal; 5. hack into rg Г О 8. Do you have a computer? — Yes, I do. I have a computer at home. Are you a computer wizard? — Yes, I am. I am a computer wizard. How much time do you spend at your computer? — I spend 3 hours at my computer every day. Do you have access to the Internet? — Yes, I do. I have access to the Internet. How often do you serf? When do you usually surf? — I usually surf when I find more information. I surf from ten till thirty sites an hour. 5. Cursor is a little arrow on the screen that moves when you move the mouse. .4 bo ok .o Q Ъ a го moving a pointer to them and pressing a mouse button, the user can execute a command or change it into a window. 2 (icons) e) Most graphical user interfaces allow the user to give commands by selecting a choice from it. 4 (Windows) f) A device, such as a mouse or trackball, that allows the user to select objects on the display screen. 6 (pointing device) 3 . 1. M enu is a list o f computer opera­ tions. 2. Icon is a small picture or symbol. 3. Word processor is software for creating text files (e. g., M icrosoft Word). 4. Click means to press and release the button on the mouse. 2 . 3. When you need to have a printed copy o f an electronic document you should click on the icon — to print it out 5. Would you like to access e-mail? Then click on the icon — to pick up your e-mail 4. When you need to move down/up a webpage or other document on a com­ puter screen, then click on the icon — to scroll up or down to the top of the page 1. and 2. To show a clear and detailed picture o f something you’ d click on the icon — to zoom in 3. 1. If you scroll down to the bottom of the page, you’ ll find the data you want. 2. On these disks you’ ll find a backup of all the data connected with the project. 3. If you find it hard to see the detail in the picture, zoom in so you can see more. Then click on the same icon again to zoom out and the picture will go back to normal size. 4. Although I’ ll be working away from the office for a couple of weeks. I ’ ll still pick up my e-mails every day. 5. I logged in to this new website last night. Let me give you the address so that you can check it out.
  • 29. LISTENING 5. 1. What brand is your computer? — My computer has a brand Asus. 2. What is the operating system of your computer? — Windows XP is the oper­ ating system o f my computer. 3. Which Web browser does your com­ puter use? — My computer uses the Opera. 4. How many buttons are there on your mouse? — My mouse has three buttons. 5. Does your computer have a CD-ROM drive? — Yes, it has. 6. How often do you write e-mail let­ ters? — I write two letters every day. 7. Are you a member of any chat, group? — No, I am not a member o f any chat group. 8. What else can you use the internet for? — I use the Internet for getting the news and different information. w w w .4 bo ok .o 52. How can you meet new people? — I can meet new people in the World Wide Web. here can you get the latest news? — I lan get the latest news in the W orld ide Web. here can you order a meal? — I can der a meal in the W orld W ide Web. n you find a job in the W orld Wide '^Web? — Yes, I can. I can find a job in e W orld Wide Web. here do you go shopping? — I go shop,ng only in the W orld W ide Web. !an you make travel plans and buy the ickets in the W orld W ide Web? — Yes, I can. lere do you see online film s? — I see line films in the W orld W ide Web. For e-mail you need a programme which searches information on the net. rg 1- It took ages to print the whole report out. ' 2. Henry went into a cyber cafe' in Bang­ kok to pick up his e-mails. 3. For security reasons, always log o ff when you leave your computer unattend­ ed for any period of time. 4. Mark was very upset when he real­ ised that someone had hacked into his computer. 5. His secretary is very quick at keying in data. 6. The ability to zoom in jout is particu­ larly useful when you are working on (detailed diagrams. 4. You need four things: a computer with bard disk, a modem, software and service »rov id er. 4. Internet is a network of communication t o d information. It operates globally. You can access information easily and •Immediately messages on different sys­ tems. Vou can send instantly on e-mail. You can send and read messages with it. Vou can access other computers. The basic Internet software kit should i>onsist o f a dialler. A dialler is a programme to get you logged or connected, with your provider. SPEAKING 1. a) Absolutely right. W orld Wide Web is another name for the Internet. b) The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks. It is an information resource where you can find various information and collection of services. It is also a communication system. E-mail is an important communications service available on the Internet. It is a community of users. There are a huge number of communities online every day in the Internet. 2 . Facebook is supposedly the largest social networking site with over 200 million active members across the globe and most interactive and viral amongst all social networks. This site is so amazing that you can find anyone or business you thought missing or lost by doing a little search with name or e-mail address which will actually do the magic; connecting you with old friends, colleagues and brethren. This site is containing texts, images and sound files. It is a well-decorated page. Recently, Facebook team and members celebrated 500 million people on this great social networking site. A common question
  • 30. asked amongst old and young, business executives, organizations and companies in recent days: Are you on Facebook? You can join me on Facebook. in one o f several distinct (but not com pletely disjoint) communities and subcultures: a community of enthusiast com puter programmers and systems designers, the hobbyist home com puting community and people committed to circvimvention of com puter security. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer. Viruses can increase their chances o f spreading to other computers by in fectin g files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. 10. How does the Internet affect our lives? — Many people find the Internet to be the ideal place to socialize with others because o f its faceless medium and effortless ways to find others with similar interests; through the many ways o f communication over the Internet, the common prejudices of life are not evident. 11. Has the Internet changed your life? If yes, in what ways? — Yes, of course. In the Internet I can shop online, research products, read the news, watch different videos, play games, keep in touch with friends and family. 1. Do you know what a cyber caffi is? Have you ever been to one? — The cyber cafii is a network of several computers where 2 everyone can log in the Internet for some Ъ paying. No, I haven’t ever been to one. cU foT 2. Dü you know how to send an e-mail? — Yes, I do. I know how to send С І an e-mail. 3. W hich sites do you usually visit? 0 го — I usually visit sites with latest news. S 4. Do you chat online? — Yes, I do. 1 т I chat online every evening. >ч Q. 5. Do you have your own website? — 5 No, I don’ t. ‘с 6. Does your school have its own о website? — No, it doesn’ t СІ 7. Do you buy anything on the Internet? — Yes, I do. Last time о . I bought the new books on the Internet. го С[ 8. For what purpose do young people use I the Internet? — Young people use the Р Internet for their entertainments. U 9. What do you know about hackers J3 and viruses? — A hacker is a person X 01 ш USE YOUR ENGLISH < J3 U X < CJ N esj 1. 1. You can publish your web pages by upload them to the web server. 2. If you want to find out more about phrasal verbs, you should post a message w w < CQ О w .4 b oo k. o rg 3. 3. Y'ou can download the software from our web site. 2, a) 1. sw itch/turn on something — с 2. sw itch/turn o ff something — e 3. plug in something — a 4. turn up something — b 5. charge something up — d b) 1. My mobile phone isn’ t working — I need to charge it up. 2. W ould the last person to leave the room, please, turn o ff the lights? 3. When I tried to switch on my computer in the morning, nothing happened. 4. Can you turn up the TV? I can hardly hear what the actors are saying. 5. The computer isn’ t working because you haven’ t switched it on! You can plug it in the wall there. 3 . current events W orld Wide Web E-mail message surfing the net download information web sites computer screen 4 . Surf the web — read the latest news E-mail — get the letters with an attachment Board games — lotto Computer games — logical, shooting. strategy games Hang out at the cafii — play games, meet new people a) Name — Intercafe 7.
  • 31. г WRITING 3. E-mail: kuznechik3@mail.ru Password: geneva333 5. b) 1. the main part of an e-mail where you write the information you want to communicate (g) 2. click here to send your message (b) 3. the line where you write the title of the message (c) 4. the copy line; the line where you write the e-mail addresses o f other people you want to receive your messages (e) 5. the blind copy line; an address here gets a copy o f the message, but other recipients do not know (j) 6. click here to specify the file you want to send (attach) with your message (f) 7. the line where you write e-mail address o f the person you are sending your message to (a) 8. click here to save your unfinished message without sending it (h) 9. click here to cancel your message (d) 10. click here to check the spelling of your message (i) w w w .4 bo ok . 1. Do you send e-mails? — Yes, I do. I send e-m£iils. Is sending e-mails your primary way o f written communication? — Yes, it is. It is my primary way o f written communication. If you send e-mails, who are they usually for? — My e-mails are usually for my friends who live in other countries. W hat are they about? — In my letters I tell about my life. Do you agree with the claim that e-mail will become the principal way of communication among people? — Yes, I agree. Can you think o f any disadvantages of e-mails? — There are some disadvantages o f e-mails. The sender could send viruses and malware through attachments if recipient doesn’ t scan it. A long e-mail could cause the recipient to lose interest and stop reading the e-mail altogether. 1. Formal style is common in business, for example. If you are unsure about which style to use in an e-mail, it is better to use a more formal style. If the person replies in a more informal style, you may follow that style in your next message. (C) 2 . More informal messages may be sent between friend or colleagues who have a relaxed working relationship. (A) 3. The most informal e-mails are generally sent between close friends. These messages' are sometimes more similar to speech then to writing. (B) 2. or g Location — Preston, England Business Hours — 10 am — 8 pm Monday to Saturday, 12 am — 8 pm Sunday Internet Connection Cost — two shillings in hour Food — snacks and sandwiches Drinks — h ot/coid Hardware — 15 high end gaming PC’ s for use on the internet or for playing our large selection o f games, ХЬохЗбО Elite playing on a 42» HDTV complete with 2 leather gaming chairs Software — System, Application Computer Games — Crysis, Call-OfDuty 4, Battlefield, Command Conquer, Bioshock Training is present 7. A . Dear friend! Next week I’ll be in London on a business trip. I should like to meet you one evening while I am in London. I’ ll inform you about the day and the time later. See you Denis Ivanov CHECK YOUR SKILLS VOCABULARY 1. to b) to c) a network o f computers all over the world, joined by phone lines, satellite or a) moving from one document or website cable (1) d) a system linking millions o f documents another, to find information (4) copying information from a website | stored on the Internet computers around your own computer (6) I the world (2)
  • 32. e) the place on the Internet where a com pany/organization/etc. stores its documents (3) f) electronic messages sent to someone over the Internet (5) GRAMMAR 2 . 1- W h a t scientists? w a s m a in ly u sed by READING You can follow the latest world news, find out about BBC W orld Service radio programmes and links quizzes and songs lyric at www.bbc.co.uk You can use a variety o f online dictionaries download at w w w . p e a r s o n l o n g m a n . C Q m The British Council has a website where you can find a variety o f games, activities and a list of resources suitable both for adults and younger learners at 4. rg 2. What don’ t you need to send e-mail? 3. What have they already got? 4. What isn’ t it? 5. W ho does like sending e-mails to his friend? 6. How can I pay for my ticket? 7. W hat is so exciting? 8. What won’ t she download? 4. Some universities even give their students and staff free space on a server to start their own blogs. 5. ‘W ik i’ means for ‘W hat I,Know is’ . 6. Anyone can add content and make changes. 7. Wikipedia is the online encyclopedia, which has more than 1 million entries in over 100 languages. 8. Wikipedia is working hard to make sure that its information is completely accurate, so students will be able to use it with confidence, and there’ s no doubt that it is an incredible resource. .4 bo ok .o LISTENING 3 . 1- In form ation tech n olog y is now beginning to have much more influence on education. 2. The word ‘blog’ is short for ‘W eblog’ . 3. A blog is an online diary or ‘ log’ of someone’ s life, thoughts, or opinions. IS THE EARTH IN DANGER? w 6. w w 8. W hat does ‘ to respond to natural 1. drought 3; typhoon 9; volcano eruption disasters effectively’ mean? С 8; flood 2; tsunam i 1; earthquake 5; 4 . 1. What are they? D tornado 7; famine 4; forest fire 6 2. W hy do they happen?" В 3. Where do they happen? A 4. How do they affect people? E READING 5. What can people do? С 2 . This article describes the flood. 3 . 1. What natural disaster did occur in Western Ukraine in 2008? С 2. What happened to the national route ‘ Kyiv-Chop’ in 2008? В 3. What natural disasters are becoming more frequent in Ukraine? A 4. What are the causes o f frequent floods in Zakarpattya? В 5. What is a natural disaster? С 6. What is a natural hazard? A 7. W hat is the relationship between natural hazards? В 5. 1. A tornado is one o f the names of cyclonic storm that forms over the ocean. It is caused by evaporated water that comes from the ocean. Typhoon is another name for it. 2. Hailstorms are rain drops that have formed together into ice. 3. Floods are the result o f prolonged rainfall from a storm, rapid melting of large amounts o f snow, or rivers which rise up their levels of water. 4. An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from a sudden release of stored
  • 33. 4. Scientists attribute changes in the weather to natural cause. 5. The reason o f earthquakes is the heat inside the earth. 6. Never stay away from school without good cause. 7. There is no cause to suppose he will forget. 8. What was the reason for your refusal to go there? 2 . Land m ovem ent disasters: avalan­ ches; earthquakes; landslides: volcanic eruption. Water disasters: tsunamis; floods; hailstorms. Weather disasters: blizzards; hurricanes; heat waves; fires; ice storms; tornadoes; droughts rg 3. The airport in Quito was closed yesterday because of the damage that volcanic ash could cause to flights. The ash thrown up by the volcano Guagua Pichincha could also cause serious damage to agriculture. It might make breathing difficult for people and animals. A t one moment, it looked as if the volcano might erupt slowly. This slow eruption could last for months or even years. The mayor o f Quito said: «W e must learn to live next to this volcano. What else can we do? There is 10 per cent chance that it will be a long calm eruption. People should wear special masks when they go outside. W e will continue to keep an eye on the situation, and we will inform the public o f any other measures they should take.* w w w .4 bo ok .o energy that radiates seismic waves. It shows itself by a shaking o f the ground. 5. An avalanche is a slide o f a large snow (or rock) mass down a mountainside. It is one o f the major dangers faced in the mountains in winter. 6. A tsunami is a wave of water caused by the displacement o f a body o f water. It can be caused by undersea earthquakes or by meteorological phenomena. 7. A heat wave is a hazard characterised by heat which is considered extreme and unusual in the area in which it occurs. 8. A landslide is a closely related to an avalanche, but instead o f occurring with snow, it occurs involving actual elements o f the ground, including rocks, trees, parts o f houses etc. which may happen to be swept up. It can be caused by an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. 9. A blizzard is a severe winter storm condition characterised by low temperatures, strong winds, and heavy blowing snow. 10. A hurricane is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm. It is a violent, rotating column o f air, which can blow at speeds between 48 and 50 km /h and possibly higher. It can occur one at a time or can occur along lines occupying large areas. 11. A volcanic eruption is the point which a volcano is active and releases its power, and the eruptions come in many forms. 12. A drought is defined as an acute shortage o f water and crop failure. It is tm abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support water needs. 13. A wildfire is an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but they may also be started by human carelessness. VOCABULARY 1.1. Carelessness is often the reason of fires. 2. The cause of the accident is still not known. 3. W hat is the reason o f lightning? GRAMMAR 1. If we didn’t want to pollute the air, we would drive electric cars. If we didn’ t want to cut out the forests, we would use less paper. If we created special parks for animals, we would teach hunters it ’s wrong to kill animals. 2. If the cities had more trees/green areas, people would have more oxygen. If the authorities improved public transport, people wouldn’ t buy so many
  • 34. 2. If an earthquake occurs when you are at home, you should stand near a big table, (false) 3. The best way to leave the building during an earthquake is to get into a lift, (false) 3 . What would you do if you didn’t have 4. A good thing to do if you are outside during an earthquake is to stand in an an exam the next day? open area, (true) What would you do if you weren’ t offer a job in Australia? What would you do if you didn’t wake SPEAKING up and see a snake in your bedroom? What v.'ould you do if you didn’ t meet 1 .1 . Have you ever head or read o f any your friend o f childhood? natural disaster? Yes, I have. I have head What would you do if you didn’ t get too and read about tsunami. A tsunami is a much change from a shop assistant? wave o f water caused by the displacement W hat would you do if you didn’t see of a body o f water. It can be caused by somebody stealing something in a shop? What would you do if you didn’ t borrow a undersea earthquakes or by meteorological phenomena. friend’s car and broke one o f the lights? 2. Have you ever experienced a disaster? No, I haven’ t. I haven’ t ever experienced a disaster. LISTENING 3. Can you name some disasters? Yes, I can. For example, a tsunami, a volcanic 1 . 1. earthquake; 2. fire; 3. flood ; 4. eruption, a drought, a blizzard, an drought; 5. avalanche; 2 - 1- flood; 2. avalanche, an earthquake, a flood, hurricane; 3. drought a tornado, a hailstorm, a hurricane, 3 . 1. The water in the rivers rose higher and a fire. higher and there was the danger of floods. 4. What do you think of people who 2. Hurricanes are very strong winds throw away cigarette butts and cause that com from the sea. fires during the summer? I think that 3. Hurricane Andrew killed 15 people smoking is dangerous not only for nature, in Florida and destroyed thousand of but very perilous for people’ s health. buildings. 5. W hat natural disasters can occur 4. It was in the west o f A frica. The in Ukraine? When and where was the winds changed directions and the sea last one? There were two floods in did not receive any rain for six years. Transcarpathia — in 1999 and in 2001. 5. People and animals died because there It is possible to clearly define natural wasn’t enough water. and manmade causes o f these floods. 4 . 1 •If an earthquake occurs when you are The natural factor was dominating since in school, you should leave the building an entire month’ s worth o f precipitation when the earthquake starts, (true) fell in one day. w w w .4 b oo k. o rg If people used bicycles, children would be able to play safely. If people recycled things, it wouldn’ t be so much rubbish everywhere. If the authorities created more parks, the cities would be less polluted. USE YOUR ENGLISH If we did n ’ t want a global warming, If we didn’ t want air pollution, the| the number o f cars shouldn’ t be concentration of smoke in the air should j reduced. be controlled. I If people didn’t leave litter in the street, ] 3 . A. Fire (9); B. Typhoon (3); C. Earthquake there wouldn’t be land pollution. j (5); D. Tidal wave (10); F. Volcano (7); If we didn’ t stop killing animals, there | Drought (6); G. Sandstorm (8); H. Landslide E. wouldn’ t be disruption. ' (1); I. Flood(4); J. Famine (2) 2.
  • 35. WRITING 4 . a) A . Tropical Storms; В. Eruptions; С. Floods; D. Typhoons b) What information is offered in these short newspaper notes? — These short newspaper notes discuss about natural disasters such as tropical storms, eruptions, floods and typhoons. How often do you read or hear the similar information? — Practically every day I hear this similar information in news. What are possible consequences of different natural disasters? — Different natural disasters destroy houses and buildings. People and animals die. What measures can be taken to avoid natural disasters? — We must defend the environment. w w w .4 bo ok .o rg 1. b) Travelling Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling; They travel to see other continents and countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. They travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change o f scene. It’ s always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try to different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to the big city, visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dinning at exotic restaurants. City8. The Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake on dwellers usually like acquired holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with July 12 produced one of the largest tsunamis nothing to do. Most travellers and in Japan’s history. A t 22:17 local time holiday makers take a camera with them the Ms-7,8 quake rocked the west coast of and pictures of everything that interests Hokkaido and the small, offshore island of them — the sight sights o f a city, old Okushiri in the Sea o f Japan, generating churches, castles, views o f mountains, a major tsunami. W ithin 2-5 minutes, lakes, lakes, waterfalls, forests, trees, extremely large waves engulfed the Okushiri flowers and plants, animals and birds. coastline and the central west coast of Later, perhaps years later, they will be Hokkaido. Extensive damage occurred on reminded by the photos o f the happy the southern tip o f Okushiri Island at the times they have had. People travel by town of Aonae. Tsunami vertical run up boat, by train, by plane or on foot. All measurements varied between 15 and 30 m means o f travel have their advantages over a 20-km portion of the southern part and disadvantages. And people choose of Okushiri Island, with several 10-m values one according to their plans and on the northern portion of the island. Along destinations. If we are fond of travelling the west coast of Hokkaido, no survey values we see and learn a lot of things that exceeded 10 m, but damage was extensive we can never see at home, though we at several coastal towns. Given the sudden may read about them in books and onset of the tsunami and its high energy, it newspapers, or on TV. Travelling by air is amazing that more people were not killed. is more popular in our days than other As of July 21, 185 fatalities were confirmed, ways o f travelling. You can see many with 120 attributed to the tsunami. The continents and oceans, countries and death toll is expected to rise, as missing rivers, cities and lakes. I enjoy staying persons are included among the fatalities. at a hotel. It is more comfortable to stay Property losses have been estimated at there. You can enjoy being alone, to take $600 million, due principally to tsunami damage. Immediately following the quake, the a hot shower, to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. Japanese dispatched damage assessment and Education survey teams. Most of these Japanese teams were mobilized and began surveying tsunami An educated person is one who knows run up by July 13; three US scientists, under a lot about many things. I think it is the auspices of the US — Japan Cooperative very important that everyone should be Program in Natural Resources (UJNR), educated. Each pupil ought to do his joined Japanese scientists to complement best to become a useful member of our the tsunami survey on July 18. society. Education is very important in e i T —
  • 36. 1 т >> а .5 с о 5 а го сС X !5 U I 01 C Q < СО о < J3 U X < esj 3 . a) Computer in Our Life Computer studies are a subject in many schools. Many young people have personal computers. Ninety-six per cent o f them are males o f all ages. All of them spend an average of twenty hours per week on home computers. The majority o f the adults also use computers at work. About one in three hundred computer owners, so-called computer addicts, spend almost all his time using computers. All the computer addicts are very educated. They have been interested in science and technology from a very early age and they are usually very shy people who like being alone. A survey in a school showed that fewer girls are interested in computers because girls are less likely to have a computer. Even if they have one, they use them less frequently than boys. Possibly it is because we think o f computers as something to do with math and science, which are traditionally ‘ male’ subjects. Possibly it is because most o f the computer teachers are men, who give the girls less attention. Possibly parents think it is less important for girls to have computer skills. Computer addicts love debugging, develop programs and love learning programming languages. They learnt to communicate with other users through computer networks and the people they met in school and work think of them as experts who could help 4 . a) Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical world, or material world. ‘ Nature’ refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the cosmic. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natural, or ‘ essential qualities, innate disposition’ , and in ancient times, literally meant ‘birth ’ . Natural was a Latin translation o f the Greek word ‘ physis’ , which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features o f the world develop o f their own accord. The concept o f nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one o f several expansions o f the original notion. This usage was confirmed during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries. W ithin the various uses o f the word today, ‘ nature’ may refer to the general realm of various types of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects — the way that particular types o f things exist and change o f their own accord, such as the weather and geology o f the Earth, and the matter and energy o f which all these things are composed. It is often taken to mean the ‘ natural environment’ or wilderness — wild animals, rocks, forest, beaches, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. rg S and advise when they had problems with their machines. A few spend their time ‘ hacking’ and one addict left a message on a computer o f Buckingham House. Very few computer addicts play computer games, but many people use a computer exclusively for games. .4 bo ok .o 0 го ьс w ъс сі w a го w 2 Ъ our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to acquire some scientific knowledge. In the Ukraine the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age o f six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities. There are many school types o f schools in Ukraine: specialized, polytechnic, musical art and others. Nowadays some new types of schools appeared: gymnasiums and colleges. 5 . Shopping It’ s difficu lt to imagine our life without shops. Every day we do shopping. There are different kinds o f shops. They are butcher’ s, baker’ s greengrocer’ s where we buy meat, bread, different
  • 37. 7. rg We study a lot of different subjects: Ukrainian, English, Russian and Ukrainian literatures. History, Geography, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, etc. I like History, Ukrainian and English most o f all. I usually receive good marks in these subjects. My teachers and parents think that I feel an inclination to these subjects. Every pupil has a record book where our teachers write down our marks and we write down home tasks. I like going to school because here I have many friends and wise teachers who can always give a piece o f advice. And I like studying as well, it brings me a lot of pleasure and I like to learn new facts about the world. What were in California and Mexico in 2010? What did shake the 7,2-magnitude quake? Where were the rides closed? Where did many families run out into the streets? What did people do when they felt the ground shake? Holidaymakers enjoying some earlyseason sun in California and M exico were hit in 2010 by one o f the strongest earthquakes in the area for decades. The 7,2-magnitude quake shook tens o f millions o f people across two countries and three states swaying high-rise buildings from Los Angeles to Las Vegas and the border town o f Tijuana. In California Disneyland rides were closed and inspected for damage and several historic hotels were evacuated as a precautionary measure. During the 40-second quake in M exico many fam ilies who had been enjoying Easter celebrations ran out into the streets with children crying and screaming as the buildings shook and the power went out. In Tijuana, a popular holiday resort for Am erican students celebrating ‘ spring break’ , hundreds o f people on the crowded beach feared the worst and fled when they felt the ground shake. w w w .4 bo ok .o fruit and vegetables or clothing shops where different clothes can be bought. Nowadays supermarkets and department stores are becoming more popular where people can reserve time and find a necessary good. Some people go to the market. As for me I prefer going to the market because I am a poor student but I have many friends who prefer the department store to a market. I ’ d like to tell you about my neighbour. He prefers Department store in Kharkiv. Where there are many departments in it. The shop sells all kinds o f goods for both men and women and it has many departments. In every department there is a good selection o f goods. It takes a little time to buy a necessary thing. So all this goods are of good quality and so they are very expensive. My friend adores doing shopping in the department store. As for me I dislike this shop. The service is much to desire. I think that shop assistant must help to choose good things because I have no much money I have to go to the market. On one hand market goods are cheaper on the other hand I am not sure in their quality. To tell the truth I don’ t like to go shopping. My mother or grandmother does shopping in my fam ily. They do their shopping at the ■market because meals are always fresh and not expensive here. They buy al necessary food. But sometimes I have gone to the shop if my relatives are •very busy. I take a bag and go to the nearby shop. Advertisements play a very Important role in our life. They often help me to make my choice. A t first I read advertisements in newspapers or watch them on TV and then go to the shop. To my mind advertisements are of good adviser. W e can discuss this topic very long because shops are essential part o f our life. 6. School 1 go to school five days a week except Saturday and Sunday when I have deserved rest. Classes in our school start at 8 o ’clock in the morning and last till 14:30. Usually we have 6 or 7 lessons a day. 40 Cynep ГД , 1 КЛ.. KH. I З 0
  • 38. CHECK YOUR SKILLS GRAMMAR S C 2 с aj ro Ct d ro i£. S I 1. 1. If I was taller, I would play in a basketball team. 2. If they were more careful, that Monday accident would happen. 3. If I was you, I ’d do this work yesterday. 4. If I meet him, you will be the first to know. 5. If our guests stay a bit longer, they will be able to meet our parents. 6. If you were not in a hurry, they would explain everything to you. 7. They wouldn’ t have invited you to join the English club, if they had known you do not speak English. 8. I f you see them tom orrow, please, let them know I am com ing this weekend. places at the same time, it can’ t be an accident; it must be because someone started it. We can reduce the number of fires by employing more peoplfe to guard the forests, but this can’ t be something the government can’ t afford. LISTENING 1. Our planet suffers from our activ­ ities. 2. Sometimes the Earth warns o f the danger of killing the planet and ourselves. 3. W e must be careful not to provoke to some extend natural disasters. 4. Such natural disasters as landslides, typhoons, earthquakes or droughts make big problems. 5. Different countries send to the area o f natural disaster food and medical VOCABULARY supplies, as well as doctors, nurses, blankets, tents and clothes. 2 . This summer there will probably be a 6. Natural disasters teach us to be merciful to the other people and to our lot o f forest fires as always during the hot planet — the Earth. weather. These fires will not only destroy thousands o f trees but could destroy homes as well. W hat are the causes of READING forest fires? 3. p u I < u C O < C Ü о < J3 u .4 bo ok .o z Some fires will simply be the result of natural causes, particularly in hot, dry weather. But this can’ t explain why fires occur at other times, when the weather is not so hot. For example, when a fire starts in several different w a Я З Ct w ct w о 7. X < ІЛ CM rg Ц Ct 4. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. What are they? С W hy do they happen? В Where do they happen? E How do they affect people? D W hat can people do? A THE WORLD OF PAINTING 1.1. W hat is the difference between a drawing and painting? — The word ‘painting’ normally refers to a ‘bitmap’ image. This is a graphic made up o f many tiny coloured squares called ‘bits’ which are ‘ mapped’ on a background to give the illusion of ‘continuous tone’ shadings, such as those seen in a photograph. These images are also often referred to as ‘raster’ graphics. W ith a ‘ drawing’ program, on the other hand, one normally creates images by establishing points that are connected by straight or curved lines, resulting in shapes such as a rectangle or an oval. The shapes can then be filled with colours resulting in, say, a red heart or a green shamrock. Many o f the cartoon­ style ‘ clipart’ drawings found on the Web are considered drawings rather than paintings. These drawings are also often referred to as ‘vector’ graphics. 2. W hat are the subjects o f your favourite picture? — My favourite pictures about the nature and sea.
  • 39. г 3. What is your favourite painting? — ІЙу favourite picture is ‘ Ship in the Stormy Sea’ by Ivan Aivazovskyi. 4. What is your favourite painter? — My favourite painter is Ivan Aivazovskyi. w w w .4 bo ok . or g was strongly influenced by the icon tradition. 8. Who represented Ukrainian painting art of Soviet period? — Ukrainian art o f Soviet period is represented by 3. Ukrainian painters are Dmitry Levitzky, many talented painters as T.Yablonska, Y.Bokchai, O. Shovkunenko, R.Selskyi, Eugenie Chuikov, Alexander Bogomazov, S.Shyshko, V.Zaretskyi and many Ivan Trush, Maria Prym achenko and others. many others. 9. What style did Academy of Arts in St Petersburg cultivate? — Academy o f Arts in St Petersburg cultivated the READING classicist style of painting then popular in Europe. 4. b) 1. Who is considered to be the father 5. 1. someone who produces art, especially pain­ of modern Ukrainian painting? — Taras ting or drawing (Ukrainian painters) Shevchenko was considered the father of 2. to describe something, especially in modern Ukrainian painting. pictures or writing (Christ, the Virgin, ' 2. What period is connected with angels and saints) the development o f abstraction and 3. to use talent, paintings, pictures, etc. symbolism? — During the end o f and in order to help something be successful beginning o f 20“’ centuries abstraction (T. Shevchenko) and symbolism were developing. 4. a particular type o f art, which has . 3. What genre o f painting was under certain characteristics that all examples the strong influence o f Byzantine o f this type share (portrait painting) traditions? — Icon-painting was under 5. a picture that you have in your mind the strong influence o f Byzantine (lyrical landscape) traditions. 6. interesting or unusual, that is worth 4. What are the tendencies o f the being noticed or mentioned (Mykhailo present-day Ukrainian art? — PresentBoichuk A rt School) day Ukrainian art is developing in 7. well-known and important (Odessa art harmony with world art. National theme school and Kyiv drawing school) remains topical in painting — in thematic 8. to do something that expresses the and historical pictures, landscapes, feelings, opinions, manners, etc. of associative and formalistic works. a group o f people (consider as a classic 5. What art schools played an o f Ukrainian folk art) important role at the beginning of 9. a person who belongs to a certain the 20"“ century? — Odessa art school group o f people (Vrubel, Vasnetsov, and Kyiv drawing school occupied an Repin) important place at the beginning o f the 10. the main subject or idea in a piece 20“' century. o f painting (thematic and historical 6. W hy was Ukraine called East European pictures, landscapes, associative and Italy? — Inspired by romanticism mane formalistic works) painters o f that time devoted their 11. interesting because it deals efforts to depicting rural scenery at it with something that is important at most beautiful. A t that time Ukraine the present time (in harmony with was called East European Italy. Artists world art) from Russia and European countries visited Ukraine to enrich themselves with new themes and images. 7. When did portrait painting appear as a separate genre? — Portrait painting as a separate genre appeared during the Renaissance (16“' century) and 40» 6. Painting in England in the 17“‘ — 19*'’ centuries is represented by a number o f great artists and during that period it was greatly represented by foreign painters. The Flemish painter Van Dyck was really the father o f English Portrait
  • 40. T >4 Q. .5 c о S a ro d X ro J3 I 01 E CL < C Q О < J3 u X < ем in esi 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 3. a a a a a a a a 1. a painting (c) landscape (g) seascape (a) portrait (i) sitter (d) still life (f) fresco (b) scene (h) piece (e) rg s I He depicts (describes, reflects) a group o f children (a tall tree, a mol on the river) He portraits a beautiful woman (a group o f children). She depicts (describes, reflects) a group o f children (a tall tree, a mol on the river) She portraits a beautiful woman (a group o f children). Folk (i) Icon (e) Primitive (b) 1. Gainsborough is an outstanding artist Abstraction (h) Avant-garde (c) o f the 18*'' century. Classicism (a) Reynolds is a prominent painter o f the Futurism (g) 18"' century. Impressionism (f) Van Dyck is a distinguished Realism (d) representative o f the 17'*’ century. Michelangelo is a brilliant artist of the 1T'' century. Rembrandt is a prominent painter of the GRAMMAR 18th century. Aivazovskyi is a distinguished artist of 1. When I went to bed, I had turned off the 19”‘ century. the radio. Malevich is an outstanding representative I was really hungry as I hadn’ t eaten o f the ig*'’ century. anything for breakfast. Repin was a brilliant portraitist. I had forgotten to clean my teeth before Repin was a prominent painter of battle I got into bed. scenes. By midnight, I had finished the magazine Yablonska was a brilliant painter of article. landscape. I watched TV after we had finished Borovykovskyi was a prominent dinner. portraitist. 2. 1. A . W e tired the house and then the Shevchenko was a brilliant portraitist. visitors arrived. Shevchenko was a prominent painter of 2. B.H is mum came home and then he landscape. went to bed. Levytskyi was a prominent portraitist. 3. B.N ick saw the film and then he read Pymonenko was a brilliant portraitist. the book. Pymonenko was a prominent painter of still life. 4. B. John arrived before Ms Williams. Aivazovskyi was a brilliant painter of 5. A. They had dinner and then Lilly seascape. arrived. VOCABULARY .4 bo ok .o го w го w a w Ъ S ch ool. The English kin g personally Invited Van Dyck to London and diiring his first year in England the painter spent most o f his time painting the King and the Queen. Such prominent masters as Reynolds, Gainsborough and Lawrence were influenced by his work. He created a genre of aristocratic and intellectual portrait which influenced much the development of English painting. During the 18"' century the national, school of painting was created. William Hogarth was the first great English painter who raised British pictorial art to a high level o f importance. He wasn’ t success as a portrait painter. But his pictures o f social life which he called ‘ modern moral subject’ brought him fame and position.
  • 41. 3. 1- Tanya hadn’ t finished doing the housework by five o ’ clock, so she called Nadia to tell her she would be late. 2. She didn’t eat anything at the party because she had already eaten at home. 3. He had just finished his homework when the teacher came in. 4. By the time I arrived the play had started. 4 , 1. There was an open book on the sofa, (c — after he had been reading) 2. The ground was wet. (d — because it had been raining) 3. Her eyes were red. (a — when she had been crying) 4. There was an empty box on the floor, (b — after they had been eating pizza) 5. He was out o f breath, (e — while he had been running) Which o f museums have you visited? — Four years ago I visited the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Exposition of which museum would you like to see? — I would you like to see the expositions of the Louvre in Paris. W hat makes people create works of art? — I think that people create works o f art because they like painting most o f all. What makes people collect them? — People collect them because it is very popular between the rich people. What makes people go to see them in museums and other places? — People want to be a broad-minded person, that’ s why they go to the museums. 1. Do you need to buy a map? — Yes, I do. I need to buy a map. 2. What should you visit first? — You 5. 1. When I arrived they had been waiting can’t visit the Louvre and not see the for over half an our. Mona Lisa, but my tip would be to see 2. They were hot, because they had been it first. dancing. 3. When should you see the galleries 3. When I got there, they hadn’ t been that most interest you? W hy? — When waiting long. you ’ve done that, use the plan to look for 4. She was tired because she had been the galleries that sound most interesting running. to you, and spend the morning visiting 5. The garden was flooded because it had them, when you have plenty o f energy. been raining all night. 4. Where can you have lunch? — I have lunch at one o f the reasonable priced 6. 1. a) told cafe. 2. b) been flying 5. What should you do in the 3. b) been doing afternoon? — I spend the afternoon 4. b) been drinking relaxing and finding surprises without 5. a) given looking at your map. 6. Can you take photographs? — Yes, I can. I can take photographs. LISTENING 7. Do you have to pay for audio 1. Why do people go to the museums and guides? — Yes, I do. I have to pay for audio guides. galleries? — Submerge yourself in beauty, 8. What do you have to remember if culture, style, ideas, musings... The thing you borrow one? W hy? — You need to is, rarely can you even touch the object in remember which one you got it from, as a museum, and there is a distance between you must return it to the same one to the object/art and the viewer, this glass get your credit card or passport back. case or rope between. w w w .4 bo ok .o rg 4. Which famous museums do you know? — The famous world museums are the Amerbach-Cabinet in Basel, the U ffizi Gallery in Florence, the British Museum in London, the Louvre in Paris, the Hermitage in St Petersburg, and the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. 5. One of the greatest museums in London, the National G allery is a solid day’ s worth o f culture and exploration. The National Gallery in London was founded in 1824 and houses a rich collection o f over 2300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home
  • 42. SPEAKING 1. 1. Do you often go to museums? — No, I don’ t. 2. When did you go to a museum last? — Last time I went to museum two years ago. 3. Where is the museum situated? — This museum is situated in Kharkiv. 4. W ho built it? — It was built by Kharkiv architects. 5. W hat can you tell about the expositions o f the museum? — There are different beautiful expositions o f Aivazovskyi, Repin and many others. 1. (C) I say, Nick, what are you doing on Sunday? 2. (E) Oh; that’s wonderful. I’ ve been at the historical museum in Lviv. It’ s really worth visiting. 3. (A ) W ell, there are many things dating back to ancient times: national embroidery, collections of coins, glassware, all kinds of weapons, articles made o f bone, stone, iron or silver and different manuscripts. 4. (D) Oh, yes, and by the way, it’ s very rich. 5. (B) Have a nice journey. 3. J3 U >s X < in CJ N w < w w .4 bo ok .o ц that shouldn’t be missed. The audio guide inform ed me that Van Gogh painted it from his room in a mental asylum. rg on Trafalgar Square. The gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departraental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection belongs to the public o f the United K ingdom and entry to the main collection (though not som e special exh ib ition s) is free у: o f charge. Easily accessible from the 2 Charing Cross Tube at Trafalgar Square, Ъ QJ it is truly a majestic building by itself. fO W ithout question, splurge the few quid ъс and get the audio guide. It is fu ll o f interesting titbits and inform ation that you can’ t get by simply reviewing the го captions next to the artworks. Tip: you can use your own iP od/iP h on e ear buds S X i f y ou ’ d p refer to avoid a stranger’ s т cooties. Neatly organized by century and by artist, you can take your time and .5 appreciate each piece on an individual с о basis. What’s amazing is how approachable they are. Even the classics, a simple rope line 18 inches from the wall. You Q. can ju st about stick your nose right up Г О to the Van Gogh and view the texture d o f each awesome brush stroke. Rubens. I го Picasso. Monet. B otticelli. Some o f the images that even to an uncultured hick like me are instantly recognizable. On л I a busy day (Sunday on a bank holiday (U weekend), expect a good crowd around ю Q. the best known works. Y ou ’ re going to have a hard time getting face time with < GQ Van Gogh’ s ‘ Sunflowers’ , but a few steps О away is ‘A W heatfield with Cypresses’ USE YOUR ENGLISH 1. My fam ily and I had been watching a scary science-fiction film for an hour when I noticed that I was alone in the room . W e had been lookin g forw a rd to this film all day, but when I looked round, the room was empty! My little sister had left the room earlier. She had been crying because she was scared. My mum and dad had been sitting on the sofa, but then they went to make some coffee. Outside it was dark and it had been raining all evening. Suddenly, I heard a strange moaning noise. ‘ Mum!’ I yelled. Then Dad laughed. He had been hiding behind my chair. 1. She was hungry because she hadn’ t eaten anything all day. 2. By the time I had leaved school, I decided to become a painter. 3. W e had just heard the news when you rang. 4. When I turned on the TV, the programme had already started. 5. I had already thought o f that before you suggested it. 2. 3 . Sir Joshua Reynolds was the most ou tstan din g portraitist o f the second half o f IS"* century. In December 1768 the Royal Academ y was fou nded and Reynolds became its first president. He
  • 43. rg figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element o f the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition o f representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. Landscape photography has been very im portant since the 19'‘‘ century, and is covered by its own article. The word ‘ landscape’ is from the Dutch, landscape originally meant a patch o f cultivated ground, and then an image. The word entered the English language at the start o f the 17''' century, purely as a term for works of art; it was not used to describe real vistas before 1725. If the primary purpose of a picture is to depict an actual, specific place, especially in clu d in g b u ildin gs prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views, extremely common as prints, are often seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful. 7. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovskyi (1817-1900) was born in the family of a merchant o f Armenian origin in the town o f Feodosia, Crimea. His parents were under strained circumstances and he spent his childhood in poverty. W ith the help o f people who had noticed the talented youth, he entered the Simpheropol gymnasium, and then the St. Petersburg Academy o f Arts, where he took the landscape painting course and was especially interested in marine landscapes. In the autumn o f 1836 Aivazovskyi presented 5 marine pictures to the Academic exhibition, which were highly appreciated. In 1837, Aivazovskyi received the Major Gold Medal for Calm in the Gulf o f Finland (1836) and The Great Roads at Kroonstad (1836), which allowed him to go on a long study trip abroad. However the artist first went to the Crimea to perfect himself in his chosen genre by painting the sea and views of Crimean coastal towns. During the period o f 1840-1844 Aivazovskyi, w w w .4 bo ok .o created a whole gallery of portraits of the most famous people o f that period. He usually painted his characters in heroic sitter and showed them as the best people o f the nation. But the leading portraitist of his day was Thomas Lawrence. He became painter to George HI in 1792 and president o f the Royal Academy (1820-1830). Queen Charlotte is one o f his finest portraits. Thomas Gainsborough, one o f the greatest representatives of the English school, was a portraitist and a landscape painter. His portraits are painted in clear tones. Blue and green are his favourite colours. One o f the most famous works is the Portrait o f the Duchess o f Beaufort. He managed to create a true impression o f the impressions. Gainsborough greatly influenced the English school o f landscape masters. He was one o f the first English artists to paint his native land (Sunset, The Bridge and others). He was the first English artist to paint his native countryside so sincerely. His works contain much poetry and music. He is sometimes considered the forerunner o f the impressionists. John Constable, an English landscape painter, painted many well-known works (A Cottage in a Cornfield, The Loch). He is the first landscape painter who considered that every painter should make his sketches directly from nature working in the open air. His technique and colouring are very close to the painting. Constable ignored the rules established by Reynolds. He insisted that art should be based on observation o f nature and feeling. He was the herald o f romanticism. But the realistic qualities o f his art are sensed very strongly. 5 . I prefer landscape to other genre. Landscape art is a term that covers the depiction o f natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for
  • 44. 1 о а го СГ I н и J2 I си m CL <■ CQ О < J3 U >s X < се л CJ N must a well-written paragraph or essay have? 2. Where does the word ‘ coherence’ come from? 3. How can you achieve coherence in writing? 4. What does it mean? 5 . Cohesive devices are various methods o f connecting sentences to each other, aren’ t they? 6. What do they include? 7 . Are translations or spellings the most common type of linking words? 8. What types of logical ordering do you know? 9 . W e put the paragraphs together by using linking words, don’ t we? rg і .: 2, 1. What 3. b) Firstly (at first, first of all) Secondly (second, then, after that) For instance (as an example, for example) Last but not least (finally, in conclusion) All things considered (to tally up, summarize) ok .o т а WRITING bo X .4 S w сі 0 го w го ъс w Q Ъ as а pensioner of the Academy of Arts, spent time in Italy, traveled to Germany, France, Spain, and Holland. He worked much and had many exhibitions, meeting everywhere with success. He painted a lot o f marine landscapes, which became very popular in Italy; ‘ The Bay of ■Naples by Moonlight’ (1842), ‘Seashore. Calm’ (1843), ‘ Malta. Valetto Harbour’ (1844). To the best canvases belong ‘ Bay o f Naples in the moonlit night’ (1842), ‘The Sea’ (1853), ‘Storm in the North Sea’ (1865), ‘Sunny Day' (l8 8 4 ), ‘ Among the W aves’ (1898) and other. Ilya Efimovich Repin was born in 1844 in a small Ukrainian town of Chuguev, Kharkiv Province, in a family of a military settler. As a young boy, he received his first lessons in art in 1858, when he worked for a talented icon painter I.M . Bunakov. At the n^e o f 19, he entered St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. His arrival to the capital coincides with the important event in the artistic life of the 60’ s, the so called ‘ Riot of the Fourteen’ . In 1870, Repin made his first sketches for ‘Barge Haulers on the Volga’ , while being on a boat trip. When the work was finished in 1873, it immediately won recognition. For his diploma work, ‘ Raising o f Jauris’ Daughter’ (1871), Repin was award the Major Gold Medal and received a scholarship for studies abroad. In 1873 Repin went abroad. For several months he had been travelling around Italy and then settled to work in Paris up until 1876. During these 10-12 years Repin created majority o f his famous paintings. In 1877, he started painting a religious procession (Krestniy Khod), Krestniy Khod in Kursk Gubernia (1880-1883). The composition was based on the dramatic effect of different attitude of the participants o f the procession to the wonder-working icon carried at the head o f the procession. There were two different versions of the picture. The second one, completed in 1883, became the most popular. At first glance the spectator discovers in the crowd the abundance of social types and human characters. 5. 1. D. interesting/unusual facts 2. A. addressing reader directly 3. B. a rhetorical question 4. C. a quotation 6. a) for and against d) Does each paragraph have sentence? — Yes, it does. Do supporting sentences, give details to explain each point? they do. Is a concluding sentence used? it is. Are translational words and used correctly and effectively? they are. a topic enough — Yes, — Yes, phrases — Yes, 7. Role o f art in our life A rt is an all embracing notion (music, painting, theatre, literature and so on). Art had the most important role in the development of the mankind. The first were found on walls of ancient caves. So we can guess that painting was the first way of art. Painting is the most understandable way o f art, because it gives us the most full and vivid impression. Art
  • 45. has great influence on our souls, feelings, forms our moral values. Art forms our outlook and enriches our inner world. Art influences greatly the development and of evolution of consciousness of a person and of the mankind. Art makes us think of the sense of life, how people must live, what is ideal of beauty, what is love, — the eternal questions. Art helps us to understand people who lived hundred years ago and to learn the history of the mankind. Art creates our notion about beauty and harmony. Art helps people to understand outside world and each others. Art develops our good qualities. Art has a great educational significance. Art brings people up — makes them more humane and kind. The language of art is universal. The landscape isn’ t painted so exactly. There is a piece of blue-grey sky in the right-corner of the picture, but on the horizon the clouds are condensing. The forest behind the lady isn’ t green, it is obscure and gloomy. Predominant colour is brown. There is a sharp contrast between lighted up figure and dark landscape. The figure is close to the observer than to the landscape. So the figure doesn’t blend with the landscape. The posture of the lady is very natural. Her eyes are gazed before and upper herself. She is deep in her thoughts. CHECK YOUR SKILLS GRAMMAR rg .4 bo ok .o 1 . 1 . had been expect 2. had opened 3. had a chance 4. had been waiting for 5. had heard 6. had breakfast the Department of Oriental Art: piece of Coptic fabric with the picture of horseman ( 5th_gih centuries), ritual Chinese bell (1st century BC), excellent Chinese paintings on the scrolls (15‘''-2 0 ‘'' centuries) and Japanese paintings. VOCABULARY LISTENING 3. 1. c) National Art Museum of Ukraine 2. b) 15th century Museum of Art was founded in 1919 on 3. c) 21 halls 4. b) the wooden relief of St George the basis of the private collection of Kyiv 5. a) 19th century archeologist Bohdan Khanenko. The Green 6. b) contemporary painters Cabinet features the collection of Medieval Art, the Golden Cabinet contains objects of Rococo epoch and in the Red Cabinet READING you can find paintings o f Renaiscance period. There are 17 ООО exhibits in the museum funds. Among the exhibits are 4 . 1775. W illiam Turner was born in the paintings of Bellini, Hals, Reynolds, Devonshire Rubens, the masterpiece ‘ Infant Margaret’ 1787. His first drawing are dated by Velazquez and unique Byzantine / Sinai 1796. He began to exhibit oil paintings icons of the centuries written by wax as well as water-coloured paint. Interesting exhibits are presented at 1851. Turner died in London w w w 2. 8. Football is (e) Surfing is (a) Skiing is (d) Motor-racing is (c) Boxing is (b) 1.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DO YOU LIKE SPORTS? Do you play any games? W hich is your favourite game? W ho taught you to play it? — Yes, I do. My favourite game is football. My father taught me to play it. 2.
  • 46. 0 го S 1 т а 5 'с о сг Q. Г О СГ I A . I know it’ s only a dream at the moment. But maybe it’ ll come true. (3) B.This and reading the sports pages in the paper are my kinds o f sport. (1) C. How can you stay fit when your body is under pressure all the time? (4) D. For example, last year some o f us went on a big holiday trip to Italy, which was great fun. Anyway, sport keeps you fit and healthy, doesn’ t it? (2) 3. READING J3 5 < ІС U X < 1П ем w w са О 1. Mark’s favourite sport is football, (true) 2. Mark is an armchair sportsmen, (false) 3. Billy is very interested in sports, (false) 4. Billy likes meeting his friends in pubs, (true) 5. Liz used to do lots o f sports, (false) 6. Liz dreams to become a tennis professional, (true) 7. Suzie always listens to cricket commentaries on her radio, (false) 8. Suzie loves sport very much, (false) 4. w < .4 I bo <0 о» m Ъ- rg сі summer holidays I go on hikes. I usually spend my winter holidays in the country where I ski, skate or toboggan. I also go in for track-and-field (athletics) events. Different sports and games are popular with my classmates. All my friends go in for different kinds o f sport, such as water polo, gymnastics, horse-racing, wrestling, fencing, weightlifting, boxing, ice hockey, speed skating, figure skating, football, basketball, volleyball, etc. W e have fine teams at our school and different kinds of competitions take place there. The boys o f my school are crazy about football, they play football and the girls are football fans. The girls never miss a single match played by school teams. b) the general rules o f volleyball The complete rules are extensive. But simply, play proceeds as follows: A player on one of the teams begins a ‘ rally’ by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a hand or arm), from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving team’s court. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. They may touch the ball as many as three times. Typically, the first two touches are to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with eacK team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either (1); a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent’s court and winning the rally; or (2): a team commits a fault and loses the rally. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point, and serves the ball to start the next rally. A few o f the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground outside the opponents’ court or without first passing over the net; catching and throwing the ball; double hit: two consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same player; four consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same team. ok .o 5 C 2 Ъ Q. Г О ъс Are you а football fan? W ho is your favourite football player? What team do you support? Do young boys dream o f becoming football players? W hy? — Yes, I am. I am a football fan. Andrei Shevchenko is my favourite football player. I support Manchester United from England. Young boys dream of becoming football players. It is a prestigious kind o f sport all over the world. Fishing is a pleasant kind o f sport, isn’ t it? What qualities does it require? — Yes, it is. It is a pleasant kind of sport. It requires acquired habits and the deftness. 7 . a) the sport activities at your school or sports club If you want to keep fit you must go in for one kind o f sport or another. Sport is an essential part of my daily life. Every morning all the year round I do my morning exercises. Almost every day I do some training. In summer I go swimming or rowing. During my
  • 47. г A chess-player plays chess. A tennis player plays tennis. 3. a court — tennis a course — sailing a ring — boxing a stadium — football a rink — skating a track — cycling a slope — mountaineering 4 . A rg en tin a beat G erm any 2:1 last Saturday. Milan has won the match 3:0. The Chicago Bulls lost 78:91 to Celtic. Spain drew with Brazil 2:2. or g 5. 1- tennis court (b) 2. athletics track (d) 3. ski slope (i) 4. get feet (c) 5. captain (a) 6. coach (e) 7. referee (h) 8. warm up (j) 9. train (f) 10. spectators (g) w w w .4 bo ok . net foul: touching the net during play. The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of the body. c) a track and field tournament Variety o f sport competitions held on a running track and on the adjacent field. It is the oldest form o f organized sports, having been a part o f the ancient Olympic Games from c. 776 BC to AD 393. Modern events include various sprint and middle- and long­ distance races, relay races, hurdling, steeplechase, high jump, pole vault, long jump, triple jump, shot put, discus throw, hammer throw, javelin throw, decathlon, pentathlon, and heptathlon. Cross-country running, marathons, and speed walking, which are rarely held on a track, are usually considered adjuncts o f athletics. Events are held indoors and outdoors, and records are kept separately; some events are modified or eliminated for indoor competition. d) the gym you train in Gymnastics is an activity involving performance o f exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, balance, and grace. e) the most important sports event at your school or city sports club during the last winter The most important sports events at my school are competitions o f running, swimming and football. In my city every winter there are competition o f skiing and skating between different schools. VOCABULARY 1 . M ic h a e l b a sk e tb a ll. Jordan is a sta r My mother plays volleyball. My father goes in for hunting. I go in for athletics. My sister plays chess. Vitally Klichko is a star of boxing. 2 . A swimmer goes in for swimming. A footballer goes in for football. An athlete goes in for athletics. A basketballer goes in for basketball. of GRAMMAR 1 . 1 . A. Past Simple 2. D.Past Perfect Continuous 3. C. Past Perfect 4. B.Past Continuous 2 . 1. It had been raining all day and the roads were very wet. 2. When has she chosen to take a course in English? 3. Tom had been thinking about his answer during the lunch break. 4. Dan was an angry. He was waiting for Linda for two hours. 5. Students opened their books and did the exercise. 6. The teacher had smiled as he was reading Kate’ s essay. 7. It was easy for him to get lost because he hadn’ t been in a big city before. 8. Tom listened to the teacher while the others were taking notes. 3 .1 .1 had reviewed grammar rules before the test when my computer started to blink. 2. She was upset, because she hadn't managed to prepare for the test.
  • 48. о S a ro C[ I ra J 3 X Ф m b. < CQ О < U X < СІ Ч 4. 1. B. Future Continuous 2. A . Future Simple 3. C. be going to 5. 1. I will be remembering this day for the rest of my life. 2. Are you going Australia next Christmas? 3. I’ m sure you will pass your exam successfully. 4. George says he is going to do the washing up after dinner. 5. What will you do this evening? 6. You look tired. I ’ll help you finish the paperwork. 7. W hy don’ t you go out and have some fan? You won't always be young. 8. We have to go now. The last train leaves at 11:30 pm. 9. This time next week I will be flying across the Atlantic. 10. I hope I will be earning my first million before I am thirty. LISTENING 2 . 1. What competitive sports do you know? — I know football, volleyball, basketball and many others. 2. What are spectator (participant) sports? — Practically all kinds of sport are spectator and participant. 3. What sports are popular in our country (the USA, England)? — Football and volleyball are the most popular kinds o f sport in Ukraine. American football, baseball and basketball are the most popular kinds o f sport in USA. Football and cricket are the most popular kinds o f sport in England. 4. What is the most characteristic feature o f Ukrainian sports programmes? — In Ukrainian sports programmes there are only kinds o f sport the most popular in Ukraine. 5. What are you know about major professional sports in Great Britain and the USA? — Baseball is the most popular game in the US. It is played throughout the spring and summer by schools, colleges and professional teams. Football is the most pöpular game in the autumn. There are professional football teams in all the main cities of the United States. In American football there are eleven players in each team, as in original football, but the rules are different. Players are often hurt in American football. So the teams wear special clothing and helmets as in hockey. Basketball is a very popular game in the United States too. It is especially popular in high schools, both among boys and girls. The game o f golf is very popular with businessmen and professional people. It is played by both men and women. There are now more golfers than tennis players. Swimming, water siding and skin diving are popular summer rg >N Q. 5 Ъ 8. When you next see me I will wear my new dress. 9. It is nearly autumn; soon the leaves will change colour. 10. Do you need your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it? oo k. o s I T .4 b го w 2 Ъ a та w w i£. 3. W ere they nervous before a test yesterday? 4. John was reading an economic book, while Tom was looking through some magazines. 5. I do not remember exactly how long ago it was. 6. Roger didn't give any explanation why he had been late to school. 7. I felt very tired when I came home so I went straight to bed. 8. Mr Pritt took his case and leaved, 9. What were you doing at 10 o ’ clock yesterday morning? 10. I wanted to borrow that new book but she had already lent it to someone. 6. 1. He will come if you ask him. 2. I wonder what I will do this time next year. 3. Look! I am going to paint this room blue and the sitting room green. 4. All right. I have a pound. 5. Will you not climb the mountain after all? We are going to climb and fish. 6. If you leave your keys with the hall porter he will take the car round the garage. 7. I was not showing any films this tine. The projector’s broken down.
  • 49. s p o r t s . I n w in t e r m a n y p e o p l e g o in f o r 7. A m e r i c a n f o o t b a l l i s c a l l e d « s o c c e r » . I c e -s k a tin g , 8 . F o o t b a l l t e a m s c a n b e p ro fe s s io n a l. s k iin g and h ock ey if th ey liv e in t h e N o r t h e r n a n d C e n tr a l s ta te s . 9 . P’ o o t b a l l p l a y e r s c a n u s e t h e i r f e e t an d O th e r h a nd s. and sp o rts in c lu d e h o r s e -ra cin g . w r e s t lin g , The b o x in g g a m e o f fo o tb a ll is a n y o f s e v e r a l s im ila r te a m s p o r t s , o f 10. A m e r ic a n fo o tb a lle r s p la y an w it h o v a l ball. s im ila r o r ig in s w h ic h in v o lv e , to v a r y in g 6. d e g r e e s , k ic k in g a b a ll w it h th e f o o t in a n la s t? a tte m p t t o s c o r e a g o a l. T h e m o s t p o p u la r a n d h a lf h o u r. 1. H ow — lo n g A does a fo o tb a ll fo o tb a ll m a tch m a tch la s ts f o r o n e o f th e s e s p o r t s w o r ld w id e is a s s o c ia tio n 2. fo o tb a ll, b a s k e t b a ll m a t c h ? — T h e r e is o n e r e fe r e e ‘ fo o tb a ir th e w ord or a p p lie s to w h ic h e v e r o f f o o t b a l l is t h e m o s t p o p u la r in ap p ears, fo o tb a ll, r u le s G a e lic ru gby u n io n W h ile fo o tb a ll v a r io u s th e fo o tb a ll, and w it h c r e a t io n w ere its 3. H ow m any be (k n o w n p la y e d B r ita in , as p r iv a te are w id e ly a c h ie v e m e n t s in fo o tb a ll ta k in g ‘ m o b ’ fo rm codes. fo o tb a ll a n d tu r n in g 4. H ow o fte n it of w ere fo o tb a ll record ed by it w as tea ch ers, c o d ifie d to be and th e s e s c h o o ls w h o fo o tb a ll g a m e s, p la y e d w m a tch es stu d e n ts w fo r m e r stu d e n ts fr o m fir s t w p e o p le w h o h a d s t u d ie d a t th e s e s c h o o ls . T h ir d , b etw een to e n a b le s c h o o ls . F in a lly , i t w a s a t E n g lis h p u b lic s c h o o ls th a t th e d iv is io n ‘ ru n n in g ’ (o r b etw een ‘ k ic k in g ’ and ‘ c a r r y in g ’ ) gam es fir s t in a th e W o r ld h e ld ? — A th le tics The W o r ld o n e t im e 5 . H o w l o n g is a n a r a th o n ? — M a r a t h o n 6. H ow m a n y h o le s a r e th e r e o n a g o lf c o u r s e ? — T h e r e a r e f i v e h o le s in a g o l f cou rse. 7. T h e g a m e , p e c u lia r ly a s s o c ia t e d w it h E n g la n d , is c r ic k e t . M a n y o t h e r g a m e s are a ls o E n g lis h in o r ig in , but b e e n a c c e p te d w it h e n th u s ia s m C r ic k e t e x t e n s iv e ly has been a ccep ted have in o t h e r s e r io u s ly o n ly in th e C o m m o n w e a lt h , p a r t i c u la r l y in A u s t r a l i a , I n d ia , a n d P a k is ta n . C r ic k e t is s lo w , s ittin g in lu n c h , m ay lit t le is th e s le e p m a k in g A s s o c ia t io n p o p u la r . and a ft e r h is fo r h a v in g h a lf fo r sun excu sed be no s p e c ta to r , a a fte rn o o n h ou r. an progress fo o tb a ll N e a r ly 40 or in p o p u la r it y . soccer m illio n 1 . A m e r ic a n s c o n s id e r b a s e b a ll our n a tio n a l sp o rt. B a s e b a ll d a tes is very sp ecta tors y e a r a tte n d m a t c h e s b e t w e e n th e lo n g b e fo r e th e C iv il W a r . m eans E n g la n d th e is t h e C u p F in a l p la y e d E m p ir e S ta d iu m , W e m b le y , at in a L on d on su bu rb. B a s e b a ll is a p r o f e s s io n a l s p o r t th is by t h e F o o t b a ll L ea g u e. T h e b ig g e s t even t in back a C r ic k e t g r e a t p r o fe s s io n a l te a m s o r g a n is e d 5. 3. th e re is a 4 2 ,1 9 5 k m lo n g . each b e c a m e c le a r . 2. are C h a m p io n s h ip s and to are in a v o lle y b a ll te a m . c o u n t r ie s . d e s c r ip tio n s r e fe r e n c e s p la y e r s v o lle y b a ll te a m ? — T h e r e a re s ix p la y e r s m any and a in a y e a r . c o u n t r ie s ) m odern in in a b a s k e t b a ll m a t c h . it in to an o r g a n is e d te a m s p o r t. S e co n d , e a r ly th e re gam es. to th rou g h ou t im p o r t a n t in aw ay fro m are A t h le t ic s C h a m p io n s h ip s h o ld F ir s t o f a ll, th e e v id e n c e s u g g e s t s th a t th ey r e fe r e e s r e la te d oth er fo u r key of m any le a g u e , c o n t in u e d oth er C a n a d ia n H ow rugby fo o tb a ll, s c h o o ls in c r e d it e d th e w o rd fo o tb a ll, fo rm s ‘ p u b lic ’ s c h o o ls w h ic h A m e r ic a n in c lu d in g A u s tr a lia n its as ‘ s o c c e r ’ . U n q u a lifie d , fo o tb a ll t h e r e g io n a l c o n t e x t in in know n .4 bo ok .o fo r m c o m m o n ly rg ju s t m ore th a t th e p la y e r s and r e c e iv e a Rugby in fo o tb a ll B r ita in (o r r u g g e r ) h as e x is te d s in c e th e b e g in n in g of th e s a la r y . 4. W o r l d S e r i e s i s a n a tion al com p etition . 5 . F o o t b a l l i s e x tr e m e ly p o p u la r a n d s c h o o l, a tt r a c t s c ro w d s o f s p e c ta to r s . a n d r u n w it h it . R u g b y f o o t b a ll is p la y e d 6. D ue to huge a tte n d th e g a m e . s ta d iu m s p e o p le can 1 9 th c e n tu ry , w h en a te a ch e r at R u g b y w h ile p la y in g fo o tb a ll, d e c id e d t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o p i c k u p t h e ball w it h an e g g -s h a p e d b a ll w h ic h m ay be c a r r ie d a n d th r o w n (b u t n o t fo r w a r d ).
  • 50. T h e gam es o f g o l f a n d t e n n is a r e p la y e d by n u m b ers great p la y e d in th e of p e o p le . c o u n t r y s id e . G o lf It is c o n s is ts our cou n try do V it a lly you is S h ev ch en k o a and know ? — g rea test V la d im ir boxers. A n d rei fo o tb a lle r . K lic h k o in d r i v in g a s m a ll b a ll t o w a r d s a n d in t o o u ts ta n d in g L iliy a h o les s e p a r a t e d b y c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s , are P odkopaeva is fa m o u s U k r a in ia n g y m n a s t . b y m e a n s o f s p e c ia l g o l f c h ib s . T h e a im 1 1 . W h e r e w e r e th e f i r s t ( la s t ) O ly m p ic is t o G a m e s h e ld ? — T h e f ir s t O ly m p ic G a m e s ‘ g o r o u n d ’ u s in g as fe w s t r ik e s as C M го p o s s ib le . w ere T lie re a re m a n y t e n n is c lu b s , b u t e v e r y O ly m p ic ch a m p io n sh ip i n p u b l i c p a r k s . T h e w o r l d c o u r ts t e n n i s Canada. m a tch es я ъ — tow n p r o v id e s te n n is are h e ld at W im b le d o n in h e ld — W h a t sp o rts d o y o u d o ? — — I su pport th e cou n try е A m e r ic a n m ost (in k in d s p o p u la r B r ita in , of sport of sport fo o tb a ll, b a s k e t b a ll fro m gam e th e in U S A )? are in th e U SA. in U k r a in e . b a s e b a ll m ost and p o p u la r F o o t b a ll and k in d s c r ic k e t a r e t h e m o s t p o p u la r k in d s o f s p o r t in E n g la n d . w 4 . W h a t s p o r t g a m e s ca n b e p la y e d th e y e a r r o u n d ? — rou n d. can be a ll F o o t b a ll, v o lle y b a ll, p la y e d a ll th e year lik e s t o b o g g a n in g ? you p la y d ra u g h ts a tten d h ock ey (ch e s s)? 5 . W h a t su m m e r (w in te r ) s p o r ts d o y o u p re fe r? — I p r e fe r s k iin g , s k a tin g J3 6. in W hat th e d iffe r e n c e ‘a sp ort’ and ‘a gam e’ . — and X 7. p la y gam e. sp o rts and b etw een W e g o in f o r W e d on ’t p la y in s p o r t . < Do m a tch es? 1 6 . D o w e h a v e c h a m p io n s in a ll k in d o f sp orts? — In N o , w e d o n ’ t. w hat season is c r ic k e t p la y e d ? — P e o p le p la y c r ic k e t in s u m m e r . 18. W hat is th e reason fo r s m a lle r p o p u la r it y o f f o o t b a ll in B r it a in ? — B r ita in k in d any fo o tb a ll is th e m ost o f sp ort. T h a t’s w h y reason s fo r s m a lle r In p o p u la r th e re a ren ’t p o p u la r it y of f o o t b a ll in B r ita in . 19. W hat com pared k in d to of gam e fo o tb a ll? is c r ic k e t as C r ic k e t — is s lo w e r th a n fo o tb a ll. 4. 1 . I f I w e r e y o u . I ’ d ... ( a , c ) 2 . H a v e y o u c o n s id e r e d ...? (b ) 4 . I t h in k y o u s h o u ld ... 5. T h e g a m e o f f o o t b a ll is a n y o f s e v e r a l s im ila r te a m th e fo o t in an a tte m p t to s c o r e a g o a l . I t is p la y e d in s t a d i u m o r in k n o w ? — F o o t b a ll, v o lle y b a ll, b a s k e t b a ll s p o r t s h a ll. T h e p la y e r s w e a r in id e n t ic a l ca n b e as s p o r ts as g a m e . fo r m s : fo o tb a ll s h ir t a n d s h o r ts . E v e ry W h at gam es p u b lic in t e r e s t ? ta k e — th e fir s t I t h in k do s p o r ts , o f s im ila r o r ig in s w h ic h in v o lv e , t o v a r y in g d e g r e e s , k ic k in g a b a ll w it h gam es c) 5 . H a v e y o u t h o u g h t a b o u t ...? (b , d ) you 8. W hat you 6 . Y o u m ig h t e n jo y ... (a , b , c , d ) w in t e r a n d s w im m in g in s u m m e r . U sp orts 15. 3 . W h y d o n ’ t y o u ...? (a , c ) w b a s k e t b a ll w < su p p ort? U n it e d F o o t b a ll a n d v o lle y b a ll a re t h e m o s t p o p u la r О u s iia lly Do .4 bo ok .o is I < m W ho 17. W hat сг К do you M a n ch ester E n g la n d . — C Q in — ■ N o , I d o n ’ t. 2. W h a t fo o tb a ll tea m your О ) I g o in f o r fo o tb a ll. а X la s t B o b s le ie r s lik e t o b o g g a n in g . rg 1 .1 . 3. (13 2010 — Y es, I do. т С[ The in T h e y s u p p o r t th e ir fa v o u r it e te a m o r 14. S P E A K IN G I о G reece. h e ld w ere 1 2 . W h a t d o s p e c ta to r s d o a t th e s ta d iu m ? 13. as о. 5 Ъ A n c ie n t a sp ortsm a n . L o n d o n , d u r in g J u n e a n d J u ly . S in G am es p la c e in t h a t in our te a m h a s to w k in d s o f fo o t b a ll fo r m s . In f o o t b a ll e v e r y te a m w a n t s t o w in . T h e y c o u n t r y f o o t b a ll ta k e s th e f i r s t p la c e in s c o r e th e g o a ls as m u ch as th e y ca n . A t p u b lic in t e r e s t . i t s c o r e , f o o t b a ll is a g a m e w it h t w o te a m s n a t io n a l s p o r t in o f e le v e n p la y e r s , p la y e d o v e r th e c o u r s e E n g la n d ? — F o o t b a ll a n d c r ic k e t a r e th e o f 9 0 m in u t e s . T h is p e r io d is s p lit in t o g r e a t n a t io n a l s p o r t in E n g la n d . tw o 4 5 -m in u t e h a lv e s . T h e o b je c t iv e o f 9 . W h a t is см са СЧІ 10. W hat th e great o u ts ta n d in g sp ortsm en of th e g a m e is t o s c o r e m o r e ‘ g o a ls ’ th a n
  • 51. th e o p p o s it io n . T h e te r m to tw o a re a s e ith e r s id e ‘ g o a l’ r e fe r s o f th e p itch , th ree to e a ch o n e d e fe n d e d b y o n e o f th e te a m s. fo r A The ‘ g o a l ’ is s c o r e d b y d e p o s it in g t h e b a ll seven p la y e r s (th e n u m b e r o f s u b s t it u t e s p e r m it t e d is s lig h t ly h ig h e r in t e r n a t io n a l r e fe r e e frie n d ly a d ju d ic a te s m a tc h e s ). th e m a tch in in t o t h e o p p o n e n t ’ s a r e a . F o o t b a ll r u le s c o lla b o r a t io n w it h t w o lin e s m e n ( p r o p e r ly a r e a ls o s im p le . F o o t b a ll ca n b e p la y e d o n r e fe r r e d to as ‘ r e fe r e e ’ s a s s is ta n ts ’ ) an d a n a tu ra l o r a r t ific ia l s u r fa c e . H o w e v e r, a f o u r t h o f f i c i a l , s itu a t e d on th e to u c h lin e , th e sh a p e o f th e fie ld m u s t b e r e c ta n g u la r , i f n e c e s s a r y . A c o in to s s ta k e s p la c e ju s t w it h m etres b e fo r e th e lo n g b y 4 5 -9 0 m e tr e s w id e . N o ta b ly , th e t h e d im e n s io n s o f 9 0 - 1 2 0 w h ic h w ill g e t g u id e lin e s f o r in t e r n a t io n a l m a tc h e s a re w h ic h e n d t o a t t a c k o r w h e t h e r t o k ic k - s t r ic t e r (1 0 0 -1 1 0 m e tre s x 6 4 -7 5 m e tre s ). o f f . S h o u ld t h e y c h o o s e t o k i c k - o f f th e n O n e o f th e e le v e n g o a lk e e p e r and is c la s s ifie d p e r m it t e d to as th e h a n d le gam e sta rts, t h e w in n e r o f th e c h o ic e th e o th e r c a p ta in w ill b e w h ic h end to in w h ic h e n d t o a t t a c k th e n t h e lo s e r c a n o p t io n t o b r in g o n a m a x im u m o f t h r e e c h o o s e w h e th e r t o k i c k - o f f in th e f ir s t s u b s titu te s o r s e c o n d h a lf? lis t o f U S E Y O U R E N G L IS H 2. The referee is a person who acts as a judge in football. 3 . A skating-rink the place people skate on. 4. A court the sports ground on which tennis is played. 5. A figure skater the person who dances on the ice. w w w 2. 1. In field hockey players use a stick to hit the ball into the goal. 2. The winner is the team which scored more goals than their opponents. 3. Athletes from all round the world are going to compete for the championship. 4. Millions of people watch the Olympic Games on TV. 5 . I know a good sports centre where we can play tennis for free. 3.1. Ireland beat England yesterday. England won 1:0 in the first half but Ireland scored two goals in the second half. 2. It started raining when he had walked to work. He stopped a taxi because he didn’t wear a coat and didn’t have an umbrella. 3 . I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in twenty years. 4. I waited to play tennis yesterday when my partner had called me to say to ch oose t h a t h e h a d n ’ t can com e b e c a u s e h is c a r .4 bo ok .o 1 . 1 . An ice is frozen water. d e c id e rg S h o u ld e le v e n p la y e r s a re s u p p le m e n te d b y th e a p r e -d e c id e d w in n e r a llo w e d e le c t th e fir s t h a lf? th e b a ll in h is t e a m ’ s p e n a lt y a r e a . T h e fro m th e a tta ck o f c h o o s in g w a s b rea k d ow n. 4 .1 . F o o t b a ll is p o p u la r in a lm o s t a ll th e c o u n t r ie s in t h e w o r ld , ( t r u e ) 2 . S p o rts fa n s com e to th e s ta d iu m to le a r n t h e ir f a v o u r it e p o e m s , (fa ls e ) 3 . I f y o u w a n t t o p la y h o c k e y y o u m u st h a v e a p u c k a n d a c lu b , (tr u e ) 4. P e o p le , who p la y chess, are c a lle d ch e ssm e n , (tru e ) 5. T r a c k -a n d -fie ld ev en ts are in c lu d e d in t o th e O ly m p ic s , (fa ls e ) 6. The r e fe r e e a cts a s a g o a lk e e p e r in fo o tb a ll, (fa ls e ) 7 . T h e r e is n o d iffe r e n c e b e tw e e n te n n is a n d ta b le te n n is (fa ls e ) 8 . W o m e n a re fo u n d o f p la y in g h o c k e y , (fa ls e ) 9 . T e n n is is a g a m e in w h ic h t w o o r f o u r p la y e r s s t r ik e a t e n n is b a ll w it h r a c k e ts a ll o v e r a n e t. (t r u e ) 10. E v ery p la y e r dream s of lo s in g a g a m e , (fa ls e ) 1 1 . D r a u g h ts is a n o u t d o o r g a m e , (fa ls e ) 1 2 . T h e r e is n o d iff e r e n c e b e tw e e n s o c c e r a n d r u g b y , (fa ls e ) 13. B a d m in t o n can be p la y e d o n ly in d o o r s , (fa ls e ) 14. The g o a lk e e p e r a cts as a ju d g e in fo o tb a ll, (fa ls e ) 1 5 . Ic e h o c k e y is p o p u la r w it h (fa ls e ) w om en, Л
  • 52. 16. А t e n n is b a ll is s t r u c k w it h a c lu b , th ey can g e n e r a lly be sep a ra ted in to (fa ls e ) th e la r g e r y a c h t s , w h ic h a re la r g e r a n d 1 7 . W o m e n a re g o o d fo o tb a ll p la y e r s , as as d ra u g h ts m e n , (tru e ) oJ га a n d s m a lle r h a r b o u r r a c in g c r a f t s u c h 1 8 . P e o p le w h o p la y d r o u g h t s a r e c a lle d ü: 2 Ъ c o n ta in fa c ilitie s f o r e x te n d e d v o y a g e s , a r u le , (tr u e ) a re n o t g e n e r a lly r e fe r r e d to as y a ch ts , 19. W e use b a lls w hen p la y in g b a d m in to n , (fa ls e ) d in g h ie s a lth o u g h a ll opposed 2 0 . G o l f is p la y e d o n i c e f i e l d s , ( fa l s e ) yach t to v e s s e ls ) 2 1 . H o c k e y is o n e o f th e m o s t p o p u la r and r e c re a tio n a l are com m on S m a lle r c o m m e r c ia l y a ch ts. r a c in g s u m m e r s p o r t s , (fa ls e ) s k iffs . and b oa ts b oa ts or T h ese d in g h y (a s m ilita r y days, r a c in g are p a r tic ip a n t s p o r ts a r o u n d th e 2 2 . T a b le t e n n is a n d la w n t e n n is a r e o n e о з to r e a s o n a b ly s iz e d b o d ie s o f w a te r are u s e d , (fa ls e ) a v a ila b le . 24. B ox ers fig h t w it h bare h an ds, 25. T rack and fie ld ev en ts are never in c lu d e d in t h e O ly m p ic s , (t r u e ) 26. Y ou m ay tou ch s a lt be (fa ls e ) in — your gam e ь J3 X Q J m C Q О < ьс: to s k iin g , a n d c lim b in g m o u n ta in s . W h ile sp orts, in v o lv e , th e se score a of fo o tb a ll, t h e h ig h e s t p o in t o f u n c lim b e d m o u n t a in s , ju s t to g o a l. sp orts m o u n t a in e e r in g b e g a n as a t t e m p t s t o r e a ch s im ila r v a r y in g o r ig in s The m ost w o r ld w id e m ore p o p u la r is of a s s o c ia tio n c o m m o n ly ‘ fo o tb a ll’ o r degrees, know n as ‘ s o c c e r ’ . U n q u a lifie d , it h a s b r a n c h e d in t o s p e c ia liz a t io n s th a t th e w o rd a d d re s s d iffe r e n t a s p e c ts o f th e m o u n ta in fo rm a n d c o n s is ts o f th re e a rea s: r o c k -c r a ft, th e r e g io n a l c o n t e x t in w h ic h th e w o r d s n o w -c r a ft and s k iin g , d e p e n d in g w h e th e r th e ro u te c h o s e n or ice . A ll on is o v e r r o c k , r e q u ir e e x p e r ie n c e , fo o tb a ll a p p lie s to w h ic h e v e r o f f o o t b a l l is t h e m o s t p o p u la r in ap p ea rs, he v a r io u s codes of fo o tb a ll s h a r e t h e f o llo w in g c o m m o n e le m e n ts : Two tea m s a t h le t ic a b ilit y , a n d t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e 18 p la y e r s ; t o m a in t a in s a fe t y fe w e r of u s u a lly som e p la y e r s A o n th e o c e a n , d e p e n d in g u p o n or m ore 11 and th a t have p e r tea m ) a r e a ls o p o p u la r . a g a in s t e a c h o t h e r o n r iv e r s , o n la k e s o r b etw ee n v a r ia tio n s (fiv e R o w in g i s a s p o r t i n w h i c h a t h l e t e s r a c e th e g a m e. of и can and k ic k in g a b a ll w it h t h e f o o t in a n a tte m p t sn ow < c r a ft la k e s on 8 . M o u n ta in e e r in g o r m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g .4 b X raced w h ic h w er co n d u cted h a n d s w h e n p la y in g fo o t b a ll, (fa ls e ) race are on w w ГО — is s m a lle r fo o tb a ll i s a n y o f s e v e r a l of s im ila r te a m is th e s p o r t , h o b b y o r p r o fe s s io n o f h ik in g , Q. y a c h tin g but are w h ere e v e n la r g e r iv e r s . The t h e b a ll w it h M ost w a ter, and p a r t ic u la r ly c o n d it io n s a n d a cce ss rg Q. g с w in d oo k. o X s X т w o rld , fa v o u r a b le 2 3 . In h o c k e y a h a n d b a ll a n d r a c k e ts a re га d e v e lo p e d a n d th e sa m e g a m e , (fa ls e ) and th e p r o p e lle d th e oar d is c ip lin e . by b la d e s th e as th e ty p e The r e a c t io n th ey are b oa ts fo rce s pu sh ed c le a r ly d e fin e d a r e a і и w h ic h t o p la y S c o r in g g o a ls o r p o in ts , b y m o v in g th e b a ll to an o p p o s in g te a m ’ s en d of th e fie ld a n d e ith e r in to a g o a l a rea , o r o v e r a g a in s t th e w a te r . T h e s p o r t ca n b e b o th a lin e . X r e c r e a tio n a l, G o a ls < t e c h n iq u e s fo c u s in g r e q u ir e d , on le a r n in g and th e c o m p e t it iv e or p o in ts r e s u ltin g fro m p la y e r s p u t t in g t h e b a ll b e tw e e n t w o g o a lp o s t s . w h e r e o v e r a ll fit n e s s p la y s a la r g e r o le . T h e g o a l o r lin e b e in g d e fe n d e d b y th e It o p p o s in g tea m . is a ls o one of th e o ld e s t O ly m p ic s p o r t s . In t h e U n it e d S t a t e s , h ig h s c h o o l P la y e r s and b a ll c o lle g ia t e r o w in g is s o m e t im e s r e fe r r e d to as cre w . — k ic k in g , Y a c h t in g r e f e r s t o r e c r e a t i o n a l s a i l i n g P la y e r s or ca CJ N r e q u ir e d c a r r y in g , on or to th e m ove code th e — by h a n d -p a s s in g th e b a ll. o r b o a tin g , b e in g d e p e n d in g u s in g th e s p e c ific oth er w a ter act o f s a ilin g v e s s e ls s p o r t in g p u r p o s e s . A lt h o u g h fo r th e r e are m a n y d iff e r e n t ty p e s o f r a c in g v e s s e ls . u s in g o n ly th e ir b o d y to m ove th e b a ll. H o ck ey is a f a m il y o f s p o r t s in w h ic h tw o tea m s p la y a g a in s t each oth e r by
  • 53. t r y in g to m aneuver a b a ll or a p u ck th a n a b a ll. S h u ttle c o c k s s t ic k . o th e r r a c q u e t s p o r ts . B e ca u se s h u ttle co c k h ock ey is p la y e d on a la r g e flig h t d is c c a lle d a p u c k . T h is p u c k is o f t e n f r o z e n is b e fo r e h ig h -le v e l g a m e s to d e c r e a s e th e o n th e p la y e d c o m p e t it iv e re c re a tio n a l a c t iv it y , o fte n a m o u n t o f b o u n cin g a n d fr ic t io n a ls o w in d , to b a d m in t o n is p la y e d in d o o r s . B a d m in to n ru bber by com p ared mm) v u lc a n iz e d a ffe c te d w hen f la t a re a o f ic e , u s in g a th r e e in c h (7 6 ,2 d ia m e te r is speed, a m u ch h ig h e r Ice top have in t o th e o p p o n e n t ’ s g o a l u s in g a h o c k e y B a s k e tb a ll i s tea m s tw o sk a ters. The gam e is p la y e d as a casu al as a g a rd e n or beach gam e. i c e . T h e g a m e is c o n t e s t e d b e t w e e n t w o of ou td oors a tea m s o f tea m fiv e a ll o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a , E u r o p e a n d in p o in ts by m a n y o t h e r c o u n t r ie s a r o u n d th e w o r ld a b a ll t h r o u g h to v a r y in g e x te n t. hoop T e n n is i s a s p o r t u s u a l l y p l a y e d b e t w e e n B a s k e tb a ll sport th r o w in g w h ile th e or top one a of score a b a s k e t b a ll set th e w h ic h to ‘ s h o o tin g ’ of fo llo w in g is in p la y e r s t r y of m ost r u le s . p o p u la r tw o a n d w id e ly v ie w e d s p o r t s in t h e w o r ld . te a m s o f tw o p la y e r s e a c h (d o u b le s ). E a ch A r e g u la t io n b a s k e t b a ll h o o p c o n s is t s o f p la y e r a r im tw o p la y e r s (s in g le s ) uses a or rack et s t r ik e a h o llo w b etw een th a t is stru n g to r u b b e r b a ll c o v e r e d w it h and 1 8 in c h e s ( 4 5 ,7 10 f e e t ( 3 ,0 5 f e lt o v e r a n e t in to th e o p p o n e n t’ s c o u r t. a back board. A The goal by of te n n is have not ch an ged tea m s h o o tin g can th e rg r u le s c m ) in m ) h ig h d ia m e te r m ou n ted score b a ll t h r o u g h h oop to s c o r e s tw o p o in ts fo r th e s h o o tin g te a m if has been th e .4 bo ok .o te n n is fie ld th e m u c h s in c e t h e 1 8 9 0 s. A r e c e n t a d d it io n p ro fe s s io n a l d u r in g r e g u la r p la y . A to a fie ld goal a d o p tio n o f e le c t r o n ic r e v ie w t e c h n o lo g y a p la y e r is t o u c h in g o r c lo s e r t o th e h o o p c o u p le d th an w h ic h w it h a p o in t c h a lle n g e a llo w s a p la y e r to sy stem , c h a lle n g e th e th e p o in ts th r e e -p o in t (a ‘3 lin e , p o in te r ’ ) i f and th e th re e p la y e r is lin e (o r c h a ir ) u m p ir e ’ s c a ll o f a p o in t . ‘ o u t s id e ’ t h e t h r e e -p o in t lin e . T h e te a m P la y e r s w it h m o r e p o in t s a t t h e e n d o f th e g a m e to have u n lim ite d c h a lle n g e , but on ce o p p o r tu n ity th re e in c o rr e c t w in s , but a d d it io n a l t im e (o v e r tim e ) c h a lle n g e s a re m a d e in a s e t , th e y c a n n o t m a y b e is s u e d w h e n t h e g a m e e n d s w it h c h a lle n g e a g a in u n t il th e n e x t s e t. I f th e a t ie . T h e b a ll c a n b e a d v a n c e d o n th e s e t g o e s to a t ie b r e a k , p la y e r s a re g iv e n c o u r t b y b o u n cin g o n e a d d it io n a l o p p o r t u n it y r u n n in g it w h ile w a lk in g o r (d r ib b lin g ) or p a s s in g it to a te a m -m a te . I t is a v io la t io n (t r a v e llin g ) w t h e c a ll. to c h a lle n g e B a d m in to n i s a r a c q u e t s p o r t p l a y e d b y to e ith e r d o u b le d r ib b le (t o h o ld t h e b a ll a n d th e n ta k e a w tw o o p p o s in g o p p o s in g p o s it io n s on r e c ta n g u la r a s h u ttle c o c k th a t score (s in g le s ) (d o u b le s ), is w it h V o lle y b a ll d iv id e d by in s t r ik in g as a s h u ttle , th e b a ll, carry it, or to r e s u m e d r ib b lin g ). of p o in ts b y (a ls o k n o w n w ho w a lk h a lv e s o p p o s ite cou rt a n e t. P la y e r s p la y e r s p a ir s w or tw o w h ic h is an tw o O ly m p ic tea m s sep a ra ted b y tea m o f s ix sport p la y e r s a n e t. E a ch tea m are tr ie s to s c o r e p o in t s b y g r o u n d in g a b a ll o n th e b ir d , o r b ir d y ) w it h t h e ir r a c q u e t s o th a t o th er it p a s s e s o v e r t h e n e t a n d la n d s in t h e ir r u le s . T h e c o m p le t e r u le s a re e x t e n s iv e . o p p o n e n t s ’ h a lf o f t h e c o u r t . E a c h s id e But m ay o n ly b e fo r e ends passes th e over a s h u ttle c o c k s h u ttle c o c k p r o je c t ile p r o p e r t ie s d iffe r e n tly fr o m has (o r stru ck s h u ttle ) w hose cau se u n iq u e it to th e b a lls u s e d in fly m ost r a c q u e t s p o r t s ; in p a r t ic u la r , t h e fe a t h e r s crea te m u ch s h u ttle c o c k h ig h e r to drag, d e c e le r a te c a u s in g m ore th e r a p id ly r e le a s in g a hand it and o r a r m ), th e th e n fro m tea m s fo llo w s : a ‘ r a lly ’ b y s e r v in g th e b a ll ( t o s s in g o r th e of as r a lly A one proceeds th e The fe a th e r e d p la y o r g a n iz e d A n et. on under on ce on ce a e r o d y n a m ic s im p ly , p la y e r cou rt s h u ttle co c k flo o r . th e is it s t r ik e tea m ’ s h ittin g b e g in s it w it h b e h in d th e b a ck b o u n d a r y lin e o f t h e c o u r t , o v e r th e n e t, a n d in to th e r e c e iv in g t e a m ’s c o u r t . T h e r e c e iv in g te a m m u s t n o t le t th e b a ll b e g r o u n d e d w ith in th e ir c o u r t . T h e y m a y tou ch t h e b a ll a s m a n y a s th r e e tim e s . T y p ic a lly , th e fir s t tw o tou ch es are
  • 54. se t u p fo r an a tta ck , an a tte m p t to F e n c in g i s o n e o f f o u r s p o r t s w h i c h h a v e d ir e c t t h e b a ll b a c k o v e r t h e n e t in s u c h b een fe a tu r e d a t e v e ry o n e o f th e m o d e rn a w a y th a t th e s e r v in g O ly m p ic G a m e s . T h r e e t y p e s o f w e a p o n to to preven t it fro m tea m b e in g is u n a b le grou n ded in a r e u s e d in O ly m p ic fe n c in g : th e ir c o u r t. ta rg ets on 9. Ъ Q F o il C h ess i s a t w o - p l a y e r b o a r d g a m e p l a y e d b u t n o t th e a ch essboard, board w it h 64 a s q u a re -ch e q u e re d squ ares arran ged in an is w it h a lig h t th e th e th r u s t in g torso , w eapon in c lu d in g th e th a t back , a rm s . H it s a re s c o r e d o n ly t ip : h its w it h th e s id e o f th e b la d e d o n o t c o u n t . O n ly a s in g le h it c a n t h e g a m e w it h s ix te e n p ie c e s : o n e k in g , b e s c o r e d b y e ith e r fe n c e r a t o n e t im e . o n e q u e e n , tw o r o o k s , t w o k n ig h ts , tw o If b is h o p s , a n d e ig h t p a w n s. T h e o b je c t o f th e t h e g a m e is t o c h e c k m a t e t h e o p p o n e n t ’ s ГО e ig h t -b y -e ig h t g r id . E a ch p la y e r b e g in s w a y ’ t o d e t e r m in e w h ic h fe n c e r g e t s th e k in g , ГО w h ereby th e k in g under is n o w a y t o т a tta ck o n th e n e x t m o v e . a er re m o v e o r d e fe n d it fro m is th a t tw o p e o p le fig h t each t h e s id e as B o x in g a p p lie s — t y p ic a lly s u p e r v is e d by a r e fe r e e e n g a g e d in d u r in g a s e r ie s o f to th r e e -m in u te in t e r v a ls c a lle d t ip are or g is th e I t h e o p p o n e n t is k n o c k e d o u t a n d u n a b le t h e b la d e . to get up does to ten secon ds too opponent a r u le , th e to c o n tin u e d is q u a lifie d if th ere fig h t b e fo r e is an cou n ts opponent fo r if no is an b r e a k in g th e w it h s im p le , num ber of w in cre a se art th a t u ses U lo ck s , p in s and oth er g r a p p lin g h o ld s . in w hen b etw een o n ly v a r ie ty (o cc a s io n a lly m ore) can c o m p e t it o r s < a t t e m p t t o g a in a n d m a in ta in a s u p e r io r im p r o v in g s p a r r in g p a rtn ers, w ho and fo rm of of a of a llo w s of m ov em en ts, e q u ip m e n t are stren g th d y n a m ic v a r ie ty m in im a l in te n d e d to and fle x ib ility as b e n d in g , su ch o n e ’s They body are fitn e s s , C a llis th e n ic s and w it h m u s c u la r a n d in p sy ch om otor fo r con d u cted v ig o r o u s ly b e n e fit b o th c a r d io v a s c u la r w e ig h t u s u a lly s tre tch e s. p e r fo rm e d X or a They c o n c e r t w it h A w r e s t l i n g b o u t is a p h y s i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n , tw o m ust s id e s sabre, Й рй е o f w ay, m ov em en ts r e s is t a n c e . jo in t h its ju m p in g , s w in g in g , t w is t in g o r k ic k in g , u s in g ta k e d o w n s, w ay’ score at th e r h y t h m ic a l, body g r a p p lin g t y p e te c h n iq u e s s u c h a s c lin c h and are u s in g fig h tin g , th row s not c o n s is tin g a p p a ra tu s. w it h m a r tia l w a and r ig h t o fte n b y th e r e fe r e e ’ s d e c is io n is a s w e ll of w ea p on th a t A ll U n lik e f o i l a n d g e n e r a lly o r b y ju d g e s ’ t ip C a llis th e n ics or W r e s tlin g th e e x e r c is e r o u n d s , a w in n e r is d e t e r m in e d e ith e r scoreca rd s. e n tir e b o d y . n ot u se of agreed ‘R ig h t s im u lt a n e o u s h it s b y b o t h f e n c e r s . stop p a g e w th e r e fe r e e if in ju r e d is or th e or .4 deem ed b e fo re o f t h e b la d e v a lid . E p e e is a h e a v y t h r u s t in g be < body th e han ds. a tim e . w e ig h t . T h e r e a re f o u r w a y s t o w in ; i f о t h r u s t in g e n tire o n ly o n e fe n c e r ca n ГО < 03 and th e h its w it h w h ic h ta rg ets I ta rg e ts T h e s a b r e is p r i m a r i l y u s e d t o s la s h , s o in r o u n d s , a n d b o x e r s g e n e r a lly o f s im ila r ІЗ t im e , ‘ r ig h t o f sport Q О) ю sam e of B o x in g , a ls o c a lle d p u g ilis m , is a c o m b a t one- er th e r u le s a b o v e t h e w a is t , e x c e p t f o r bo ok . з at th e a lig h t c u t t in g w eapon o t h e r u s in g t h e ir f is t s f o r c o m p e t it io n . о h it u ses p o in t. S a b re s I fe n c e rs r e fe r e e ‘c h e c k ’ ) a n d th e re im m e d ia t e a tta c k (in is b oth a d d it io n s k ills to su ch as p o s it io n . T h e r e a r e a w id e r a n g e o f s t y le s b a la n c e , a g ilit y a n d c o o r d in a t io n . w it h v a r y in g r u le s w it h b o t h tr a d itio n a l F ig u r e s k a t i n g i s a n O l y m p i c s p o r t i n h is to r ic w h ic h and te c h n iq u e s oth er m odern have been m a r t ia l a rts as s t y le s . W r e s tlin g in c o r p o r a te d w e ll as in to m ilit a r y in d iv id u a ls , p e r fo rm s p in s , o th e r in tr ic a te h a n d -to -h a n d c o m b a t s y s te m s . ic e at v a r io u s f e n c in g t o d is t in g u is h it f r o m e>J on F e n c in g , w h ic h is a ls o k n o w n as m o d e r n to th e fe n c in g , is a fa m ily u s in g b la d e d w e a p o n s . of h is to r ic a l com bat sp o rts lo c a l, p a ir s , ju m p s , and O ly m p ic n a tio n a l, c o m p e t it io n s . grou ps c h a lle n g in g s k a te s . F ig u r e le v e ls or fo o tw o r k sk a ters fro m le v e l The com p ete b e g in n e r (s e n io r ), and and m oves and up at in t e r n a tio n a l In te r n a tio n a l
  • 55. S k a tin g U n io n in t e r n a t io n a l (IS U ) fig u r e r e g u la te s s k a tin g ju d g in g ju m p , ju d g e s g i v e p o in t s f o r s t y le . T h e s k is u s e d f o r s k i ju m p in g a r e w id e a n d a n d c o m p e t it io n s . F ig u r e s k a tin g is an lo n g o ffic ia l O ly m p ic 1 0 8 in .)). S k i ju m p in g is p r e d o m in a n tly G a m e s . In la n g u a g e s o t h e r t h a n E n g lis h a w in t e r s p o r t , p e r fo r m e d o n s n o w , a n d event in th e W in te r (2 6 0 to c e n t im e t r e s to is r e fe r r e d b u t c a n a ls o b e p e r fo r m e d in s u m m e r o n by a n a m e th a t tr a n s la te s th e W in te r (1 0 0 a n d R u s s ia n , f i g u r e s k a t in g is u s u a lly to part o f 275 O ly m p ic G a m e s, as ‘ a r t is t ic s k a t in g ’ . a r t ific ia l s u r fa c e s — S k iin g i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y u s i n g ra il in r u n , s k is l a n d in g h ill. as e q u ip m e n t fo r tr a v e llin g over tra ck on th e p o r c e la in o r fro st p la s t ic on th e s n o w . S k is a r e u s e d in c o n ju n c t io n w it h b oots of th a t co n n e c t to a in to of b in d in g . tw o th e th e s k i w it h S k iin g can be g e n e r a l c a t e g o r ie s . tw o The WRITING o ld e r in 1. b ) a r h e t o r ic a l q u e s tio n S c a n d in a v ia a n d u s e s fr e e -h e e l b in d in g s 3. C o m p u ter g a m e s th a t The a tta ch at th e th e o v e r th e c ir c le s and ju m p in g A T e le m a r k . c a lle d in th e T ypes d e b a te N o r d ic s k iin g in c lu d e c r o s s -c o u n t r y , s k i o r ig in a te d h e e ls . s k ie r ’ s is o fte n th e of gam es and at toes of (m o re not A lp in e ‘ d o w n h ill E u rop ean s k iin g s k i in g ’ ), A lp s , and e ffe c ts r u n n in g recen t o f d ig ita l hot in a c a d e m ic at th e m om en t. cover h e a d lin e beyond M a c le a n ’ s rg but o r ig in a te d b la r e d : « H o w c o m p u t e r s m a k e o u r k id s s t u p id .» M e a n w h ile .4 bo ok .o b o o ts d is c ip lin e s use grou ped S tev en Joh n son , is c h a r a c te r iz e d b y fix e d -h e e l b in d in g s a u t h o r o f a n e w b o o k c a lle d E v e r y t h in g th a t a tta ch at b oth th e toe an d th e heel B a d Is G o o d f o r y o u , a r g u e s th a t g a m e s o f th e s k ie r ’ s b o o t. and o th er in te r a c tiv e I c e sk a tin g is m o v i n g o n i c e b y u s i n g i c e our b r a in s . C h ild r e n sk a tes. It ca n be d on e fo r m ore reason s, in c lu d in g a v a r ie ty o f le is u r e , tr a v e llin g , t im e th em . b oth over som e is g r ip p e d s o c ie t y on s p e c ia lly prep ared in d o o r a n d w o r k in g And a n d v a r io u s s p o r t s . Ic e s k a tin g o c c u r s th e e ffe c ts o u t d o o r t r a c k s , a s w e ll a s o n n a t u r a lly a b a c k la s h o c c u r r in g b o d ie s o f fr o z e n lik e w w a ter su ch th e b e c a u s e th e m e ta l b la d e a t th e b o t t o m n u m bers ic e . sk a te sh oe can fr ic tio n over g lid e w it h th e s u rfa ce w lit t le w it o f th e H ow ever, s lig h t ly very of le a n in g th e th e top and by of com es sh arpen m ore p la y in g s o c ia l t h e o r is t s a ‘ m oral and w it h say p a n ic ’ com p u ter gam es, a m p lifie d b y m e d ia r e p o r ts M a c le a n ’ s a s la k e s a n d r iv e r s . Ic e s k a t in g w o r k s m e d ia spend to cover story . co m p u ter are a s to u n d in g : p r o fe s s io n a l h a lf a m illio n gam er W hen gam es, th e has th e w o r ld ’ s w on over d o lla r s s h o o t in g v ir tu a l m o n ste rs o n -s c re e n . . b la d e o v e r a n d d ig g in g o n e o f its e d g e s R ela tio n sh ip s in to b ite ’ ) T h e fa m ily is v e r y im p o r t a n t a s a u n it in c re a s e in o u r s o c ie t y . N o t h in g e ls e b u t fa m ily fr ic t io n a n d c o n t r o l th e ir m o v e m e n t at c a n b e a n e m o t io n a l c e n t r e o f p e o p le ’ s w ill. In a d d it io n , b y c h o o s in g t o m o v e life , ca n b e a tr a n s m itte r o f c u ltu r e a n d g iv e s th e ic e sk a ters (‘rock th e over a b ilit y and to a lo n g c u r v e d p a th s w h ile le a n in g th e ir r a is in g b o d ie s r a d ia lly a n d f le x i n g t h e ir k n e e s , great sk a te rs ca n u se g r a v ity to c o n tr o l an d t r ie s t o b r in g t h e m u p in a p r o p e r w a y . in c r e a s e can U n d e r s ta n d in g b etw een th e of and th e ir m om en tu m . a ls o c r e a te m o m e n tu m They b y p u s h in g b la d e a g a in s t t h e c u r v e d t r a c k w h ic h it th e o th e rs c h ild r e n . a ffe c tio n fa m ily are E v ery fo r very her m oth er fe e ls c h ild r e n th e and m em bers c o n s id e r a t io n im p o r ta n t fo r in fa m ily m u st a lw a y s c u ts in t o th e ic e . r e la tio n s h ip . S k i ju m p in g i s a s p o r t i n w h i c h s k i e r s g o h ea rted n ess and d o w n a t a k e - o ff r a m p , ju m p a n d a tte m p t be p resen t in t o la n d a s f a r a s p o s s ib le d o w n t h e h ill it frie n d ly . A b e lo w . In a d d it io n m e m b e rs o f th e fa m ily to b e on fr ie n d ly to th e le n g t h o f th e T en dern ess, respect th e lo t fa m ily of w arm ­ to a c t iv it ie s m ake h e lp
  • 56. te rm s: d is c u s s in g a ll t h e f a m i l y p la n s p a ren ts and e d u ca tors, c o n c e r n in g t o g e t h e r , g o in g o n t r ip s h ik e s t o g e t h e r , about v is it in g m u s e u m s , t lie a t r e s , e x h ib it io n s w o u ld in flu e n c e t h e ir c h i ld r e n ’ s g r a d e . and th em , A s fa r as I ’ m c o n c e r n e d , te c h n o lo g y can and sorrow s. If b e u s e d a s a t o o l t o h e lp s t u d e n t s le a r n e x c h a n g in g s h a r in g you a. го th in k of you 2 Ъ o p in io n s th e sam e jo y s th e o th e r s show your lo v e about in and th e fa m ily a t t e n t io n in th e q u ic k ly and w e c o u l d n ’ t ig n o r e . O n e o f t h e m e r it s very th e im p o r ta n t to v is it r e la t iv e s on te c h n o lo g y process сі our m ore >N Q. .5 we I a ffe c tio n are get fo r p a rted on our fro m p a ren ts a ll m e, le a r n in g to h e lp and I k n o w th a t th o u s a n d s o f y o u n g p e o p le fe w ru n aw a y fro m even th ey my fo r th e ir h o m e s e a ch y e a r, d on ’t get on w it h th e ir an fa s te r. stu d en ts w as d ig ita l о a b o u t e v e r y t h in g , b e c a u s e s h e is y o u n g And seem s w e ll as h er ow n . et I ro J — u X <1 1 me M oth er w hose p a ren ts s m a ll I have trea t c h ild r e n , but my a d u lt, a s th e m y m y s e lf room — som e th em m e as th e my fr ie n d s , u n fa ir ly fo r as average But tod a y , see a lm o s t th e an be ta p e o ld record ers sch ool th in g . a r e e a s ily a n d f r e e l y d o w n lo a d le a r n in g m a te r ia ls I c le a n In tern et, d oesn ’t «G o w my do and m um rare are at w is e s p e c ia lly w T e c h n o lo g y t h e h e lp o f t h e s e n e w d e v ic e s , s t u d e n t s e q u a l. I c o n s id e r th a t w it h g o o d , w h ic h th is tim e . and lik e and c o n v e n ie n t w ord s in r e fe r s to th e th e s y m b o lic m any w ays to t a lk in g a ffe c ts go ages. w it h about < now adays ro u te liv e t h is how h u m a n it y in te r e s tin g T h ere is to in E S L to p ic t e c h n o lo g y a lw a y s ta k e. a are an S tu d e n ts w o rld w h ere o v e r f lo w e d w it h a v a r ie t y o f a d v a n c e d t e c h n o lo g y w h ic h it s t ill d e v e lo p s at m ake fo r E n g lis h ‘ u su al w ay and of t im e . D e s p it e th e s ta b ilit y , c u ltu r e is a h e a te d d e b a te a m o n g p e o p le r e c e n t ly . Som e e ffe c t say in it c o u ld th e produ ce p rocess of a p o s it iv e stu d en ts’ g r o w t h , w h ile o t h e r s , p a r t ic u la r ly s o m e app earan ce a d y n a m ic , h is t o r ic a l p r o c e s s . Y o u th c u ltu r e r e fe r s to th o s e p r o c e s s e s a n d s y m b o lic sy s te m s th e ir in tr ig u e d e t c .) p e o p le a r e m a in t a in e d a n d t r a n s fo r m e d a cross life has th in g s ’ ; fra m e w o rk s e x p e r ie n c e , so m e d e g r e e , d is tin c tiv e tren d com m on c h a r a c t e r is t ic a lly s h a re d b y a g r o u p o f r o le p la y e d b y t e c h n o l o g y in s t u d e n t s ’ th is It th e ^ g ., r it u a ls , u n d e r s t a n d in g w h ic h d o in g (e . of th at h a s b e c o m e s m o r e a n d m o re v it a l. le a r n la n g u a g e . by a u n b e lie v a b le s p e e d . U n d o u b t e d ly , th e H ow ever, th e p o ta b le stu d en ts processes sy stem s tr a d itio n s a ll fro m of Y o u th C u ltu re fo r of file s p rop erty C u lt u r e is a m o n g t h e m o s t c o m p lic a t e d sense, stu d en ts M P3 th e w h e r e v e r an d w h e n e v e r th e y w a n t. T e c h n o lo g y is a n i n t e r e s t i n g c o n v e r s a t io n X CJ V a H ig h ly -d e v e lo p e d t e c h n o lo g y h a s m a d e trea ts th is t id y .» r e la tio n s h ip s but ea p a st, record ers, can and becom e m um m y m o t h e r . S h e a lw a y s s a y s : very u a d v ic e . ta p e e a s ie r th e a n d M D b e c o m e r e a d ily a v a ila b le . W ith t im e . c le a n y o u r r o o m J3 a lw a y s g iv e s in d i v e r s if i e d le a r n in g m a t e r ia ls lik e M P 3 < < as in v e n te d m ore M any at an y correct m CL О p r o b le m s in of ■p a r e n t s a r e b u s y , b u t m y m o t h e r h e l p s me n ecessary, my tren d num ber p r o d u c tio n . record ers rg know s a le a r n im p o s s ib le lim it e d .4 bo ok .o Q. ro she w eek) to ow ned everyw h ere, too. la s t becom es s tu d e n t b e c a u s e o f its e x o r b it a n t p r ic e and d ie d As F o r in s ta n c e , m y (fa th e r in E n g lis h . m a t e r ia ls h a v e b e e n p a r e n t s w e ll. E v e r y d a y I c a n t a lk w it h m oth er p resen ted in c r e a s in g stu d en ts it be le a r n in g E n g lis h s o c ie t y , r ig h t . becau se w it h r e la tiv e s w h e n th em . A s can of с er k n o w le d g e , of le a r n in g ,т m ore a r e s e l f i s h , n o t s i n c e r e a n d r u d e . I t is a n d d e v e lo p c lo s e r e la tio n s h ip . W e fe e l ІС s 1 te c h n o lo g y e v e r y d a y life , y o u ca n h u r t th e m i f y o u h o lid a y s , o n b ir t h d a y s , o n a n n iv e r s a r ie s пз absorb of w h ile t h e r e a re s t ill s o m e d is a d v a n ta g e s iC 0 d raw back s young p e o p le p a ren ts and sh are th e th a t fro m o th er th e ir c o m m u n ity . Y o u th are, to th ose o f a d u lt s c u ltu r e s in have n o t b e e n p a r t o f a ll s o c ie t ie s t h r o u g h o u t h is to r y ; w h ere th ey appear s ig n ific a n t a u ton om y fo r m ost r e a lm s young fr e q u e n t ly of p e o p le s o c ia l becom e
  • 57. r e g u la r iz e d and ex p ected fe a tu r e s of is lit t le sn ow in Jan u ary, and th e re th e s o c ia liz a t io n p r o c e s s . M o s t s c h o la r s w e r e w in t e r s w h e n it r a in e d o n th e N e w w o u ld Y e a r ’ s E v e . M a n y p e o p l e s a y t h a t i t is agree n ecessary fo r m a tio n ap p eared o f m odern in of n in e te e n th th e sep a ra te and fo r in or c o n s is te n t y ou th c u ltu re s produ ced th e green h ou se 100 years a lo t o f ca rb o n e ffe c t. p e o p le h a v e d io x id e . T h is in a g r e e n h o u s e . I t le ts h e a t g e t in , b u t m ass it d o e s n ’ t le t m u c h h e a t g e t o u t. S o th e w h ic h a tm osp h ere a d u lt s la r g e does n u m bers in s tr u c tio n , lo c a tio n s of n a tio n s The p u n is h m e n t , have becau se D u r in g t h e la s t g a s in t h e a t m o s p h e r e w o r k s lik e g la s s fro m r e lig io u s w ork , so life n a tio n -s ta te , th em th e hum an p e o p le e d u c a tio n , been th e ce n tu ry . th e young tr a in in g , a fte r in d u s t r ia liz in g of g a th er c u ltu r e s n a tio n -s ta te s a n d of cou rse in s t it u t io n s c o n d it io n s m ass y o u th r e u t iliz a t io n th e th e th e to d a y r e c o g n iz a b le th e th a t fo r in have th e becom es carbon w arm er. d io x id e W h ere com e fro m ? P e o p le a n d a n im a ls b r e a t h e in o x y g e n , and b rea th e produ ce out carbon carbon d io x id e d io x id e . w hen W e w e bu rn w h ic h t h in g s . T r e e s ta k e th is g a s fr o m t h e a ir , T h ere a n d p r o d u c e o x y g e n . B u t in t h e la s t fe w d e v e lo p e d . is s o m e e v id e n c e s u g g e s t in g th a t y o u th y e a r s , p e o p le c u ltu r e s b i g a r e a s o f r a in fo r e s t . T h is m e a n s t h e r e m ay have c ir c u m s t a n c e s e x is te d d u r in g in th e c e r ta in m e d ie v a l are fe w e r have trees, cu t dow n and, of and cou rse, b u rn m ore p e r io d . A ls o , it is im p o r ta n t t o r e c o g n iz e carbon th a t th e re our in d iffe r e n t p a rts o f th e w o rld c h a n g e s p a r tic u la r ly a little fr o m y e a r t o y e a r . T h e se c h a n g e s gaps p o p u la t io n s o u ts id e in .4 bo ok .o fo r s ig n ific a n t u n d e r s t a n d in g , rg are h is to r ic a l d io x id e ! A s of E u rop e and we see th e c lim a t e c a n b e d a n g e r o u s f o r o u r p la n e t , w h ic h th e U n it e d S ta te s . Y o u t h c u ltu r e s h a v e needs been y e a rs o ld , m u ch o ld e r th a n th e h u m a n s. c le a r ly e v id e n t in th e tw e n tie th ce n tu ry , p a r tic u la r ly s in c e of W ar h is to r y W o r ld II. T h e p r o te c tio n . E a rth is m illio n s of end W e k n o w m a n y o f its s e c r e ts . Y e t th e re th is is s t ill m u c h t o le a r n . th e of p e r io d is n o t a b ly m a r k e d b y s ig n if ic a n t 7 . 1 ) f ir s t (m a in , c h ie f) s o c ia l a n d c u ltu r a l in flu e n c e s o f y o u t h 2 ) a n o th e r c u ltu r e s o n s o c ie t y a t la r g e , a tr e n d th a t 3 ) n e x t (la s t , m a in , c h ie f) c o n t in u e s in t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p e r io d . 4 ) g e n e r a lly w 4. Y e s , I a g r e e w i t h f o l l o w i n g 5. A n e d u c a t e d p e r s o n i s o n e sta te m e n ts. w ho know s i t is w a lo t a b o u t m a n y t h in g s . I th in k v e r y im p o r t a n t th a t e v e r y o n e s h o u ld b e w e d u c a t e d . E a c h p u p il o u g h t t o d o h is b e s t t o b e c o m e a u s e fu l m e m b e r o f o u r s o c ie t y . E d u c a t io n is v e r y im p o r t a n t in o u r lif e . 5 ) in f a c t (o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ) 6 ) so (b e ca u se , th a t ’ s w h y ) 7) on th e o th e r han d 8 ) so 9 ) f in a lly (a t la s t , in th e e n d ) 1 0 ) in c o n c lu s io n 1 1 ) th e p r o s a n d c o n s ( f o r a n d a g a in s t) G o in g o n e d u c a tio n a l e x c u r s io n s g iv e s u s 8 . I lik e s p o r t s v e r y m u c h . M y f a v o u r it e o p p o r t u n it ie s t o a c q u ir e s o m e s c ie n t ific k in d o f s p o r t is f o o t b a ll. I g o in f o r fo o t b a ll k n o w le d g e . p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y d a y . I f t h e r e a r e n o t r a in s C lim a te is t h e w e a t h e r a c e r ta in p la c e I g o t o th e s ta d iu m w it h m y frie n d s to h a s o v e r a lo n g p e r io d o f t im e . C lim a t e p la y th is g a m e . I t h in k t h a t s p o r t s h e lp has t o p e o p le in t h e ir l if e . M illio n s o f p e o p le a very p la n ts , d iffe r e n t w o r ld . th e in is and in flu e n c e hum ans d iffe r e n t Som e w o rld com pare im p o rta n t a n im a ls p a rts s c ie n tis t s b e c o m in g M oscow w in te r is a ll o v e r th e w o r ld a re f o n d o f s p o r t s a n d th e g a m e s . S p o r t h e lp p e o p le t o s t a y in g o o d th a t s h a p e , k e e p s th e m f i t , h e a lth y a n d m a k e s you t h e m m o r e o r g a n iz e d a n d b e t t e r d is c ip lin e d su m m er in t h e ir d a ily a c t iv it ie s . I s h o u ld a d m it th a t of th in k h otter. and on and If our e v e r y o n e m u s t d o a ll h e c a n t o b e h e a lt h y . c e n t u r y a n d a t it s e n d y o u w ill s e e t h a t A ll k in d s o f p h y s ic a l e x e r c is e s a re v e r y c lim a t e u s e fu l t o m a k e o u r b o d ie s s tr o n g a n d to te m p e ra tu re s has at th e r e a lly b e g in n in g ch an ged . have becom e w arm er. of W in te r s S o m e tim e s th e r e k e e p o u r s e lv e s f i t a n d h e a lth y .
  • 58. C H E C K Y O U R SK IL L S VOCABULARY 6. The a c h ie v e m e n ts K ly c h k o L a s t n i g h t , G e r m a n y w on S p a i n 3 : 2 i n 1. iC 2 Ъ QJ ro d: d th e ir W o r ld C u p q u a lify in g m a tch . A t b roth ers of have th e 7. In th e scored t w o g o a ls in th e s e c o n d h a lf a n d i t l o o k e d a s i f t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o draw 2 :2 . a th le te s w r e s t lin g B u t in E lb r u s T a d e ie v The O ly m p ic v ic to r ie s 9. t h e ir c a p ta in . T h is w a s th e s e c o n d are: U k r a in e ran k s of U k r a in ia n tro p h ie s, in clu d in g w it h th e 2 0 le a d in g O lym p ic c o u n tr ie s . m a t c h a g a in s t G e r m a n y t h a t S p a in h a d ill b e fo r e . R E A D IN G X T 4. GRAM M AR 5 c 1 . W e w e r e l a t e . W h e n w e h a d a rr iv e d e v e r y o n e fin ish ed t h e i r l u n c h a n d t h e y sa t h a d a lr e a d y le a v e d . T h e s t a t i o n was e m p t y e x c e p t f o r th r e e p e o p le w h o w a ited f o r t h e n e x t t r a i n . 3 . T h e y d rove t o th e a i r p o r t w h e n t h e y s u d d e n ly h a d r em e m b er e d t h a t t h e y h a d n 't tu r n e d o f f t h e c e n t r a l h e a t i n g . 4 . T h e m a t c h ha d a lr e a d y s ta r t e d w h e n w e tu r n e d o n t h e T V . S c o t l a n d lo s t 1 : 0 a n d t h e y p la y e d v e r y b a d l y . .4 < t r a in w m O Q w О 3. u >s w L IS T E N IN G < 1 . T h e m o s t p o p u la r g a m e in U k r a in e i s fo o tb a ll ( s o c c e r ) . 2 . T h e l io n ’ s s h a r e o f s u c c e s s in fo o t b a ll b e l o n g s t o th e club ‘ D y n a m o ’ K y i v th a t X s ta r t e d its h is to r y in 1 9 2 4 . < 3 . I t w a s O k s a n a B a iu l w h o w o n t h e f ir s g o l d m e d a l i n fig u r e s k a tin g 4 . T h e g o ld f is h o f U k r a in e is Yana K lo c h k o v a . The gym nast V a lery H on ch a rov a n d c h a m p io n s in c a lis t h e n ic s L ilia P o d k o p a ev a and K a ter y n a S er e b r ia n s k a s h o w e d t h e i r f a n t a s t i c r e s u lts in w o rld c h a m p io n s h ip s and O ly m p ic A t h e n s . evj 4 . D . g e n e ra l a c t iv it y r o o m s 6 . G . th e s o la r iu m r o o m bo ok . та Q. 3 . F . th e te n n is c o u r t s 5 . A . t h e b o w ls h a ll a (U or g 2. 2 . I ran t o t h e s t a t io n b u r th e s i x o ’ c lo c k XI X 1 . C . t h e s p o r t s h a ll 2 . E . t h e fit n e s s t r a in in g r o o m in t h e g a r d e n h a v in g c o f f e e . I та w on a w ard a t th e O lym p ia d in 400 1 8 0 g o ld m ed a ls. t h e fin a l m in u t e G e r m a n y w on t h e m a t c h t h a n k s t o a p e n a l t y t a k e n by 8. h ig h e s t lo s t S p a i n ’ s g o a l k e e p e r w h o h a d f a l l e n cT an A th e n s . та cr th em e x a m p le o f c o u r a g e a n d w ill to w in . h a l f - t i m e , t h e G e r m a n s won 2 : 0 . B u t S p a in s о le g e n d a r y m ade 5 . V a s y l V i r a s t i u k h o l d s th e title o f th e S tr o n g e s t M a n on E a rth . 7. H . th e c a fe te r ia 8. B . th e sp o rtsm a n ’s bar w o r ld ’s