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Complementary currencies for sustainable development - theories and practices – “ Miguel” Yasuyuki Hirota [email_address] ...
Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features fo...
Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features fo...
Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? <ul><li>Issued only by the central bank when asked by commer...
Even George Soros admits <ul><li>“ International trade and global financial markets are very good at generating wealth,  b...
Should national economies grow forever? <ul><li>A: growth of all natural beings </li></ul><ul><li>C: growth of cancer and ...
Redistribution of wealth in favour of the rich <ul><li>Most people’s income shrinks in today’s monetary system while a sma...
Today’s financial system in favour of short-time investments <ul><li>Source:  http://www.stefan-brunnhuber.de/ </li></ul>
Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features fo...
What is money? <ul><li>Everybody know what we can with money, but  nobody knows what money is. </li></ul><ul><li>” The agr...
Required features for sustainable and fair Yin currencies <ul><li>Sustainable development is development that meets the ne...
Yin and Yang coherences <ul><li>Source: “The Future of Money”(Bernard Lietaer, Century,2001) </li></ul>Conv. Money CCSs Co...
Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features fo...
Traditional experiences  in the world (– cir. 1995) <ul><li>LETS (Canada, Europe, NZ etc.):  members trade in their own po...
LETS (different countries) <ul><li>Started in 1982 by Michael Linton at Commox Valley, British Columbia, Canada, then spre...
LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 08 January Andy gives Betty 5 kilos of potatoes and receives 10 points </li></ul>Nam...
LETS (different countries) <ul><li>Attention: the total sum of all accounts is always zero </li></ul>Name Previous amount ...
LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 13 January Betty gives Charly her cakes and receives 15 points </li></ul>Name Previo...
LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 17 January Charly sells Andy his books and receives 25 points </li></ul>Name Previou...
Examples of LETS <ul><li>Hanbat LETS (Daejeon, South Korea):  founded in 2000 with more than 4,000 trades (more than US$10...
Time Dollar & Timebank  (US, UK etc.) <ul><li>Started in Washington D.C., US by a lawyer Edgar Cahn as a means to promote ...
Fureai Kippu (Japan) <ul><li>Started in 1970s by housewives as a local network of mutual help </li></ul><ul><li>Those who ...
WIRBank, Switzerland <ul><li>A B2B CC system since 1934 in the Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>SMEs make a loan in WIR  inst...
Recent initiatives (since 1995-) <ul><li>Barter Clubs (Argentina):  once the biggest CC movement in the world </li></ul><u...
Barter Clubs, Argentina <ul><li>The  biggest complementary currency system  ever had in the world </li></ul><ul><li>A bart...
Banco Palmas, Brazil <ul><li>A  community bank  in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil since 1998 which gives microcredits in its com...
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>One of some 30  REGIO (regional currencies) projects  throughout Germany/Austria </li></ul><ul...
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>2 Chiemgauer bill, with 2% of demurrage each 3 months (to be referred to later) </li></ul>
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Chiemgauer Cash Card </li></ul>
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Chiemgauer’s circulation (further on next slide) </li></ul>
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>How will it circulate? </li></ul><ul><li>1:  Chiemgauer office sells  C100 at 97 euro to other...
Demurrage <ul><li>Suggested by  Silvio Gesell  (1862-1930), a German entrepreneur and economist who found out the unfairne...
W örgl, Austria <ul><li>Local currency (LC) issued by the mayor Michael Unterguggenberger in July 1932: during the Great D...
Wörgl, Austria <ul><li>Michael Unterguggenberger’s Monument next to the City Hall </li></ul>
Wörgl, Austria <ul><li>Ms. Veronika Spielbichler (Unterguggenberger Institute, Wörgl) with a copy of the LC </li></ul>
SOL project (France) <ul><li>SOL Coop ération ,  SOL engagement  and  SOL affecté:  to promote the  social economy </li></...
Banca Etica, Italy <ul><li>Founded in 1999 in Padua to finance non-profits and cooperatives which otherwise wouldn’t get l...
Banca Etica, Italy <ul><li>Projects which have so far got BE’s loan </li></ul><ul><li>Fair trade for a Honduran coffee coo...
Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features fo...
Conclusion <ul><li>Our very monetary system has several structural defaults and is unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>It is Y...
Questions 1/4 <ul><li>1. What is/are your complementary currency’s goal(s) ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What sorts of demands re...
Questions 2/4 <ul><li>Who will be the members of the start-up project team ? </li></ul>
Questions 3/4 <ul><li>1. What means will you use? ( commodities / bills, coins / cheques / electronic currency / some of t...
Questions 4/4 <ul><li>Draw a chart like this </li></ul>
Further reading <ul><li>“ The Future of Money”  (Bernard Lietaer, Century, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Interest and Inflatio...
Related websites <ul><li>http://www.margritkennedy.org/  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.accessfoundation.org/  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention. </li></ul><ul><li>My e-mail: mig@olccjp.net </li></ul><ul><li>My skype acc...
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Complementary Currencies

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An introductory slideshow on complementary currency systems.

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Transcript of "Complementary Currencies"

  1. 1. Complementary currencies for sustainable development - theories and practices – “ Miguel” Yasuyuki Hirota [email_address] http://mig76en.wordpress.com/ http://www.olccjp.net/ June 2008
  2. 2. Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features for our monetary system to promote the sustainable and fair development </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features for our monetary system to promote the sustainable and fair development </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Questions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? <ul><li>Issued only by the central bank when asked by commercial banks: no community, region or even country can self-regulate their means of exchange > Mexico (1994) Asia (1997) Russia (1998) Argentina (2001)… </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The Bank of Japan , free from any political intervention, can implement whatever policy they like without being questioned (R. Werner, “The Princes of Yen”, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Enriches only the rich at the cost of the poor: unfair redistribution of wealth for most of the population by way of interest / impoverishment of the middle-class once the national economy stops growing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty for long-term sustainable projects (such as environment, education) to be invested: only short-term businesses prosper at the cost of human resources and our ecosystem (natural and social capital, so to say) </li></ul><ul><li>US$ backed by oil as standard: favourable for US, economic collapse when the oil runs out </li></ul>
  5. 5. Even George Soros admits <ul><li>“ International trade and global financial markets are very good at generating wealth, but they cannot take care of other social needs , such as the preservation of peace, alleviation of poverty, protection of the environment, labor conditions, or human rights – what are generally called ‘public goods ’” (George Soros, “On Globalization”, 2003) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Should national economies grow forever? <ul><li>A: growth of all natural beings </li></ul><ul><li>C: growth of cancer and what the current monetary system demands </li></ul><ul><li>Our current economic system is destined to eat up all the natural resources of this precious planet </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Kennedy (cf. next slide) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Redistribution of wealth in favour of the rich <ul><li>Most people’s income shrinks in today’s monetary system while a small number of rich gets even wealthier </li></ul><ul><li>Source: “Inflation and interest-free money” (Margrit Kennedy, http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~roehrigw/kennedy/english/   ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Today’s financial system in favour of short-time investments <ul><li>Source: http://www.stefan-brunnhuber.de/ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features for our monetary system to promote the sustainable and fair development </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Questions </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is money? <ul><li>Everybody know what we can with money, but nobody knows what money is. </li></ul><ul><li>” The agreement within a community to use something as a means of exchange” (Bernard Lietaer, “The Future of Money”) </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement = Rule </li></ul><ul><li>So we can change our money system and/or have parallel systems if we aren’t happy with the conventional one </li></ul>
  11. 11. Required features for sustainable and fair Yin currencies <ul><li>Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundlandt Report, UN, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of natural energy (solar, windmills, geothermal, biomass…) and other eco-friendly and/or social projects (reforestation, irrigation, education, healthcare…) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratically-managed by its users to prevent financial meltdown by outer agents and to promote the fair distribution of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate the growth of “third sector” (social economy), balancing Yin and Yang in our society </li></ul>
  12. 12. Yin and Yang coherences <ul><li>Source: “The Future of Money”(Bernard Lietaer, Century,2001) </li></ul>Conv. Money CCSs Competition Having, Doing Peak Experience Logic, Linear Technology dominates Bigger is better, Expansion Hierarchy works best Central Authority Transcendent God Cooperation Being Endurance-sustainability Paradoxical, Non-linear Interpersonal Skills Dominate Small is Beautiful Egalitarian Works Best Mutual Trust Immanent Divinity Male principles Female principles Yang coherence Yin coherence
  13. 13. Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features for our monetary system to promote the sustainable and fair development </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Questions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Traditional experiences in the world (– cir. 1995) <ul><li>LETS (Canada, Europe, NZ etc.): members trade in their own point system based on mutual trust </li></ul><ul><li>Time Dollar / Time Bank (US, UK etc.): members help each other by providing daily services </li></ul><ul><li>Fureai Kippu (Japan): a group of grass-root initiatives to deposit hours of voluntary services to be withdrawn when needed </li></ul><ul><li>WIR Bank (Switzerland): founded in 1934 to boost small corporations, realising more than 1 billion Swiss Francs of trades per annum </li></ul>
  15. 15. LETS (different countries) <ul><li>Started in 1982 by Michael Linton at Commox Valley, British Columbia, Canada, then spread into other countries (UK, Australia, NZ, contiental Europe etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Called “SEL” ( Systèmes d’échanges locaux) in France and “Tauschringe” in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Members exchange goods and/or services and pay in LETS points (see next slides) </li></ul><ul><li>The total sum of all accounts is always zero </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for transactions between individuals at small communities (a few hundreds of people) or districts in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gmlets.u-net.com/design/home.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lets-linkup.com/ etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 08 January Andy gives Betty 5 kilos of potatoes and receives 10 points </li></ul>Name Previous amount Change Current amount Andy 0 +10 +10 Betty 0 -10 -10 Charly 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0
  17. 17. LETS (different countries) <ul><li>Attention: the total sum of all accounts is always zero </li></ul>Name Previous amount Change Current amount Andy 0 +10 +10 Betty 0 -10 -10 Charly 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0
  18. 18. LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 13 January Betty gives Charly her cakes and receives 15 points </li></ul>Name Previous amount Change Current amount Andy +10 0 +10 Betty -10 +15 +5 Charly 0 -15 -15 Total 0 0 0
  19. 19. LETS (different countries) <ul><li>On 17 January Charly sells Andy his books and receives 25 points </li></ul>Name Previous amount Change Current amount Andy +10 -25 -15 Betty +5 0 +5 Charly -15 +25 +10 Total 0 0 0
  20. 20. Examples of LETS <ul><li>Hanbat LETS (Daejeon, South Korea): founded in 2000 with more than 4,000 trades (more than US$100,000) annually. http://www.tjlets.or.kr/ </li></ul><ul><li>CES (Cape Town, South Africa etc.): an online clearing system of LETS, operational in 10 countries. http://www.ces.org.za/ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Time Dollar & Timebank (US, UK etc.) <ul><li>Started in Washington D.C., US by a lawyer Edgar Cahn as a means to promote social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Members help each other and those who help others receive hours to be spent when they want some help from others – Improvement of quality of life for a wide range of people </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with other businesses has enabled this system to achieve different goals </li></ul><ul><li>United States: http://www.timebanks.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom: http://www.timebank.org.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Spain: http://www.red-bdt.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Chile: http://bancodeltiempo.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fureai Kippu (Japan) <ul><li>Started in 1970s by housewives as a local network of mutual help </li></ul><ul><li>Those who ask for help buy tickets (about US$6 per hour) and volunteers stock these hours and spend them when they need help (cooking, driving service etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Tickets are redeemable in yen , although usually below the minimum wage: help is more worthy than money for volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Quite active until 2000 when the Public Care System for the Elderly was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sawayakazaidan.or.jp/ </li></ul>
  23. 23. WIRBank, Switzerland <ul><li>A B2B CC system since 1934 in the Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>SMEs make a loan in WIR instead of CHF, since the interest rate for loans in WIR is lower than those in CHF </li></ul><ul><li>WIR is only accepted by Swiss SMEs / retaining the purchasing power within their own business circle (not out into multinationals or into neighbouring countries) </li></ul><ul><li>WIRBank as a cooperative : member companies can control WIRBank </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wir.ch/ </li></ul>
  24. 24. Recent initiatives (since 1995-) <ul><li>Barter Clubs (Argentina): once the biggest CC movement in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Banco Palmas (Brazil): a community bank which gives microcredits in their own complementary currency </li></ul><ul><li>REGIO (Germany): some 30 initiatives in practice, dealing with a region (some counties, for instance) and stimulating the regional economy </li></ul><ul><li>SOL Project (France): to promote the social economy </li></ul><ul><li>Banca Etica(Italy): a bank which gives loans exclusively to social and eco-friendly projects </li></ul><ul><li>Strohalm: a Dutch NGO which has been implementing different initiatives especially in Europe and Latin America. http://www.strohalm.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Only a tip of the iceberg: more interesting initiatives can be found all over the world </li></ul>
  25. 25. Barter Clubs, Argentina <ul><li>The biggest complementary currency system ever had in the world </li></ul><ul><li>A barter club in the suburb of Buenos Aires in May 1995 with 23 members grew into a huge national network of thousands of clubs with 6 million people (1 out of 6 Argentineans at that period) made ends meet during the national crisis in 2001-2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The mismanagement of the credit (their complementary currency) , however, led to a severe inflation and most people left it, although some 40,000 to 50,000 still go on exchanging </li></ul><ul><li>Some initiatives to revive this movement </li></ul>
  26. 26. Banco Palmas, Brazil <ul><li>A community bank in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil since 1998 which gives microcredits in its complementary currency </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates on microcredits are much lower than the one in real (Brazil’s currency), enabling people with limited income to start up their own business </li></ul><ul><li>1200 jobs have been created thanks to this system </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bancopalmas.org.br/ </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>One of some 30 REGIO (regional currencies) projects throughout Germany/Austria </li></ul><ul><li>€ -backed vouchers that circulate within the region to stimulate small businesses and the regional economy </li></ul><ul><li>Started by female high-school students with their professor in Jan 2003, with now 1300 individual and 600 business members </li></ul><ul><li>More than C210,000 (=€210,000) in circulation, increasing local businesses’ turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Redeemable in euro but with 5% commission: 2% for the administrative cost and 3% for non-profits </li></ul><ul><li>ATM service is available too </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.chiemgauer.info/ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>2 Chiemgauer bill, with 2% of demurrage each 3 months (to be referred to later) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Chiemgauer Cash Card </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Chiemgauer’s circulation (further on next slide) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>How will it circulate? </li></ul><ul><li>1: Chiemgauer office sells C100 at 97 euro to other non-profits </li></ul><ul><li>2: Local non-profits sell C100 at 100 euro to their members, earning 3 euro to be spent for their own activities </li></ul><ul><li>3: Consumers spend C100 instead of 100 euro at local businesses, donating indirectly 3 euro to the non-profit they support </li></ul><ul><li>4: Local businesses spend C100 to other local businesses or redeem 95 euro, and the difference of 2 euro will be spent to cover the administrative cost of Chiemgauer office </li></ul>
  32. 32. Demurrage <ul><li>Suggested by Silvio Gesell (1862-1930), a German entrepreneur and economist who found out the unfairness of the current monetary system </li></ul><ul><li>US$100 note is much more preferred to equivalent apples as money is free from degradation </li></ul><ul><li>So abolish the privilege of money by making it gradually perishable > demurrage </li></ul><ul><li>Masterpiece: “The Natural Economic Order” (1916), with the whole text available online at: http://www.systemfehler.de/en/neo/index.htm </li></ul>
  33. 33. W örgl, Austria <ul><li>Local currency (LC) issued by the mayor Michael Unterguggenberger in July 1932: during the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Holders of LC charged of “demurrage fee” </li></ul><ul><li>LC’s quick circulation reactivated local trades and people even tried to pay their tax in advance </li></ul><ul><li>So successful economically, though, that the Austrian Central Bank, fearing to lose its grip over its national currency, stopped it in Sep 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar cases occurred in the past (up to 1950s) in Germany and France, being finished by force by the central governments </li></ul>
  34. 34. Wörgl, Austria <ul><li>Michael Unterguggenberger’s Monument next to the City Hall </li></ul>
  35. 35. Wörgl, Austria <ul><li>Ms. Veronika Spielbichler (Unterguggenberger Institute, Wörgl) with a copy of the LC </li></ul>
  36. 36. SOL project (France) <ul><li>SOL Coop ération , SOL engagement and SOL affecté: to promote the social economy </li></ul><ul><li>SOL Coopération : similar to the loyalty programme but with the aim to promote social or eco-friendly enterprises (B2C an B2B) </li></ul><ul><li>SOL Engagement : promotes voluntary activities by giving them some SOL points </li></ul><ul><li>SOL points suffer from the “demurrage”, encouraging users to spend them instead of saving </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sol-reseau.org/ </li></ul>
  37. 37. Banca Etica, Italy <ul><li>Founded in 1999 in Padua to finance non-profits and cooperatives which otherwise wouldn’t get loans </li></ul><ul><li>Savers choose one of four domains for their money to be invested: 1. social co-operation, 2. eco-friendly projects, 3. developing countries, 4. cultural events </li></ul><ul><li>Savers can also lower their interest rate </li></ul><ul><li>Finances some € 375 million to 2571 entities </li></ul><ul><li>In close relationship with INAISE, FEBEA, SEFEA and other entities </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bancaetica.com/ </li></ul>
  38. 38. Banca Etica, Italy <ul><li>Projects which have so far got BE’s loan </li></ul><ul><li>Fair trade for a Honduran coffee cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of a historic district in Riace, Southern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farm by a Benedictine monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming to lessen people’s dependency on the underground economy </li></ul><ul><li>Support for drug-addicted </li></ul><ul><li>Health-care support system for prostitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Economic aid to Albania </li></ul>
  39. 39. Today’s topic <ul><li>Why is today’s socioeconomic system unsustainable and unfair? </li></ul><ul><li>Required features for our monetary system to promote the sustainable and fair development </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Questions </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>Our very monetary system has several structural defaults and is unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>It is Yang-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary currencies: tool to promote Yin principles to balance our society </li></ul><ul><li>Different systems all over the world, each one in accordance with the community’s needs </li></ul>
  41. 41. Questions 1/4 <ul><li>1. What is/are your complementary currency’s goal(s) ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What sorts of demands remain unsatisfied in your community / region / country? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What unused resources are available? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What kind of improvements can be expected by using complementary currencies? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Who will be the most interested in complementary currencies? </li></ul><ul><li>More info: http://www.global-community.org/cgi/gc/scan/fi=news_stories/st=db/sf=code/se=25/sp=stories.html </li></ul>
  42. 42. Questions 2/4 <ul><li>Who will be the members of the start-up project team ? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Questions 3/4 <ul><li>1. What means will you use? ( commodities / bills, coins / cheques / electronic currency / some of them ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is the unit of your currency? ( legal tender / time / other goods ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. How will the complementary currency be issued? (in exchange for legal tender / backed with food / giveaway to all members / backed wit other goods / mutual trust) </li></ul><ul><li>4. How will the administrative cost be paid? (Subsidy / membership fee / transaction fee / interest on loan / demurrage ) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Questions 4/4 <ul><li>Draw a chart like this </li></ul>
  45. 45. Further reading <ul><li>“ The Future of Money” (Bernard Lietaer, Century, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Interest and Inflation-free Money” (Margrit Kennedy) available at: http://www.margritkennedy.de/ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Money: Understanding and Creating Alternatives to Legal Tender” (Thomas Greco, Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Ecology of Money” (Richard Douthwaite, Green Books, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>“ No More Throw-Away People: The Co-Production Imperative” (Edgar Cahn) </li></ul><ul><li>” Healthy Money, Healthy Planet” (Deirdre Kent, Craig Potton, NZ, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Princes of Yen” (Richard Werner, M.E. Sharpe, 2003) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Related websites <ul><li>http://www.margritkennedy.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.accessfoundation.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.reinventingmoney.com/ (Prof. Thomas Greco’s official website) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.complementarycurrency.org/ (more info about initiatives all over the world) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.le.org.nz/ (a NZ trust) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.monetary-regionalisation.com/ (a website for the conference which took place in Weimar, Germany in Sep 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.global-community.org/ (where the Community Currency Guide is available for free) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.regiogeld.de/ (a national association of Regio initiatives in Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.strohalm.org/ (a Dutch non-profit which works for the implementation of complementary currencies) </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention. </li></ul><ul><li>My e-mail: mig@olccjp.net </li></ul><ul><li>My skype account: migjp2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Website: http://www.olccjp.net </li></ul>
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