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Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
Migration in Portugal 20th century
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Migration in Portugal 20th century

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Document about migration in Portugal in the 20th century.

Document about migration in Portugal in the 20th century.

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  • 1. Migrations are the movements of people from one place to another. People migrate for different reasons; it can be because of bad living conditions existing in their country of origin and poor social mobility or fewer job opportunities. Other reasons can be better and more attractive conditions existing in the country of destination, for example better economic growth or liberalization of trade in Europe. There are two different types of migrations: Emigration: It is the act of leaving one country to settle in another. Immigration: It is the act of entering and settling in a country which is not your country of origin. Reasons for migration :  Natural disasters or environmental problems: - Earthquakes - Floods - Eruptions - Prolonged droughts, etc.  Religious discrimination: - Religious persecution (e.g.: The persecution of the Jews during the World War II) - Ethnic rivalries between ethnic and economic groups  Economic reasons: - Unemployment - Low wages - Deterioration of rural life  Political reasons: - Political Regimes (in Portugal: the regime of the dictator Salazar, known as Salazarism) - Wars - Political repression - Political persecution  Reduced barriers to migrations: - Transport network - Borders opening. Emigration :
  • 2. In the 20th century the wave of emigrants in Portugal started to grow at the beginning of the 20th century during the Republican Movement and the proclamation of the Republic on the 5th October 1910. The emigration flow decreased during the First World War (1914-1918), and grew again during the next decade.  During the first half of the 20th century, migration flow was to the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, namely to Brazil, the USA, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay, among others. After the Second World War many Portuguese emigrants went to Canada. In the 1950s many Portuguese emigrants went to some European countries, especially to France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Sweden. It is also important to mention the migration flows to Australia.  The colonial polices of the Portuguese regimes, especially in the 30s, also caused an important flow of emigrants to the former Portuguese colonies, such as Angola, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Guinea Bissau, India, (the States of Goa and Di), Macau and Timor. Despite the fact that the number of emigrants was increasing continuously until the 1970s, it was always lower than the number of those who went to Brazil and France. Emigration to South Africa, especially between 1964 and 1967, was very high.  The official statistics record shows that, between 1958 and 1974, 1.5 million individuals left Portugal. In 1973, for example, there was a total number of 123,000 people. The following year, even after all migration restrictions throughout Europe, 71,000 people left the country.  In the 1980s and 1990s the emigration flow continues, especially to Germany and Switzerland. Generally speaking, we can say that in the 20th century there were 2 stages of migration in Portugal: • From 1900 to 1960 to Brazil, Canada and the USA • From 1960 to 2000 to Europe, mainly to France and Germany.  In Portugal: the 1960s were good, due to consignments of emigrants. However, everything changed in 1975. The decolonisation brings more than 500 000 people from former colonies, causing political and social instability and employment break due to the change of regime. The Portuguese emigration, despite all the barriers, continued today, in a more modest size, assuming now temporary and increasingly linked to economic investments, studies, professional activities, etc. Immigration
  • 3. Portugal only became a migration destination in the 1970s, with the fall of the dictatorship in 1975 and the independence of its former African colonies: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and São Tomé e Príncipe, which also brought back hundreds of thousands of Portuguese who were living in the colonies. They are called “retornados”, which means people who were living in another country and had to return to their country of origin because of political or other reasons. Most immigrants and “retornados” ended up by settling down in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Since the late 1990s, the geography of immigration to Portugal has undergone truly profound changes. Nowadays we are hosting immigrants from many Eastern European countries like Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Russia. Picture 1 - Evolution of legal resident foreign population in Portugal, by continent of origin, 1980-99 Source: google Thousands 200 150 100 50 0 1980 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94* 95 96 97 98 1999 Years Picture 2 -Total Africa North America South America Legal foreigners in Portugal in 1996 Asia Europe Source: google
  • 4. Legal foreigners, 1996  Africans and Asians with legal residence in1996 were already 88,316 people (51% of the total number of all foreigners). Note: These documents refer only to legal residents. It is not possible to consider the number of people who were illegally living in Portugal, because is it not known officially.  Despite the fact that the majority of immigrants resides in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, it is also possible to find many of them throughout the country, which is caused by work opportunities available in each region. Picture 3 - 1998 Distribution of EU citizens living in Portugal Source: Google
  • 5. Picture 4 - 1998 Distribution of citizens coming from former Portuguese colonies in Africa (PALOP) living in Portugal Source: Google Picture 5 - 1998 Distribution of Brazilian citizens living in Portugal 6 - 1998 Distribution Picture Source: Google of Non-European citizens living in Portugal Source: Google
  • 6. Academic and Professional level of immigrants living in Portugal Eastern European immigrants, although they have relatively high educational and professional qualifications, are employed in low-paying and socially-undervalued jobs, such as construction (men) and industrial cleaning and domestic work (women), among others. There is a significant percentage of Eastern Europeans working in agriculture, especially in the Alentejo, the Ribatejo and the Western Regions of Portugal, as well as in some types of industries in the Northern Region. Table - This table represents work contracts made with immigrants who have Permanence Permits (an authorization to stay in the country for a longer period of time) per employment sector and per country of origin (%). Employment sector Ukrain Brazi Moldov Romani Cape Angol Russi e l a a Verd a a e Agriculture and 5.4 1.6 5.0 6.0 1.5 1.1 4.3 Fishery Extractive Industry 1.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.6 Manufacturing 24.2 7.8 13.3 8.8 4.2 4.7 28.1 Industry Water , Gas and 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Electricity Construction 41.3 25.5 54.1 53.4 43.4 33.7 32.3 Commerce 7.0 12.1 5.8 5.5 6.0 8.1 7.3 Restaurants and 6.0 22.1 6.0 6.6 9.2 14.1 9.6 Hotels Transports and 1.5 2.0 2.4 1.2 0.6 0.6 1.4 Communications Services 13.1 28.6 12.8 17.9 34.9 37.7 16.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  • 7. Immigration consequences  There are several positive and negative consequences concerning immigration, such as: • Increase of the population; • Increase of the birth rate as a result of larger number of young people and adults coming to Portugal; • Rejuvenation of the population in general; • Increase of the number of working population; • Cultural enrichment of the population; • Possible emergence of slums and inadequate living conditions for more disadvantaged families ; • Difficulties in accepting new cultures, languages and customs. Bibliography  http://www.marktest.com/wap/a/n/id~5d9.aspx - 03/12/2009  http://www.sermelhor.com/especial/portugal_e_as_migracoes.htm - 03/12/2009  http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=77 - 02/12/2009  http://imigrantes.no.sapo.pt/page6portugal.html - 29/12/2009  http://imigrantes.no.sapo.pt/page6.html – 29/12/2009  http://ideiasetemas.blogs.sapo.pt/510.html – 29/12/2009  http://www.libreopinion.com/members/imigport/numeros.htm - 03/12/2009  http://imigrantes.no.sapo.pt/page6brasil.html – 27/12/2009 http://www.oecd.org/document/6/0,3343,en_2649_33931_36770438_1_1_1_1,00.h tml http://www.oi.acidi.gov.pt/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=97 http://eurowatch.blogspot.com/2009/01/portugal-sustains.html http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=77  Diciopédia 2008 – Porto Editora Work done by :
  • 8.  Carolina Rodrigues, nº5 10ºB  Joana Goucha, nº14 10ºB  Marta Mendes, nº19 10ºB  Melanie Barata, nº20 10ºB Comenius Project - 2009/2010

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