Individual Differences & CALL


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Individual Differences & CALL

  1. 1. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES and CALL By Group 3: ü Zulkifli ü Eka Margianti S ü Miftahuljannah Saleh ü Qori Aturrahmah ü Dhony Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  2. 2. BACKGROUNDObjective : Investigating what factors on learners/studentsthat may affect the Computer-Assisted Language Learning(CALL).The factors have been studied on the basis of learnervariables which are assumed to be affecting the languagelearning process. And further study observed whichindividual variables which should be considered mostrelevant in affecting language learning outcomes Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. PREVIOUS STUDIES ON RELATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES & LANGUAGE LEARNING Two types of models of SLA to individual outcomes: 1. Models with independent learner variables 2. Models with interdependent learner variables Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. Models with independent learner variables  Distinguishing between individual-related variables and other variables These models include: 1. The ‘Good Language-Learner’ model 2. Monitor Theory model 3. Brown and Fraser’s framework 4. Levin’s schematic model. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. Models with interdependent learner variables  Assuming interrelationship between individual variables These models include: 1. Gardner’s educational model 2. Skehan’s model of influences on language learning 3. Spolsky’s model of second language learning Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  6. 6. The ‘Good Language-Learner’ Model Consists of: 1. Three independent variables: Learner, Teaching, Context 2. Two dependent variables: Learning, Outcome Theory: “There is a direct link between each of the three ‘global’ independent variables and the learning variables.” Weakness: How the independent variables and which particular sub-variables affect the learning variable remain unclear. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. The ‘Good Language-Learner’ Model TEACHING Materials Syllabus Methodology Resources OUTCOME THE LEARNERS LEARNING Proficiency Age Unconscious processes -Listening Intelligence -Generalization - Speaking Aptitude -Transfer - Reading Motivation -Simplification - Writing Attitude Conscious processes Errors Personality - strategies Inter language Cognitive Style Affective reason THE CONTEXT EFL/ESL Opportunities for use Social Milieu Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. Monitor Theory Model (Krashen, 1978) O I U N Affective Cognitive T P MONITOR Filter Organizer P U U T T Attitude Affective Motivation Filter Self Confidence NOTE: Affective filter may cause the quality of acquisition (output) to be higher or lower. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. Monitor Theory Model (Krashen, 1978) Variables : Affective filter (learner variable), input, cognitive organisers, and output. Theory: “Affective filter, being a major source of variation, may cause the quality of acquisition (output) to be higher or lower.” Weakness: How learner variables affect the learning outcomes remains unclear. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  10. 10. Brown & Fraser’s (1979) Framework Situation Scene ParticipantsSetting Purpose Individuals Relationship(bystanders, (buying, lecturing, Betweenlocal, time) playing a game) Individuals (shared knowledge power) Individual Individual as Qua individual member of a (personality, social category attitude) (class, ethnicity) Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. Brown & Fraser’s (1979) Framework Variables: Scene, Participant, Language Choices This theory examines how individual situational (consists of Scene and Participant) variables affect language choices. Weakness: There is no clear concept of how factors within this framework interrelate and affect language use (production). Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. Levin’s (1977) Schematic ModelVariables: Input (learner variables) & OutputTheory focuses on describing individual differences inoutput, wherein input variables refer to those thatdifferentiate learners in terms of traits, abilities, andprerequisites that are related to successful output-taskperformance.Weakness:It is unclear which input variables that lead to learners’variation in output or how the different variables influenceone another. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. Gardner’s (1979, 1985) Educational ModelSocial Individual Outcomes Differences ContextsMilieu Intelligence Formal Linguistic C U Language L training T Language U R Aptitude A L B Motivation E Non-Linguistic L I Informal E Language F S Situational Experience Anxiety Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. Gardner’s (1979, 1985) Educational Model Variables: social mile (cultural beliefs), individual differences, Second language acquisition contexts, and Outcomes. These models highlight the interrelationship between variables (social, individual, and context variables) in influencing language learning outcomes. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  15. 15. Skehan’s (1986, 1989) model of influences on language learning Improvement from Naiman’s ‘Good Language-Learner’ model, however Sekhan highlights the importance of a joined-variables effect on language learning. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. Skehan’s (1986, 1989) model ofinfluences on language learning The LearnerClassrooms and materialsMaterials Opportunities Learning OutcomeSyllabus for TL useMethodologyresourcesSocial ContextExpectation of bilingualismRelationship to targetlanguage communityAttitude to target languageSocial Class Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  17. 17. Skehan’s (1986, 1989) model ofinfluences on language learningVariables:Classroom and materials, Social Context,Opportunities for target language use, TheLearner, Learning, and Outcomes.Weakness:This model does not clearly identify the role ofindividual learner related variables and how theyrelate to other variables. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  18. 18. Spolsky’s (1989) Model of Second Language Learning Variables: Social context, condition of learner, learning opportunities. This model examines individual differences resulting from 74 restricted conditions. His model is based on 5 features: • All aspects of second or foreign language learning were combined in a single theory. • Restricted to the specific domain of second language learning and focused on individual differences. • Eclecticism, in which a model of second or foreign language learning should be “open” to different conditions instead of being limited to a particular pattern or set of condition. • Recognising “social context” as an important domain which affects learning outcomes. Two main clusters in Spolsky’s model: 1. Conditions of social context, i.e. conditions which influence learning in two ways. 2. Conditions of learners Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  19. 19. Spolsky’s (1989) Model of Second Language Learning Social context Motivation Age Personality Capability Previous Knowledge Learning Opportunities (formal or informal) Linguistic and non linguistic outcomes for Free Powerpoint the learners Templates Page 19
  20. 20. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES• Age• Attitudes• Motivation• Intelligence• Language aptitude• Previous knowledge• Familiarity with computers• Interaction with native-speakers of English• Language used for interaction with the community Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20