Child protection and social protection ch prot & adol network meeting v2
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  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • What do we mean by the child protection system? The CP system per se - does not exist as distict « entity », however, we can envision it if we map-out the obligations for child protection within the whole social sector and the justice system. These represent the petals of our child protection system flower! The red circle in the middle illustrates, that only some parts and some aspects of each sector bare specific obligations for child protection. For example, although t he social welfare system has the main accountability for child protection, its mandate includes also provisions for vulnerable adults and elderly. Or within the Justice –it is juvenile justice part that has specific mandate for children, or within education it is about provisions for inclusive education and for protection from violence, etc. None of the sectors in isolation can deliver results if other systems have not assumed their obligations for child protection. Hence, the interaction and coordination between sectors as well as at the national and sub-national levels is a MUST. So, in a long run – our strategic aim is to help establishing a child protection system that is intersectoral and cross- sectoral in nature and consists of a network ( continuum) of measures, structures and services – which are are guided by a common policy framework – rooted in children`s rights. Such system is able to prevent violations, identify them early, report, refer, address/treat individual cases of rights violations and of course it is able to provide all necessary and good quality services to eligible families and children. . In addition to this: It is essential to envision the child protection system so that our interventions are strategic and help building it. It is also essential to understand how the existing « systems » work and how are they organized, what obligations and accountabilities belong to different levels or what is regulating and governing the functioning of different parts (what role are playing the finances, mandates, or the standards for services or for professionals, what role play supervision, inspection and monitoring system etc.) And lastly – we need to keep in mind, that the network or the continuum of services is not compsed necesarily only of public services. Often there are also private service providers which need to be brough in within the common policy framework and guided by the same standards.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.
  • Kyrgyzstan UNICEF, together with the European Union (EU) and WB, established a successful partnership and facilitated a complementary approach in supporting the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (MoLSD) in social protection reform. UNICEF supported in-depth analysis of the current situation which provided evidence for improving targeting of the beneficiaries for Unified Monthly Benefit (UMB). UNICEF facilitated bringing together experts from the European Commission (EC) and WB, along with an international expert working with UNICEF, to assist a strategic planning meeting under Ministry of Labour and Social Development. Bosnia-Herzegovina In 2008, support focused on ensuring the availability of data on the status of children and women to improve evidence-based policy making and reform and influence emerging national strategies—the national development strategy and the social inclusion strategy (2008-2013). Many of the planned project activities were not implemented, as a result of delays by the government in establishing the control mechanisms required by the EU for the administration of instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) funds. Despite the setback, activities were implemented with funding from DFID, the Government of Norway, and UNICEF, and UNICEF’s collaboration with the Directorate for Economic Planning of BiH continued in 2008, which provided an important entry point for influencing socio-economic policy in the country. UNICEF provided data, analysis and strategic recommendations to enhance the Social Inclusion Strategy for BiH (2008-2013) , including the strengthening of intersectoral co-operation, strengthening ECD services, and establishing micro-modelling approaches for the social protection of families with children at municipal level, amongst others.

Child protection and social protection ch prot & adol network meeting v2 Child protection and social protection ch prot & adol network meeting v2 Presentation Transcript

  • Child protection and social protection: policy perspectives and issues Enrique Delamonica TACRO September 2010, Mexico
  • Overview and objectives
    • Introduction (context)
    • Child protection
    • Social protection
    • Policy issues
    • Understand the connection and distinctiveness of child and social protection
    • Discuss provocatively some policy issues
  • Why do we talk about social protection ?
    • Because current situation is problematic
    • How do we know ?
    • Because without social protection policies we will not escape the problematic situation
    • How do we know ?
    View slide
  • Objectives Poverty reduction Social development Fulfillment of rights Economic growth
      • Overlap => Cohesive/inclusive societies
    View slide
  • Current problematic situation
    • 7 of the 12 countries with highest income inequality
    • Other disparities
    • Child Poverty
  • Defining child poverty
    • Nutrition deprivation
    • Water deprivation
    • Deprivation of sanitation facilities
    • Health deprivation
    • Shelter deprivation
    • Education deprivation
    • Information deprivation
    • Gordon, Townsend et al (2003) commissioned by UNICEF to LSE and Bristol University
  • Continuum of Deprivation and Child Poverty E. g. : Children who have never been to school Children in dwellings with more than five people per room Children whose heights and weights are 3 SD below the norm
  • Child poverty and child rights Child Poverty Child right violations Nutrition Education Water and Sanitation Health Housing Information .
  • Child poverty in Latin America
  • U5MR geographic disparities
  • Nutrition Disparities About 15 points difference in each example Relative gap of 1.7 and 2.2 respectively
  • Completed six years of schooling (15-19 years old) Similar evidence for excluded populations
  • Some definitions
    • Exclusion: Unfair social process whereby a group is not allowed to fully enjoy the benefits of participation in society (economic, social, political, cultural, or their combination) mainly due to their belonging to that group
    • Vulnerability: risk of being affected by a threat (e.g. loss of income, flood, sickness) and not being able to cope with it or its effects
  • Combining different groups of people who could be eligible for social protection Excluded Vulnerable Non-Income poor (rights) But would this be all? . A Income poor B C
  • What about the…
    • Elderly
    • Unemployed
    • Widow(er)s
    • Sick
    • Orphans
    • And those who could eventually fall in these categories?
    • Universal, integrated systems of protection
  • “Traditional” child protection
    • Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
    • Birth registration
    • Adolescents in conflict with the law
    • Child labor
    • Child soldiers
    • Sexual exploitation
  • Social Policy, Social Work, Child Protection, Social Protection (I)
    • Social Policy: Education, Health, Unemployment benefits, Pension, Housing
      • More than mitigating economic risk, also redistribution (e.g. minimum wage, paid holidays) and family policy (breast-feeeding time, maternity and paternity leave, mandatory child support, non-discrimination on the basis of family structure)
    • Traditional and non-traditional UNICEF “sectors”
  • Social Policy, Social Work, Child Protection, Social Protection (II)
    • Social Work: Abuse, neglect, alternative care (e.g. orphans)
    • Child Protection: Children in conflict with the law, child labor, trafficking
    • Social Protection: all of the above
  • Defining Social protection
    • “… enhance the social status and rights of the marginalised; with the overall objective of reducing the economic and social vulnerability of poor, vulnerable and marginalised groups.” (Devereux & Sabates Wheeler, 2004)
    • Protection
    • Prevention
    • Promotion
    • Distribution
    • Transformation
  • Brief typolgy of social protection
    • Poor laws (Elizabeth I)
    • Guilds and union based health insurance
    • Unemployment insurance (formal workers)
    • Social security/pensions
    • Safety nets ( targeted, e.g. Mothers and soldiers )
    • Targeted income transfers
    • Universal Workfare
    • Beveridge
    • Scandinavian welfare state
  • Child protection, Social protection, Social policy Education Health Social Welfare Child Welfare services benefits Violence prevention Referral Prevention Identification Referral Children in the justice system Social Policy Social protection Child protection
  • Policy Continuum (child protection) Birth registration Child labor Targeting User fees Cash transfers Poverty reduction strategies Budget allocation Taxes Trade Policy
  • Policy Issues: Conventional wisdom
    • Economic growth
    • Limit government intervention
    • (minimum) safety net
  • There is no relationship between economic growth and U5MR reduction
  • Targeting
    • What is it?
    • How does it work?
    • Why is it implemented?
  • Target population Programme E mistake: excessive coverage (leakage) F mistake: failure to reach target population Targeting
  • Targeting has hidden costs
    • Difficult to identify & reach the poor F mistake, mostly women
    • Poor get bumped-off by not-so-poor E mistake, often women & poorest
    • Administrative costs are high avoid F/E mistakes; oversight
    • Proving eligibility is costly documents, fees, fares, stigma, male-bias
    • Sustainability is undermined poor’s voice weak to keep scope/quality
  • How to avoid targeting when there are no sufficient resources?
    • Progressive realization
    • Allows to set criteria for priorities
      • Through time (long term plans)
      • At a point in time (short term budgets)
    • Not an excuse to delay efforts
    • GOAL: Cohesive/Inclusive societies
  • Progressive realization in practice
    • Means testing, targeting and conditionalities: Partial and transitory
  • Cash transfers
    • Birth grants
    • Universal child allowances
    • Conditional cash transfers
    • Maternal or parental benefits
    • Sick leaves, disability benefits
    • Housing allowances
    • Unemployment benefits
  • Conditional cash transfers
    • What are they?
    • How do they work?
    • Why are they implemented?
  • Conditional cash transfers (ii)
    • Targeted, not universal
    • Conditionality may imply punishing the needy (punitive)
    • Low impact/efficiency (e.g. high monitoring costs)
    • Ethical issues (e.g. paternalistic/top down)
    • Unintended consequences (e.g. discrimination, clientelism)
  • Conditional cash transfers (iii)
    • Simple cash transfers can work
    • No really good and systematic evidence that conditionality works
    • Work?
      • To reduce poverty?
      • To increase access to services?
  • Methodological issues in assessing conditional cash transfers
    • Reduce poverty or increase service access/utilization?
    • Reduce poverty now or in the future?
    • Income or condition?
    • Condition or (previous) investment in services?
    • Even if they “work” in a carefully selected trial experiment, would they work in a different context?
    • Are we sure people did not want to satisfy condition?
  • Educational outcomes of primary school students participating in CCT programmes χ ٧ χ ٧ χ χ χ χ χ χ ٧ ٧ Increased from 69% to 93% for treatment vs. 72% to 75% for control group. Dropout rates fell in Grades 1-4. Increased average number of students attending regularly by 30 percentage points. 92% of treatment and 80% of control. Nicaragua RPS No impact on primary school enrolment. Girls’ dropout in Grade 3 fell by 17.9 % and boys’ by 14.0%. Increased probability of boys’ attendance by 1.3 to 1.8 percentage points. Average increase from 6.8 years to 7.4 years. Mexico Progresa-Oportunidades Beneficiary (ages 5-12) enrolment up by 17 percentage points from 2000 and 2001. Dropout rates for scholarship recipients decreased from 7.0% to 2.4%. Scholarship recipients attended one day more per month than non-recipients. N/A Honduras PRAF Inconclusive. Annual completion was similarly high (around 90%) for all pupils. 91% of treatment and 88% of control group had regular attendance. 2% of treatment and 11% of control group did not return to school the following year. Guatemala Eduque a la Niña No impact on primary school enrolment (ages 7- 13). N/A N/A N/A Colombia Familias en Acción N/A Dropout rates were lower for treatment than control group (0.3% vs. 6.1 %). 95% of boys in treatment and 92% in control group attended regularly. Girls showed similar results. N/A Brazil Bolsa Escola (BE) Enrolment Dropout School attendance Attainment Country Programme
  • Latin America and Caribbean
    • Uneven situation: Fractured and heterogeneous systems
    • Create
      • If not there
    • Expand
      • If parts of the population not included
    • Strengthen
      • If haphazard or inefficient
  • Latin America and Caribbean
    • Several countries already have (e.g. Brazil, Chile) or are planning (e.g. Belize) the introduction of cash transfers
    • Modalities differ. Not all of them conditional
    • Tool for rights based analysis of analysis of cash transfers programs being developed. Tested in four countries (Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico)
  • Latin America and Caribbean
    • Data gathering to highlight specific issues of indigenous and afro-descendants
    • Integrated early childhood development respecting indigenous values and traditions (Colombia)
    • Legislation affecting children in conflict with the law and victims of violence (Bolivia)
  • Latin America and Caribbean (Cont.)
    • Integrated early childhood development respecting indigenous values and traditions (Colombia)
    • Integrated packages of education, health and water/sanitation interventions at municipal level (Brazil, Nicaragua)
    • Single database of beneficiaries (Paraguay)
    • Assessment of Social Safety Nets (with UNIFEM and WB)
  • Additional examples of child/social protection
    • Birth registration and single beneficiary roster
    • Special provisions to support children left behind by migrant parents, e.g. within pensions system for grandparents
    • Interventions to prevent adolescents from dropping out of school  NINIs
  • Conclusions
    • Child protection and social protection are conceptually distinct areas of UNICEF work
    • However, they complement and overlap each other: WORK TOGETHER
    • Social protection well beyond CCTs or “economic insurance”
    • Menu of experiences in the region
    • Both are crucial pieces of strategy to reduce disparities
  • Thank you!