The Cell Membrane

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  • 1. The Cell Membrane
  • 2. Phospholipid
  • 3. Phospholipids….
    • The phospholipid is the primary component of the cell membrane.
    • It is made up of a head and two tails.
    • The head is hydrophilic which means it likes water
    • The tails are hydrophobic which means they repel water.
  • 4. Lipid bilayer
    • The structure of a bilayer explains its function as a barrier.
    • Lipids are amphiphilic molecules since they consist of polar head groups and non-polar fatty acid tails.
  • 5. Lipid bilayer
    • The bilayer is composed of two layers of lipids arranged so that their hydrocarbon tails face one another to form an oily core held together by the hydrophobic effect , while their charged heads face the aqueous solutions on either side of the membrane.
  • 6. Channel Proteins A passageway for molecules to move via diffusion. Requires no energy.
  • 7. Receptor Proteins
    • Protein molecule embedded in the cell membrane to which a ligand can attach to.
    • A molecule which binds to a receptor is called a " ligand ," and may be a peptide (such as a neurotransmitter ), a hormone , a pharmaceutical drug, or a toxin, and when such binding occurs, the receptor ordinarily initiates a cellular response.
  • 8.  
  • 9. Marker Proteins
    • Marker proteins extend across the cell membrane and serve to identify the cell.
  • 10. Marker Proteins….
    • The immune system uses these proteins to tell friendly cells from foreign invaders.
    • They are as unique as fingerprints.
    • They play an important role in organ transplants.
    • If the marker proteins on a transplanted organ are different from those of the original organ the body will reject it as a foreign invader.