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Language and literature assessment (lecture 1)

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  • 1. LANGUAGE AND LITERATUREASSESSMENTKEY CONCEPTS• Assessment is the act ofgathering information on adaily basis in order tounderstand individual student’slearning and needs.• In the context of languageteaching andlearning, assessment refers tothe act of collecting informationand making judgments about alanguage learner’s knowledgeof a language and the ability touse it. (Carol Chapelle andGeoff Bingley)• Testing refers toprocedures that arebased on a tests. Inlearning, it is a salientpart of the assessment.• Language Testing is thepractice and study ofevaluating the proficiencyof an individual in using aparticular languageeffectively. (PriscillaAllen)
  • 2. LANGUAGE AND LITERATUREASSESSMENTKEY CONCEPTS• Measurement morebroadly includes testingand other types ofmeasurement as well asother types of informationthat result in quantitativedata such asattendance, records, questionnaires, teacher’sratings of students etc.• Evaluation is theculminating act ofinterpreting theinformation gathered forthe purpose of makingdecisions or judgmentsabout student’s learningand needs, often at areporting time.• It forms as part of theassessment.
  • 3. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONPRINCIPLES• Assessment and evaluation are essential components ofthe teaching-learning process. They should beplanned, continuous activities which are derived fromcurriculum objectives and consistent with theinstructional and learning strategies.• A variety of assessment and evaluation techniquesshould be used. Techniques should be selected for theirappropriateness to student’s learning styles and to theintended purposes. Students should be givenopportunities to demonstrate the extent of theirknowledge, abilities, and attitudes in a variety of ways.
  • 4. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONPRINCIPLES• Teachers should communicate assessment andevaluation strategies and plan in advance, informing thestudents of the objectives of the assessment proceduresrelative to the objectives. Students should haveopportunities for input into the evaluation process.• Assessment and evaluation should be fair and equitable.They should be sensitive to family, classroom, schooland community situations and cultural requirements;they should be free of bias.• Assessment and evaluation data and results should becommunicated to the students andparents/guardians, regularly in meaningful ways.
  • 5. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONPRINCIPLES• Assessment and evaluation should help students. Theyshould provide positive feedback and encouragestudents to participate actively in their own assessmentin order to foster lifelong learning and enable them totransfer knowledge and abilities to their life experiences.• Assessment and evaluation should use a variety oftechniques and tools. The teacher collects assessmentinformation about student’s language development andtheir growth in speaking, listening, writing and readingknowledge and abilities. The data gathered during theassessment becomes the basis for an evaluation.Comparing assessment information to curriculumobjectives allows the teacher to make a decision orjudgment regarding the progress of the student’slearning.
  • 6. PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT1. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNINGAssessment for learning focuses on the gap betweenwhere the learner is in his/her learning, and wherehe/she needs to be – the desired goals. This can beachieved through processes such as sharing criteriawith learners, effective questioning and feedback.Black and William define assessment for learning as allthose activities undertaken by teachers and/or by thestudents, which provide information to be used asfeedback to modify the teaching and learning activitiesin which they are engaged.
  • 7. Learners learn best when…• They understand clearly what they are tryingto learn, and what is expected of them.• They are given feedback about the quality oftheir work and what they can do to make itbetter.• They are given advice about how to go aboutmaking improvements.• They are fully involved in deciding whatneeds to be done next, and who can givethem help if they need it.
  • 8. ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING• Assessment as learning is about reflecting theevidence of learning. This is a part of the cycleof assessment where pupils and staff setlearning goals, share learning intentions andsuccess criteria and evaluate their learningthrough dialogue and self and peer assessment.• Through this, learners become more aware of:- what they learn- how they learn- what helps them learn
  • 9. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING• Assessment of learning involves working withthe range of available evidence that enablesstaff and the wider assessment community tocheck on student’s progress and using thisinformation in a number of ways.• Assessment of learning provides an arena forthe management and planning of assessment,and the teachers to work collaboratively with theevidence. It connects assessment to thecurriculum.
  • 10. Assessments of the students should be• Valid (based on sound criteria)• They are reliable (The accuracy ofassessment)• They are comparable (they stand up whenthey compared in other departments orschools)
  • 11. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TEST In learning - In learning, tests are used tomeasure student’s language ability, to discoverhow much they have been learning, to diagnosethe student’s strengths and weaknesses, and tomotivate students in learning.a. sometimes, language teachers choose to teststudents through periodic quizzes and tests ofachievements.b. At other times instructor assess their studentslanguage proficiency after several years oflanguage study.
  • 12. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TESTc. At other times language teachers use tests forplacement and diagnostic reasons and otherpurposes. In teachinga. tests are used in teaching as a means toensure effective teaching, to improve teachingquality, to obtain feedback on student learningplace on course.
  • 13. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TEST In teachinga. tests are used in teaching as a means toensure effective teaching, to improve teachingquality, to obtain feedback on student learningplace on course.b. Tests can have a “backwash effect” whichmeans that they may result in changes ofinstructional programs or teaching strategies toreflect the test contents because languageteachers want their students to do well on highstake tests for many different reasons.
  • 14. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TEST In Research- Language tests have a potentially importantrole in virtually all research, both basic andapplied, that is related to the nature of thelanguage proficiency, languageacquisition, language processing, languageattrition and language teaching.
  • 15. DISCUSSION POINT1. Differentiate testing, assessment, evaluation, andmeasurement.2. What essential principles about assessment andevaluation should educators, especially teachers bear inmind?3. What are the roles of assessment in teaching, learningand in research?4. What are the functions of language test?

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