Ashted archaeological report

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Ashted archaeological report

  1. 1. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONAT THE PROPOSED TECHNOLOGY PARK, EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM (BIES 07) Work Undertaken For Wardell Armstrong LLP on behalf of Birmingham City Council January 2008 Report Compiled by Mark Peachey BA (Hons) National Grid Reference: SP 078870 OASIS Record No: archaeol1-36373ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT SERVICES A.P.S. Report No. 2/08
  2. 2. CONTENTSList of FiguresList of Plates1. SUMMARY.............................................................................................................. 12. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 1 2.1 PLANNING BACKGROUND ...................................................................................... 1 2.2 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY................................................................................ 1 2.3 ARCHAEOLOGICAL SETTING ................................................................................. 13. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES...................................................................................... 34. METHODS............................................................................................................... 35. RESULTS................................................................................................................. 46. POST-EXCAVATION TASK LIST AND PROGRAMME................................... 77. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................... 78. PERSONNEL........................................................................................................... 79. BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................... 810. ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................. 8Appendices1 Specification for archaeological evaluation2 Context Descriptions3 The Finds by Dr Anne Boyle, Paul Cope-Faulkner, Rachael Hall and Gary Taylor4 Post-medieval and early modern pottery archive by Gary Taylor and Dr. Anne Boyle5 An evaluation of the charred plant macrofossils and other remains by Val Fryer6 Glossary7 The Archive Archaeological Project Services
  3. 3. List of FiguresFigure 1 General location planFigure 2 Site location planFigure 3 Trench location planFigure 4 Belmont Glassworks site planFigure 5 Belmont Row Glassworks site planFigure 6 Plan of cone [100]Figure 7 Ashted Pumping Station site planFigure 8 Elevation of wall [054] and wall footings [055] and [056]Figure 9 Elevation of cone wall [145]Figure 10 Ashted Pumping Station profileFigure 11 Elevations of condenser tankList of PlatesPlate 1 Walls [042], [046], [048] looking east, Belmont GlassworksPlate 2 Wall [054] looking SW, Belmont GlassworksPlate 3 General view of Cone [100] looking NW, Belmont Row GlassworksPlate 4 General view of Ashted Pumping Station looking west.Plate 5 Wall [308] (Elevation 20) of condenser tank [301], Ashted Pumping StationPlate 6 Pump shaft [304] and culvert [305] looking NW, Ashted Pumping StationPlate 7 Water shute [322] looking NE, Ashted Pumping Station Archaeological Project Services
  4. 4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDS1. SUMMARY The site lies 1km northeast of Birmingham town centre on level wasteground atAn archaeological excavation was c115m OD (Fig. 2). Located alongside theundertaken on land at the proposed Digbeth Branch Canal. The investigationTechnology Park, Eastside, Birmingham in sites lie south of the junction of Jennensorder to record any remains of the Road and Lawley Street Middleway, to theBelmont and Belmont Row Glassworks northeast of Belmont Row, at Nationaland to inform on the design of the new Grid Reference SP 078 870 (Fig. 3).development around the Ashted PumpingStation. Local geology is sand.The excavation identified remains of both 2.3 Archaeological Settingglassworks and established the extent ofthe pumping station. Belmont and Belmont Row GlassworksFinds included fragments of glassmaking Medieval glass production was based incrucibles, pottery and bricks. In addition woodland areas, such as the Weald of Kentto evidence of glassmaking there were and Sussex but the transition to coal duringindications of pottery manufacture and the 17th century resulted in the gradualpossible metal working. relocation of the industry to coalfield areas. The use of coal led to changes in the form of the furnace, with the fire directly2. INTRODUCTION below the crucibles and draught provided by underground flues. Sometime in the2.1 Planning Background 18th century the furnace was covered by a cone. These cones were unstable and manyArchaeological Project Services was collapsed (Palmer and Neaverson 1998).commissioned by Wardell Armstrong They were gradually abandoned during theEngineering and Environmental Solutions second quarter of the 19th century in favouron behalf of Birmingham City Council to of a more conventional type of glasshouseundertake a programme of archaeological building with a central chimney for theexcavation in advance of proposed furnace, though many continued in use.development at the proposed TechnologyPark, Eastside, Birmingham. This was The glass-making industry became ansubsequent to a programme of established trade of Birmingham at the endarchaeological evaluation carried out by of the 18th century in response to theUniversity of Leicester Archaeological development of the canal system whichServices (ULAS) earlier in 2007. The made the transport of raw materials easierexcavation was undertaken between 24th and less expensive. Glassworks were sitedSeptember and 9th November 2007 in close to canals for this reason. Mayeraccordance with a specification prepared Oppenheim established the firstby Wardell Armstrong (Appendix 1) and documented glasshouse in Birmingham onapproved by the Birmingham City Snow Hill in 1757 and by the middle ofPlanning Archaeologist. the following century flint glassmaking was largely concentrated in Stourbridge2.2 Topography and Geology and Birmingham.Birmingham is the main city of West Between the late 1840s and the late 1870sMidlands Metropolitan County (Fig. 1). the flint glass trade flourished, stimulated 1 Archaeological Project Services
  5. 5. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSby the final repeal of the excise duty on known as the chair.glass in 1845 and the Great Exhibition of1851 at Crystal Palace. However, from the The glass furnace occupied the centre of1860s foreign glass began to have an the cone. It was circular and held betweenimpact on the English trade and by 1880 ten and a dozen individual melting potsthe golden age of flint glass making was which stood in a ring inside the furnaceover. with their openings facing outwards. The pots were made from fireclay capable ofThe Belmont Glassworks (SMR no. withstanding the high temperature inside20500-MBM2149) was founded by the furnace. The batch, or raw materialsThomas Harris by 1804 along with a (silica, lead oxide and potassium oxide),smaller establishment in Fazeley Street was shovelled into the pots. Cullet, orwhich closed in 1810. The firm continued broken glass, was added to help bringunder the names of Harris, Smart and Co. down the melting temperature. The furnaceand then Thomas Harris and Rice Harris was then brought up to about 1400˚C anduntil 1814. Rice Harris was then replaced held at this temperature for around 30by John Harris until 1819 when the firm hours to allow the glass to fuse. Thebecame Harris, Gammon and Co. Later the temperature was then reduced to aboutfirm became William Gammon and Co. It 1200˚C, at which point the glass was likeseems, from the local Poor Rate Books, to honey in consistency and could behave closed between 1896 and 1901. Two gathered out of the melting pot on the endcircular structures, probably glass cones, of the blowing iron. The furnace was nevercan be seen on the Pigott Smith map of allowed to go out, some running for thirty1850-55. years before rebuilding (Red House Glass Cone guidebook).Little is known about the Belmont Row Ashted Pumping StationGlassworks (SMR 20503-MBM2152)although it is probably that referred to in a The Digbeth Branch Canal was opened indirectory of 1808 as ‘William Hodgson, 1799 by the Birmingham Canalglass manufacturer, Great Brook Street’ Navigations Company to link their system(now Jennens Road). In Aris’s Gazette of southwards to the industries of Digbeth, aJuly 1806 the China, glass and lower-lying area. It was found that theearthenware manufactory of Madeley, flight of locks on the canal lost waterHodgson and Co had advertised for a glass especially after the Warwick andcutter. The works is on a map by Pigott Birmingham Canal joined it near itsSmith of 1824-5 but had disappeared by terminus. Therefore the company decidedthe 1889 OS map. As with the Belmont to build a pumping station at Ashted toGlassworks, the 1850-55 Pigott Smith map keep their water in the systemshows two circular structures, probably (Broadbridge 1974).glass cones (Cook 2001). The pumping station (SMR no. 20646-The glass cone served two purposes. It MBM2300) recirculated water up theacted as a giant chimney for the furnace, flight of six locks on the Digbeth Branchdrawing the air through underground Canal. It pumped from a well connected totunnels to enable the furnace to reach the the Bottom Pound and water was deliveredtemperatures needed to melt the glass. It along a covered leat into the Hospitalalso acted as the working space for the Pound. The plant was commissioned inglassmakers who operated in teams of four 1812 and comprised a Boulton and Watt 2 Archaeological Project Services
  6. 6. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSsingle-acting, equal beam steam engine water and air (Crowley 1976). Anotherwith parallel motion on both ends of the improvement on the Newcomen designiron beam. The cylinder had a 36 inch bore was the enclosing of the upper end of thewith a 7 foot stroke and was rated at 24.1 cylinder while the ‘straight-line linkage’hp at 10 strokes per minute. Latterly it had for the piston rod was an improvement ontwo Lancashire-type boilers while the Watt’s own designs (Dearborn Cataloguepump had a 7 foot stroke, the type and nd).bore being unrecorded.The plant operated for 110 years until 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVESJanuary 1922 and stood idle until sold toHenry Ford after his visit to Birmingham The overall aim of the excavation was toin 1928. An agreement was reached for provide a permanent record of the remainsFord to provide a replacement oil engine of the glassworks prior to development andwhich was installed at Titford. It was taken to inform on options for preservation into his museum at Greenfield Village, situ of the Ashted Pumping Station. InDearborn, near Detroit, Michigan, USA addition, the aim was to disseminate thewhere it remains as a non-working exhibit. results of the excavation through anThe engine house was demolished in 1930 appropriate level of publication subsequentand the boilers and remaining pipework to post-excavation analysis andsold for scrap (Weaver 1970, 1986). assessment. These aims were to be achieved through open excavation in thoseThe Ashted steam engine was of a type parts of the site where the evaluationknown as the atmospheric engine as established the presence of buried remains.opposed to the later, and more compact,high pressure steam engine used in, among It was anticipated that the excavationother things, the railway locomotive. Its would reveal a variety of archaeologicalpower came from the creation of a vacuum remains, primarily of an industrial nature.by condensing steam. This allowed the In particular, it was expected thatpiston to be forced down at atmospheric excavation commensurate with the fullpressure thereby raising the pump plunger extent of the Ashted Pumping Stationon the other end of the beam. The Ashted would expose well-preserved external andengine employed the separate condenser internal structural elements which wouldinvented by James Watt (1736-1819) by provide information on the development of1765 and granted a patent in 1769. This the pumping station and the way itwas an improvement on the earlier beam functioned. It was also expected thatengines of Thomas Newcomen (1663- remains associated with the Belmont and1729) in which cold water was sprayed Belmont Row Glassworks would provideinto the cylinder, condensing the steam evidence of the 19th century glassmakingwithin it to create the necessary vacuum. processes carried out there.This required the wasteful continuousreheating of the cylinder which the Wattsystem rendered unnecessary. The separate 4. METHODScondenser was a cast iron box which couldbe kept cold in a tank of water. An extra Removal of topsoil and other overburdenvalve was located at the bottom end of the at the three sites was undertaken bycylinder so that exhausted steam entered mechanical excavator using a toothlessthe condenser. A small pump kept the ditching bucket. The exposed surfaces ofcondenser from filling up, removing both the trenches were then cleaned by hand 3 Archaeological Project Services
  7. 7. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSand inspected for archaeological remains. a zone of ‘grubbing out’.Each deposit exposed during the In the northeast of the area northwest toevaluation was allocated a unique southeast aligned brick wall [049]reference number (context number) with measured 4.8m long by 0.5m wide and upan individual written description. A list of to 0.65m deep. Running parallel 3.5m toall contexts and their interpretations the southwest (the pair running either sideappears as Appendix 2. A photographic of ULAS evaluation trench) was wallrecord was also compiled and [054] (Fig 8, Plate 2) which was 3.02msections/elevations and plans were drawn long by 0.22m wide and 0.57m deep. Theat a scale of 1:10 and 1:20 respectively. surviving wall consisted largely of a brickRecording of deposits encountered was arch and the beginnings of another one atundertaken according to standard its southeastern limit, together withArchaeological Project Services practice. substantial footings. The arches were probably supporting arches to strengthenThe location of the excavated trenches was the since-demolished superstructure (Mikesurveyed with a Thales Z-max differential Hodder pers. comm.), rather than a form ofGPS. entrance or ventilation. These walls appear from the 1889 map to be internal walls toFollowing excavation, finds were the glassworks.examined and a period date assignedwhere possible (Appendix 3). The records The other area of probable glassworks towere also checked and a stratigraphic survive was found at a lower level in anmatrix produced. Phasing was based on the exploratory trench excavated through thenature of the deposits and recognisable grubbing out rubble backfill (Plate 1).relationships between them supplemented Wall [042] measured 3.5m long by 0.35mby artefact dating. wide by 0.39m in depth. It butted onto a sloping section of wall [048] measuring 1.3m long by 0.5m wide and 0.8m deep5. RESULTS (Figs 4 and 5) which had been broken through by the grubbing out. Up against these walls was aThe results of the archaeological layer of dark grey clinker material (043)excavation are discussed in site order. found in environmental analysis (sampleArchaeological contexts are described 1) to contain small fragments of coal andbelow. The numbers in brackets are the green glass. This overlay a layer ofcontext numbers assigned in the field. redeposited sand (045) filling the gap between wall [042] and separate wallBelmont Glassworks (Fig 4) footing [046] which was 1m long by 0.6mThe first area to be excavated was that of wide by 0.15m deep. Overlaying the 1889the former Belmont Glassworks. Much of OS map onto the site plan shows thisthis area was reported to have been footing in the right place to be a surviving‘grubbed out’ during remediation work in block of the large cone outer wall footing1988 and this had been confirmed by the while sloping wall [048] may by theULAS trenching evaluation. This was surviving part of a flue into the smallerreaffirmed, with loose brick and concrete cone. Wall [042] could have been arubble having been used for backfilling. passage wall leading down to this flue andHowever, two areas of glassworks retaining the natural sand behind it.structures were revealed at the northeast However, all in all the Belmontand southwest ends of the site separated by Glassworks seems to have been largely 4 Archaeological Project Services
  8. 8. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSdestroyed by late Victorian demolition and [100] (Fig 6, Plate 3) was discovered1980s ‘grubbing out’. centered 15m to the south.In the initial machining for the trench, two This was cut into the natural sand (121)parallel brick walls aligned northwest to with only the bottom 0.65-1m of thesoutheast [008] and [032] were revealed footings surviving. The footings wereeither side of a brick floor [035] in the divided into four segments, the gapsouthwest corner (Fig 4). This may have between [145] (Fig 9) and [146] clearlybeen a remnant of later buildings shown on being original and probably the base of athe 1931 OS map. This later date than the strengthening arch. The other two gaps hadprobable glassworks buildings is also probably been widened by ‘grubbing out’:suggested by the well-faced walls in on the north side of the gap between [146]English Garden Wall bond which included and [147] and on both sides between [120]blue bullnose bricks. and [147]. Partly because of ‘grubbing out’, a construction trench [201] for theRubble overburden (030) contained cone wall was only apparent on the insideunglazed vessels which may indicate of the northern wall segment [120]. Thispottery manufacture within the vicinity of was 0.6m deep and 0.45m wide. The conethe site (Appendix 3). was about 11m in diameter with the footing 0.7m wide and tilting very slightlyBelmont Row Glassworks (Fig 5) inwards. It was built of red brick inThe next area to be excavated was that of English Bond.the former Belmont Row Glassworks onthe west side of the Ashted Tunnel. An area of later stratigraphy survived theBeginning at the north end, machining of ‘grubbing out’ within the cone andthis site initially revealed limited remains, adjacent to the western edge of theas had been the case in the ULAS excavation. Following removal of a fewevaluation. Surviving features consisted of obvious further patches of ‘grubbing out’the occasional brick wall or floor remnant rubble, it was decided to excavate twothat had survived the 1988 grubbing out, slots into this block to see if any internalthe rubble from the backfill directly structure of the cone survived. Manyoverlying natural sand. However, towards layers and lenses of sand, clay and clinkerthe south end, at a deeper level than the were recorded but could all be interpretedULAS trenches, a curved length of brick as levelling deposits laid over the conewall was revealed. On completion of area in order to construct other buildingsstripping about two thirds of a circular although a small pit [204] filled withbrick structure was exposed with some rubbly deposits cut through these layers onlater walls overlying it close to the site the south side near the baulk. One of thebaulk. layers (149) contained unglazed sherds which may indicate pottery production onAs with the Belmont Glassworks, the site the site as suggested by the title of the firmplan was compared with a 19th century in the 1806 Aris’s Gazette advert (Cookmap, in this case Pigott-Smith’s map of 2001).1850-55 (Cook 2001). Two circularstructures, probably glass cones are On top of these layers a number of wallmarked on the map. While one lay outside footings were recorded matching thethe area of excavation, and largely under rectangular buildings marked on Pigott-Jennens Road, no trace of the other was Smith’s map: [133], [134], [143] and [144]discovered. However, a probable cone while small rectangular structure [139] 5 Archaeological Project Services
  9. 9. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSwas on the same alignment and was Following machining, including theprobably the base of a manhole or similar emptying out of a deep rectangular room,feature relating to drainage. Very small the structure was cleaned by hand.wall remnant [151] was also almost in Features identified within the overallalignment and both this and [144] were structure included a culvert [305], pumpactually built directly on the reduced cone shaft [304] (Plate 6), beam support basewalls. Brick floor [203] and floor [132] [319], condenser tank (the deep room)overlying it survived within the corner of [301] (Fig 11, Plate 5), cylinder base wallwalls [144] and [134], appearing from the [334] and a shute [322] (Plate 7). The areamap to be the corner of a yard area. A that had been destroyed was probably asmall rectangle of brick [135], possibly a boiler room for the two Lancashire boilerspost pad, and a short length of damaged (see above).brick drain [136] which containedindustrial residue (sample 2) were also Culvert [305] was formed of brick siderevealed within this area. Wall remnant walls and a brick floor and was at least[101] slightly to the north, may have been 1.5m long, 1.6m wide and 0.6m high anda later wall, or one recently demolished at aligned northwest-southeast. Water fromthe time of mapping. the pump shaft would have been sent along it to the Hospital Pound for the locks northIt seems that the sections of floors and of Ashted Tunnel. The pump shaft [304]walls found in the northern part of the was of red brick in English Bond. It wasarea: [194], [129], [130] and [127] (Fig 5) 2.74m in diameter and was excavated to awere remnants of later buildings, possibly depth of 1.1m. It would have been a loteven the 20th century bakery, as they do deeper than this in order to pump water upnot match walls on the Pigott-Smith map. from the Bottom Pound. It had been filled with rubble and scrap, probably in theAshted Pumping Station (Figs 7, 10) early 1930s after demolition. An iron pipe connected the pump shaft to the top of theThe ULAS evaluation had identified a condenser tank [301] (Fig 11). This brick-substantial brick wall, a limestone block sided tank was slightly off square, twoand part of a circular brick structure on the sides being 2.5m wide, one 2.62m and onesite of the pumping station. 2.7m. The iron pipe ran in a brick-sided passage overlain by a sandstone slab andMachining was begun at the north end, then under the sandstone base for the beamrevealing the walls of the pumping station support and through the southeast facingat a very shallow level. On the old OS map wall [307]. A large flanged iron pipe (313)the pumping station is about 20m in length also protruded through this wall and therebut the southernmost 7m was found to was a sandstone collar [319] whichhave been ‘grubbed out’. This had clearly probably held another pipe. In thebeen done by a large mechanical excavator southwest-facing wall [308] (Plate 5) ofin the recent past with the backfill the tank another pipe (316) protrudedcontaining concrete paving slabs, through two sandstone collar blocks [314]aluminium drinks cans and brown plastic and [315]. Iron pipe (311) protrudedcups. This work was probably done through a low brick supporting wall [312]preparatory to the construction of the butting northwest-facing wall [309].recently demolished very modern building, Unlike the others this pipe had beenthe concrete foundations of which blocked off. Only the northeast-facing wallremained in situ. [310] was free of pipes. The condenser tank had also probably been backfilled in 6 Archaeological Project Services
  10. 10. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDSthe early 1930s with rubble including elsewhere: Mark Peacheyironwork. Two shafts [335] and [336] • Comparison of the forms andnorth and south of the condenser tank may fabrics of the crucibles with thosehave been outlets for since-removed pipes. from other glasswork sites: AnneImmediately southeast of the condenser Boyletank was a 3m wide block of brickwork • Analysis of the residues in the[334] which would have formed the base crucibles: Bradford Universityfor the cylinder. This had been damaged (provisional)on its north half by the siting of a concrete • Analysis of the other residuesplinth for the recently demolished modern samples on the two glassworksbuilding and on its south side by the sites: Val Fryer‘grubbing out’. Immediately southeast of • Any other finds work: Anne Boyle,this wall was a brick shute curving Gary Taylordownwards towards the canal towpath. • Further documentary research onJust before the point where the pumping all three sites and their local andstation had been ‘grubbed out’ were two regional context: Mark Peacheymetal slots on either side of the shute. • Further consultation with DavidThese appeared to have once held a small Crossley and Jim Andrew on thesluice gate. The interpretation is that the interpretation of the sitesshute was a waste water outflow from theboiler room. The small area of brick flooradjacent to the shute was all that remained 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSof this. There was another smallrectangular shaft [324] filled with sooty Archaeological Project Services wish tomaterial opposite the top end of the shute acknowledge the assistance ofand adjacent to outer wall [329]. Running Birmingham City Council forimmediately adjacent to this outer wall commissioning the fieldwork and post-was iron pipe [331]. This was broken excavation analysis and of Helen Martin-through by ‘grubbing out’ at the same Bacon of Wardell Armstrong. Informativepoint as the remainder of the building and visits were made by David Crossley andhad a connection probably leading to pipe Jim Andrew. The work was coordinated by[316] in the condenser tank. Mark Williams and Gary Taylor who edited this report along with Tom Lane.Part of the outer wall [341] of the pumpingstation adjacent to the canal was alsorecorded. This was 1.9m wide and 1.9m 8. PERSONNELhigh and in English bond. At right anglesto the above was a short section of wall Project Coordinator: Mark Williams[342] which probably formed part of the (fieldwork), Gary Taylor (post-excavation)old passage down to the canal. Site Supervisor: Mark Peachey Site Team: Simon Birnie, Milena Grzybowska, Christopher Killeen, Marek6. POST-EXCAVATION TASK Lemiesz, Slawomir Szyszka LIST AND PROGRAMME Surveying: Rachael Hall, Mary Nugent Finds Processing: Denise Buckley • Analysis and interpretation of the Photographic reproduction: Sue Unsworth structural evidence from the Illustration: Mark Peachey, Sue Unsworth excavations: Mark Peachey Post-excavation Analyst: Mark Peachey • Comparison with similar sites 7 Archaeological Project Services
  11. 11. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS ON LAND AT EASTSIDE, BIRMINGHAM, WEST MIDLANDS9. BIBLIOGRAPHYBroadbridge, S. R, 1974 The BirminghamCanal Navigations Vol 1Cook, M., 2001 Desk-based assessmentand survey of land and standing structureson the site of the former BelmontGlassworks and Ashted Pumping Station,Birmingham Independent ReportCrowley, T.E., 1976 Beam Engines ShirePublications, Album 15Dearborn Catalogue, Henry Ford Museum,Detroit, USAIFA, 1999, Standard and Guidance forArchaeological Excavations.Palmer, N., and Neaverson, P., 1998Industrial Archaeology. Principles andPractice RoutledgeRed House Glass Cone guidebook nd.Weaver, P., 1970 Railway and CanalHistorical Society Journal, July 1970 p59Weaver, P., 1986 Railway and CanalHistorical Society Journal, March 1986p29110. ABBREVIATIONSAPS Archaeological Project ServicesIFA Institute of Field ArchaeologistsOS Ordnance SurveyULAS University of Leicester Archaeological Services 8 Archaeological Project Services
  12. 12. 0 20 Km Derbyshire Staffordshire 100km Leics Shropshire Walsall Wolves Sandwell Dudley Birmingham Coventry Solihull Worcestershire WarwickshireFigure 1 - General location plan
  13. 13. N87SP 08 Reproduced from Ordnance Survey maps with the permission of The Controller of Her Majestys Stationery Office, Crown Copyright HTL LTD Licence No AL5041A0001 Area shown on Fig 3 Archaeological Project Services0 2km Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:50000 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 2. Site Location Plan
  14. 14. N La d wle oa R yS s en tre nn et Je Mi dd l ew ay Belmont Glassworks th o tpa Fo Belmont Row Glassworks Ashted Pumping Station Ca nal t ow pa th Dig be th Br an ch C an al LockBel mo nt R ow Archaeological Project Services 0 25m Project Name:Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:500 Drawn by:SU/MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 3. Trench location plan
  15. 15. N [049] Fig 8 [060] [054] [044] [046] [048] [042] (031) [040] [034] [033] [008] [032] [035] KEY Outline of glassworks buildings on 1889 OS map Archaeological Project Services0 7.5m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:150 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 4. Belmont Glassworks site plan
  16. 16. N [194] [129] [130] [127] [120] [151] (201) [147] [202] [101] [141] [139] [133] [135] [140] [134] [146] [136] [132] [145] [142] [144] [143] KEYOutline of glassworks buildings on Pigott Smith1850-55 map (adjusted 1.5m south: fits walls over cone) Archaeological Project Services 0 7.5m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:150 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 5. Belmont Row Glassworks site plan
  17. 17. [120][151] N (121) (201) [202] [147] [101] (122) (121) [121] [141] [139] Limit of ex [133] [140] c av a tion [135] [134] [146] (122) [121] [136] Fig 9 [132] [203] (121) [145] [122] [144]Overlay to paved area(see right) [142] (121) (143) Archaeological Project Services0 2m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:50 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 6. Plan of cone [100]
  18. 18. N th o tp a Fo 0] [3 3 Fig 10 [306] [305] [304] [303] [329] [345] [331] [346] Mo [319] der [3 3 n 5] pa vin Concrete block 7] [3 0 g [30 8] [301] ] Fig 11 26 [3 9] [3 [3 0 10 ] [335] [331] [334] [324] 0] [32 [323] 2 2] [3 [321] Mo Ca de rn na wa l to ll wp ath Di gb et h Br an ch Ca na l Archaeological Project Services0 5m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:100 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 7. Ashted Pumping Station plan
  19. 19. [054] 113.89m OD (057) (058) [055] (059) [056] Archaeological Project Services0 1m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:20 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 8. Elevation of wall [054] and wall footings [055] and [056].
  20. 20. SE NW 115.10m OD [145] 121 Archaeological Project Services0 0.5m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1: 10 Drawn by:MJP Report No: 2/08 Figure 9. End elevation of cone wall [145]
  21. 21. NW SE 114.27m OD [340] Cylinder Base [305] [318] [334] [323] Culvert [304] [320] Pump Shaft [307] Condenser Tank [309] [301]0 5m Archaeological Project Services Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:75 Drawn by: MJP Report No: 2/08 Fig 10. Ashted Pumping Station Profile
  22. 22. Elev 20 Elev 19 NE NW SW Pipehole [319] SE Pipe Pipehole [319] Pipe Flange (313) (313) Bolt Hole Bolt 113.70m OD Bolt Pipe Flange 113.70m OD (316) [307] [308] [314] [315] recess Elev 21 Elev 22 NW NE SE SW 113.70m OD 113.70m OD [310] [309] [312] (311) Archaeological Project Services0 2m Project Name: Birmingham Eastside BIES07 Scale 1:40 Drawn by: SU Report No: 2/08 Figure 11. Elevations of condenser tank
  23. 23. Plate 1 Walls [042], [046],[048] looking east, BelmontGlassworksPlate 2 Wall [054] looking SW,Belmont Glassworks Plate 3 General view of Cone [100] looking NW, Belmont Row Glassworks
  24. 24. Plate 4 General view of Ashted PumpingStation looking west.Plate 5 Wall [308] (Elevation 20)of condenser pit [301], AshtedPumping Station Plate 6 Pump shaft [304] and culvert [305] looking NW, Ashted Pumping Station Plate 7 Water shute [322] looking NE, Ashted Pumping Station
  25. 25. Appendix 1:Specification for Archaeological Excavation ofThe Ashted Pumping Station (SMR 20646),Belmont Glassworks (SMR 20500) andBelmont Row Glassworks (SMR 20503)
  26. 26. Appendix 2 CONTEXT SUMMARYContext Area Description Interpretation Date001 BG Friable mid brown silt with brick rubble 0.52m thick Topsoil002 BG Firm mid brown red clay 0.34m thick Levelling003 BG Soft mid grey clayey silt 0.53m thick Levelling004 BG Soft mid brownish red crushed brick Demolition005 BG Firm mid brownish red clayey silt 0.16m thick Demolition006 BG Loose black charcoal with brick fragments 0.08m thick Demolition007 BG Friable dark brownish red clayey silt with brick 0.33m thick Demolition008 BG Red brick wall 2.45m long x 1.49m high x 0.56m wide Passageway wall009 BG Demolition cut Cut010 BG Black charcoal/silt with brick rubble 0.5m thick Levelling011 BG Loose black silt with bricks 0.07m thick Levelling012 BG Friable mid greyish brown silt 0.18m thick Levelling013 BG Friable black charcoal/silt with brick rubble 0.12m thick Levelling014 BG Friable mid greyish brown silt/rubble 0.1m thick Levelling015 BG Rectangular cut 1.16m wide x 0.5m deep Construction cut016 BG Friable dark brown silt 0.59m thick Fill of [015]017 BG Firm dark brown loamy silt with brick frags 0.21m thick Dumped deposit018 BG Loose black charcoal/silt 0.12m thick Dumped deposit019 BG Cemented dark grey clayey silt 0.1m thick Levelling020 BG Loose mid reddish brown silt/rubble 0.23m thick Levelling021 BG Friable light brownish red mortar 0.09m thick Levelling022 BG Firm dark brown silt 0.19m thick Levelling023 BG Cemented dark grey silt 0.05m thick Levelling024 BG Friable mid red sand 0.1m thick Demolition025 BG Friable mid brown silt 0.2m thick Levelling026 BG Friable mottled brown/yellow/grey loamy silt 0.22m thick Levelling028 BG Loose black/dark brownish grey slag and silt 0.15m thick Dumped deposit029 BG Vertical sided cut for wall [008] Construction cut030 BG Finds from general loose rubble overburden Finds031 BG Wooden object 1.33m long x 0.61m wide Tray032 BG Red brick wall 1.73m long x 1.53m high Passageway wall033 BG Wall 0.87m long x 1.6m high Brick wall034 BG Brick wall 1.4m long x 1.82m high x 0.23m wide Blocked doorway035 BG Red brick surface 2.47m long x 1.72m wide Passageway floor036 BG Loose black silt, frequent slag 0.39m thick Dumped deposit037 BG Loose mid reddish brown brick rubble 1.21m thick Rubble backfill038 BG Red brick feature 1.65m long x 0.32m wide x 0.58m high Brick step039 BG Friable dark orangey red sand Levelling040 BG Red brick surface 1.8m long x 12m wide x 0.08m deep Brick floor041 BG Friable dark brown silt with brick rubble Demolition042 BG Brick wall 3.5m long x 0.35m wide x 0.39m deep Brick wall043 BG Firm v. dark grey clinker 0.18m thick Cone waste044 BG Brick surface remnant 0.5m x 0.3m Brick floor045 BG Loose mid yellowish brown sand 0.33m thick Redeposited sand046 BG Red brick wall 1m long x 0.6m wide x 0.15m deep Wall footing047 BG Loose dark yellow sand Natural048 BG Sloping brickwork 1.3m+ long x 0.5m wide x 0.8m deep Brick wall049 BG Red brick wall 4.8m long x 0.5m wide x 0.65m deep Brick wall050 BG Friable grey/brown clayey silt 0.3m thick Levelling051 BG Loose mid to dark grey ash/charcoal 0.3m thick Dumped deposit052 BG Friable dark greyish brown sandy silt 0.15m thick Rough surface053 BG Friable mid yellowish greyish brown sandy silt 0.2m thick Rough surface054 BG Brick wall with 2 arches 3.02m long x 0.12m wide x 0.57m Supporting wall high055 BG Brick footing 0.73m long x 0.68m high Wall footing056 BG Brick footing 1.52m long x 0.52m high Wall footing057 BG Firm striped yellow/brown/grey sand 0.45m thick Layer058 BG Soft mid reddish brown clay 0.53m thick Layer059 BG Firm mid brownish grey sand 0.37m thick Layer060 BG Red brick wall 0.8m long x 0.24m wide x 0.19m deep Brick wall Archaeological Project Services
  27. 27. Context Area Description Interpretation Date100 BRG Red brick roughly circular wall 11m diameter, 0.81m wide. Glass cone group English bond. number101 BRG Red brick wall 0.94m long x 0.34m wide x 0.31m high Brick wall102 BRG Loose dark brownish grey clayey sand/rubble 0.75m thick Rubble backfill103 BRG Friable light brown clayey sand 0.33m thick Dumped deposit104 BRG Soft dark greyish brown clay 0.46m thick Dumped deposit105 BRG Soft light red clay with red bricks 0.24m thick Dumped deposit106 BRG Loose yellow/orange clayey sand 0.05m thick Dumped deposit107 BRG Soft light brownish grey clay 0.19m thick Dumped deposit108 BRG Friable dark brownish grey clayey sand 0.33m thick Dumped deposit109 BRG Soft reddish clay 0.19m thick Dumped deposit110 BRG Soft reddish clay 0.13m thick Dumped deposit111 BRG Soft orange sandy clay 0.35m thick Dumped deposit112 BRG Soft brownish orange clayey sand 0.31m thick Dumped deposit113 BRG Loose dark grey mottled orange silt 0.26m thick Dumped deposit114 BRG Soft orange clay with bricks 0.42m thick Dumped deposit115 BRG Loose light brownish yellow sand 0.4m thick Dumped deposit116 BRG Loose light brownish grey sand 0.31m thick Dumped deposit117 BRG Soft reddish clay 0.31m thick Dumped deposit118 BRG Loose dark grey silty sand 0.21m thick Dumped deposit119 BRG Soft dark greyish brown clay 0.16m thick Dumped deposit120 BRG Curvilinear red brick wall 4.45m long x 0.59m wide x Part of [100] 0.95m high121 BRG Firm greyish orange sand Natural?122 BRG Loose dark grey sandy silt with brick rubble, cans etc Rubble backfill123 BRG Loose mid brown sand 0.47m thick Dumped deposit124 BRG Loose light brown greyish sand 0.2m thick Dumped deposit125 BRG Loose dark grey sand 0.2m thick Dumped deposit126 BRG Loose mid brownish yellow sand Dumped deposit127 BRG Red brick wall 1.02m long x 0.23m wide x 0.21m high Brick wall remnant128 BRG Firm greyish brown silty clay 0.2m thick Layer129 BRG Red brick wall 2.73m long x 0.22m wide x 0.56m high Brick wall130 BRG Red brick floor 1.5m x 1.78m Brick floor131 BRG Soft reddish brown clay 0.07m thick Floor makeup level132 BRG Red /yellow brick surface 1.4m x 0.89m Brick floor133 BRG Red brick wall 1.58m long x 0.31m wide x 0.42m high Brick wall134 BRG Red brick wall 2.12m long x 0.45m wide Brick wall135 BRG Red brick footing 0.62m x 0.47m Brick footing136 BRG Red/yellow brick feature 0.76m x 0.3m Brick gulley137 BRG Very loose mid to dark green silty sand 0.04m thick Fill of [136]138 BRG Damaged red brick footing 0.44m wide Brick footing139 BRG Rectangular brick structure 1.97m long x 1.22m wide Inspection chamber140 BRG Cement within [139] 1.5m x 1m Floor of [139]141 BRG Rectangular yellow brick feature 0.3m x 0.3m Post pad?142 BRG Rectangular blue brick feature 0.68m x 0.7m Bakery plinth?143 BRG Red brick wall 1.35m long x 0.35m wide x 0.12m high Brick wall144 BRG Red brick wall 1.6m long x 0.48m deep x 0.35m wide Brick wall145 BRG Curvilinear brick wall 5m long x 0.81m wide x 0.65m high Part of [100]146 BRG Curvilinear brick wall 3.52m long x 0.57m wide x 0.5m Part of [100] high147 BRG Curvilinear brick wall 2.04m long x 0.73m wide x 0.47m Part of [100] high148 BRG Fairly loose greyish black clinker up to 0.1m thick Dumped deposit149 BRG Fairly compacted crushed red brick and lime mortar up to Dumped deposit 0.28m thick150 BRG Friable dark greyish brown clayey sand Fill of [204]151 BRG Red brick wall remnant 0.5m x 0.45m x 0.27m Brick wall152 BRG Soft dark greyish brown clay 0.3m thick Levelling153 BRG Soft dark grey sandy charcoal 0.06m thick Dumped deposit154 BRG Loose light brown sandy clay 0.2m thick Dumped deposit155 BRG Dark greyish brown clayey sand 0.16m thick Dumped deposit156 BRG Soft light greyish brown sandy clay 0.21m thick Dumped deposit157 BRG Friable reddish orange clay 0.46m thick Wall make-up158 BRG Soft greyish brown clay 0.27m thick Dumped deposit Archaeological Project Services
  28. 28. Context Area Description Interpretation Date159 BRG Firm light brown clay 0.17m thick Dumped deposit160 BRG Loose light brown sand 0.2m thick Dumped deposit161 BRG Firm greyish orange sand Natural162 BRG Friable dark grey clayey sand 0.23m thick Dumped deposit163 BRG Firm yellow sandy clay 0.15m thick Dumped deposit164 BRG Compacted yellowish white mortar 0.15m thick Dumped deposit165 BRG Firm yellowish white lime mortar 0.31m thick Levelling166 BRG Firm dark grey clinker 0.07m thick Levelling167 BRG Very loose dark grey charcoal/clinker up to 0.14m thick Levelling168 BRG Loose reddish brown silty sandy clay up to 0.14m thick Levelling169 BRG Loose mid reddish brown redeposited sand 0.11m thick Levelling170 BRG Friable whitish brown sandy silt 0.11m thick Levelling171 BRG Friable whitish grey coarse sand 0.17m thick Levelling172 BRG Soft whitish brown sandy clay 0.09m thick Levelling173 BRG Soft red sandy silt 0.04m thick Lens174 BRG Soft dark reddish brown sandy silt 0.13m thick Dumped deposit175 BRG Loose mottled white brownish red coarse sand 0.18m thick Floor makeup176 BRG Compact yellowish red silt 0.17m thick Dumped deposit178 BRG Loose mid reddish brown redeposited sand 0.1m thick Dumped deposit179 BRG Fairly firm mid greyish brown silty sand 0.18m thick Fill of [204]180 BRG Soft dark reddish brown sandy silt 0.05m thick Dumped deposit181 BRG Friable mid greyish brown sandy silty clay 0.08m thick Fill of [204]182 BRG Fairly firm mid greyish brown silty clay 0.05m thick Floor makeup183 BRG Block floor same as [203] Block floor185 BRG Soft dark greyish brown clay 0.2m thick Dumped deposit186 BRG Soft dark greyish brown clay 0.25m thick Dumped deposit188 BRG Loose dark brownish grey silty sand up to 0.3m thick Fill of [204]189 BRG Friable dark greyish brown clayey sand 0.3m thick Fill of [204]190 BRG Compacted crushed brick and lime mortar up to 0.3m thick Dumped deposit191 BRG Firm very dark brown silty sand 0.06m thick Floor make-up192 BRG Large yellow block floor 1.07m wide Block floor193 BRG Soft grey sandy clay 2.8m x 1.4m Floor make-up194 BRG Brick floor 4.5m x 2.3m Floor surface195 BRG Friable light brown clay 0.06m thick Dumped deposit196 BRG Very loose dark grey clinker 0.09m thick Dumped deposit197 BRG Friable greyish yellow clayey sand 0.09m thick Dumped deposit198 BRG Loose mid brown clayey sand 0.09m thick Dumped deposit199 BRG Friable mid brown sandy clay 0.09m thick Dumped deposit200 BRG Compact white mortar 0.15m thick Dumped deposit201 BRG Friable mottled grey/brown sandy clay 0.3m thick Fill of [202]202 BRG Curvilinear cut 2.8m long seen, 0.35m wide, 0.3m deep Cone wall [120] construction cut203 BRG Yellow block floor 0.93m x 0.94m x 0.11m high Block floor204 BRG Cut of pit 1m wide by 0.5m+ deep Cut of pit300 APS Machining finds Finds301 APS Condenser pit group number Condenser pit 1812302 APS Loose dark grey ash/clinker 1m+ deep Fill of [336] 1930s?303 APS Red/blue brick surface 9.75m long, 1.8m wide, 0.08m deep Yard surface 20th C?304 APS Circular red brick shaft 2.74m diameter, 1.1m+ deep Pump shaft 1812305 APS Linear brick culvert 1.5m+ long, 1.6m wide, 0.6m high Culvert 1812306 APS Red brick wall 1.17m long x 0.67m wide x 0.3m+ deep North end wall 1812307 APS SE facing wall of [301] 2.7m wide, up to 2.3m high Brick wall 1812308 APS SW facing wall of [301] 2.5m wide, up to 2.5m high Brick wall 1812309 APS NW facing wall of [301] 2.62m wide, up to 2.12m high Brick wall 1812310 APS NE facing wall of [301] 2.5m wide, 2.35m high Brick wall 1812311 APS Iron inlet pipe within wall [309]. 0.3m diameter Water inlet pipe 1812312 APS Brick wall 1.1m x 0.7m x 0.7m high, abuts [309] Pipe support wall 1812313 APS Iron pipe 0.4m long, 0.2m diameter, flange 0.36m diameter Water pipe 1812314 APS Worked sandstone block 0.5m long, 0.2m thick, part of wall Pipe housing 1812 [308] (upper)315 APS Worked sandstone block 0.5m long, 0.2m thick, part of wall Pipe housing 1812 [308] (lower) Archaeological Project Services
  29. 29. Context Area Description Interpretation Date316 APS Iron water pipe 0.15m diameter Water pipe 1812317 APS Sandstone block 0.7m long x 0.2m deep with 0.12m deep Possible groove for 1812 groove, part of wall [307] removed pipe318 APS Iron water pipe 2.67m long x 0.12m diameter Water pipe 1812319 APS Sandstone block 1.3m long x 0.9m wide x 0.4m deep with Base for beam 1812 a metal bolt in it support320 APS Brick floor 3.95m x 1m, broken away to south Probable boiler 1812 room floor321 APS Curving brick wall 1.7m long South wall of [322] 1812322 APS Curving, sloping brick feature 2.21m long, 0.43m wide Water chute 1812323 APS Curving brick wall 3.94m long, 0.54m wide x 1.28m at North wall of [322] 1812 deepest324 APS Brick shaft 1.24m long x 0.54m wide x 0.82m deep Flue? 1812325 APS Soft blue black silt 0.82m thick Fill of [324] 1930s?326 APS Red brick wall 1.67m long x 1m wide x 0.6m high Later brick wall 20th C?327 APS Compact black silty sand 0.17m thick Dumped deposit328 APS Firm yellowish brown sand 0.42m thick Fill of [332]329 APS Red brick wall 13.5m long x 2.17m high x 0.7m wide East side wall 1812330 APS NE-SW aligned iron pipe 0.04m diameter Mains connection? 20th C?331 APS NW-SE aligned iron pipe 11m long, 0.14m diameter Water pipe 1812332 APS Linear cut for [331] 11m+ long x 0.6m wide x 0.42m deep Pipe trench 1812333 APS Soft yellowish brown sand 0.15m thick Levelling334 APS Red brick wall 4.2m long x 3m wide x 1.3m thick Cylinder base 1812335 APS Rectangular red brick shaft 1m x 0.9m x 0.35m Brick shaft 1812336 APS Rectangular red brick shaft 0.9m x 0.7m x 1m+ deep Brick shaft 1812337 APS Loose dark grey clinker/rubble/iron 2.3m thick Backfill of [301] 1930s?338 APS Red brick wall 0.9m long x 0.44m wide x 0.1m depth seen Brick wall 1812339 APS Stiff dark red clay Lower fill of [336]340 APS Iron girder above culvert [305] 1.38m long x 0.12m x Possibly roof 0.07m support for culvert341 APS Canalside brick wall of pumping station 1.89m x 1.91m External wall 1812342 APS Yellow brick wall 1.5m x 1.7m Passage wall343 APS Brick wall 1.4m high x 1.21m wide Adjacent wall to pumping station344 APS Firm yellowish brown sand probably redeposited natural Floor around [304]345 APS Brick built feature aligned NW-SE 1.8m long x 0.7m wide Pipe channel 1812 x 0.2m deep346 APS Sandstone slab 0.84m x 0.64m Slab within [345] Archaeological Project Services
  30. 30. Appendix 3 THE FINDSINTRODUCTIONA moderately large, mixed assemblage of artefacts, comprising 514 items weighing a total of145305g, was recovered. Items of pottery and glass were particularly abundant, together accountingfor about 70% of the total assemblage, and both collections contained industrial waste. In addition,there were ceramic building materials, clay pipes, metals, stone and other materials. Industrialactivity and processes were also apparent in the assemblages of metal and other materials.POST MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN POTTERYBy Gary Taylor and Dr. Anne BoyleIntroductionAll the material was recorded at archive level in accordance with the guidelines laid out inSlowikowski et al. The pottery codenames (Cname) are in accordance with the Post Roman potterytype series for Lincolnshire (Young et al. 2005) as codenames for West Midlands pottery are still indevelopment (Pers comm. Stephanie Ratkai). Two hundred and sixty-two sherds from two hundredand twenty-five vessels, weighing 30,894 grams were recovered from the site.MethodologyThe material was laid out and viewed in context order. Sherds were counted and weighed byindividual vessel within each context. The pottery was examined visually and using x20magnification. This data was then added to an Access database.ResultsA summary of the pottery is presented in table 1. An archive list of the pottery is included inappendix 4. Archaeological Project Services
  31. 31. Table 1, Summary of the pottery by count and weight Cname Full name Earliest Latest NoS NoV W (g) date date BL Black-glazed wares 1550 1750 28 25 1607 CREA Creamware 1770 1830 25 22 329 CRUC Crucible - - 5 4 8266 ENGS Unspecified English Stoneware 1900 10 10 1290 ENPO English Porcelain 6 6 91 KFURN Kiln Furniture - - 28 28 1729 MY Midlands Yellow ware 1550 1650 1 1 9 NCBW 19th-century Buff ware 1800 1900 1 1 4 PEARL Pearlware 1770 1900 19 15 220 SAGGAR Saggar - - 13 13 15568 SLIP Unidentified slipware 1650 1750 1 1 22 SWSG Staffordshire White Saltglazed 1700 1770 2 2 95 stoneware TGW Tin-glazed ware 5 4 36 UCE Unglazed Cream Earthenware 3 2 156 UENPO Unglazed English Porcelain- 27 27 953 type (Generic) UWE Unglazed White Earthenware 73 50 349 WHITE Modern whiteware 1850 1900 15 14 170 TOTAL: 262 225 30894ProvenanceThe provenance of much of the pottery is hard to ascertain as many of the wares in the assemblagewere manufactured at a variety of places around the country. Whilst the Staffordshire potteriessupplied some of the pottery found on the site, other producers (for example in Derbyshire,Yorkshire and the southern counties) are equally likely sources. The industrial vessels are likely tobe locally made from refractory clays, with white pipe clay used for the props.RangeThe majority of the pottery dates to the 19th century. The 18th century is represented by Black-,Yellow-, Staffordshire White Salt glazed and Tin Glazed Earthenware. Pearl- and Creamwares candate this early, though the forms in this assemblage are more typical of the 19th century.The Unglazed White, Cream and English Porcelain-type vessels are more difficult to date. Thecream bodied wares are brown slipped and the finished vessels may have resembled Mocha ware.This would date these vessels to the early 19th century, as from the 1830s a white body was used.This material appears in the same context (030) as the unglazed English Porcelain-types which are Archaeological Project Services
  32. 32. more likely to be of mid/late to late 19th century date. The Unglazed White Earthenwares may dateto the 19th century. The industrial vessels are undateable but are probably associated with theGlassworks and are therefore 19th century.ConditionThe pottery is in variable condition with small abraded sherds occurring in the same contexts aslarger, fresher fragments. The average sherd weight (excluding the industrial vessels and props) istwenty-one grams. Most of the vessels are represented by single sherds; the notable exception beingthe unglazed vessels. The one hundred and three sherds that fall into the unglazed categoryrepresent a maximum of seventy-nine vessels. The industrial vessels are all represented by large,fresh fragments. Most have internal industrial residues of glass and have obviously undergone hightemperatures due to their vitrified appearance.PotentialThe assemblage is interesting because of the number of unglazed vessels which may relate to potterymanufacture on or in the vicinity of the site. A link between pottery and glass manufacture ispossible and worthy of further investigation. The industrial vessels can potentially reveal details ofthe manufacturing techniques used at the glassworks.PotterySeveral of the vessels in the assemblage would benefit from further work to identify theirprovenance and refine their dating. This would require consultation with the relevant specialists andfurther reading of published material. The unglazed vessels merit similar work and, if confirmed asproduction waste, should be considered in relation to existing knowledge of the local potteryindustry. If unparalleled, the unglazed vessels may warrant a type-series to be created. Some of thevessels will require illustration.Industrial VesselsSaggars/fritting traysSeveral oval/round shallow refractory vessels with straight sides were recovered from the site.These have varying diameters but apparently fall into small and large sizes. Several of these contain Archaeological Project Services
  33. 33. glass residues, either as clear glass or frit. The purpose of these vessels is yet to be determinedthough it seems possible they were used during the fritting process. The other possibility is thatthese vessels are connected to pottery manufacture.CruciblesExamples of crucibles are present. These are highly vitrified but are likely to have been made ofrefractory clay. The only shape that is present is tall and tapering.PropsExamples of circular props and packing strips are also present in the assemblage. These are madefrom primary clay and do not bear any signs of having been fired at high temperatures. Whetherthese are associated with glass or pottery production is not yet clear.These industrial vessels and furniture require more in-depth quantification. Measurements of rimand base diameters and height should be made. The vessels and props should be ordered into atypological classification if possible and examples illustrated. The relevant specialists should beconsulted. The assemblage should be considered in light of the published evidence and a syntheticanalysis of the assemblage should be produced.RecommendationsThe following recommendations are required to analyse the assemblage and produce a publicationreport.1. Consultation with the followingDavid Barker, Staffordshire pottery specialistStephanie Ratkai, West Midlands pottery specialistDerek Hurst, West Midlands pottery specialistDavid Crossley2. ResearchComparing the BIES07 assemblage to similar published sites (2 days) Archaeological Project Services
  34. 34. Consult type-series or ceramic collections held at Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham and the BritishMuseum if necessary3. Update ArchiveUpdating archive to include vessel measurements and refined dating/provenance (1 day)Typology of the industrial vessels, props and unglazed vessels (1 day)Illustration of ca. thirty vesselsPublished reportThe publication report will contain the following sections: Summary of the pottery based on the archive Discussion of the pottery by ceramic phase Discussion of the pottery by site phase Synthesis with other sites (includes the results of recommendation 2) Illustration catalogue (based on recommendation 3)To produce a full publication report will take a maximum of 6 days (depending on the length andstyle of publication)CERAMIC BUILDING MATERIALBy Dr. Anne BoyleIntroductionAll the material was recorded at archive level in accordance with the guidelines laid out in theACBMG guidelines (2001). Thirty-five fragments of building material, weighing 103, 579 gramsare present in the assemblage. This includes a representative sample of bricks from structures on thesite.MethodologyThe material was laid out and viewed in context order in an unwashed state. Fragments werecounted and weighed by within each context. This data was then added to an Access database. Archaeological Project Services
  35. 35. ResultsA summary of the pottery is presented in table 2. An archive list of the ceramic building material isincluded in appendix 4.Table 2, Summary of the ceramic building material by count and weight Cname Full name NoF W (g) BRK Brick 31 103346 MODDRAIN Modern land drain 3 217 MODTIL Modern tile 1 16 TOTAL: 35 103579ProvenanceThe bricks are likely to be locally manufactured. A single brick was stamped with a maker based inStourbridge. Several occur in a refractory fabric which is macroscopically similar to the fabric usedfor the industrial vessels.RangeMost of the bricks are solid handmade bricks which cannot be closely dated but are probably of 18thor 19th century date. A few have early industrial frogging, which suggests they are later and postdate the late 18th century. Some of the bricks are vitrified and have slag/fuel ash deposits adhering tothem. The drain and tile fragments also date to this period.ConditionThe bricks are mostly complete and in fresh condition. One brick from (035) appears to be worn andmay have been reused. The tile is more fragmentary and does not include any complete examples.PotentialThe assemblage holds limited potential for further work. A selection of the bricks (ca. 10% of theassemblage) should be retained and re-examined once processed. At this stage, the ceramic buildingmaterial archive can be updated if necessary. It is unlikely any of the bricks or tile will requireillustration. Archaeological Project Services
  36. 36. RecommendationsRe-examination of the retained material (1 day)Summary of the bricks for the publication report (0.5 day)GLASSBy Rachael HallIntroductionDuring archaeological investigations undertaken at Eastside, Birmingham 100 fragments of glassweighing a total of 5899g were recovered from the three excavation areas. The small assemblagecomprised mainly 19th-20th glass, including residues that might be presumed to be associated withthe glassworks which once stood on the site. The majority of the glass recovered during theexcavations derives from deposits associated with the clearance of the glassworks and later remedialworks at the sites resulting in residual finds of glass associated with the earlier glass works. Theassemblage is summarised below as Table 3.ResultsTable 3, Glass ArchiveContext Description NoF W (g) Date030 Colourless, waste trail, 19th century 1 8 20th century Opaque white, fire-rounded rim-slightly splayed, 19th century 1 8 Opaque white glass adhered to opaque blue glass, vessel sherd 1 2 Orange, mould-produced with moulded embossed decoration, horizontal lines 1 12 and floral decoration, vessel sherd, 20th century Green, mould-produced bottle, body sherd with embossed advertising ‘B.C…’ 1 32 Green, base of mould-produced bottle with pinched embossed decoration 1 8 around edge Pale green, circular internal stopper lid, knocking off scar on the underside. 1 70 Moulded embossed advertising around lid edge ‘RIGHT & CO AVONSHIRE’, 19th century Pale green, base of cylindrical bottle, wear on the base and punt mark ’14..’. 1 116 Moulded embossed advertising on body section, obscured by break ‘..HAW & CO..MAKERS..I HELENS’, 19th century Archaeological Project Services
  37. 37. Pale green, body sherd of mould-produced cylindrical bottle, 19th century 1 92 Pale green, mould-produced cylindrical bottle, wear on the base, oval panel 1 330 with moulded embossed advertising obscured by break ‘G…BIRMINGHAM…D’, 19th century Colourless, waste trail, 19th century 1 2 Colourless nugget of waste glass, flat top, chipped along edges 1 540 Pale green nugget of waste glass, one flat side 1 270 Colourless nugget of waste glass 1 124 Assorted glass slags and waste residues, bubbly characteristics, charcoal/coal 10 536 contained within several of the residues043 Assorted glass residues and waste trails 5 60 Blue, part of small disc with grozing along edge 1 2051 Pale green, mould-produced cylindrical bottle (body sherd), iridescence, 19th 1 100 19th century century Pale blue, mould-produced square bottle (body sherd), iridescence, 19th 1 12 century Colourless, mould-produced cylindrical bottle (body sherd), 19th century 1 12 Colourless, plate window glass, 19th century 3 22 Colourless, possible sherd of cylindrical bottle, poor condition-some possible 1 36 heat damage Colourless, small chips of glass 3 6 Colourless, possible sherd of bottle, heat cracking 1 2 Colourless, small vessel sherds, one with iridescence 3 2 Bright blue (Bristol), small chip of glass 1 1 Colourless, small waste nugget 1 1 Colourless, small cone of glass, with bell end chipped off 1 4054 Green, moulded-cylindrical bottle (body sherd), 19th century 1 9 20th century Colourless, window glass, 20t h century 1 3 Colourless, small nugget of waste glass, two flat sides 1 24 Colourless, moulded ribbed window glass, poss cupboard door glass 1 60 Colourless, base of moulded bottle/jar, some wear on base, 20th century 1 22 Colourless, base of moulded bottle/jar, 20th century 1 8 Colourless, out-turned fire-rounded rim of straight sided vesssel, iridescence 1 2 Colourless, small cylindrical trail 1 1 Green, vessel sherd 1 1 Colourless, vessel sherd, with iridescence 1 1 Archaeological Project Services

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