An overview on ai
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An overview on ai

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An overview on ai An overview on ai Presentation Transcript

  • An Overview of ArtificialIntelligencePrinciples of virtual realitySubject Code: PVR912Week : 4 Date : 5thJune 2013 session:FNMidhunchakkaravarthyLecturer- Lincoln University College
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceAn Overview of Artificial Intelligence• Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers tomimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain• AI-based computer systems have manyapplications in different fields, such as:– Medical diagnoses– Exploration for natural resources– Determining what is wrong with mechanical devices– Assisting in designing and developing othercomputer systems
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceArtificial Intelligence in Perspective• Artificial intelligence systems: people,procedures, hardware, software, data, andknowledge needed to develop computer systemsand machines that demonstrate the characteristicsof intelligence
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Nature of Intelligence• Learn from experience and apply knowledgeacquired from experience– Example: computerized AI chess software• Handle complex situations• Solve problems when important information ismissing• Determine what is important• React quickly and correctly to a new situation
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Nature of Intelligence (continued)• Understand visual images– Perceptive system: approximates the way humanshear, see, or feel objects• Process and manipulate symbols– On a limited basis with machine-vision hardware andsoftware
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Difference Between Natural andArtificial IntelligenceTable 7.2: A Comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Major Branches of ArtificialIntelligenceFigure 7.5: A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceExpert Systems• Hardware and software that stores knowledge andmakes inferences, similar to a human expert• Used in many business applications
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceRobotics• Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasksrequiring a high degree of precision or that aretedious or hazardous for humans• Contemporary robotics combines high-precisionmachine capabilities with sophisticated controllingsoftware• Many applications of robotics exist today• Research into robots is continuing
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceRobotics (continued)Robots can be used in situations that are hazardous or inaccessible tohumans. The Rover was a remote-controlled robot used by NASA toexplore the surface of Mars.
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceVision Systems• Hardware and software that permit computers tocapture, store, and manipulate visual images andpictures• Used by the U.S. Justice Department to performfingerprint analysis• Can be used in identifying people based on facialfeatures• Can be used with robots to give these machines“sight”
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceNatural Language Processing andVoice Recognition• Natural language processing: allows thecomputer to understand and react to statementsand commands made in a “natural” language, suchas English• Voice recognition involves converting sound wavesinto words
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceNatural Language Processing andVoice Recognition (continued)Dragon Systems’ Naturally Speaking 8 Essentials uses continuous voicerecognition, or natural speech, allowing the user to speak to the computer at anormal pace without pausing between words. The spoken words are transcribedimmediately onto the computer screen. (Source: Courtesy of NuanceCommunications, Inc.)
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceLearning Systems• Combination of software and hardware that allowsthe computer to change how it functions or reactsto situations based on feedback it receives• Learning systems software requires feedback onthe results of actions or decisions• Feedback is used to alter what the system will do inthe future
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceNeural Networks• Computer system that can simulate the functioningof a human brain• Ability to retrieve information even if some of theneural nodes fail• Fast modification of stored data as a result of newinformation• Ability to discover relationships and trends in largedatabases• Ability to solve complex problems for which all theinformation is not present
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceOther Artificial IntelligenceApplications• Genetic algorithm: an approach to solving large,complex problems in which a number of relatedoperations or models change and evolve until thebest one emerges• Intelligent agent: programs and a knowledge baseused to perform a specific task for a person, aprocess, or another program
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceAn Overview of Expert Systems• Like human experts, computerized expert systemsuse heuristics, or rules of thumb, to arrive atconclusions or make suggestions• Used in many fields for a variety of tasks, such as:– Designing new products and systems– Developing innovative insurance products– Increasing the quality of healthcare– Determining credit limits for credit cards– Determining the best fertilizer mix to use on certainsoils
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceAn Overview of Expert Systems(continued)• Research conducted in AI during the past twodecades is resulting in expert systems that:– Explore new business possibilities– Increase overall profitability– Reduce costs– Provide superior service to customers and clients
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceWhen to Use Expert Systems• Develop an expert system if it can do any of thefollowing:– Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reducedownside risk– Capture and preserve irreplaceable human expertise– Solve a problem that is not easily solved usingtraditional programming techniques– Develop a system more consistent than humanexperts
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceWhen to Use Expert Systems(continued)• Develop an expert system if it can do any of thefollowing (continued):– Provide expertise needed at a number of locations atthe same time or in a hostile environment that isdangerous to human health– Provide expertise that is expensive or rare– Develop a solution faster than human experts can– Provide expertise needed for training anddevelopment to share the wisdom and experience ofhuman experts with a large number of people
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceComponents of Expert SystemsFigure 7.8: Components of an Expert System
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceComponents of Expert Systems(continued)• Knowledge base: component of an expert systemthat stores all relevant information, data, rules,cases, and relationships used by the expert system• Some tools and techniques for creating aknowledge base are:– Assembling human experts– Using fuzzy logic: shades of gray; “fuzzy sets”– Using rules: IF-THEN statements– Using cases: modifying solutions to cases inknowledge base
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceComponents of Expert Systems(continued)Figure 7.10: Rules for a Credit Application
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Inference Engine• Seeks information and relationships from theknowledge base and provides answers,predictions, and suggestions the way a humanexpert would• Backward chaining– Starting with conclusions and working backward tosupporting facts• Forward chaining– Starting with facts and working forward to solutions
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Explanation Facility• Allows a user or decision maker to understand howthe expert system arrived at certain conclusions orresults• Example: allow a doctor to determine the logic orrationale of the diagnosis made by a medicalexpert system
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Knowledge Acquisition Facility• Provides convenient and efficient means ofcapturing and storing all the components of theknowledge base• Acts as an interface between experts and theknowledge base• Acquisition can be manual or a mixture of manualand automated• Knowledge base must be validated and updatedfrequently
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe Knowledge Acquisition Facility(continued)Figure 7.11: Knowledge Acquisition Facility
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceThe User Interface• Specialized user interface software is employed fordesigning, creating, updating, and using expertsystems• Main purpose of the user interface is to make thedevelopment and use of an expert system easierfor users and decision makers
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceExpert Systems DevelopmentFigure 7.12: Steps in the Expert System Development Process
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceParticipants in Developing and UsingExpert Systems• Domain expert: individual or group who has theexpertise or knowledge one is trying to capture inthe expert system• Knowledge engineer: individual who has trainingor experience in the design, development,implementation, and maintenance of an expertsystem• Knowledge user: individual or group who usesand benefits from the expert system
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceParticipants in Developing and UsingExpert Systems (continued)Figure 7.13: Participants in Expert Systems Development and Use
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceExpert Systems Development Toolsand Techniques• Traditional programming languages• Special programming languages– LISP, PROLOG• Expert system shells– Expert system shell is a collection of softwarepackages and tools used to design, develop,implement, and maintain expert systems• Off-the-shelf expert system shells
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceExpert Systems Development Toolsand Techniques (continued)Figure 7.14: Expert Systems Development
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceApplications of Expert Systems andArtificial Intelligence• Credit granting and loan analysis• Stock picking• Catching cheats and terrorists– Gambling casinos• Budgeting– Prototype testing programs• Games– Crossword puzzles
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceApplications of Expert System andArtificial Intelligence (continued)• Information management and retrieval– Uses bots• AI and expert systems embedded in products– Antilock braking system, television• Plant layout and manufacturing• Hospitals and medical facilities– Probability of contracting diseases, lab analysis,home diagnosis, appointment scheduling• Help desks and assistance
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceApplications of Expert System andArtificial Intelligence (continued)• Employee performance evaluation• Virus detection– Uses neural network technology• Repair and maintenance– Telephone networks, aerospace equipment• Shipping and marketing• Warehouse optimization– Restocking, location
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceVirtual Reality• Virtual reality system: enables one or more usersto move and react in a computer-simulatedenvironment• Immersive virtual reality: user becomes fullyimmersed in an artificial, three-dimensional worldthat is completely generated by a computer
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceInterface Devices• Head-mounted display (HMD)– Screens directed at each eye; position tracker• CAVE– Provides illusion of immersion through projection ofstereo images on floors and walls• Haptic interface– Relays sense of touch and other physical sensations
  • An Overview of Artificial IntelligenceInterface Devices (continued)Military personnel train in an immersive CAVE system