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    05 g322 section b    production 2012 05 g322 section b production 2012 Document Transcript

    • AS Media Studies Study Notes Unit G322 Section BAudiences and InstitutionsThe Film Industry Part 5 Production 64
    • Film ProductionFilm, like most art forms, is essentially a creative medium but it is also a commercial venture.So, whilst we might enjoy seeing films that make us laugh, move us, scare us, completely turnour world upside down or make us consider issues that we had never before considered, at theend of the day, filmmakers are not providing us with a charitable entertainment. They are keyplayers in a fast-moving, global, commercial industry.It is easy to assume that filmmakers, actors and directors who are well-known play the mostsignificant role in the life of a film. What should not be underestimated however, is the powerof financiers –whose influence extends to the far corners of the global film industry.The film industry exists to make money through entertaining. Finance is crucial to each stageof a films life and will hopefully generate a profit to be reinvested in future film projects. Production Distribution Exhibition Exhibitor Exhibitor Producer Production Distribution Exhibitor Production crew Company Company Exhibitor Writer often formed often part of large just to make multinational Exhibitor Director one film conglomerate Exhibitor Cast Exhibitor Finance/Film Fig. 1. From production to exhibitionThe film that we finally see at the cinema is the result of many months, often many years, ofplanning and budgeting. Hope, frustration, disappointment, and sometimes elation are someof the emotions producer’s experience. The process from the original idea for a film to itsarrival in the cinema can involve hundreds of changes and hundreds of people, all of whomneed to be committed to the project if it is to succeed, the most important is the producer.Who is the Producer?The variety of different credits which appear at the beginning or end of a film defining theproduction personnel can be confusing – producer, co-producer, associate producer, executiveproducer etc. What the differences are and how each is involved in a film can vary fromproduction to production. There are many producer titles because people have differentdefinitions of the term. For example, executive producer may be little more than a courtesytitle to someone who has invested money in a film.In the 1940s and early 1950s life was simpler and movies were less difficult to finance. Theywere usually made by big studios, like MGM, and the producer was really the administrativepartner of the director. Nowadays, producing almost solely consists of raising the money andoverseeing expenditure. The producer will be involved from the very beginning of the project,overseeing the initial planning through all stages from pre-production to post production. 65
    • Producers deal with ideas, especially raising confidence in the idea with financiers anddistributors. They commission the script, secure the finances, hire the director and areinvolved in casting, finding locations and hiring the technical crew. A producer must havelegal knowledge, creative knowledge, flair and sales skills.A producer can either work independently, developing ideas and raising the money for a film,or can work as part of a big studio proposing projects to the studios finance team.Theproducers continuity is crucial to the success of the production.Throughout film history, with rare exceptions, the best creative and profitable work done bydirectors has been in collaboration with strong producers: it is an effective collaborative mixwhich has to do with personality and compatibility, as well as creativity. A strong producerwill be ambitious for a robust production and will also inspire distribution and marketingpeople to invest in a cinema release and the promotion of a film.The producer is generally assisted by an associate producer (AP), who directly oversees thedaily concerns of shooting. In commercial film making the producer has overall responsibilityfor all aspects of production. From a distance, the films financiers and distributors keep trackof the production of a film, and it is the producer who is responsible for communicating withthem and ensuring that the film lives up to their expectations. Any changes of story andcasting will need to be justified ensuring that all these parties maintains a confidence in thefinished film.The best producers must have a nose for a good idea and be able to keep up with public taste.They often take financial risks and are prepared to back their hunches against the criticism ofthe cautious. They need to have either great personal charisma to win over the doubters, or anextremely good track record. Investing in film making is an uncertain venture and bankers arenever over-enthusiastic about putting their money into what seems to be a risk. “The single most important fact, perhaps, of the entire movie industry is that nobody knows anything... Not one person in the entire motion picture field knows for a certainty whats going to work. Every time out its a guess and, if youre lucky, an educated one.”Two time Academy Award winning screen writer - William GoldmanIndeed, the box-office success of a film is never certain. It is always a gamble, both forinvestors and the audience who are taking their own kind of risk; neither can be sure of theprecise nature of the final product – the film! 66
    • How does a film get to the screen?In talking about the processes at work in the life of a film, it is easy to forget that the first stepin that journey is the IDEA.The idea can either come from a writer, a director or a producerin the form of a book, a play or an original idea for a script. Once the idea exists, then it isnormally up to the producer to a) clear the screen rights for the material and b) raise thefinance to make the film by presenting a package to various potential investors.If the film is being made by a film studio they would already have the finance to pay for thefilms production through other successful, profitable films they had made. In turn, profitsfrom the film would eventually go back to the film studio to finance future films. In the caseof independent film production, no such capital is available and has to be secured. Theproducer must persuade banks, investment companies and wealthy individuals to invest in afilm and try to secure a distributors interest.In order to do this an OUTLINEor TREATMENT(the detailed storyline withsuggestions as to casting, locations etc.) of the film will be presented to the investors. Thetreatment will run from between five to twenty-five pages. (If the director or producer arevery well-known and experienced in the film industry this stage may consist of presenting anidea without a treatment.) If the investors like the treatment they may pay for the developmentof the treatment into the first draft of the script and for the PACKAGE to be put together.Banks and other investors need some assurance that there will be a return on their investmentsif they are to finance the production of the film and it is the package that fulfils this function.Packages consist of either a treatment or draft of the script, a proposed budget, a storyboard ofsome scenes, and details of the director and any stars who have been approached and showninterest or are already secured for the film. The track record of the director of photography(DP) and composer can also be important elements of the package. TheDEVELOPMENT stage of a films life is where the ideas are clarified through research, casting is confirmed and scripts are written. In the process of committing ideas to paper, problems arise and initial confidence may be lost with many scripts ending up not going any further.For independent companies it is sometimes difficult to raise money even for development. Instead of looking to just one investor, it may well be necessary to seekout a number of investors. Land and Freedom (1995), a film directed by Ken Loach, wasfinanced in the development stage by British Screen Finance, but eventually ended up with 15different sources of money from Europe to make the final film.Finally the DEAL is the agreement between the producer and the investor(s) who providesthe finance to produce the film.The terms of the deal will vary according to both the budgetspotential income or revenue and type of film. Films are rarely financed by one single investorand it is common for films to be funded by more than one source. Most British films arecollaborations or co-financing ventures involving two or more of the following – an equityinvestor, a distributor and/or a TV broadcaster (usually BBC or FilmFour). 67
    • An equity investor puts money into a film rather like a loan for a fixed period which will gaininterest and has the contractual right to reclaim their initial investment plus a share of the netprofits of the film (normally in proportion to the amount invested in the film).Putting together a deal requires trying to get all the potential investors together at the sametime, hoping that the requirements of the different investorsnot clash. There is no specifictime limit for putting together a deal, sometimes it can take weeks, and sometimes years. Thisis where film festivals come into the picture: providing a forum for producers with their ideasto meet up with the people with the money in the hope that a deal may be struck. Festivalssuch as Cannes are hives of activity where producers take round their film packages.The importance of castingThe stars of a film are very important. If the audience knows and likes the star of a film, theyare more likely to want to see the film than if the star is a newcomer and unknown. Thecasting of stars is dependent upon the amount of money available in the production budget.The more famous the star(s) the larger the sum required to secure them for the project. A lotof people are also interested in those responsible for making the film e.g. producers, directorsetc.Investors try to reduce their risk by becoming involved in decisions concerning casting and/orwho directs the film. By insisting on a particular star or director the film is given a differentstatus, or a wholly different artistic feel.Q1. Choose an actress from the list above. What would they bring to a role in a film?For the investors the most important thing is that the film is given the best possible chance –in the hope that they will see a good financial return when the film opens in cinemas – and ifthis means pushing to have a particular star then so be it. This sort of negotiation is all to dowith making a film as bankable as possible.Remember - Film production is all about profit!When putting together a film package questions will be raised concerning potential money-making spin-offs including merchandise that could be produced and linked-up withpromotional partners, all of which will maximise the audience awareness of the film, and, inturn, maximise the profit the film will make.The details within a film package do not guarantee that a film will make money, since theyare based on guess-work before the film is made, but they will give potential investorsconfidence in giving money to allow the film to be produced.Sometimes, even though a film 68
    • does not make a profit at the box office, it may make an overall profit because of pre-saleswhich have been negotiated with DVD and television companies at the package stage of theproduction and rental deals with cinema exhibitors.Unlike television, a film has to attract people to a cinema and/or later to a Blockbuster. Peoplehave to be persuaded to leave the house to buy a product that they have heard about. It is themarketing of the film that is essential in creating audience awareness.From the outset, the producer must have an idea as to who the AUDIENCE of the filmwill be so that it might stand a chance of recouping all production costs and going into profit.The financial success or failure of a film depends on the audience. It is the audience who willdecide whether the film is successful by paying for their cinema ticket at the box office.Interest in a film will escalate or wane depending on the audiences opinion. They will spreadthe word about a film and ultimately affect box-office success or failure. This is known asword of mouth and is the most important aspect of marketing a film.Q2. Think about the films you have seen recently at the cinema. Which ones wererecommended by word of mouth? Why did you go and see other films?It is generally assumed that to go into profit a film has to make two and ahalf times its total cost at the box office. If a film costs $60 million to make,then it will need to make $150 million at the box office and on other pre-sales (e.g. televisionand DVD) before it goes into profit. Profit is the money made through box-office takings andmerchandising spin-offs after production, marketing and distribution costs have been met.It does not necessarily correlate that the more expensive a film is to make the more profit itwill make at the box office. The film industry has many examples of so-called blockbusterfilms which cost millions to make and on paper look like they could not fail to make moneybut which do not attract audiences. They can be marketed but they will not play at thecinema. Audiences will not want to go and see them. Twenty years ago,Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988) cost $50 million to make and yet resulted in a $20 million loss. Similarly, a small budget film can make money: Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) cost $5 million to produce and made $250 million dollars worldwide; Trainspotting (1996) which cost $3 million to produce made $100 million worldwide.It is also important to mention that some films are neverreleased in cinemas due to lack of confidence in the film gaining a profit at the box office. Anexpensive marketing campaign will further drain the films finances and a decision will bemade to put the film straight to DVD, without a theatrical release at the cinema.Q3. Find out the budget and box office of the following films; The Blair Witch Project,Paranormal Activity and Avatar. Which of them has made the biggest profit? 69
    • Why are films so expensive to make? Skyfall has achieved 40-day takings of £94.28m, overtaking previous UK record holder Avatar (£94.03m)…Skyfall has reached its awesome tally without the benefit of 3D premium prices. Now all eyes are on whether Skyfall can be the first film to crack £100m at UK cinemas. (The GuardianDec 2012)Read the credits at the end of any film, listing everyone from actors to technicians, imaginethe cost of so many people working on a film? There are overhead costs such as transport,accommodation, catering and set hire, then there’s the cost of insurance if anything goeswrong. After the film’s been shot there is the cost of editing equipment, sound editing andfinally producing a master of the film.A films negative cost is all the money that has to be paid out in advance relatingtoproduction. This includes all the expenses listed above along with interest on loans,payments to talent (actors and directors) and the overhead cost of studios etc. When thenegative cost has been paid, any money the film makes above this is known as the net profit. Fig 2. Typical components of negative costs Production expensesSo how can you make a profit on a film?The investors and often distributors come into a film project at the pre-sales stage. They willmake decisions based on the strength of the package.The decision to invest in a film will bebased on the films potential income or revenue, that is, the total profit the film can possiblymake at the box office. The film is sold to distributors retail outlets such as DVD retail andrental, and terrestrial (BBC, ITV etc) and satellite (Sky) television. Deals are madewith thesecompanies at the pre-sales stage which provides further income for the making of a film. Fig 3. Where did the money come from?(1996) Television Theatrical/cinema release DVD sales 70
    • Case Studies - How werefour„British‟ films been funded?Four Weddings and a Funeral (Mike Newell, 1994)Budget: £2.9 million (Polygram: £2.03 million/Channel Four: £870,000)Distribution: distributed in Britain by PolygramFour Weddings and a Funeral was the most successful British film ever shown in the Statestaking $50 million at the box office. It subsequently took $40 million in Britain. Totalworldwide distribution gross: $350 million. The films success was helped by its release in theUS which built up publicity for Britain (British audiences are more likely to see a film if it hasbeen successful in the US) and publicity centred on Hugh Grants girlfriend Elizabeth Hurley.It is worth noting that despite the profits made by Four Weddings - Polygrams film divisionstill failed to make an overall profit.Trainspotting (Danny Boyle, 1996)Production companies: Figment Films/Channel Four/PolygramDistributor: Film Four Distributors LtdBudget: £1.7 millionChannel Four fully financed the £1.7 million budget of Trainspotting although pre-salesbrought in £2 million. The film benefited from a clever marketing strategy including filmtrailers featuring scenes specially made by the cast and a powerful poster campaign.The Full Monty (Peter Cattaneo, 1997)Production companies: Twentieth Century Fox/Channel FourBudget: £2.2 millionDistributor: Twentieth Century FoxThe Full Monty took £120 million at the box office worldwide and was more successful thanJurassic Park in the UK. Fox spent a large amount promoting the UK release (initially£850,000) and to ensure good word of mouth invited over 100,000 people to previewscreenings before its official release date. Channel Four were initially involved in thedevelopment of The Full Monty but did not continue their financial support for the film andtherefore did not reap the rewards from its success.East is East (Damien ODonnell, 1999)Production companies: Assassin Films/FilmFour/BBC (fully financed by FilmFour with thesupport of the MEDIA programme)Budget: £2.4mDistribution: Film Four DistributorsBox office gross (UK): £7.25m. The response to this film surpassed expectations and thenumber of prints in circulation increased from 79 to 246 in the first few weeks. It took over £1million in its first weekend and by the middle of 2000 had taken £10m in British and foreignmarkets. FilmFour eventually funded the film and their gain was the BBCs loss. Audienceenjoyment was supplemented by critical approval represented by the award for best film at the27th Evening Standard British Film Awards although disappointment was expressed at East isEasts failure to win any BAFTAs.Q4. Find out the producers& budget of the following British films; Never Let Me Go,The King‟s Speech and Skyfall. Has film production changed in the UK since the 1990s? 71
    • What happens after „the Deal‟?Once the deal has been done the making of the film begins. The film production process isdivided into three stages: 1) Pre-production - planning, budgeting, scheduling, casting 2) Production - filming 3) Post Production - film editing, sound editing, soundtrack 1. Pre-Production (Research & Planning)Pre-production in film making is office based involving a team which includes the producer,director, assistants and administrative staff. This is the first stage in a films life and can takeanything from six months to two years and involves planning and scheduling the shooting of afilm. Shooting a film is extremely expensive involving actors, technicians and equipment. It isat the pre-production stage that decisions are made, and potential problems are solved toensure that the shooting schedule is adhered to and runs as smoothly as possible.What happens to the script?During pre-production the script is broken down into scenes andstoryboarded and a shootingschedule prepared. For the sake of economy all scenes on one set or location will be filmed atthe same time, out of sequence. If a film begins and ends in New York, but the bulk of thestory is in London, then the New York scenes will be shot at the same time. A continuityperson or script supervisor will keep detailed notes about the actors hairstyles, costumes andprops etc. checking that they look the same in scenes that are supposed to be close together,and yet are shot weeks apart. For actors and actresses this means having to keep in characterand maintain the appropriate emotional attitude in scenes which are shot out of sequence.The producer works with the director to bring the screenplay to life. Working relationshipsvary depending on personalities but broadly speaking the producer is responsible for the costsof the production and aspects of planning, and the director is responsible for making artisticdecisions. The artistic decisions and the cost of the production are inseparable. This meansthat the producer and director work closely together making combined decisions about theemployment of staff, casting, design, lighting and locations.The script is the essential element for decisions being made as it dictates casting of characters,locations to be used plus design issues, such as lighting, camerawork, costume and setrequirements.The film is interpreted in drawings on the storyboard which will then be used during theproduction of the film. The producer and director will brief the location manager, director ofphotography, casting director, set and costume designer, and any other personnel that the filmrequires such as the musical director, the special effects unit, choreographer and stunt co-ordinator etc.Everyone in production receives a copy of the final version of the script. There can be anynumber of revisions and rewrites to the script, firstly by the scriptwriter(s), by the director,lead actors and sometimes the producer. These alterations can be continual throughout theproduction stage. The production manager ensures everyone has the corrected, current scriptto work from, sometimes updated on a daily basis. 72
    • BudgetingThe cost of production will have been estimated at the deal stage of raising finance; however,the true cost of a production becomes apparent as filming progresses and the budgetbreakdown becomes more precise.The budget of a film production is divided into above-the-line and below-the-linecosts. Above-the-line costs include: fees for the producer, director and stars/actors, and technician costs known before the shooting begins. Above-the-line costs are fixed and will not change during the production process. Below-the-line costs include: any other expenditure, including film stock, equipment hire, hotel costs, food, scenery, costumes, properties etc. Below-the-line costs are changeable. Things can happen on a film which might require more money to be spent on that particular area of the budget, for instance, part of the script re-written to accommodate a role being enlarged. This money will then have to be found from another part of the budget or re-negotiations begin with the investors or new money found elsewhere.Shooting ScheduleOnce a film has been budgeted and the producer has contracted the stars and some of thetechnical personnel, the film will have to be scheduled. A schedule is basically a timetablefor the shooting of a film.A film is rarely shot in the order that we, the cinema goers, finally see it. Restrictions on whenpeople and locations are available mean that the films shooting has to be carried out aroundparticular availabilities.Only so many scenes can be shot in one day. On a good days shoot,possibly five minutes of usable film will be shot. With only one film unit, a full-length featurefilm could take anything up to six or seven weeks to shoot. 2. Production (Filming)Production is the actual shooting of the film where everyone is involved; the stars, producer,director, an army of technicians, other cast, production personnel, make-up and wardrobepeople, set designers and electricians – not to mention the caterers. The numerous credits atthe end of each film gives you a good example of who works on a film and their importance.The most expensive part of film making is the production which is labour intensive, withequipment and travel being part of the budget costs. Meticulousplanning in pre-productionwill help to ensure that potential problems will have been addressed, making sure the oftentight filming schedule runs smoothly.To make sure the production stays within the planned schedule, daily call/ schedule sheets 73
    • are produced and distributed to all members of the cast and crew. These detail the shootingschedule for the following day including scenes to be shot, the actors required, start times andcontact numbers etc.What actually happens on a shoot and how many takes are needed is impossible to define inany individual film: there are so many variables that depend on individual temperament,styles of working, planning and organisational skills that each film production is verydifferent.The shooting schedule of each individual film varies according to the films length,availability of stars, and if the film is being shot simultaneously in more than one country.Filming is the most exacting part of this creative and energetic industry. Everyone on the setwants the filming to go well, from the stars down to the caterers hope for the right weatherconditionon location shoots to complete the filming schedule on time. 3. Post–Production (Sound & Film Editing)The process of editing includes the selection and shaping of shots, the arrangement of shots,scenes and sequences and special effects, the mixing of all soundtracks and the matching ofthe soundtrack to the images.Once the days film rushes have been approved they are transported to the post productionfacility house where they are viewed and logged by an assistant editor. The process oflogging, which involves writing a brief description of each shot, is fundamental for thesystematic editing process. The editor then assembles the footage from the shooting script,joining the best takes into a rough assembly which the director and producer view andcomment on. This is tightened up intoa rough cut and then into a finished edit or fine cutwhere gradually the film starts to take shape. During the shooting of most films, editingbegins during production, with the editor and the director conferring about the rushes andtentatively putting together a rough assembly.Recent developments in digital technology are having a profound effect on the skills of theeditor and the process of editing. Computerised editing allows for greater flexibility, speedand accuracy, and gives the editor the chance to try out a variety of sequences and be creativeby mixing shots whilst doing away with the need for the traditional cut of a film print.Since the mid 1990sComputer technologyhasbeen capable of creatingstunts which would eitherhave be too expensive or toodangerous to be attemptedpreviously. For example,Pierce Brosnan in DantesPeak (1997) runs in front ofa mass of lava from anerupting volcano. Theburning mass of lava wascomputer generated andadded at a later stage ofproduction. 74
    • The sound editor puts the sound onto the film and assembles different soundtracks, soundeffects and music. During the shooting of the film the sound is recorded separately. The filmand sound tape have lip-synchronisation. If there are alterations needed to the timbre orrecording levels of the dialogue, the actors are recalled at the editing stage to re-record or‘dub’ their lines. This happens in a small studio while they are watching the correspondingpiece of finished film.The sound effects on a film are carried out by sound effects specialists. These skilled artistswork in small studios, and whilst watching the film will create appropriate sound effects forthe film. Their skills lie in using weird and wonderful methods of simulating particularsounds, for example, breaking ice cold celery in water which sounds like a leg breaking! Morecommon sound effects can be obtained from a sound effects library.Why is the composition of a sound track so important? The composer is responsible for writing the music for the film – the soundtrack –and will become fully involved in the post production stage. The music adds mood and atmosphere to a film, and the composer, after talks with the director and producer, will watch the completed film and synchronise the music with the editing. Although music is often thought of as incidental to the action, it plays an important part in helping to create the overall feel of the film. For instance, theBond theme written by Monty Norman, whichis instantly recognisable, runs through all the James Bond movies.A good soundtrack often becomes famous in its own right. Indeed, there are some films forwhich the driving force is the music, not the plot. Those responsible for marketing films at thedistribution stage have been quick to catch on to the selling power of a good soundtrack, andmost films now have an accompanying CD and download. The involvement of a well-knownband will help in getting air time on radio stations and, therefore, additional publicity.Examples of particularly successful soundtracks include: The Piano (1993), composed byMichael Nyman, Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) with the soundtrack featuring Love IsAll Around sung by Wet Wet Wet; the soundtrack compilation album for Baz LuhrmannsMoulin Rouge (2001) and the soundtrack to Quentin Tarantino’s films.Q5. Can you think of any more recent film soundtracks that have proved popular withaudiences? Why?What happens at the end of the production process?The film is finally finished off, colour graded and copies made in a laboratory; it is these filmprints that will be shown in cinemas. The producer hands the film over to the distributor totarget an audience. In raising the money for the film the producer will have estimated thepotential income that the film could make through various pre-sales outlets and box-officetakings. The distributors marketing campaign will heighten awareness of the film and,ultimately, it will be the cinema-going audience who will decide whether the film issuccessful or not. 75
    • Production Case Study – Lionsgate Entertainment By the 2005, having swallowed up Artisan Entertainment, the producers of The Blair Witch Project, Lionsgate Entertainment was the last big independent production studio in Hollywood to remain free of anyownership links to the major studios. Lionsgate’s film release strategy had much in common with a previous company, New Line cinema, before it was bought up by a major studio in 1996.Lionsgate found great success releasing a line of horror filmsthat became popular sequelfranchises and solid sources of revenue on DVD when sold to their core 16-25 cinema,predominantly male audience.Examples included Saw I-VII & 3D (starting in 2004) andHostel (2005 & 2007).Underlying the central activities of Lionsgate was a more diversified operation that sought tocreate some of the security achieved by the Hollywood majors.They also combined this horrorsuccess with other releases including more sophisticated indie/art house offerings such as Girlwith a Pearl Earring (2003), the Best-Film-Oscar-winning Crash (2004) and Precious (2010)Founded in Vancouver in 1997, Lionsgate was the product of a former investment broker,who aimed to create a smaller-scale Canadian answer to Hollywood. It was born through theconvergence of a number of existing companies, very much as it was to continue to developup to and including the purchase of Artisan. The main initial components were Cinepix,Canadas second-largest domestic film distributor, North Shore Studios, the countrys largeststudio facility, and Mandalay Television.Its status as a company with major independentambition was confirmed in 2000 with its $50million takeover of Los Angeles-based producer/distributor Trimark Pictures. One of themain attractions was Trimarks library of 650 (mainly horror) filmswhich were a useful sourceof DVD revenue.Resources of this kind were also at the heart of Lionsgate subsequent purchase of Artisan for$160 million. Artisan had a more substantial library, some 6700 features, includingfilmsranging from Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) and Basic Instinct (1992) to Reservoir 76
    • Dogs (1991) and Its a Wonderful Life (1947). Artisan’s back catalogue was a valuable asset, a reliable source of revenue against which production or distribution finance could be gained, precisely the kind of resource that helps to give stability to the operations of the major Hollywood studios. Artisan also provided Lionsgate with its Family Home Division, another lucrative catalogue that included rights to well known childrens DVD franchises such as Barbie, Hot Wheels, Clifford the Big Red Dog and the Care Bears. During the past 10 years, Lionsgate has grown into aleading filmed entertainment studio through a combination of organic growth and accretivestrategic acquisitions. With the acquisitions of Artisan Entertainment, Trimark Holdings andother available libraries, Lionsgate now manages one of the most prestigious and prolificlibraries in the entertainment industry with nearly 13,000 titles, a diverse portfolio ofbusinesses, and an exciting, commercially potent feature film slate of approximately12 to 15releases per year.Lionsgates feature film slate generated more than half a billion dollars at the North Americanbox office in calendar year 2010, fueled by such box office hits as THE EXPENDABLES,Lionsgates most profitable film ever, THE LAST EXORCISM, SAW 3D, KICK ASS and thecritically-acclaimed PRECIOUS, which won two Academy Awards®. Other hits in the pasttwo years included DAYBREAKERS, MY BLOODY VALENTINE 3D, HAUNTING INCONNECTICUT, FORBIDDEN KINGDOM, RAMBO and THE BANK JOB. Lionsgate hasearned 55 Academy Award® nominations and 10 Oscar® wins over the past 10 years, morethan any other independent studio.The highly diversified company also features a vibrant television production and syndicationbusiness with 15 prime-time cable and broadcast network series spanning 12 channels,including the Emmy® Award-winning drama series "Mad Men" and "Weeds," the critically-acclaimed "Nurse Jackie" and the comedy "Blue Mountain State." Lionsgates televisionprogramming has earned 77 Emmy® nominations and seven Emmy® wins in the past 10years, including 26 Emmy® nominations in the past year alone.Lionsgate is now a $2 billion diversified global entertainment corporation with a leadingpresence in motion picture production and distribution, television programming andsyndication, home entertainment, family entertainment, digital distribution and new channelplatforms. Lionsgates blueprint for growth combines the flexibility and entrepreneurialculture of an independent, with the financial and strategic relationship of a major studio andthe structure and consumer focus of a top digital age company.Q6. How has Lionsgate attempted to survive in the cut-throat world of filmproduction? Write one paragraph. 77