The Elementsand Principles of Design Presented by Jaikumar Ranganathan
The Elements of Design:These 6 ingredients are used tocreate a design: line Shape & form Space value colour texture
Four Basic Types of Lines HorizontalVertical Curvilinear
Line:Line An element of design that is used to define shape, contours, and outlines, also to suggest mass and volume. It may be a continuous mark made on a surface with a pointed tool or implied by the edges of shapes and forms.
Implied Line• Implied Line is the line inside the object within in the art / design work. For example, an image of a soldier standing tall has an implied vertical line in the stance. Each of the lines imply different meanings. A vertical line can imply nobility. A horizontal can imply calm or rest. A diagonal line can imply movement. A curvilinear line can imply grace.
Line• Linear marks• Lines• Edges• Implied Line A series of points FreeFoto.comindicating direction, Horizontal lines suggest rest andmovement and form. tranquility.
Organic and GeometricOrganic shapes are natural shapes which can be symmetrical and asymmetrical. •Geometric shapes are ‘man-made’ or machine made shapes, mathematically deduced, with clear sharp edges.
Shape two-Shape is a two-dimensional closed contour defined by its perimeter• Organic – thought of as occurring naturally• Geometric – named shapes
Shape • Squares and rectangles – stability • Triangles – goal or direction
Form and SpaceForm is an area surrounded by space.Space can be positive or negative.
FormForm is the three-dimensionality of an object. Shading a circle in a certain manner can turn it into a sphere. Form Form Types Types Square Triangle Cube Cone Rectangle Circle Cylinder Sphere
Shape(think ‘form’) think
space(think ‘distance in & between things’) think
The area between, around, or inside objects• Positive space – the space occupied by objects• Negative space – the space around and between objects FreeDigitalPhotos.net
The measure of lightness or darkness in a composition.
Value • Darker objects stand out in a composition. • Lighter objects recede or hang back.FreeFoto.com
Value(think degree of lightness or darkness)
ColorColor is the hue, shade, or tone of an object.
Color• Black – authority• White – innocence and purity• Red – passion, anger, appetite• Green – wealth, nature relaxing• Blue – peace, loyalty• Purple – luxury, wealth, sophistication
TEXTUREThe surface quality or "feel" of an object, itssmoothness, roughness, softness, etc. Texturesmay be actual or implied.
TextureTexture is the visual surface quality of an object.
Texture • Refers to the surface appearance of an object • Enhances the realism of an object
Texture(think ‘the look/feel of the surface ’) think
The Principles of Design • Rhythm • Emphasis • Movement • Variety • Pattern • Balance • Harmony • Proportion • UnityNote: This list is one possible list. You willfind that every book, every artist has a slightlydifferent list of Principles.
Balance: Balance is concerned with arranging art elements in an artwork so no one part over powers, or seems heavier than, any other part.There are three types of balance: Formal Informal Radial
Formal Balance (Symmetrical): Occurs when one half of a work mirrors or closely resembles the other half.
Informal Balance (Asymmetrical): Involves a balance of unlike objects or elements.
Radial Balance:Occurs when elements are positioned around a central point.
Symmetry & Asymmetry• If you fold an image in half and it is the same on both sides it has symmetry, it is symmetrical.• If you fold an image in half and it is not the same on both sides it has asymmetry, it is asymmetrical.• A work of art can be asymmetrical and still be balanced. Symmetrical Asymmetrical
BalanceBalance relates to our physical sense of balance.
RepetitionRepetition is one, or similar elements that are repeated.
ContrastContrast is when elements are different.
Harmony: The principle of design concerned with combiningsimilar art elements to create a pleasing appearance.
HarmonyHarmony is when elements are related.
DominanceDominance is when one object is emphasized more thananother.
• Regular repetition of lines, shapes, or colors that create a movement. Patterns have rhythm
RhythmRhythm is a measured movement through space.
Repetition of thefigure descendingthe staircase not onlycreates movementbut rhythm as well
Rhythm• Rhythm is the movement or variation characterized by the regular recurrence or alternation of different quantities or conditions. In simpler words, its just like pattern and shows that the design has a beat or flow going with it.
Movement:Movement is the Principle of Design that creates the look and feel of action to guide the viewer’s eyes through the work of art.
Linear strokes cause oureye to move back andforth through thepainting.
MovementMovement is the relocation of an object in space over time.
DirectionDirection is the course along which a line moves.
Unity:The combining of art elements and principleswith media to create a feeling of completeness.
Variety:Combining art elements by adding slight changes to increase visual interest.
Proportion:The manner in which the parts of a work relate to each other and to the whole.
ProportionProportion is the relative size and scale ofelements in a design.
relationship of one part to another or to the whole with respect to size, quantity, or degree; a ratio
GradationGradation is the change from one color to another.
Emphasis:The principle of design concerned with making an element or object in an artwork stand out.
EmphasisAccent, stress, orimportance placedon a part of a piece of artwork(repeating an idea creates emphasis)