CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCONSERVATION:Conservation of a Historic/ Heritage Building is the actiontaken to retard the process of decay of the building in orderto prolong its life so that it is available to the present andfuture generations to experience and enjoyINTERNATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATIONSUGGEST: Minimum effective action is always the best. This action should be reversible and not prejudice futureinterventions.
THE CONSERVATION OF A BUILDING INVOLVES THEFOLLOWING: Respect for and conservation of the building fabric or material.The preservation of the historicity of these materials is consideredextremely important internationally. Respect for and conservation of the methods of constructionthat are unique to the buildings in question. Respect for and conservation of the original quality andperception of spaces within the building. Conservation of the various elements that lend to the buildingits character.
THE VENICE CHARTERINTERNATIONAL CHARTER FOR THE CONSERVATION AND RESTORATIONOF MONUMENTS AND SITESDEFINITIONSARTICLE 1. The concept of an historic monument embraces not only the singlearchitectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence ofa particular civilizatiom, a significant development or an historic event. This appliesnot only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past,which haveacquired cultural significance with the passing of time.ARTICLE 2. The conservation and restoration of monuments must have recourse to allthe sciences and techniques,which can contribute to the study and safeguarding of thearchitectural heritage.AIMARTICLE 3. The intention in conservation and restoring monuments is to safeguardthem no less as works of art than as historical evidence.CONSERVATIONARTICLE 4. It is essential to the conservation of monuments that they be maintainedon a permanent basis.
ARTICLE 5. The conservation of monuments is always facilitated by making useof them for some socially useful purpose. Such use is therefore desirable but itmust not change the layout or decoration of the building. It is within these limitsonly that modifications demanded by a Change of function should be envisagedand may be permitted.ARTICLE 6. The conservation of a monument implies preserving a setting,whichis not out of scale.wherever the traditional setting exists.It must be kept. No Newconstruction, demolition or modification, which would alter the relations of massand color,must be allowed.ARTICLE 7. A monument is inseparable from the history to which it bears witnessand from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of a monumentcannot be allowed except Where the safeguarding of that monument demands it orwhere the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified bynational or international interest of paramount importance.
ARTICLE 8. Items of sculpture, painting or decoration,which from an integral partof a monument, May only be removed from it if this is the sole means of ensuringtheir preservation.ARTICLE 9. The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation.Its aim isto preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and isbased on respect for original material and authentic documents. It must stop at thepoint where conjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work, which isindispensable,must be distinct from the architectural composition and must bear acontemporary stamp. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followedby an archaeological and historical study of the monument.ARTICLE 10. Where traditional techniques prove inadequate, the consolidation ofa monument can be achieved by the use of any modem technique for conservationand construction, the efficacy of which has been shown by scientific data andproved by experience.
ARTICLE 11. The valid contributions of all periods to the building of a monument mustbe respected,Since unity of style is not the aim of a restoration.When a building includesthe superimposed work of Different periods, the revealing of the underlying state canonly be justified in exceptional circumstances and when what is removed is of littleinterest and the material which is brought to light is of great historical, archaeological oraesthetic value, and its state of preservation good enough to justify the action. Evaluationof the importance of the elements involved and the decision as to what may be destroyedcannot rest solely on the individual in charge of the work.ARTICLE 12. Replacements of missing parts must integrate harmoniously with thewhole,but at the same time must be distinguishable from the original so that restorationdoes not falsify the artistic or historic evidence.ARTICLE 13. Additions cannot be allowed except in so far as they do not detract fromthe interesting parts of the building, its traditional setting, the balance of its compositionand its relation with its Surroundings.
GUIDELINES BY S.P.A.B( THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION OF ANCIENT BUILDINGS)REPAIR NOT RESTORATION:Although no building can withstand decay, neglect and depredation entirely, neither canaesthetic judgment nor archaeological proof justify the reproduction of worn or missingparts. Only as a practical expedient on a small-scale can a case for restoration be argued.EXPERIMENTATIONOld buildings are not the place to test unproved materialsRESPONSIBLE METHODSA repair done today should not preclude treatment tomorrow,nor should it result infurther loss of fabric.COMLEMENT NOT PARODYNew work should express modern needs in a modern language.These are the only termsin which new can relate to old in a way which is positive and responsive at the same time.If an addition proves essential. It should not be made to out-do or out-last the original.
REGULAR MAINTENANCEThis is the most practical and economic form of preservation.INFORMATIONTo repair old buildings well, they must be understood. Appreciation of a building’sparticular architectural qualities and a study of its construction, use and socialdevelopment are all enlightening. These factors also help us to see why decay setsin and how it may be put right.ESSENTIAL WORKThe only work which is unquestionably necessary(whether it be repair, renewal oraddition) is that essential to a building’s survival.
INTEGRITYAs good buildings age.the bond with their sites strengthens.A beautiful,interestingor simply ancient building still belongs where it stands however corrupted thatplace may have become use and adaptation of buildings leave their marks andthese.in time, we also see as aspects of the building’s integrity.This is Why thesociety will not condone the moving or gutting of buildings or their reduction tomere facades. Repairs carried out in place,rather than on elements dismantled andmoved to the work-bench,help retain these qualities of veracity and continuity.FIT NEW TO OLDWhen repairs are made, new material should always be fitted to the old and not theold adapted to accept the new. In this way more ancient fabric will survive.WORKMANSHIPWhy try to hide good repairs? Careful,considered workmanship does justice to finebuildings, leaving the most durable and useful record of what has been done. Onthe other hand,work concealed deliberately or artificially aged,even with the bestintentions,is bound to mislead.
GUIDELINES BY S.P.A.B( THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION OF ANCIENT BUILDINGS)MATERIALSThe use of architectural features from elsewhere confuses the understanding andappreciation of the building,even making the untouched parts seem spurious.Tradein salvaged building materials encourages the destruction of old buildings,whereasdemand for the same materials new helps keep them in production. The use ofdifferent but compatible materials can be an honest alternative.RESPECT FOR AGEBulging ,bowing,sagging and leaning are signs of age which deserve respect.Goodrepair will not officiously iron them out, smarten them or hide the imperfections.Age can confer a beauty of its own. These are qualities to care for,not blemishesto be eradicated
ADAPTIVE REUSE OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS INVOLVES THE FOLLOWINGENGINEERING ASPECTSA.MATERIALS 1. Behavior of materials both old andnew2. New materials are stronger but lessdurable than old materials that areweaker but more durable3. Hence compatibility between the twoB. STRUCTURALBEHAVIOR1. A thorough understanding of thebehavior of the existing structure.2. Old buildings have establishedpatterns of behavior due to their agethat should not be altered3. Fresh loads should not be added asfar as possible. This applies to evenfinishes especially flooring material4. New additions including openingsshould be made cautiously5. Services should be introducedsensitively especially plumbing andsanitary services.
DESIGN ASPECTS Linked to the aspects of materials and structural behaviour Additional elements can boldly be a statement of modernity but followthe simplicity and refinement that the old building exhibits. New additional buildings can also be modern but followcharacteristics of scale, proportion, rhythm,texture and overall form ofthe existing. Imitation that will create confusion between which is original andwhich added should as far as possible be avoided.
CASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAICONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS
CASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAIFACT FILE:CONSERVATION ARCHITECT: AR.KALPANA ( INTACH CHENNAI )CONTRACTOR: L & T ARCHITECTURAL STYLE: INDO SARCENIC STYLE.CONSERVATION STEPS UNDER TAKEN IN SENATE HOUSE REPLASTERING THE INTERIOR WALLS WITH CHETTINADLIME PLASTER. THE EXTERIOR WALL IS EXPOSED BRICK WORK AND EACHBRICK IS EXAMINED AND ERRODED BRICKS IS REPLACED WITHNEW BRICKS. BROKEN STAIN GLASSES ARE REPLACED WITH NEW ONES PLANT GROWTH IN THE EXTERIOR FAÇADES ARE REMOVEDCAREFULLY BY SCIENTIFIC METHOD. WATER SEEPAGE POINTS ARE FIRST SPOTTED OUT AND GIVEAPPROPRIATE TREATMENTCONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS
CASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAICONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSDECORATIVE PLASTER:IN SENATE HOUSE POWDERED OR PULVERISED SAND HASBEEN USED WITH PURELIME PUTTY FOR DECORATIVE BEADINGSAND DECO-WORK
CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAIREPLACEMENT OF NEW BRICKS
CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAIORIGINAL LIME PLASTER WALL
CASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAICONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSSOFFIT OF THE DOME UNDER RESTORATION
CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAIEXTERNAL FAÇADE- SENATE HOUSE
STAINGLASS ROSE WINDOWCONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAI
DECORATIVE PATTERN BY STENSIL METHODCONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGSCASE STUDY- SENATE HOUSE AT CHENNAI
Thank YouBy Jaikumar RanganathanPhotos by Jaikumar Ranganathan