The Tohoku Pacific Offshore Earthquake          March 11th 2011Observations on the impact of a natural disaster on society...
Contents Copyright Information                  3 Foreword                               4 Part 1: An Overview of Event...
CopyrightInformationThis work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a...
ForewordOn March 11th 2011 at 14:46 JST a 9.0 magnitudeearthquake struck under the seafloor off the Pacific coastof the no...
Part 1:An Overview of Eventson March 11th and AfterPart 1 of this overview consists of Tweets andimages covering the event...
March 11th, 201114:46 JSTWhile a normal morning was beginning inHelsinki, Finland, a 9.0 magnitudeearthquake struck under ...
Information VacuumAfter 15:30 JSTIn the first hours there was very little informationavailable in western media. Twitter, ...
No ConnectionsEvening, March 11thWithin minutes of the earthquake twoof the three major mobile carriers,NTT DoCoMo and Sof...
Twitter ProvidesEssentials in a CrisisIn times of great change and uncertainty informationis the most valuable asset. With...
Still, Twitter is NothingWithout ContentAfter things settled down a bit during the first days andforeign media managed to ...
Which Contents isTrustworthy?Initial uncertainty and gaffes aside, a few days into thenon-stop coverage it began to seem a...
An Irradiated Ghost Cityin Panic? Not ReallyWhile the true crisis was up to thenorth of Tokyo, a disproportionateamount of...
The Internet DeliversWith the (mostly) western mediahaving a field day with crisisreporting local bloggers have beendoing ...
In the Aftermath;CaringWith the true magnitude of the disaster becoming evident, theJapanese seem in general to have taken...
It’s Not Over YetIt will take years for the material to be restored, andas for the human aspect there are those who willne...
Part 2:Possible FutureImplicationsPart 2 of this overview presents various issueswhich might warrant further study and in ...
CommitmentIn reporting on the unfolding disaster, domestic media       To be fair, the general media focus seems now to be...
CommunicationFrom the very start of the disaster one form of              On a smaller, but no less important scale, theco...
RoboticsAs news reports were showing pictures of large               Another task robots might be called to perform in a n...
EnergyNeedless to say, trust in nuclear power has been badly        Investment in renewable energy infrastructure will cer...
EcologyThe Tohoku area and greater Tokyo have so far                Some the needed incentive to cut back on energymanaged...
InfrastructureOne thing which has been noted with astonishment in           There are, however, niche expertise related to...
A New StartUltimately, the earthquake and tsunami will be a test of       Now that modern and prosperous nation has perhap...
Thank YouFor further information, comments and opinions, please contactmikael@mobileobservations.com                      ...
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Japan: Earthquake Overview and Possible Future Developments, Revision 2

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An extended version of the previous Mobile Observations Japan report from March. This presentation is targeted mainly at businesses which are interested in the current situation in Japan, and want to play an active part in rebuilding and reviving the country.

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Japan: Earthquake Overview and Possible Future Developments, Revision 2

  1. 1. The Tohoku Pacific Offshore Earthquake March 11th 2011Observations on the impact of a natural disaster on society and technology in Japan, including thoughts on possible future developments A Mobile Observations Report, May 2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  2. 2. Contents Copyright Information 3 Foreword 4 Part 1: An Overview of Events on 5March 11th and After Part 2: Possible Future Implications 16 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  3. 3. CopyrightInformationThis work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view acopy of this licence, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street,Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  4. 4. ForewordOn March 11th 2011 at 14:46 JST a 9.0 magnitudeearthquake struck under the seafloor off the Pacific coastof the north-eastern Tohoku region of Japan. Theearthquake was the biggest ever recorded in Japan, andit set off a succession of tsunamis exceeding 10 metersin height in many locations. Hundreds of kilometres ofcoastline was swamped, and as of the time of writingover 28000 people are reported dead or missing.Communities, farms, fishing fleets and industry alongthe Tohoku Pacific coast were obliterated, and onenuclear power plant lost its cooling functions leading to aserious and ongoing release of radiation.Now, over one month after the earthquake, the effortsare moving from rescue and recovery to reconstruction.This report is written with the goal to give some insights,in no particular order of importance, on the currentsituation in Japan, and to present thoughts on whichsocial and economic trends could be worth deeper studyin the coming months and years of reconstruction work.Mikael LeppäHelsinki, Finland, 2. 5. 2011 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  5. 5. Part 1:An Overview of Eventson March 11th and AfterPart 1 of this overview consists of Tweets andimages covering the events starting with theTohoku Pacific Offshore Earthquake on March 11th2011 and the first 11 days of the unfolding crisis, asexperienced from the safety of an office and home inHelsinki, Finland. This part of the overview was firstpublished on www.mobileobservations.com onMarch 22nd. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  6. 6. March 11th, 201114:46 JSTWhile a normal morning was beginning inHelsinki, Finland, a 9.0 magnitudeearthquake struck under the seafloor eastof the Tohoku region in northern Japan. Agood friend was on a train in Tokyo at thetime, and got away a quick tweet:”Earthquake. Scary” as the train made anemergency stop.As earthquakes are commonplacethroughout Japan they are rarelymentioned, unless they are serious.Adding that ”scary” was a chilling hint ofwhat was to transpire. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  7. 7. Information VacuumAfter 15:30 JSTIn the first hours there was very little informationavailable in western media. Twitter, however,was being flooded by messages from the groundall over Japan, and the situation did not soundvery good.In Tokyo @stevenagata took great initiative intraining his webcam on his TV running aconstant emergency news broadcast fromnational broadcasting company NHK, andstreaming it on Ustream. In a time of uncertaintyabout the safety of family and friends, this wasan invaluable source of much neededinformation for anyone outside Japan (NHKstarted their own Ustream channel later). 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  8. 8. No ConnectionsEvening, March 11thWithin minutes of the earthquake twoof the three major mobile carriers,NTT DoCoMo and Softbank, ran intotrouble, seeing their voice callservices go down in Tokyo and in thenorth. The third major carrier, AUseemed to come off better, beingable to continue providing someservices over increasingly congestednetworks. With mobile voice callsand SMS nearly impossible, andpublic phones (which quickly weremade free to use) swamped bycrowds, Twitter came through shiningas an efficient, instant and low-data-intensive form of communication fromthe very start of the events. People waiting to use public phones, Tokyo, evening of March 11th Image Source: tokyobling.wordpress.com, published under CC license 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  9. 9. Twitter ProvidesEssentials in a CrisisIn times of great change and uncertainty informationis the most valuable asset. With all major newsorganisations scrambling to cover what was still avery confusing and developing situation, Twitterusers were already sharing and forwardingeyewitness accounts and links to vital emergencyinformation. Twitter has continued to be highlyrelevant in the areas struck by disaster, providinghomeless and displaced people with information onemergency shelters and other services.Twitter has also become a serious contender tomainstream media in sensitive times such as this,allowing people to fact-check and challenge articlespublicly. During the first hours of the disaster a CNNanchors unfortunate Godzilla remarks over freshtsunami footage were quickly noted and spread, anddays later FOX News inclusion of a Tokyo nightclubin a map of Japanese nuclear power stations wassoon very well known and ridiculed. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  10. 10. Still, Twitter is NothingWithout ContentAfter things settled down a bit during the first days andforeign media managed to gather, there began to bemore in-depth analysis of the situation also for non-Japanese speakers. The English language Twitter-sphere soon became a competing ground for newslinks, and for discussion how reliable or unreliable thesewere.Officials took notice, and soon the Japanese primeministers office, the Japanese Self Defence Forces andTokyo Electric Power Company had Twitter accountsalso in English trying to deliver their official statementsto an international audience increasingly affected bysensationalistic headlines,;especially with regards tothe reactor cooling trouble and subsequent radioactivefallout caused by the quake-tsunami dual punch to theFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.Naturally these same patterns were to some extenttaking place in the Japanese language Twitter-sphereas well, but in general the local media gave a muchmore balanced view between the human catastrophe intsunami-hit areas and the nuclear power plant troubles. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  11. 11. Which Contents isTrustworthy?Initial uncertainty and gaffes aside, a few days into thenon-stop coverage it began to seem as though somemedia outlets wanted to get all possible drama out ofthe disaster, even if it meant stretching the facts.During the first week the worst hit areas in Tohoku, notto mention the troubled Fukushima nuclear plant, weredifficult to access, preventing news crews from going onsite in convenience.Those journalists who did venture into the disaster areaduring the first week made in general good reportsunder difficult circumstances, but in contrast perhapssome found it easier to stay close to all comforts inTokyo, and from there try to create the stories theythought would catch readers attention.Bloggers quickly took upon themselves to rectify thisshoddy journalism conducted by some (though not all)foreign media representatives, and a stark contrast tothe stories describing people fleeing elevated radiationlevels and empty food shelves in Tokyo started toemerge for those who were interested enough to look. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  12. 12. An Irradiated Ghost Cityin Panic? Not ReallyWhile the true crisis was up to thenorth of Tokyo, a disproportionateamount of media coverage wasdirected on life in the capital. Tokyowas indeed affected, with localssaying the earthquake was thestrongest they’d ever experienced inthe city. However, material damagewas relatively minimal, and mainlythe citizens have only sufferedinconvenience through some cutsand shortages in utilities, acontinuing need to save electricity,and less punctual and frequentcommuter train services. Apart fromthese locals report that life hascontinued quite normally, and theoverbearing concern is for those intrue danger and need up in Tohoku. Commuter train with dimmed lights for saving electricity, Tokyo Image Source: tokyobling.wordpress.com, published under CC license 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  13. 13. The Internet DeliversWith the (mostly) western mediahaving a field day with crisisreporting local bloggers have beendoing their best trying to convey amessage of normality. Whenheadlines were touting impendingdoom in the form of radioactiveclouds heading for Tokyo, orelectricity, water and food shortages,local trend office CScout postedtongue-in-cheek accounts of theirsuccess in ordering mineral waterhome delivered directly from e-commerce site Rakuten, andworrying about serious shortages ofthon crudités and mozzarella at thelocal deli.To their great credit the CScout crewdid not only indulge in their webpurchases by themselves, but alsoput in a highly commendable effort ingathering and delivering aid suppliesto disaster struck areas to the northof the capital. Image Source: www.japantrends.com 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  14. 14. In the Aftermath;CaringWith the true magnitude of the disaster becoming evident, theJapanese seem in general to have taken it all in stride and buckledup for the rough ride ahead. Twitter messages have shown there isa strong we’ll-get-through-this attitude, which is warranted by thecountry’s long history of living with natural disasters.Amid all the tragedy a feeling of general caring has spread amongthe public even up to the level of government: Chief CabinetSecretary Yukio Edano, the government’s main spokespersonduring the continuing crisis management efforts, reportedly didn’thave time to sleep properly for over 100 hours after the quake andtsunami, being required to make official statements on the situationoften a many times per hour. The Twitter hashtag #edano_nero(Get some sleep Edano) quickly became a meme spread by peoplewho admired his strong commitment, but were ultimately concernedfor Mr. Edano’s health.On a more sour note another hashtag #kan_okiro (Kan, wake up)started appearing, referring to the rarity of seeing prime ministerNaoto Kan appear at critical news conferences. After a quitestrong aftershock close to the still active iconic volcano Mt. Fujiwest of Tokyo #fujisan_nero (Go to sleep, Mt. Fuji) soon appearedin tweets. At the time of writing Fujisan has still heeded this order. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  15. 15. It’s Not Over YetIt will take years for the material to be restored, andas for the human aspect there are those who willnever find restoration. Still, if any nation on earthcan take a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and rise upstronger from it, that would be Japan. We can seethe first steps taken in that direction already now.The following pages will cover some themes set inmotion by this disaster, which might deeply affectJapan as a nation and as a society in the years tocome. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  16. 16. Part 2:Possible FutureImplicationsPart 2 of this overview presents various issueswhich might warrant further study and in the comingmonths and years of reconstruction work. These arepresented in no particular order, and in the firmbelief that the best way to help the rebuilding effortsof the affected areas is to invest in new andsustainable communities and technologies. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  17. 17. CommitmentIn reporting on the unfolding disaster, domestic media To be fair, the general media focus seems now to behas been regarded as more honest, albeit vague, by the turning more towards the human suffering experienced inJapanese compared to major foreign news networks. quake and tsunami hit areas, as the emergency coolingComments indicate Al Jazeera and BBC are still trusted, efforts at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant apparentlybut especially CNN has let many down with their begin to take effect, and connections to the worst hit areassensationalistic angle in Japan’s time of need. In in Tohoku are being established. Still, in many cases theJapanese media the seriousness of the problems at the damage has already been done, with Japanese productsFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the western and foodstuffs are being shunned abroad out of irrationalmedia’s darling disaster, has not been downplayed in radiation fears.any way, but due emphasis has been put on reportingthe suffered trauma of the struck Tohoku Pacific coast. In future business relations with Japanese counterparts it is worth keeping in mind that the general perception ofThe nuclear fear-mongering by some western media, foreign professional’s commitment to their work has taken awhich led to panic among ex-pat groups in Tokyo and serious hit. Japanese companies want to restore normalityprompted many foreign professionals to leave the and form new contacts with foreign counterparts in order tocountry with little or no notice, has not been appreciated rebuild the Tohoku region. However, some will be waryin Japan. There are those in Japan now who feel the about forging deeper commitments, having seen or heardwestern news networks were out for a quick story of of foreign professionals deserting their posts based ondisaster, and latched on to an easy one of nuclear often unfounded rumours in the media of their homecatastrophe, which ultimately can be very harmful for the countries. Showing sincerity and commitment to longimage of Japan and Japanese products abroad, instead lasting business deals in a tactful way will be of high valueof the more slowly developing and harder to access in future dealings with Japanese businesses.human tragedy 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  18. 18. CommunicationFrom the very start of the disaster one form of On a smaller, but no less important scale, thecommunication in particular showed it’s strength: Twitter. communication needs of private citizens will also need toVery soon after the initial earthquake two of the three be addressed. As Japan has a very mature and developedmajor mobile carriers, NTT DoCoMo and Softbank, lost ecosystem of mobile devices, using them as a primarytheir networks, as infrastructure and power supplies were medium would seem as a natural choice. As this disasterdamaged. The third major carrier, number two by showed, even in a time of crisis and failing phone networkssubscriber volume KDDI, fared a bit better initially, but low data-intensive communication methods like Twitteralso this network was soon overwhelmed. With voice were able to keep functioning. Services like this can aid incommunications, e-mail and SMS services all but non- initial spreading of emergency information and inexistent for the public, Twitter, with it’s low data usage coordinating emergency responses.managed to stay active and relevant throughout theinitial crisis and beyond. Once the rescue phase of the crisis has given way to relief work and rebuilding, new communication needs haveInformation is the most valuable asset in a crisis, and become apparent. With hundreds of thousands of peoplenew ways will have to be found to deliver it in situations spread out in emergency shelters with poor road conditionslike the one experienced in Japan. Many both in Japan and few supplies needed for daily life, information can beand in the west have criticised the Japanese authorities essential for survival. As most Japanese mobile phonesoften vague and slow delivery of information. While this are internet capable, and a large number have digital TVway of presenting only facts and not elaborating much receivers, the options in medium are many. Neededhas been the accepted way in Japan until now, it has services can range from general survival skills to e-healthproved to be counterproductive. Crisis communication services for cut-off shelters, and e-education for bothshould be one area to develop, if Japan wants to avoid children and adults. Foreign expertise in such areas couldspeculations and half-truths to spread in foreign media in be very welcome for future needs.the future. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  19. 19. RoboticsAs news reports were showing pictures of large Another task robots might be called to perform in a nearhydrogen blasts and speaking of elevated radiation future is search and perhaps rescue operations in naturallevels at the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power disaster areas such as those experienced in Tohoku now.plant, many certainly wondered why a world-leading A tireless rescue force able to operate in all weather andcountry in robotics like Japan still was relying on humans lighting conditions would certainly be a welcome addition toto carry out the dangerous crisis management efforts the already efficient Japanese disaster responsethere. organisation. Cutting-edge development like this will naturally create an eventual trickle-down effect of roboticsMedia sources indicate there were indeed remotely into the consumer goods category.operated or semi-autonomous radiation measuringvehicles operating initially on the plant grounds, and While Japan is a world leader in robotic technologies,more have arrived since, but the actual emergency foreign companies should still not disregard thecontainment and repair work seems to be done largely opportunities of cooperation in this field. Robotics study inby a human crew at one point iconized as the Fukushima Japan has concentrated to fields like production industry,50 (though the number of people involved has varied healthcare, elderly care and social applications.from about 50 to several hundred throughout the crisis). Specialised robotics knowledge can be very welcome if it is related to crisis management or relief work in some way.The simple truth may be that robotics still just isn’tadvanced enough to reliably handle a situation like this.The incentive to develop robots to handle disasters likethis will certainly be strong, however, and as Japanalready has a strong R&D effort in place there will almostcertainly be progress in this field within some years. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  20. 20. EnergyNeedless to say, trust in nuclear power has been badly Investment in renewable energy infrastructure will certainlyshaken in Japan. After the earthquake 11 reactors are off see a boost in the future as a result of the events followingthe grid in north-eastern Japan, totalling about 9.7GW the earthquake. Wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectricworth of output. Some estimates put the remaining power are not yet widely developed means of electricitynuclear power generating capacity of the affected area at production in Japan, and foreign expertise in these fieldsonly 27% of the theoretical maximum. As a historical can be very welcome. Domestic companies and localcuriosity started by two rival electrical companies, one in governments are likely to invest in expanding theTokyo and one in Osaka, in the late 19th century, Japan renewable energy infrastructure.is divided into two grids: One at 50Hz covering Tokyoand the north of the country, and one at 60Hz covering Japan’s car industry has invested heavily in electricthe rest. vehicles, driving the research and development of advanced battery technology. This, combined with existingThis incompatibility in the grid is bridged by only three renewable energy sources like wind, solar and geothermalconverting stations, having a combined capacity of 1GW. energy can become a possible future development path forThis has led to a situation where Tokyo and the north are Japan, not to mention probable renewed interest andcurrently facing a severe and possibly prolonged sense of urgency in other new energy research. Still, forshortage of electricity, especially in the upcoming hot the near future the solution might just be to remember tosummer months when air conditioning systems are a switch off the extra lights and keep the existing nuclearmajor power consumer, while the rest of the country can capacity going.offer little but sympathy. Creating a unified nationalelectric grid for Japan will certainly be on the agendasometime in the future, though the scale of the project ishuge. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  21. 21. EcologyThe Tohoku area and greater Tokyo have so far Some the needed incentive to cut back on energymanaged to avoid major unpredicted blackouts due to consumption and adopt more sustainable living habitsstrict electricity saving efforts, and a general awareness permanently.among the public on electricity saving requirements.However the cooler spring weather currently experienced Despite all this Japan is still a society very much inclinedin Japan has greatly helped these efforts. The true test towards convenience. It has jokingly, but not entirelywill be the upcoming hot and humid summer months. unfoundedly, been said that Japan needs at least one nuclear power plant to run the hundreds of thousands ofOfficials, businesses and private citizens are all well drink vending machines found all over the country even inaware of this, and actions reducing the peaks in the most unlikely places, and a few plants more to run theelectricity demand are being planned. Some solutions 24H open convenience stores which are almost asmight be for companies to encourage more flexible frequent.working times, thus lessening the strain on the grid ofrush hour commuter traffic . Also longer summer Any business providing products, services or know-how forholidays and more relaxed and cooler dress codes for saving electricity without sacrificing too much conveniencebusiness occasions might be implemented, reducing the should have a very receptive market in Japan for severalneeds for office air conditioning. years into the future. Other future trends could be that people switch into slow-life mode, finding a lifestyle whichAlready before the disaster Japan had been seeing a uses less resources overall, and perhaps increasedstrong ecology trend; Sometimes sincere, and electricity generation on a household level.sometimes with a feeling of green-wash. However, thereis a strong awareness of environmental issues already inplace among the public, and the current crisis can give 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  22. 22. InfrastructureOne thing which has been noted with astonishment in There are, however, niche expertise related toforeign media is the speed and efficiency at which vital infrastructure development which can be very welcome ininfrastructure has been repaired. Even though there has Japan in the future. As noted earlier in this report, crisisbeen critique towards the government for lagging in the communication systems will see continued development,response to the crisis, the speed at which vital roads and and foreign expertise in this area can be very welcome.communications have been restored by local officials,the Japanese Self Defence Forces and US forces All municipal services could also be further adapted tostationed in Japan has been impressive. operations in the event of a crisis. Education and health care done via networks was already touched upon earlierJapan as a society is naturally very well prepared for in this report, and one very concrete example can be seenlarge natural disasters due to the country’s history of in the current lack of functioning toilets in the areas affectedconstantly experiencing them. Construction methods, by the earthquake and tsunami. Both public and privaterescue services, health care and both national and local toilets in Japan are heavily featured by western standards,administration have been adapted to the possibility of and thus rely on a steady supply of water and electricity.such an event as is currently experienced. Waterless toilet technology might be a popular research subject in the future.There is perhaps little foreign experts and businessescan contribute to this well planned and constantlyrehearsed crisis management system in place in Japan.Rather Japan might in the future use the experiencesfrom this disaster in aiding other parts of the world whichare at risk of experiencing something similar. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  23. 23. A New StartUltimately, the earthquake and tsunami will be a test of Now that modern and prosperous nation has perhapsJapan’s national unity and collective will to rebuild. There come to a new watershed moment in it’s history: One couldis no question that Japan has managed huge rebuilding sense the younger generations struggling against the glassefforts several times throughout it’s history, but this time roof set by their seniors in the Japanese society before thethe demographic outlook is slightly different: quake. Parents had enjoyed job security, stability and material prosperity, which the recent graduates andAn ever shrinking working age population is trying to take students felt they would never be able to achieve.care of an increasing population of elderly, and nowfacing the challenge to rebuild after the biggest quake After this quake, Japan will need all the brain and musclesince records began in Japan on top of that. A rising available, and if both young and old can overcome the gapnational debt and an economy trudging on in stagnation between them and cooperate for the greater good, then thisfor two decades according to some observers were only catastrophe can perhaps in the future be seen as thesome of the discussed problems Japan faced even starting point of a truly new post-industrial society. Abefore the quake. The best way for foreign individuals society which has learned the hard way to live with theand businesses to help Japan now is to treat both it’s forces of nature, and prevailed. A society, which becausepeople and it’s products with trust, and actively engage of tragedy became more caring, communal, innovative andin cooperation that benefits both sides. open, and which can serve as a model for other developed nations facing the same challenges which Japan wasPrime Minister Naoto Kan has said the earthquake is the facing before the earth moved off the Tohoku coast atbiggest disaster to hit Japan since the Second World 14:46 on March 11th 2011.War. Accordingly, the aftermath faced now should needa something similar to the combined effort by the nationin the 1950’s and -60’s, when Japan got picked up fromthe ashes of defeat and was transformed into a modernand prosperous nation. 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com
  24. 24. Thank YouFor further information, comments and opinions, please contactmikael@mobileobservations.com 2-5-2011 www.mobileobservations.com

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