1. Keynote given at Northampton University on 2011-09-01 by invitation of Adrian Pryce for the school’s2020 visioning session.This document has a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-SA), and can be used freely.
2. TECHNOLOGY & EDUCATIONMichell Zappamichellzappa.comWe’re here today to talk about the intersection between technology and education.And I ﬁgured that since you guys are the experts on education, let us start with a quick primer ontechnology and how it behaves.
3. Who am I?
4. Last updated: 2011-03-29 (biofeedback) Reversal of meeting people is easy aging Optogenetics Artificial limbs Swarm Exoskeletons robotics Programmable matter UAVs Utility Regenerative fog medicine Domestic Synthetic robots meat Nanowires Stem-cell treatments Self-driving ROBOTICS vehicles Vertical Carbon agriculture nanotubes Personalized Interplanetary medicine internet Molecular assembler BIOTECH Tele- Intelligence Smart medicine Amplification cities Smart toys Bio- materials MATERIALS HAPs Bio- markers Meta- materials Machine translation Semantic ARTIFICIAL web Self-healing materials INTELLIGENCE Smart Linked data Appliance infrastructure robots Memristor NFC Cermets INTERNET Print on demand Medical Space (CONNECTIVITY) PGS diagnostics Social 3D elevator 5G graph printing Natural language High-frequency interpretation Cloud trading computing Software 2025 + 2015 – 2025 2011 – 2015 Cyber- now Private spaceflight 2011 – 2015 agents 2015 – 2025 2025 + warfare Sensors (2011) Space Ultra- Bio-enhanced tourism PAN Tabs & Fuel cells capacitors fuels SPACE Pads Multi Multi-segmented Virtual 4G touch All media smart grids currencies on demand Smart VASIMR Virtual meters property Pervasive Gesture video recognition Inductive Superconducting Boards chargers interties 3D Electronic Gamification paper AR of media Lunar outpost Pico- projectors ENERGY Nanostructure ACRONYMS battery cathodes Speech 3D 3D screens and cameras recognition Procedural storytelling SPIMES 4G Fourth gen cellular wireless (WiMAX, LTE) MEDIA UBICOMP 5G Fifth gen cellular wireless (HARDWARE) Haptics Photo- Piezo- AR Augmented Reality NUI voltaics electricity (SOFTWARE) Thorium HAP High Altitude Platform Fabric- embedded reactors Holography Location-aware Photvoltaic Biomechanical NFC Near Field Communication screens media glass harvesting Traveling wave reactor NUI Natural User Interface Telepresence Nano- Nuclear PAN Personal Area Networks generators Solar PGS Personal Gene Sequencing thermal Smart clothing Kinetic SPIME An object that can be tracked Machine through space and time vision UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Artificial Immersive 3D photosynthesis VASIMR Variable Specific Impulse projections Magnetoplasma Rocket Retinal Solar screens Skin-embedded screens Learn more: michell zappa.comI recently published firstname.lastname@example.org Contact me: michell a visualization of a few dozen key technologies I think will be important in theupcoming decade. Follow me: @mz BY SA
5. assembler BIOTECH Tele- medicine Smart toys Bio- materials MATERIALS Bio- markers Meta- materials Semantic ARTIFIC web Self-healing materials INTELLIGE Linked data Appliance robots Memristor NFC Cermets INTERNET Print on demand (CONNECTIVITY) PGS Social 3D graph printing Natural language High-frequency interpretation Cloud trading computing Software 2011 – 2015 Cyber- now Private spaceflight 2011 – 2015 agents warfareSensors (2011) Sp Ultra- Bio-enhanced tou PAN capacitors fuels Tabs & Fuel cells Pads Multi Multi-segmented Virtual 4G touch All media smart grids currencies on demand Smart Virtual meters property Pervasive Gesture video recognition Inductive Superconducting Boards chargers interties 3D Electronic Gamification paper AR of media Pico- projectors ENERGY Nanostruc Speech battery cath recognition Procedural storytelling SPIMES UBICOMP MEDIA (HARDWARE) Haptics Photo- Piezo- NUI voltaics electricity (SOFTWARE) Fabric- embedded Holography screens Location-aware Photvoltaic Biomechanical media glass harvesting It can be downloaded freely on my website. Telepresence ge Solar thermallothing Machine vision Artificial Immersive 3D photosynthesis projections
6. What is technology?What do you associate with technology?Cars? Airplanes? Mobile phones? The internet?
7. We usually think about technology in terms of its artifacts: robots, cars, phones, etc.
8. Technology, in fact, is everything that surrounds us.The wheel, agriculture, ﬁre, the book and money are examples of technologies we do not usuallyisolate as such.
9. “Anything useful that we make is technology.” — Kevin KellyKevin Kelly knows what he’s talking about.Source:http://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_kelly_tells_technology_s_epic_story.html
10. The other characteristic about technology is how it’s always progressing. A century ago, humanity hadnever even taken ﬂight. Now, we take it for granted.
11. Same with medical imaging.
12. And also things we consider “technologies”, like video games.
13. 2011 2006 CPU FSB RAM HDD MpbsBut technology has this other interesting aspect. It grows relentlessly.You can ignore the numbers -- just look at the constant growth over time.
14. SPEED & STORAGEThese tend toward ∞ through exponential growth
15. COST & SIZEAnd these tend tend asymptotically toward zero.
16. What allows YouTube to exist? The combination of:Ubiquitous cameras, cheap storage, fast processing, internet users everywhere, fast internet access.http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/dtimcarr/308240826/
17. 48 hours of content uploaded every minute.(As of May/2001)“nearly 8 years of content uploaded every day”Sources:http://www.mecmanchester.co.uk/blog/youtube-birthday.htmlhttp://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics
18. While we avoid talking about speciﬁc gadgets, there is one elephant in the room...
19. The iPad is, however, an important exception to the rule of “not looking at gadgets”.It will inevitable make its mark on education, but in my opinion, it will mostly have a great impact ontextbooks in the foreseeable future.
20. “A rocket will never be able to leave the Earth’s atmosphere.” — New York Times, 1936Tech predictions are fundamentally ﬂawed and risky.Source:http://listverse.com/history/top-30-failed-technology-predictions/
22. SocialLearningPlatforms 1
23. One to one One to manyThe face of education after the industrial revolution.
24. The one-to-many approach changed a bit with the web. But mostly by amplifying the “many”.Open Courseware (and its kin) is still fundamentally broadcasting knowledge.
25. Everyone is in on the game.
26. One to one One to many Many to manyI think the equation is changing with the advent of “many-to-many”. Where every student is a teacher.
27. Million students per monthPause, repeat, reviewOwn pace, skip aheadTeacher overview panelGenerate as many questions as the student needs. Until they get ten in a row.
28. 2.200+ lessons100.000+ views per day
29. Tons of examples of peer to peer learning. OpenStudy is all about receiving help from other students.
30. As is Udemy.
31. Livemocha is changing the face of language education. Learn from those already speak a differentlanguage -- and teach them a language you speak in return.
32. And if you question the validity of Open Courseware approaches, just look at Stanford’s recent AIcourse.
33. “Flip” the classroom.Flip the classroom:lectures are the new homework -- and classes are used for answering questions and doing workTransforming a system that has become industrial by necessity into a craft once again.
34. PersonalInformatics 2
35. This is how we quantify ourselves today. Ranking, measuring, achievements.
36. Nike+Nike+ has over 2.5m users, and can be credited to kicking off the personal informatics trend.
37. Philips DirectLifePhilips is in the game, with a device measuring all your exercise.http://www.directlife.philips.com/
38. WithingsOr how about measuring your weight and having the results uploaded to your phone in real time?It becomes a way of tightening the feedback loop between cause and effect. Between eating that extrabagel, and knowing you gained a few more pounds.http://www.withings.com/en/index/?taranim=1
39. Or track the quality of your sleep.http://www.myzeo.com/
40. The same thing is happening to education, of course. Grockit facilitates learning and test-prep bybreaking down the problems into quantiﬁable chunks. Track how well you are performing at every*aspect* of math. Not simply through a grade at the end of the term/test.
41. Algorithmic homework assignmentWhat happens when you leverage the trend in order to algorithmically assign more adequatehomework assignments to the students?
42. Tighter feedback loops“This is not the way to develop a complicated skill. It would be like trying to master the violin, say, bygoing blind to a recital, having an expert tell you all the ways you’ve failed, and letting that gestate fora few weeks before your next recital”.Equity in the feedback loop. It’s a way to raise the bar for everyone.
43. “Gamified” learningOr when you start “gamifying” the learning? Better rankings, better class overview, more incentives forthe students to try harder.
44. InstantInformationRetrieval 3
45. “Knowledge isof two kinds.We know a subjectourselves, orwe know wherewe can ﬁndinformation on it.
46. The number of Google searches per day keeps going up. We are more than accustomed to havingaccess to information at our ﬁngertips. But comes “after” typing in queries into a computer?
47. Personal computing Ubiquitous computingWe’re surrounding ourselves with ever more gadgets. All interconnected and covered in smart sensors.
48. Google GogglesSo why have to look up the name of that bridge? Or who created that painting?Point your smartphone camera and have Google tell you. It’s called reverse image search, and it’sfrankly uncanny.
49. Google Voice SearchSpeak your queries. Or have the phone listen in and proactively answer your questions (at some pointin the future).
50. Word LensRealtime translations in your phone. You never have to get lost in a foreign culture again.Five dollars in the App Store.
51. Vicon RevueNext step? Cameras everywhere. Wear one around your neck.http://www.viconrevue.com/index.html
52. LooxcieOr one on your ear. (Already for sale).
53. Heads-up-displays are still a few years away -- but they’ll come.
54. Wisdom Knowledge Information DataWho teaches our kids to sift through the information ﬂood?How do we learn to judge the value and validity of this torrent of data?That’s probably the role of the educators today.
55. Social Learning Platforms Instant Personal Information Informatics RetrievalTo recap...
56. FUTURE LITERACY & NUMERACYWhat is the future of literacy?
57. 65% of todays grade school kids will end up at a job that hasnt been invented yet.Source: United States Department of Labor: Futurework - Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21stCenturyWe are currently preparing for jobs that don’t yet exist, using technologies that haven’t been invented,In order to solve problems we don’t even know are problems yet.
58. PROGRAMMING INTERFACE PRIVACY MULTIMEDIA ATTENTION MULTITASKING CONCENTRATIONWe need to rethink the very basic skills that are being taught in school. Even more emphasis onfuture-proof skills such as Interface, Concentration and Attention. Those issues aren’t going anywhere.Today, programmers are just like scribes in the middle ages or ancient Egypt. In the future, everyonewill be a programmer. Everyone will have to interact with all media. It’s no longer a “IT” problem.
59. Students should be taken to the edge of the precipice beyond which knowledge does not exist. Harold InnisI love this phrase (because we have no other option than to be dragged, kicking and screaming, to thisprecipice).