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3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges
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3 12 2008 Myths & Realities Of Democratic Trustee Governance Of Public Community Colleges

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This study examines the public engagement practices of the public community college boards of trustees. The trustees’ perceptions of public engagement were pursued through inquiry within five …

This study examines the public engagement practices of the public community college boards of trustees. The trustees’ perceptions of public engagement were pursued through inquiry within five categories: (a) role and responsibilities, (b) definition of public engagement, (c) public engagement practices, (d) barriers to public engagement, and (e) how to make public engagement more effective. The results of study emerged within five major thematic areas, which have implications for theory and practice—(a) trustee roles, (b) trustee relationships with the public, (c) administrative and organizational structures, (d) leadership, and (e) policy which have implications for theory and practice. Finally, the three key conclusions of this study are (a) trustees do not identify deliberative public engagement as a role priority or a default priority; (b) the role of trustees must be reframed and redefined to include democratic public engagement practices; and (c) the public's role in democratic governance must be reclaimed.

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  • 1. Myths and Realities of Democratic Trustee Governance of Public Community Colleges: A National Case Study Presented by Dr. Michelle T. Scott 2008 American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility Thursday, March 27, 2008   New York Marriott Marquis Times Square Broadway Ballroom ©
  • 2. Myths and Realities of Democratic Trustee Governance of Public Community Colleges: A National Case Study Presented by Dr. Michelle T. Scott 2008 American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility Thursday, March 27, 2008 ©
  • 3. Research Focus
    • The Public Engagement Practices of Public Community College Trustees
  • 4. The Research Problem
    • Scarcity of research on public
    • engagement practices of public
    • community college trustee
  • 5. Central Research Questions
    • What is the process by which community college trustees engage with the public?
    • What factors contribute to trustee public engagement practices ?
  • 6. 5 Subsidiary Research Questions
    • Question 1: How do trustees describe their roles and responsibilities as a trustee?
    • Question 2: How do trustees define public engagement?
    • Question 3: How do trustees explain the role of public participation in their policy setting activities?
  • 7. 5 Subsidiary Research Questions
    • Question 4: How do trustees describe barriers to public engagement and public participation?
    • Question 5: What suggestions do trustees have about making public engagement and public participation more effective?
  • 8. Important Related Research
    • Seminal research reiterating the essential role of leadership in influencing and shaping an institution’s public engagement mission, agenda, and processes.
        • American Association of State Colleges and Universities Task Force on Public Engagement (2002) – Stepping Forward as Stewards of Place
        • Community College Indicators of Engagement at Two-year Institutions (2004) – Campus Compact
        • Douglas (2005)
  • 9. Context of Civic & Public Engagement
    • The processes and practices for engagement have occurred within several contexts, and the discourse on engagement has occurred within a range of lexica — public engagement, civic engagement, public deliberation, authentic engagement, authentic participation, strong democracy, unitary democracy, discursive democracy, deliberative dialogue, deliberative democracy, outreach, community outreach, community service, public service, community relations, and service learning .
  • 10. Perspectives on Civic & Public Engagement
    • Civic and Public engagement are very broad terms. …The lack of a clear definition can leave some campuses and their leaders with the impression that they are “doing engagement,” when in fact they are not.
    • The breadth of civic engagement fosters great diversity of activity; it also presents the risk that the term can say everything and nothing at the same time .
    • Association of State Colleges and Universities Taskforce on Public Engagement
  • 11. Perspectives on Civic & Public Engagement
    • Long-term, two-way discourse interactions between an institution and the community that facilitates public participation processes for institutional collaboration with the public to identify, define, and solve public problems
    • (Campus Compact, 2001; Creighton, 2005; Friedman, 2004; Grossi, 2000; Irvin & Stansbury,
    • 2004; Kellogg Commission, 1999; King, Feltey & Susel, 1998; Mathews, 2006; Pew
    • Foundation, 2004; Votruba, et al., 2002; Zlotkowski, Duffy, Franco, Gelmon, Norvell,
    • Meerpool, & Jones, 2004)
  • 12. Perspectives on Civic & Public Engagement
    • “ The publicly engaged institution is fully committed to direct, two-way interaction with communities and other external constituencies through the development, exchange, and application of knowledge, information, and expertise for mutual benefit.”
    • Votruba, J. C., & Task Force on Public Engagement. (2002). Stepping forward as stewards of place: A guide for leading public engagement at state colleges and universities . New York: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.
  • 13. Perspectives on Civic & Public Engagement
    • “ Civic engagement is often narrowly defined in terms of community outreach or public service. It is seen as something carried out on behalf of the community, instead of in partnership with the community. What is needed is a more ‘public epistemology’, one that emphasizes the art of public discourse, the cultivation of civic imagination and capacity, the importance of engaging alternative points of view, and the value of engaging in ‘public work’.”
    • Boyte, H. (2000). Higher education and public life: Restoring the bond. Dayton, OH: The Kettering Foundation.
  • 14. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • “ There is a growing recognition on the part of administrators that decision making without [authentic] public participation is ineffective.”
    • King, C. S., Feltey, K. M., & Susel, B. O. (1998, July/August). The question of participation: Toward authentic public participation in public administration. Public Administration Review, 58(4), 319.
  • 15. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • “ Authentic participation moves beyond concerns with legitimacy and public relations to shared control. It conceives of participation as important for the development of the individual, important for the creation of democratic institutions, and important as a means to increase learning outcomes.”
    • “ It defines democracy as participatory rather than merely representative and results in more active and informed citizens and institutions with greater authority.”
    • Anderson, G. (1998). Toward Authentic Participation: Deconstructing the discourses of participatory reform in education. American Education Research Journal, 35 (4), 571-603.
  • 16. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • “ Often times, what appears to be participatory practice is really just smoke and mirrors as participation is used as a tool of collusion, diversion, or purely to promote good public relations. Participants often become disheartened as they realize that their voices count little or may not be heard at all .”
    • Hawk, J. W. (2001). A critical examination of authentic participation in school decision-making. ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (UMI No. 3017093 )
  • 17. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • “ Authentic participation is a vehicle for preserving democratic theory within educational practice. It embraces the tenants of democracy including equal representation and participation, the development of the individual, shared control, a more active and informed citizenry, and institutions with greater moral authority.”
    • Hawk, J. W. (2001). A critical examination of authentic participation in school decision-making. ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (UMI No. 3017093 )
  • 18. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • “… Citizens have concerns and ideas to share about education, but are not afforded the proper amount of time and space to essentially discuss …There is not enough emphasis on soliciting the public’s opinion through a deliberative and purposeful process of civic engagement.”
    • Furey, S. M. (2004). The public and public education: Deliberative dialogue and making the connections among public education stakeholders. ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (UMI No. 3120731 )
  • 19. Perspectives on Authentic Engagement & Authentic Participation
    • The authentic engagement “assumes that many stakeholders can and should be involved, not in every technical detail of college policy, but in helping to set the broad directions and values from which policy proceeds. It assumes, moreover, that staff, students, and various members of the larger community can play an important, even vital, role in making college policies work.”
    • Friedman, W. (2004). Facilitating achieving the dream planning through public engagement strategies: A guide for community college leadership teams.
  • 20. Perspectives on Trustee Governance
    • “ Public trusteeship and governance has been focused on administrative matters rather than issues and concerns arising from the public.”
    • American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2002). Stepping forward as stewards of place . Washington, DC: Author.
  • 21. Perspectives on Trustee Governance
    • “ Trustees are the people in an “ideal place to listen to the citizenry—their own representatives.”
    • Mathews, D. (2005). Listening to the public. In A. J. Kezar, T. C. Chambers, & J. C. Burkhardt (Eds.), Higher education for the public good: Emerging voices from a national movement (p. 71-87). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  • 22. Perspectives on Trustee Governance
    • “ Boards have a history of a democratic mission that is worth recalling. It is a history that sheds considerable light on how institutions came to have a civic mandate.”
    • Mathews, D. (2005). Listening to the public. In A. J. Kezar, T. C. Chambers, & J. C. Burkhardt (Eds.), Higher education for the public good: Emerging voices from a national movement (p. 71-87). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  • 23. Perspectives on Trustee Governance
    • “ Although trustees legally own the university, they do not own it for their personal benefit; rather, they own it in trust for others.”
    • Sample, S. B. (2003, November/December). In your hands a sacred trust. Trustee . Washington, DC: Association of Governing Board.
  • 24. Perspectives on Trustee Governance
    • “ Trustees have focused on administrative matters rather than issues and concerns arising from the public.”
    • Votruba, J. C., & Task Force on Public Engagement. (2002). Stepping forward as stewards of place: A guide for leading public engagement at state colleges and universities . New York: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.
  • 25. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ Behind every successful college stands a committed Board of Trustees who collectively represent the interests of the large group who own the institution – the community.”
    • Association of Community College Trustees (2005). 20 Essential Questions that every board member must answer. Washington, DC: Author
  • 26. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ There are 20 essential questions that every board member must answer says the ACCT—“Are you effectively serving your community’s interest?”
    • Association of Community College Trustees (2005). 20 Essential Questions that every board member must answer. Washington, DC: Author
  • 27. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ Boards have the responsibility to their CEO to be effective stewards of the community’s interest and the college mission…”
    • “ Trustees face the awesome challenge to seek out, consider, and balance many values and interests .”
    • Smith, C. J. (2000). Trusteeship in community colleges: A guide for effective governance . Washington, DC: Association of Community College Trustees.
  • 28. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ Governing boards are key to the colleges’ role in their communities.”
    • Smith, C. J. (2000). Trusteeship in community colleges: A guide for effective governance . Washington, DC: Association of Community College Trustees.
  • 29. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ Governing boards are key to the colleges’ role in their communities.”
    • Smith, C. J. (2000). Trusteeship in community colleges: A guide for effective governance . Washington, DC: Association of Community College Trustees.
  • 30. Perspectives on Community College Trustee Governance
    • “ The commonly accepted dichotomy in educational leadership—administration versus governance—takes governance for granted. As the result, the role of governance in leadership too often is overlooked.”
    • McPhail, C. J. (2005). Learning-centered governance in community colleges. In
    • C. J. McPhail (Ed.), Establishing and sustaining learning-centered community
    • colleges (p. 139-155). Washington, DC: Community College Press.
  • 31. Research Design: Case Study Define and Design Prepare, Collect, Analyze Analyze and Conclude Develop Theory Conduct 1 st Case Study Urban (3) Design Data Collection Protocol Select Cases Conduct 2 nd Case Study Suburban (2) Creighton Public Participation & Mathews Dem. Practice National Issues Forum Institute Community Colleges (5) Write Individual & Intra Case Analysis Report Write Individual & Intra Case Analysis Report Draw Cross Case Conclusion Modified Theory Develop Policy Implications Write Cross Case Report Standardized Individual Interviews Document Review & Analysis Trustees are involved in authentic public engagement practices
  • 32. Research Methodology
    • Structured and Open-ended Interviews [t=19]
    • Community College [ t=10]
    • Institutional Document review and analysis included:
      • Institution Websites
      • Institution Mission Statement
      • Board Mission Statement
      • Board Agenda and Minutes (covering 3 year period)
      • Strategic Plans
      • Public Engagement Projects and Reports
  • 33. Population
    • Purposive Sampling due to scope study of— Ten Institutions by Type and State:
          • Urban: Two Located in Arizona
          • Suburban: Two Located in Florida
          • Suburban: Two Located in Illinois
          • Urban: Two Located Maryland
          • Urban: Two Located in Oregon
    FLORIDA MARYLAND ARIZONA OREGON ILLINOIS
  • 34. Conceptual Framework
    • Public Participation (Creighton, 2005)
    • Democratic Practices of Public Engagement (Mathews, 2006)
  • 35. Conceptual Framework
    • Public Participation (Creighton, 2005)
        • Four essential elements—(a) issues that require administrative decision-making; (b) interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; (c) organized processes for involving the public; and (d) participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision
        • Public participation occurs along a continuum which has four major integrated categories—(a) informing the public; (b) listening to the public; (c) engaging in problem solving; and (d) developing agreements
  • 36. Conceptual Framework
    • Democratic Practices of Public Engagement (Mathews, 2006)
        • (a) Naming problems in terms of what is most valuable to citizens; (b) Framing issues to identify all the options; (c) Deliberating publicly to make sound decisions; (d) Complementing institutional planning with civic commitment; (e) Adding public acting to institutional action; and (f) Turning evaluation into civic learning
  • 37. Inform the public Organize processes for involving the public Select public engagement administrative structure, system, and process for public participation (Creighton, 2005) Listening to the public (Creighton, 2005) Issues that require administrative decision-making & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Identify and define issues in terms of what is most valuable to citizens (Mathews, 2006) Listening to the public (Creighton, 2005) Issues that require administrative decision-making & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Name problems in terms of what is most valuable for the common good (Mathews, 2006) Listening to the public (Creighton, 2005) Issues that require administrative decision-making & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Frame issues to identify all the options (Mathews, 2006) Engaging in problem solving (Creighton, 2005) Participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Deliberate publicly to make sound decisions (Mathews, 2006) Developing Agreements (Creighton, 2005) Participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Work together over an extended period of time (Mathews, 2006) Listening to the Public (Creighton, 2005) Participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision & Interaction between an organization making the decision and the public (Creighton, 2005) Judge results together and civic learning to refine public engagement (Mathews, 2006) Figure 1. Creighton and Mathews Integrated Conceptual Framework for Public Engagement .
  • 38. Realities
    • Democratic Trustee Governance of Public Community Colleges
  • 39. 5 Areas of Key Findings
    • Trustee Roles and Responsibilities
    • Definition of Public Engagement
    • Public Engagement Practice
    • Public Engagement Barriers
    • Making Public Engagement More Effective
  • 40. Key Findings
    • Trustees identified serving and representing the community's interests as their role; this role has been performed with minimal meaningful contact with the community.
    • Trustees had no common nomenclature or vernacular for the public, constituents, stakeholders, community, public engagement or public participation.
    • Trustee governance has not focused on public engagement in its relationship with the public.
    • Dichotomy of “crisis” and “public contentment”
  • 41. Key Findings
    • Trustees’ engagement practices are influenced by a priori assumptions about the public and public participation.
    • Trustees have no public engagement policy or framework linked to establishing policy or decision making.
    • Trustees have not identified or defined their role or mission to include public engagement.
    • No consensus among trustees that their current public engagement practices could or should be enhanced.
  • 42. Realities of Current Public Engagement Practice Role of Institution and Trustees Inform the public Entails institution organizing processes for involving the public and selecting public engagement administrative structure, system, and process for public participation (Creighton, 2005) Role of Institution and Trustees Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves identifying and defining issues in terms of what is most valuable to the institution (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006) Role of Institution and Trustees Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves naming problems in terms of what is most valuable for the institution (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves framing issues to identify all the options (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees Engaging in problem solving Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails trustees deliberating publicly to make sound decisions (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees Developing agreements Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails the institution and trustees working together over an extended period of time (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees Listening to the public Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails institution and trustees judging results together (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Figure 1. Current Trustee Public Engagement Practice based on Creighton and Mathews’ Integrated Conceptual Framework for Public Engagement.
  • 43. Visual Realities of the Anatomy of Trustee Public Engagement Town Hall Meetings Board Meeting Chamber Meetings Parades & Socials Church Civic Associations Fundraisers Running for Office Advocacy Policy Development
  • 44. 3 Key Conclusions
    • Trustees do not identify deliberative public engagement as a role priority or a default priority
    • The role of trustees must be reframed and redefined to include democratic public engagement practices
    • The public's role in democratic governance must be reclaimed
  • 45. 5 Recommendation Areas
    • Trustee Role
    • Relationship With the Public
    • Administrative and Organizational Structures
    • Leadership
    • Policy
  • 46. Recommendations: Trustee Role
    • Trustees need to rethink the role of governance
    • Trustees need to reframe and redefine their role and mission for the inclusion of public engagement
    • There is a need for less bureaucratic governance and organizational structures for trustees to more effectively represent the interests, needs, and concerns of the broader community
  • 47. Recommendations: Relationship With Public
    • Trustees need to purposively define their public
    • Trustees need to develop a common vernacular for public engagement
    • Trustees need to specifically identify and define benchmarks for public engagement
  • 48. Recommendations: Relationship With Public
    • Trustees could:
      • Occasionally conduct a survey of community needs, concerns, and interests
      • Routinely establish occasions for listening to the community
      • Identify, name, and frame issues with the community
      • Deliberate with the public
      • Evaluate the effectiveness of their collaborative decision making efforts
      • Encourage the public to actively and vociferously participate in the civic life of the community and college
  • 49. Recommendations: Administrative & Organizational Structure
      • Identify and implement timely, appropriate and systemic institutional interventions to transform the public engagement practices of trustees and enhance their legitimacy with the public they serve
      • Allocate adequate institutional resources (i.e., staff and budget) for engaging with the public
      • Revisit administrative structures, systems and processes to assess opportunities for enabling democratic institutional practices, democratic governance, deliberative public engagement, and authentic public participation  
  • 50. Recommendations: Leadership
    • Trustees need to lead organizational change and to focus more on the attitudes of citizens and “people in the community”
    • Trustees need to assure that appropriate structures are in place, as well as support structures for public engagement
    • CEO and trustees should be purposeful about pursuing opportunities for public participation and public deliberation, especially at the monthly board meetings
    • Trustees need to include democratic public engagement and authentic public participation in their decision making
  • 51. Recommendations: Leadership
      • Integrate a public engagement pedagogy in trustee professional development initiatives and trustee orientation
      • Create opportunities for the CEO and trustees to experience and practice more democratic public engagement in conducting public board meetings and board business
      • Develop trustee recruitment and selection criteria to include a requirement of experience, as well as commitment to democratic governance practices
  • 52. Recommendations: Policy
      • Boards’ policies on decision-making should follow a “policy choice” strategy
      • Trustees need to purposefully allocate sufficient time and resources for systemic policy analysis. 
      • Provide comprehensive and topic-specific board education and development on governing contemporary community colleges, especially in the area of engaging the community
      • Deliberate about connecting, interacting, and engaging with a broader and a more inclusive cross-section of the community in order to legitimately pursue the public’s agenda
  • 53. The Reality is that Democratic Trustee Governance of Public Community Colleges is a Myth! ©
  • 54. New Model to Dispel Myth
    • Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
  • 55. The Model Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Listening to engage in problem solving and develop agreements Entails institution with the public organizing processes for involving the public and selecting public engagement administrative structure, system, and process for public participation (Creighton, 2005). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves identifying and defining issues in terms of what is most valuable to the public good (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves naming problems in terms of what is most valuable for the public good (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Listening to the public Based on issues that require administrative decision-making and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it involves framing issues to identify all the options in the interest of the public good (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Engaging in problem solving Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails trustees deliberating with the public to make sound decisions (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Developing agreements Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails the institution and trustees working with the public over an extended period of time (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Role of Institution and Trustees with the Public Listening to the public Based on participation that allows the public to have an opportunity to impact or influence the decision and interaction between an organization making the decision and the public; and it entails the institution, trustees and public judging results together and civic learning to refine public engagement process (Creighton, 2005; Mathews, 2006). Figure 3. Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
  • 56. Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
    • The Model’s Premise — Engagement philosophy and practice of board of trustees/institution is to determine and organize [with the community] the processes for involving the public and selecting the public engagement administrative structure, system, and process for the community’s participation. (Scott, 2007)
  • 57. Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
    • The Model has ten key principles:
    • Sorting: The institution and trustees determine with the public whether an issue requires engagement and the kind of public participation required to reach a decision for the public good.
    • Communication: Public engagement is a two-way communication between the institution/trustees with the public and it assures that public engagement and public participation occur along a continuum, which includes listening and publicly deliberating to engage in problem solving to develop agreements.
    • Integration: The public is integrated in every step of the decision-making process, which includes identifying an issue (naming) and defining and synthesizing an issue (framing) in a context with languages that even non-expert publics and communities can understand its scope and impact.
  • 58. Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
    • The Model has ten key principles:
    • Inclusive: The public engagement process is fluid, and invites an expanded, more inclusive, and representative public at every phase of the process.
    • Discourse: The engagement process is deliberative and dialogic.
    • Cooperation: A co-facilitative public participation process is enabled where information is being shared, rather than the institution/trustees merely informing the public.
    • Personal Stake: The participants must have the opportunity to share their personal stakes (i.e., self-interest and what is of value to them) about an issue and their preferences for a specific policy direction; weigh the benefits, consequences and costs of various public policy approaches with other community members, and identify the common interests or common directions of their self interests among the self interests of other dialogue participants.
  • 59. Democratic Public Engagement Trustee Governance Model
    • The Model has ten key principles:
    • Common Ground: The engagement practice enables the institution/trustees and public to facilitate and pursue individual knowledge and understanding to create common ground for collective public knowledge and understanding.
    • Collaboration: The institution/trustees and the public collaboratively pursue outcomes to reach common ground or agreement about how to address an issue through engaging in collaborative problem-solving.
    • Assessment: The institution/trustees with the public evaluate the public engagement process and civic learning to enhance the effectiveness of future public engagement processes.
  • 60. For More Information
    • Contact
    • Dr. Michelle T. Scott
    • [email_address]
    • or
    • For information on this study visit ProQuest Digital Dissertations:
    • Scott, M. T. (2007). Community college trustees and public engagement: A case study of national issues forum institute network community colleges. Baltimore, MD: Morgan State University. ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (UMI No.3258445)

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