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prEd 125...Mich

  1. 1. Importance of authentic importance of assessment is that assessment can be feedback tools to find effective methods of teaching and to learn more about students, their interests, goals and achievements. “Such an assessment procedure is called authentic assessment method. Authentic assessment gives students situations that occur in the real world which require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.” Such assessment procedures, aside from traditional or formal assessment practice, truly encourages the active involvement of my students in the learning process, as well as, promotes healthy interaction among students and teacher. Transcript of Copy of HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FROM THE PRE-SPANISH TO THE PRESENT, THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES HAS UNDERGONE SEVERAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. EDUCATION DURING THE PRE-SPANISH PERIOD AIMS FOR SURVIVAL AND CONFORMITY FOR ENCULTURATION TRAINING TEACHING METHODS TEACHING CONTENT Evidences •Domestic chores and practical honing •Theoretical/ moral and spiritual awakening "TELL ME" AND "SHOW" ME OBSERVATION AND IMITATION INDOCTRATION •Broad, indefinite, unwritten •Unstructured/ incidental EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH ERA AIMS AGENCIES The Royal decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education in the country; Indoctrination of Christianity Promotion of the Spanish language Imposition of Spanish Culture o the education of the Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of the Christian Doctrine. It was a simple catechism, the doctrina, not the same as Christian education in Europe. o the Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits introduced the parochial school concept practiced in Europe during the Dark Ages. o Colegio de San Ignacio by the Jesuits in 1598 in Manila was tha first colegio o the Dominicans put up the Colegio de San Rosario which later became Colegio de Santo Tomas now the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas. o the Beaterio de San Isabel was founded in 1632 and became the oldest existing school for girls o the Beatrio de San Potenciana in 1594 was the first beatrio for girls TEACHING METHODS Dictation Memorization Other techniques such as : techniques such as moro-moro cenaculo and other theatrical performances THE MEDIA OF INSTRUCTIONS Spanish Latin Types of Education Authoritarian Teacher-dominated Subject centered Imposition of severe discipline Outstanding Contributions if the Spanish Friars to Philippine Education oUpliftment of the Phillippine Education through Royal Decree of 1863 oLinguistics “Arte y Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala” by Juan Quihones in 1582 was the first Tagalog grammar and dictionary in the country EDUCATION DURING THE AMERICAN ERA AIM • To promote democratic ideals and way of life AGENCIES METHOD Outstanding contributions of the Americans to the Philippine Education Legal Mandate • A system of free and compulsory elementary education (Malolos Constitution) •Training was done through schools (private and secular) – Thomasites • The University of the Philippines – first state school of university status •
  2. 2. Philippine education was influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey •Democratic way of teaching • Religious freedom •Development of intelligence, right attitudes and habits of children • Citizenship • Democratic ideal as a philosophy • Guidance and consultancy •“Benevolent Policy of Assimilation” • Taft Commission – organize a civil government • Educational Act of 1901 First level – four-year primary and three-year intermediate (seven-year elementary School) Second level – four year high school Third level – first two-year junior college ; later a four year program • 1925 Monroe Survey Commission Act No. 3162 and 3196 Educational reforms Evaluation of teaching and learning • 1927 American Director of the Bureau of Education ; aims for education 1.Training for self-government 2. Provision of English as a common language EDUCATION DURING COMMONWEALTH PERIOD AIMS Legal Mandate To develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency To teach the duties of citizenship Executive Order no.17 – Quezon Code of Ethics ; foundation of the emerging philosophy of Philippine education Executive Order no. 134 in 1940 – Tagalog as the basis of a national language Executive order no. 263 in 1940 - required teaching of the Filipino national language Education during the Japanese Era Educational Aims - Making people understand the position of the Phil as a member of the East Asia Co-Properity Sphere. - Remove the old idea of reliance upon western states particularly the US and Great Britain. - Elevating the morals of the people giving-up over emphasis on materialism - Diffusion of elementary education and promotion of vocation education. - Nippongo was studied in schools including the elementary level. Agencies -Training was done formally through the schools. -Establishment of agricultural schools and colleges -Curricular content was centered on values rooted on love for labor; emphasizing vocational education. Legal Mandate -Proclamation No.1 informed the people that authority of the US over the Phil was over and that the Martial Law was to rule. Made the Phil a member of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Education during the Republic Educational Aims -Democracy is predicted upon the inner worth of the individual. -Realize capacities best in social contract -Society is not separated from the individual -Democracy thrives on change. Content -Training for occupation -Promotion of democratic nation building -A new thrust on community development Legal Mandates - Board of Textbooks was created according to R.A. 139, enacted on June 14, 1947. - Civil service eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant to R.A. 1079. - Board of National Education (BNE) was formulating educational policies to give direction to Phil education. - Flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of the National Anthem. - The life, the works and writings of Jose Rizal shall be included in all levels. - Elementary education was nationalized. - Promote the socio-economic status of the public school teachers. o Recruitment qualification of teachers.
  3. 3. o Code of Professional conduct for teachers. o Health and injury benefit through GSIS o Teacher’s freedom to form organizations. o One year study leave after 7 years of continuous teaching. o One range salary increase upon retirement. - Finance and support provincial schools. - President Ferdinand Marcos created the Constitutional Convention to be presided over by President Macapagal as mandated by R.A. 6132. - 1969, President Marcos created the Presidential Commision to Study the Philippine Education (PCSPE). Education during the New Society Educational Aims - Provision for a broad education. - Manpower training in middle-level skills. - Development of the high-level professions and evaluation. Aims of Education in the 1973 Constitution - To foster love for country - Teach the duties of citizenship - Develop moral character. Agencies - Curricular changes in elementary education - Integration of values in all learning areas - Emphasis on mastery learning - Curricular changes in secondary education - Increased in time allotment - Elective offerings as part of curriculum Media of Instruction - Bilingual Education Policy: use of English and Filipino as media of instruction in specific learning areas. Educational Programs Initiated - Project IMPACT- Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers. - ISOSA- In School-Off School Approach - CPS- Continuous Progression Scheme - PRODED- Program for a Decentralized Educational Development - NCEE- National College Entrance Examination - NEAT- National Elementary Assessment Test for Grade VI - NSAT- National Secondary Assessment Test replaces NCEE Legal Mandates - PD No. 1- Integrated Reorganization Plan - National College Entrance Examination. - Tertiary honor student are granted civil service eligibility. - Department Order No. 25 s. 1974 - Professional Board Examination for Teacher (PBET) - Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 entitled “An Act Providing for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Integrated System of Education.” o The Act also provide for maintenance of “quality education”. EDUCATION DURING THE PRESENT PERIOD AIM EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND CURRICULAR REFORMS FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For All” DECS’ Master Plan for Basic Education -Education aimed to promote national development and values education. - Education aimed to promote national development and values education. - Implementation of NESC (New Elementary School Curriculum). Its features are: -- Fewer learning areas, emphasis on mastery learning; -- Focused on the development of 3R’s, and -- Emphasis on the development of intellectual skills
  4. 4. -- Focus on the development of Humanism and Filipinism in all learning areas. - Implementation of SEDP (Secondary Education Development Program). Its features are: o Subjects generally oriented to the development of values; o Specific competencies; o Concept-based subject areas, and o uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content. - Implementation of the NSEC (New Elementary Secondary School Curriculum). Its features are: o Multi-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content o Student-centered o Cognitive-affective manipulative based curriculum o Values education offered as separate subject area o Emphasis in Science and Technology o Uses bilingual policy o Critical thinking emphasized o Values Education is offered as a separated subject in the NSEC and integrated in all subject areas both curricula. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For All” EFA- mandated by Presidential proclamation 480. Its components are: oECCD- Early Childhood Care and Development oUQPE- Universal Quality of Primary Education oEOI- Eradication of Illiteracy oCE- Continuing Education The New Society officially ended on February 25, 1986 which culminated the “People Power Revolution” (People Power 1) A new Constitution was drafted by a 50-meter Constitutional Assembly headed by Justice Cecilia Muñoz-Palma. It was subsequently ratified on Feb. 2, 1987. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains these fundamental aims of education: --Shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism --Foster love of humanity --Respect for human rights --Appreciation of the role of the national heroes in the historical development of the country --Teach the rights and duties of the citizenship --Strengthen ethical and spiritual values --Develop moral character and personal discipline --Encourage critical creative thinking --Broaden scientific and technological knowledge The government also enacted a new civil service eligibility law, R.A 6850, Feb. 8, 1990.-- Promote vocational efficiency  A nationwide educational survey spearheaded by the Congressional Commission on Education, popularly known as EDCOM(headed by senator Angara and Congressman Padilla), came up with its report in 1991 with the following recommendations: o The breakup of DECS into Department of Basic Education (BSE); Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA); and Commission on Higher Education (CHED); o Establishment of Teacher Education Centers of Excellence (CENTREXES); o Professionalization of teachers, and o DECS Order No. 6 s. 1998, issued by thenTechnical-vocational reform. Education Secretary Lourdes R. Quisimbing, strengthens the teaching of values in the NESC, NSEC, PRODED (Program for Decentralized Educational Development), and SEDP.
  5. 5. During the term of President Corazon Aquino, free public secondary education became a reality through the passage of R.A 6655 on May 26, 1988. The pertinent provisions are on the following: o Tuition fee supplement for students in private schools, vocational and technical courses which charge less than P1,500 tuition fee; o High school textbook assistance; o Expansion of Educational Service Contracting Scheme; o Voucher system of the Private Education Student Financial assistance Program (PESFA); o Scholarship grants to graduating valedictorians and salutatorians; o Tuition fee supplements to students in private colleges and universities; o Educational loan fund, and o College faculty development fund The government also looked at the welfare of poor but deserving students by enacting the Student Employment Law (R.A. 7323), Feb. 3, 1992. Congress repealed the National College Entrance Examination on June 2, 1994. Along the professionalization of teachers started by P.D. 1001 R.A. 7836 was signed into law on December 16, 1994. It has 3 important provisions: Creation of the Board for Professional Teachers composed of 5 commissioners under PRC; Replacement of PBET by LET (Licensure Examination for Teachers); Transfer of authority of administering the LET from CSC and DECS to the Board of Professional Teachers under PRC, and The formulation, adoption, and promulgation of the Code of Ethical and Professional standards for Professional Teachers. Testing Enhance the use of NEAT results for analyzing Sub-sector performance and improving individual school performance. Development and use of more varied instruments to measure multi-level intelligence including life skills in classroom teaching. o Environmental Education – integrated into the curriculum specifically in Science. o Environmental Ethics – Study of man’s moral obligations to preserve the environment and the natural order of things. o Population Education – Integrated into the curriculum specifically in Science and Social Studies. o Gender Fairness and Peace education are integrated in Social Studies. o Global education – education for responsible participation in an interdependent world community EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY PREDICTIVE SCIENCE ARTS AND RELIGION FOREIGN TRADE BIG POPULATION CENTER MEGALITHIC STRUCTURES GOVERNMENT LAWS WARFARE  THE HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES EDUCATION  CAN ANYONE GIVE ME A LITTLE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF PHILIPPINES EDUCATION ? QUESTION  PRE-HISPANIC The education of Pre-Hispanic Filipinos was fit for the needs of their times. There was no formal schooling. Parents trained their children informally . Mothers educated their female children in housekeeping, weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-related activities. Fathers trained their male children in hunting, carpentry, agriculture, shipbuilding and
  6. 6. mining. Skills taught would vary on their industries and locations, i.e., whether highland, lowlands or along seashores. Education was oral, practical and hands-on  ALIBATA Alibata is an ancient writing system that was used in what is now the Philippines. Although it was all but extinguished by Western colonization,variants of it are still used in parts of Mindoro and Palawan, and it is also increasingly used by Filipino youth as a way to express their identity.  • While controlled by colonial rule for several years, once the Philippines gained their independence they took over control of the educational system and began to move it in their own direction. • Children in the Philippines are educated in the primary and secondary school systems for about thirteen to fourteen years, depending on when they start, after which they complete the College Entrance Examinations, that allow them to qualify for one of the many institutions of higher learning. • There are both private and public schools in the Philippines, and on the whole the education provided by the private schools is much more comprehensive than that provided by the public school system. • In fact, the Philippines was home to the first modern public schooling system in Asia. It is also home to the oldest universities, colleges, and vocational schools. • Education has been a priority in the Philippines for decades, and this is evidenced in the fact that many of the advancements in education in Asia have been pioneered in the Philippines.  During the Pre-Spanish period, education was still decentralized. Children were provided more vocational training but lesser academics, which were headed by their parents or by their tribal tutors. They used a unique system of writing known as the baybayin. Pre-Spanish Period BAYBAYIN The term Baybay literally means "to spell“ in Tagalog. It also known as the alibata, were in it is the ancient writing system that was used before by the Filipinos.  The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries TRIBAL TUTORSTRIBAL TUTORS Education was informal and unstructured . Children were provided with vocational training and less academics by parents and houses of tribal tutors SPANISH MISSIONARIESSPANISH MISSIONARIES education was “religion-centered” education for the elite only Spanish is compulsory Boys and girls school are separated Inadequate, suppressed and controlled  SPANISH When the Spanish first arrived in the Philippines, education of the indigenous people was mainly viewed as the duty of religious organizations. Parish friars put forth great effort to teach the indigenous people to read believing that literacy was the key to better lifestyles. EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH REGIME  EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH REGIME The Friars establish parochial schools linked with Churches to teach catechism to the natives. Education was manage, supervised, and controlled By the friars. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period The focus of education during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines was mainly religious education. The Catholic doctrine schools that were set up initially became parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with catechism  The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands. • The Augustinians opened a school in Cebu in 1565. •The Franciscans, in 1577, immediately took to the task of teaching improving literacy, aside from the teaching of new industrial and agricultural techniques.• Jesuits followed in 1581 •The Dominicans in 1587, which they started a school in their first mission at Bataan.
  7. 7.  In 1863, an educational decree mandated the establishment of free primary schools in each town, one for boys and one for girls, with the precise number of schools depending on the size of the population. There were 3 grades: entrada, acenso, and termino. The curriculum required the study of Christian doctrine, values and history as well as reading and writing in Spanish, mathematics, agriculture, etiquette, singing, world geography, and Spanish history. Girls were also taught sewing. The decree also provided for a normal school run by the Jesuits to educate male teachers in Manila. Normal schools for women teachers were not established until 1875, in Nueva Caceres. Despite the Decree of 1863, basic education in the Philippines remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. Often, there were not enough schools built. Teachers tended to use corporal punishment.  After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools established during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio Aguinaldo’s government. The Malolos Constitution made elementary education compulsory and provided for free schooling. The Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, which provided courses in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy, and notarianship, was established by Aguinaldo on 19 October 1898. He also set up the Military Academy of Malolos and decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void. The curricula of schools were not much different from those under Spanish domination. While Tagalogwas established as the national language by the Constitution of Biak- na-Bato, reading, writing and literary studies in Spanish were still given emphasis.  QUESTION WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR US TO GO BACK AND RECALL AND THE PAST EDUCATION OF THE PHILIPPINES ? It give us not only a glimpse of the past but also what we could learn from it. History of Education will help you to understand how the past events shaped the present education systems, theories and related phenomenon in the area of teacher education in particular and education in general. Secondly, it will enable you to appreciate the importance of education to mankind since time immemorial across the generations.  WHAT COULD BE THE BENEFITS THAT US FUTURE TEACHER THAT MAY HAVE AFTER STUDYING THE HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES ? QUESTION  1. The study of history of education helps teachers in training to appreciate the various aspects of their past educational process so as to link them to the present; 2. It enables teachers in training to know what type of education we had and the purpose it served in the past; 3. It gives teachers in training the opportunity of knowing our past mistakes in our education with the view to making necessary amends; 4. History of education gives teachers in training the opportunity of studying other people’s educational ideas and programmes with the aim of developing ours; 5. It also gives teachers in training a solid foundation to plan for our present and future educational development; 6. History of education guides teachers in training to proffer some positive solution to our present day educational problems 7. It helps teachers in training to understand some major trends and developments in our educational system; 8. It helps teachers in training to formulate and implement better philosophies of education; 9. History of education is a good academic exercise to improve teachers in training knowledge; 10.It widens the scope and knowledge of the teacher and makes him more comfortable and competent in his class
  8. 8. History of the Philippine Educational System Education in the Philippines evolved from early settlers to the present. Education in the country is in great importance because it is the primary avenue for upward social and economic mobility. Philippine educational system has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone several stage of development going to the present system of education. Education from Ancient Early Filipinos The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The fathers taught their sons how to look for food and other means of livelihood. The mothers taught their girls to do the household chores. This education basically prepared their children to became good husband and wives. Early Filipino ancestors valued education very much. Filipino men and women knows how to read and write using their own native alphabet called alibata. The alibata was composed of 17 symbols representing the letters of the alphabet. Among these seventeen symbols were three vowels and fourteen consonants. Educational System During Spanish Period The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal. The Religious congregations paved the way in establishing schools from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. The schools focused on the Christian Doctrines. There was a separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the schools. Colonial education brought more non-beneficial effects to the Filipinos. Educational Decree 1863 The first educational system for students in the country was established by virtue of the Education Decree of 1863. In furtherance, the decree required the government to provide school institutions for boys and girls in every town. As a consequence, the Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students. It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged. The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a three-year teacher education for the primary level. * Education during the Spanish Regime and Its Colonial Effects to the Filipinos Educational System During American Period Like the Spaniards, the Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the country. Until now, these American influences can still be seen in our lifestyle or way of life. The Commonwealth provided free education in public schools all over the country, in accordance
  9. 9. with the 1935 constitution. Education also emphasized nationalism so the students were taught about the life of the Filipino heroes. Vocational education and some household activities like sewing, cooking, and farming were also given importance. Good manners and discipline were also taught to the students. The institute of Private Education was established in order to observe private schools. In 1941, the total number of students studying in the 400 private schools in the country reached 10,000. There was also the existence of "Adult Education" in order to give formal education even to adults. * American government gave importance to Education Changes in Education During the Japanese Occupation The government made some changes in the system of education in February, 1942. These changes were:  To stop depending on western countries like the U.S., and Great Britain. Promote and enrich the Filipino culture.  To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations.  To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos.  To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language.  To spread elementary and vocational education.  To develop love for work. Educational System in the Present Period Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government). The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery, kindergarten and preparatory) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four years of secondary education. College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the semestral calendar from June-October and November-March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs similar to those of the mother country. An overall literacy rate was estimated at 95.9 percent for the total population in 2003, 96 % for males and 95.8 % for females.