Importance of authentic
importance of assessment is that assessment can be feedback tools to find effective methods of
teaching and to learn more about students, their interests, goals and achievements. “Such an
assessment procedure is called authentic assessment method. Authentic assessment gives students
situations that occur in the real world which require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.”
Such assessment procedures, aside from traditional or formal assessment practice, truly encourages the
active involvement of my students in the learning process, as well as, promotes healthy interaction
among students and teacher.
Transcript of Copy of HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FROM THE PRE-SPANISH TO THE
PRESENT, THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES HAS UNDERGONE
SEVERAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. EDUCATION DURING THE PRE-SPANISH
PERIOD AIMS FOR SURVIVAL AND CONFORMITY
FOR ENCULTURATION TRAINING TEACHING METHODS TEACHING CONTENT
Evidences •Domestic chores and practical honing
•Theoretical/ moral and spiritual awakening "TELL ME" AND "SHOW" ME OBSERVATION
AND IMITATION INDOCTRATION •Broad, indefinite, unwritten
•Unstructured/ incidental EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH ERA AIMS AGENCIES The
Royal decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education in the country; Indoctrination
of Christianity Promotion of the Spanish language Imposition of Spanish Culture o the education
of the Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of the Christian Doctrine. It was a simple
catechism, the doctrina, not the same as Christian education in Europe. o the Augustinians,
Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits introduced the parochial school concept practiced in
Europe during the Dark Ages. o Colegio de San Ignacio by the Jesuits in 1598 in Manila was tha
first colegio o the Dominicans put up the Colegio de San Rosario which later became Colegio de
Santo Tomas now the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas.
o the Beaterio de San Isabel was founded in 1632 and became the oldest existing school for girls
o the Beatrio de San Potenciana in 1594 was the first beatrio for girls TEACHING METHODS
Dictation Memorization Other techniques such as : techniques such as moro-moro cenaculo and
other theatrical performances THE MEDIA OF INSTRUCTIONS Spanish Latin Types of
Education Authoritarian Teacher-dominated Subject centered Imposition of
severe discipline Outstanding Contributions if the Spanish Friars to Philippine Education
oUpliftment of the Phillippine Education through Royal Decree of 1863 oLinguistics “Arte y
Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala” by Juan Quihones in 1582 was the first Tagalog grammar and
dictionary in the country EDUCATION DURING THE AMERICAN ERA AIM • To promote
democratic ideals and way of life AGENCIES METHOD Outstanding contributions of the
Americans to the Philippine Education Legal Mandate • A system of free and compulsory
elementary education (Malolos Constitution) •Training was done through schools (private and
secular) – Thomasites • The University of the Philippines – first state school of university status •
Philippine education was influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey •Democratic way of
teaching • Religious freedom •Development of intelligence, right attitudes and habits of children
• Citizenship • Democratic ideal as a philosophy • Guidance and consultancy •“Benevolent
Policy of Assimilation” • Taft Commission – organize a civil government • Educational Act of
1901 First level – four-year primary and three-year intermediate (seven-year elementary School)
Second level – four year high school Third level – first two-year junior college ; later a four year
program • 1925 Monroe Survey Commission Act No. 3162 and 3196 Educational reforms
Evaluation of teaching and learning • 1927 American Director of the Bureau of Education ; aims
for education 1.Training for self-government 2. Provision of English as a common language
EDUCATION DURING COMMONWEALTH PERIOD AIMS Legal Mandate To develop
moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency To teach the
duties of citizenship Executive Order no.17 – Quezon Code of Ethics ; foundation of the
emerging philosophy of Philippine education Executive Order no. 134 in 1940 – Tagalog as the
basis of a national language Executive order no. 263 in 1940 - required teaching of the Filipino
national language Education during the Japanese Era Educational Aims - Making people
understand the position of the Phil as a member of the East Asia Co-Properity Sphere.
- Remove the old idea of reliance upon western states particularly the US and Great Britain.
- Elevating the morals of the people giving-up over emphasis on materialism
- Diffusion of elementary education and promotion of vocation education.
- Nippongo was studied in schools including the elementary level. Agencies -Training was done
formally through the schools.
-Establishment of agricultural schools and colleges
-Curricular content was centered on values rooted on love for labor; emphasizing vocational
education. Legal Mandate -Proclamation No.1
informed the people that authority of the US over the Phil was over and that the Martial Law was
Made the Phil a member of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Education during the
Republic Educational Aims -Democracy is predicted upon the inner worth of the individual.
-Realize capacities best in social contract
-Society is not separated from the individual
-Democracy thrives on change.
Content -Training for occupation
-Promotion of democratic nation building
-A new thrust on community development Legal Mandates - Board of Textbooks was created
according to R.A. 139, enacted on June 14, 1947.
- Civil service eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant to R.A. 1079.
- Board of National Education (BNE) was formulating educational policies to give direction to
- Flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of the National
- The life, the works and writings of Jose Rizal shall be included in all levels.
- Elementary education was nationalized. - Promote the socio-economic status of the public
o Recruitment qualification of teachers.
o Code of Professional conduct for teachers.
o Health and injury benefit through GSIS
o Teacher’s freedom to form organizations.
o One year study leave after 7 years of continuous teaching.
o One range salary increase upon retirement. - Finance and support provincial schools.
- President Ferdinand Marcos created the Constitutional Convention to be presided over by
President Macapagal as mandated by R.A. 6132.
- 1969, President Marcos created the Presidential Commision to Study the Philippine Education
(PCSPE). Education during the New Society Educational Aims - Provision for a broad
- Manpower training in middle-level skills.
- Development of the high-level professions and evaluation. Aims of Education in the 1973
Constitution - To foster love for country
- Teach the duties of citizenship
- Develop moral character. Agencies - Curricular changes in elementary education
- Integration of values in all learning areas
- Emphasis on mastery learning
- Curricular changes in secondary education
- Increased in time allotment
- Elective offerings as part of curriculum Media of Instruction - Bilingual Education Policy: use
of English and Filipino as media of instruction in specific learning areas. Educational Programs
Initiated - Project IMPACT- Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers.
- ISOSA- In School-Off School Approach
- CPS- Continuous Progression Scheme
- PRODED- Program for a Decentralized Educational Development - NCEE- National College
- NEAT- National Elementary Assessment Test for Grade VI
- NSAT- National Secondary Assessment Test replaces NCEE Legal Mandates - PD No. 1-
Integrated Reorganization Plan
- National College Entrance Examination.
- Tertiary honor student are granted civil service eligibility.
- Department Order No. 25 s. 1974 - Professional Board Examination for Teacher (PBET)
- Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 entitled “An Act Providing for the Establishment and Maintenance of
an Integrated System of Education.”
o The Act also provide for maintenance of “quality education”. EDUCATION DURING THE
PRESENT PERIOD AIM EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND
CURRICULAR REFORMS FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For
All” DECS’ Master Plan for Basic Education -Education aimed to promote national development
and values education. - Education aimed to promote national development and values education.
- Implementation of NESC
(New Elementary School Curriculum).
Its features are: -- Fewer learning areas, emphasis on mastery learning;
-- Focused on the development of 3R’s, and
-- Emphasis on the development of intellectual skills
-- Focus on the development of Humanism and Filipinism in all learning areas. - Implementation
(Secondary Education Development Program).
Its features are: o Subjects generally oriented to the development of values;
o Specific competencies;
o Concept-based subject areas, and
o uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content. - Implementation of the NSEC
(New Elementary Secondary School Curriculum).
Its features are: o Multi-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content
o Cognitive-affective manipulative based curriculum
o Values education offered as separate subject area
o Emphasis in Science and Technology
o Uses bilingual policy
o Critical thinking emphasized
o Values Education is offered as a separated subject in the NSEC and integrated in all subject
areas both curricula. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For All”
EFA- mandated by Presidential proclamation 480. Its components are:
oECCD- Early Childhood Care and Development
oUQPE- Universal Quality of Primary Education oEOI- Eradication of Illiteracy
oCE- Continuing Education The New Society officially ended on February 25, 1986 which
culminated the “People Power Revolution” (People Power 1)
A new Constitution was drafted by a 50-meter Constitutional Assembly headed by Justice
Cecilia Muñoz-Palma. It was subsequently ratified on Feb. 2, 1987. Section 3, Article XIV of the
1987 Constitution contains these fundamental aims of education: --Shall inculcate patriotism and
--Foster love of humanity
--Respect for human rights
--Appreciation of the role of the national heroes in the historical development of the country
--Teach the rights and duties of the citizenship --Strengthen ethical and spiritual values
--Develop moral character and personal discipline
--Encourage critical creative thinking
--Broaden scientific and technological knowledge
The government also enacted a new civil service eligibility law, R.A 6850, Feb. 8, 1990.--
Promote vocational efficiency
A nationwide educational survey spearheaded by the Congressional Commission on
Education, popularly known as EDCOM(headed by senator Angara and Congressman Padilla),
came up with its report in 1991 with the following recommendations:
o The breakup of DECS into Department of Basic Education (BSE); Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority (TESDA); and Commission on Higher Education (CHED);
o Establishment of Teacher Education Centers of Excellence (CENTREXES);
o Professionalization of teachers, and
o DECS Order No. 6 s. 1998, issued by thenTechnical-vocational reform. Education Secretary
Lourdes R. Quisimbing, strengthens the teaching of values in the NESC, NSEC, PRODED
(Program for Decentralized Educational Development), and SEDP.
During the term of President Corazon Aquino, free public secondary education became a
reality through the passage of R.A 6655 on May 26, 1988. The pertinent provisions are on the
following: o Tuition fee supplement for students in private schools, vocational and technical
courses which charge less than P1,500 tuition fee;
o High school textbook assistance;
o Expansion of Educational Service Contracting Scheme;
o Voucher system of the Private Education Student Financial assistance Program (PESFA);
o Scholarship grants to graduating valedictorians and salutatorians;
o Tuition fee supplements to students in private colleges and universities;
o Educational loan fund, and
o College faculty development fund The government also looked at the welfare of poor but
deserving students by enacting the Student Employment Law (R.A. 7323), Feb. 3, 1992.
Congress repealed the National College Entrance Examination on June 2, 1994. Along the
professionalization of teachers started by P.D. 1001 R.A. 7836 was signed into law on December
16, 1994. It has 3 important provisions:
Creation of the Board for Professional Teachers composed of 5 commissioners under PRC;
Replacement of PBET by LET (Licensure Examination for Teachers);
Transfer of authority of administering the LET from CSC and DECS to the Board of
Professional Teachers under PRC, and
The formulation, adoption, and promulgation of the Code of Ethical and Professional standards
for Professional Teachers. Testing
Enhance the use of NEAT results for analyzing
Sub-sector performance and improving individual school performance.
Development and use of more varied instruments to measure multi-level intelligence including
life skills in classroom teaching. o Environmental Education – integrated into the curriculum
specifically in Science.
o Environmental Ethics – Study of man’s moral obligations to preserve the environment and the
natural order of things.
o Population Education – Integrated into the curriculum specifically in Science and Social
o Gender Fairness and Peace education are integrated in Social Studies.
o Global education – education for responsible participation in an interdependent world
community EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY PREDICTIVE SCIENCE ARTS AND RELIGION
FOREIGN TRADE BIG POPULATION CENTER MEGALITHIC STRUCTURES
GOVERNMENT LAWS WARFARE
THE HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES EDUCATION
CAN ANYONE GIVE ME A LITTLE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF
PHILIPPINES EDUCATION ? QUESTION
PRE-HISPANIC The education of Pre-Hispanic Filipinos was fit for the needs of their times.
There was no formal schooling. Parents trained their children informally . Mothers educated their
female children in housekeeping, weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-related
activities. Fathers trained their male children in hunting, carpentry, agriculture, shipbuilding and
mining. Skills taught would vary on their industries and locations, i.e., whether highland,
lowlands or along seashores. Education was oral, practical and hands-on
ALIBATA Alibata is an ancient writing system that was used in what is now the Philippines.
Although it was all but extinguished by Western colonization,variants of it are still used in parts
of Mindoro and Palawan, and it is also increasingly used by Filipino youth as a way to express
• While controlled by colonial rule for several years, once the Philippines gained their
independence they took over control of the educational system and began to move it in their own
direction. • Children in the Philippines are educated in the primary and secondary school systems
for about thirteen to fourteen years, depending on when they start, after which they complete the
College Entrance Examinations, that allow them to qualify for one of the many institutions of
higher learning. • There are both private and public schools in the Philippines, and on the whole
the education provided by the private schools is much more comprehensive than that provided by
the public school system. • In fact, the Philippines was home to the first modern public schooling
system in Asia. It is also home to the oldest universities, colleges, and vocational schools. •
Education has been a priority in the Philippines for decades, and this is evidenced in the fact that
many of the advancements in education in Asia have been pioneered in the Philippines.
During the Pre-Spanish period, education was still decentralized. Children were provided more
vocational training but lesser academics, which were headed by their parents or by their tribal
tutors. They used a unique system of writing known as the baybayin. Pre-Spanish Period
BAYBAYIN The term Baybay literally means "to spell“ in Tagalog. It also known as the
alibata, were in it is the ancient writing system that was used before by the Filipinos.
The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish
colonization The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries TRIBAL
TUTORSTRIBAL TUTORS Education was informal and unstructured . Children were
provided with vocational training and less academics by parents and houses of tribal tutors
SPANISH MISSIONARIESSPANISH MISSIONARIES education was “religion-centered”
education for the elite only Spanish is compulsory Boys and girls school are separated
Inadequate, suppressed and controlled
SPANISH When the Spanish first arrived in the Philippines, education of the indigenous
people was mainly viewed as the duty of religious organizations. Parish friars put forth great
effort to teach the indigenous people to read believing that literacy was the key to better
lifestyles. EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH REGIME
EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH REGIME The Friars establish parochial schools
linked with Churches to teach catechism to the natives. Education was manage, supervised, and
controlled By the friars. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. The oldest
universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia
were created during the colonial period The focus of education during the Spanish Colonization
of the Philippines was mainly religious education. The Catholic doctrine schools that were set up
initially became parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with catechism
The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands. • The
Augustinians opened a school in Cebu in 1565. •The Franciscans, in 1577, immediately took to
the task of teaching improving literacy, aside from the teaching of new industrial and agricultural
techniques.• Jesuits followed in 1581 •The Dominicans in 1587, which they started a school in
their first mission at Bataan.
In 1863, an educational decree mandated the establishment of free primary schools in each
town, one for boys and one for girls, with the precise number of schools depending on the size of
the population. There were 3 grades: entrada, acenso, and termino. The curriculum required the
study of Christian doctrine, values and history as well as reading and writing in Spanish,
mathematics, agriculture, etiquette, singing, world geography, and Spanish history. Girls were
also taught sewing. The decree also provided for a normal school run by the Jesuits to educate
male teachers in Manila. Normal schools for women teachers were not established until 1875, in
Nueva Caceres. Despite the Decree of 1863, basic education in the Philippines remained
inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. Often, there were not enough schools built.
Teachers tended to use corporal punishment.
After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools established during the
Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio Aguinaldo’s government. The Malolos
Constitution made elementary education compulsory and provided for free schooling. The
Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, which provided courses in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy,
and notarianship, was established by Aguinaldo on 19 October 1898. He also set up the Military
Academy of Malolos and decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered
null and void. The curricula of schools were not much different from those under Spanish
domination. While Tagalogwas established as the national language by the Constitution of Biak-
na-Bato, reading, writing and literary studies in Spanish were still given emphasis.
QUESTION WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR US TO GO BACK AND RECALL AND THE
PAST EDUCATION OF THE PHILIPPINES ? It give us not only a glimpse of the past but also
what we could learn from it. History of Education will help you to understand how the past
events shaped the present education systems, theories and related phenomenon in the area of
teacher education in particular and education in general. Secondly, it will enable you to
appreciate the importance of education to mankind since time immemorial across the
WHAT COULD BE THE BENEFITS THAT US FUTURE TEACHER THAT MAY HAVE
AFTER STUDYING THE HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES ? QUESTION
1. The study of history of education helps teachers in training to appreciate the various aspects
of their past educational process so as to link them to the present; 2. It enables teachers in
training to know what type of education we had and the purpose it served in the past; 3. It gives
teachers in training the opportunity of knowing our past mistakes in our education with the view
to making necessary amends; 4. History of education gives teachers in training the opportunity of
studying other people’s educational ideas and programmes with the aim of developing ours; 5. It
also gives teachers in training a solid foundation to plan for our present and future educational
development; 6. History of education guides teachers in training to proffer some positive solution
to our present day educational problems 7. It helps teachers in training to understand some major
trends and developments in our educational system; 8. It helps teachers in training to formulate
and implement better philosophies of education; 9. History of education is a good academic
exercise to improve teachers in training knowledge; 10.It widens the scope and knowledge of the
teacher and makes him more comfortable and competent in his class
History of the Philippine Educational System
Education in the Philippines evolved from early settlers to the present. Education in the country
is in great importance because it is the primary avenue for upward social and economic mobility.
Philippine educational system has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone
several stage of development going to the present system of education.
Education from Ancient Early Filipinos
The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The fathers
taught their sons how to look for food and other means of livelihood. The mothers taught their
girls to do the household chores. This education basically prepared their children to became
good husband and wives.
Early Filipino ancestors valued education very much. Filipino men and women knows how to read
and write using their own native alphabet called alibata. The alibata was composed of 17 symbols
representing the letters of the alphabet. Among these seventeen symbols were three vowels and
Educational System During Spanish Period
The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal. The Religious
congregations paved the way in establishing schools from the primary level to the tertiary level
of education. The schools focused on the Christian Doctrines. There was a separate school for
boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the schools.
Colonial education brought more non-beneficial effects to the Filipinos.
Educational Decree 1863
The first educational system for students in the country was established by virtue of the
Education Decree of 1863. In furtherance, the decree required the government to provide
school institutions for boys and girls in every town. As a consequence, the Spanish schools
started accepting Filipino students. It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos
emerged. The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a
three-year teacher education for the primary level.
* Education during the Spanish Regime and Its Colonial Effects to the Filipinos
Educational System During American Period
Like the Spaniards, the Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the
country. Until now, these American influences can still be seen in our lifestyle or way of life.
The Commonwealth provided free education in public schools all over the country, in accordance
with the 1935 constitution. Education also emphasized nationalism so the students were taught
about the life of the Filipino heroes. Vocational education and some household activities like
sewing, cooking, and farming were also given importance. Good manners and discipline were also
taught to the students. The institute of Private Education was established in order to observe
private schools. In 1941, the total number of students studying in the 400 private schools in the
country reached 10,000. There was also the existence of "Adult Education" in order to give
formal education even to adults.
* American government gave importance to Education
Changes in Education During the Japanese Occupation
The government made some changes in the system of education in February, 1942. These
To stop depending on western countries like the U.S., and Great Britain. Promote and
enrich the Filipino culture.
To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations.
To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos.
To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language.
To spread elementary and vocational education.
To develop love for work.
Educational System in the Present Period
Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of
instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government). The
general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery, kindergarten
and preparatory) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by
four years of secondary education.
College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law
schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Classes in
Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the semestral
calendar from June-October and November-March. There are a number of foreign schools with
study programs similar to those of the mother country. An overall literacy rate was estimated at
95.9 percent for the total population in 2003, 96 % for males and 95.8 % for females.