The Navajo lived in South west of North America, the current Northwestern New Mexico and North eastern Arizona.
In their region, there are lots of different reliefs. We can find deserts, canyons, grasslands and some peaks.
The climate of this region was arid. So it is often hot and dry but it rains sometimes, principally in august. However, it was cold in the mountains.
The Navajo hunted deers, ponghorn antelopes and rabbits to eat them. They grew too watermelons, corn beans and squash. They also gathered wild plants, seeds, roots and berries. They raised sheeps so they were farmers too. They stole Pueblo's food. So, they were hunters, gatherers and farmers.
They ate more vegetables in the summer and more meat in the winter.
The Navajo made their clothes wih deerskins.
Men wore breechcloths and leggings. After 1800's they adopted the style of the Mexicans and they began to wear blankets draped over one shoulder with pants which ended between their knees and ankles. They decorated their pants with silver buttons.
Women wore dresses and mocassins. But they borrowed the Mexican style too. So, they wore woolen dresses. Later, women wore skirts. They made it with two blankets sewn together at their shoulders. Babies were carried by the women in cradle boards. Sometimes they were strapped to their backs.
The Navajo lived in hogans. It was round houses built with forked sticks. To receive the first light of the day, the door was faced east. Indoor, they was just one room. It was composed of tables, chairs, beds and wood-burning stoves. Outside, there was a loom. It was indoor in the winter. The hogan closed a corral for the herd of sheep.
They were covered with brush, packed earth, hides and whatever was available.
The Navajo made a ceremony to bless their homes.
After, they built hogans with six sides of logs and mud.
They were nomad so they made temporary homes and homes were were far apart from each other.
The Navajo were silversmith. They began silverwork in the late 1800's. They hammered Spanish and Mexicans coins. After the Treaty of 1868, Navajo people became specialized in silversmithing. They made jewellery with turquoise stones.
Navajos women weaved clothes or carpets with wool of sheep. They learned how to wave from the Pueblo.
Navajo people believed in many gods. The most important were Sun Bearer and his wife. In their land, there were four sacred mountains : white mountain, turquoise blue mountains, yellow mountain and jet black mountain. So, Navajo celebrated the nature and they made a lot of offering to their gods.
When someone was ill, it was the shaman who treat him with special herb drink. The shaman constructed a painting they named « sand painting » with powdered herbs, sand and other powdery things. He placed the sick person in the middle of the painting, he touched the ill part of the patient's body and he sang. After this strange ceremony, the patient was cured and the sand painting was burned.
The body of dead people was burned.
Navajo were 8000 people and the first Navajo appeared in -1200.
The principal tools or weapons they made were knives, hammers and grindstones.
The most important feast was the Kinaalda, it was the puberty day. Before this day, the young Navajo can't help to the house task.
To divert them, they played to some games like the Keshjee', a game about nature where the winner was the team which had the most of yucca stems.