Location of the Hippocampus<br /><ul><li>Located in the medial temporal lobe, beneath the cortex.
Paired structure and has two identical halves that are located in the right and left sides of the brain.
Adjacent to the amygdala. </li></li></ul><li>Functions of the Hippocampus<br /> - Consolidation of new memories (converting short-term memory to long-term memory) <br /><ul><li>Emotions ( limbic system)
Learning</li></li></ul><li>1st Study<br />Art Kramer, Charles Hillman & Laura Chaddock<br /> - Affiliation between physical fitness (of children) and the hippocampus<br />- Previous studies only on adults and animals<br /><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging to measure size of hippocampus in children
Significantly increasing growth of new neurons and cell survival
More fit kids = larger hippocampus</li></ul>http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100915171536.htm<br />
2nd Study<br />Unknown Names (Dutch Researchers)<br /> - General research stated that long term use of ecstasy causes brain damage to hippocampus (memory)<br />- Measured volume of hippocampus using MRI scans<br /> - 10 men (mid-20s) w/ long term users of ecstasy<br /> - 7 men (early 20s) w/ no history of ecstasy use<br />- The ecstasy group’s MRI scans showed volume of hippocampus 10.5 % smaller<br />http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110406192435.htm<br />
3rd Study<br />Brigitte Apfel et al.<br /> - Early MRI scans showed volume of hippocampus decreased in some people with chronic PTSD<br /><ul><li>Group 1: Gulf War veterans – recovered from PTSD
Group 1 = larger hippocampal volumes than group 2.
Group 1 volumes are similar to group 3 volumes</li></ul>http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110322105257.htm<br />
When the hippocampus is damaged…<br />Amnesia or loss of memory<br />Can eventually lead to Alzheimer’s<br />When only one half is damaged in one hemisphere, the brain is still able to retain near-normal memory functioning<br />Can affect ability to learn new cognitive skills<br />