Events That Impact Our Language That Everyone KnowsPresentation Transcript
54 BC Julius Caesar discovers Britain but doesn’t occupy it ( He makes a note to come back later…He doesn’t.)
43 AD Roman Empire sends troops to Britain Built towns (Londinium) & roads Built forts Built baths Brought Christianity Roman letters
Soldiers are brought home from around the Roman Empire to defend Rome
Rome falls about 450 AD
Middle Ages or Dark Ages begin
Britain is a Romanized Celtic civilization that does not have a military. That was a big problem.
They are attacked by German tribes:
Angles and Saxons
KING ARTHUR organizes an army to protect Britain. King Arthur legends began during this conflict.
King Arthur and his knights lose.
Sully-sur-Loire, a medieval castle visited by (among others) Joan of Arc, Louis XIV Notre-Dame church in Orleans, France Giotto “Madonna and child”
Middle Ages/Medieval Period: 476 to 1453 C.E. Also known as the Dark Ages
"Middle Age” invented by Italian scholars in the early 15th Century. Until this time it was believed there had been two periods in history, that of Ancient times and that of the period later referred to as the "Dark Age.“
Renaissance means “rebirth”
The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe.
The period of this revival, roughly the 14th through the 16th century, marking the transition from medieval to modern times.
Ancient “Classical” Period Middle Ages Renaissance
Rome attacked in 476 C.E.
The beginning of the Middle Ages is often called the "Dark Ages”
Fall of Greece and Rome
Life in Europe during the Middle Ages was very hard.
Very few people could read or write and nobody expected conditions to improve.
Only hope: strong belief in Christianity; heaven would be better than life on earth.
The Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa studied and improved on the works of the ancient Greeks
Civilization flourished in sub-Saharan Africa, China, India, and the Americas.
Great change by about 1450
Columbus & America
scientists made great discoveries
artists created work that still inspires us today.
The Renaissance is the beginning of modern history.
Middle Ages: General Timeline 1095-1291C.E. Crusades 476 C.E. Fall of Rome 1066 C.E. Norman invasion of Britain 1306-1321 Dante’s Divine Comedy 1386 C.E. Chaucer begins writing Canterbury Tales 1455 C.E. Printing Press Beowulf Composed sometime between 850 C.E. 900 C.E. 1453 Fall of Byzantine Empire with invasion of Ottoman Turks 306 C.E. Constantine comes to power in Eastern Roman Empire; beginning of Byzantine Empire 1347 Bubonic Plague 450 C.E. Anglo-Saxons invade England 1375-1400 Sir Gawain & Green Knight
With the Fall of Rome …..
Barbarian* tribes were seeping into Britain and Western European lands
Emperors became more like kings
Feudalism: involuntary peasant labor on lands not their own; personal bonds and personal law beginning to replace impersonal law common to large expanses of territory
the Catholic Church, would provide spiritual and moral direction, as well as leadership and material support, during the darkest times of the early Medieval period.
Barbarian was originally a term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. The word derives from the Greek , and expresses with mocking duplication ("bar-bar") alleged attempts by outsiders to speak a "real" language.
Seep into and conquer Britian
It becomes Angland
They speak Anglish
Since they are Germanic tribes, they speak German and bring NORSE mythology.
Beowulf, the first story in what is NOW called Old English.
Beowulf, written in Old English sometime before the tenth century AD, describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century. A rich fabric of fact and fancy, Beowulf is the oldest surviving epic in English literature.
They brought their gods and goddesses into our days of the week .
As a Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University, J.R.R. Tolkien probably taught Beowulf every year of his working life
His scholarly paper, “ Beowulf : The Monsters and the Critics” brought studies of the poem to the forefront of the academic world
Tolkien's imagined world of Arda owes something of it's creation to Beowulf: “ Beowulf is among my most valued sources” (Letters, no.25)
Tolkien used Beowulf in creating his own works and adopting the good vs. evil archetype. Just as our modern English language is based on the ancient English, Tolkien used Old English words in his creation of names.
Tolkien included almost 50 Anglo-Saxon words or phrases from Beowulf in his works.
Chaucer writes in the first person as an outside observer traveling with the pilgrims on their way to Canterbury
1: Whan that aprill with his shoures soote 2: The droghte of march hath perced to the roote, 3: And bathed every veyne in swich licour 4: Of which vertu engendred is the flour; 5: Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth 6: Inspired hath in every holt and heeth 7: Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 8: Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne, 9: And smale foweles maken melodye, 10: That slepen al the nyght with open ye 11: (so priketh hem nature in hir corages); 12: Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, 13: And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, 14: To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; 15: And specially from every shires ende 16: Of engelond to caunterbury they wende, 17: The hooly blisful martir for to seke, 18: That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke
Chaucer concludes his tales with praise to Jesus Christ.
"Now preye I to hem alle that herkne thai litel tretys or
rede, that if ther be any thyng in it that liketh hem, that
therof they thanken oure Lord Jesu Crist, of whom procedeth
al wit and al goodnesse" (Chaucer's Retraction, l.1-4).
Arthurian legend has become the mirror of the ideal of medieval knighthood and chivalry. Arthur:
Was the illegitimate son of Uther Pendragon, king of Britain
Became king of Britain by successfully withdrawing a sword from a stone.
Possessed the miraculous sword Excalibur , given to him by the mysterious Lady of the Lake
Arthur's enemies: sister Morgan le Fay and his nephew Mordred. Morgan le Fay was usually represented as an evil sorceress, scheming to win Arthur's throne for herself.
Mordred (or Modred) was variously Arthur's nephew or his son by his sister Morgawse.
He seized Arthur's throne during the king's absence.
Later he was slain in battle by Arthur, but not before he had fatally wounded the king.