Evironmental Ecolabbeling & EU Ecolabel
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Evironmental Ecolabbeling & EU Ecolabel

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Evironmental Ecolabbeling & EU Ecolabel Evironmental Ecolabbeling & EU Ecolabel Presentation Transcript

  • The European Ecolabel the case of sustainable tourist accommodation Dott. Michele Preziosi PHD Candidate University RomaTre – Business Department Technology for Sustainable Innovation and Production November 2013
  • Summary Environmental labels and declarations - Classification I – II – III Type European Ecolabel Economic and environmental impact of tourism Ecolabel for tourist accommodation services Ecolabel in Italian tourist accommodation Do#.  Michele  Preziosi  2013   2  
  • Environmental-Labelling Definition Environmental labelling provides an indication of the environmental impact—related characteristics of a product *OECD   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 3
  • Environmental-Labelling Classification • Positive • Negative • Neutral Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 4
  • Environmental-Labelling Classification Env. Labelling Programs First Party Product related (e.g. recyclable) Third Party Corporate related (e.g. Promotion of Corporate Env. ) Mandatory Hazard or warnings (e.g., Pesticides) Voluntary Info disclosure Env. Certification Programme Seal of approval Single attribute Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 ISO standards I type II type III type 5
  • Environmental-Labelling Voluntary overall goal of these labels and declarations is: "...through communication of verifiable and accurate information, that is not misleading, on environmental aspects of products and services, to encourage the demand for and supply of those products and services that cause less stress on the environment, thereby stimulating the potential for market-driven continuous environmental improvement”* *ISO   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 6
  • Environmental-Labelling History • UN Conference 1992, Agenda 21 • UN Conference 2002 • Stakeholders concern for environmental protection • Business opportunity ! growing number of labels !green washing !necessity of third party certification   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 7
  • Voluntary Environmental-Labelling  Types Three major environmental labelling types: " 1.  Type I – Ecolabelling 2.  Type II - self-declaration claims 3.  Type III - environmental declarations (e.g. report cards/information labels) Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 8
  • Type II - Self-declared Environmental Claims “informative environmental self-declaration claims”* Formalized set of environmental data describing the environmental aspects of a product First party – Neutral/Positive – Voluntary – B2C *ISO 14021:1999 Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 9
  • Type II - Self-declared Environmental Claims is a "self-declaration" by the manufacturer about the ecological characteristics of the product itself The liability of this declaration relies entirely on the producer Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 10
  • Type II - Self-declared  Environmental Claims •  ecological characteristics of the product (claims) •  Information accurate , verifiable , relevant and not misleading information •  Methods tested and proven on a scientific basis making it possible to obtain reliable and reproducible results (e.g. LCA) •  Need for the examination of the entire life cycle to verify and attest that an environmental impact has not been reduced at the expense of another •  All documentation must be made available (on request) •  B2C Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 11
  • Type II - Self-declared Environmental Claims eg . : The recycled content , recyclability or biodegradability of the product, the absence of substances harmful to the environment , non-toxic or natural finishing treatment , etc. Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 12
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations “voluntary programs that provide quantified environmental data of a product, under pre-set categories of parameters set by a qualified third party and based on life cycle assessment, and verified by that or another qualified third party”* Third Party – Neutral – Voluntary – B2B *ISO TR 14025:2006 Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 13
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations •  Is a document that allows to communicate objective information, comparable and credible, related to the environmental performance of products and services •  the information is for communication purposes only, the declaration does not contain any evaluation or minimum environmental performance levels Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 14
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations •  LCA Methodology •  Contains environmental information on a product according to a predetermined parameters (Is card product on the potential environmental impacts associated with the entire arc of the cycle of life) •  Applicable to all products classified in groups with defined Product Category Rules (PCR) established in order to make products comparable •  Subjected to an independent audit •  Verified and validated by an accredited independent institution: Swedish Environmental Management Council Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 15
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations Objectives: •  Comparison between goods and services •  Enable competitive mechanisms •  GPP •  Guiding companies’ choices Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 16
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations Composition: •  Description of company and the product or service covered by the EPD •  Declaration of the environmental performance of the product or service •  Additional Information •  Information on the certification body Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 17
  • Type III – Environmental Declarations Potential benefits: •  Reduction of environmental impacts related to the product system ! new business strategies •  the enhancement of the use of technologies and eco-friendly materials •  Reduction of management and production costs •  More visibility - marketing Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 18
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling “A voluntary, multiple-criteria based, third party program that awards a license which authorizes the use of environmental labels on products indicating overall environmental preferability of a product within a product category based on life cycle considerations”* Third Party – Voluntary – Positive – B2C *ISO 14024:1999 Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 19
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling Are established by special organizations, which may be independent or institutional, which set the standard requirements that must be met for each product category (the EU Ecolabel falls into this category) Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 20
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling Ecolabelling Objectives 1.  Protecting the environment –  –  –  –  –  2.  Encouraging environmentally sound innovation and leadership –  –  3.  efficient management of renewable resources efficient use of non-renewable resources Waste reduction, reuse and recycling Protection of ecosystems and species diversity proper management of chemicals in products market incentive to environmentally innovative and progressive businesses businesses can establish or reinforce a market niche and positive corporate image among consumers Building consumer awareness of environmental issues –  heighten consumer awareness –  reliable information –  “Trade-positive" tool (i.e. for promoting export products in foreign markets where consumer awareness and concern for environmental impacts is established and significant) Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 21
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  Guiding Principles for Ecolabelling Voluntary participation Compliance with environmental and other relevant legislation Level of overall performance, Criteria must distinguish leadership Based on sound scientific and engineering principles Criteria must be credible, relevant, attainable, and measurable/verifiable Independence Open and accountable process Flexibility Consistency with ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 guiding principles (or other appropriate documents) Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 22
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling Steps Selection and determination of product categories Development and adoption of appropriate criteria, standards or guidelines Certification and licensing Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 23
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling Stakeholder participation Governments   Other  Interested   Par>es  (e.g.   media,  NGOs,   Academies,   Interna>onal   Community)   Industry  and   Commercial   Associa>ons   Consumers   Ecolabelling   Ac>vi>es   Program   Management   Authority   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 24
  • Type I – Environmental Labelling Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 25
  • UE Ecolabel •  What is the EU Ecolabel (EC Regulation no. 66/2010): is the European Union eco-label that rewards the products and services with the best environmental performances •  Why it was introduced: –  European strategy for sustainable Production and Consumption (SPC) and Sustainable Industrial Policy (SIP) –  Consumers demand: increased environmental sensitiveness –  Overcome national borders with an official label applicable throughout the EU •  Who it is aimed: –  Consumers: the logo make easy recognize product or service both environmentally friendly and good quality. –  Companies: the label adds value to business and products because it increases reputation, indicates corporate social responsibility and increases sales. Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 26
  • Regulatory framework evolution EC Reg. 890/1992 EC Reg. 1980/2000 EC Dec. 187/2003 EC Dec. 338/2005 EC Dec. 578/2009   EC Reg. 66/2010 Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 27
  • UE Ecolabel Criteria To obtain the label a product must satisfied some criteria 1.  2.  3.  4.  " Based on product with the best environmental performances on market are determined on scientific basis consider the entire life cycle of product: raw materials, operations and disposal define the environmental requirements that product must have to get label Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 UE Ecolabel environmental requirements* Ecolabel sustainability issues* UE *International Trade Center 28
  • UE Ecolabel Criteria 1.  Most significant environmental impacts: –  Impact on Climate Change –  Impact on nature and biodiversity –  Consumption of energy and resources –  Production of waste –  Pollution due to physical effects –  Use and release of hazardous substances 2.  Replacing hazard substances with safer chemicals 3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Reduction of environmental impacts due to durability and reusability of products Net environmental balance between the environmental benefits and burdens, including health and safety Social and ethical aspects Criteria established for other official labels Where possible, reduction of animal experiments Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 29
  • UE Ecolabel Categories 23 Categories of products and services can obtain the label:* 356   264   372   754   407   Hard  floor  coverings   Indoor  plants  and   varnishes   All  purpose  cleaners   and  cleaners  for   sanitary  facili>es   Tissue  paper   Tex>le  products   Copying  and  graphic   paper   676   6250   724   1367   Televisions   Soaps  and  shampoos   Hand  dishwashing   detergents   -  33% Hard floor coverage; -  14% indoor paints and varnishes; -  10% Tissue paper and all-purpose cleaners; -  2% Tourist accommodation. 2000   Tourist   accommoda>on   Laundry  detergent   2115   2469   Other   *European  Union   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 30
  • UE Ecolabel Diffusion 1600   Number of Ue Ecolabel products licenses issued per country 2012:* Evolution of issued licenses:* 1357   1400   322   1200   1064   1015   317   Italy   1331   France   599   1000   663   UK   754   800   Netherlands   1616   600   200   33   0   0   0   0   6   11   39   53   249   224   166   128   95   Spain   Sweden   386   400   0   9067   514   3839   Germany   Other   *European Union 1992  1994  1996  1998  2000  2002  2004  2006  2008  2010   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 31
  • UE Ecolabel Diffusion: Italy 20000   Number of licenses and products released * 18380   17320   18000   16000   14000   12739   Products   12000   Licenses   10000   10169   8982   8000   6000   3822   4000   2474   2000   0   2   1   9   2   1140   1384   657   789   491   84   83   63  6   237   58   31   26   12   174   250   332   245   292   287   324   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   July   *ISPRA Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 32
  • UE Ecolabel Diffusion: Italy Regional distribution of licenses 2013:* 70   60   22%   50   61   58   49   40   26%   52%   30   25   24   24   24   20   10   7   6   5   5   3   2   1   10   North   South  &  Islands   Center   20   0   *ISPRA Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 33
  • UE Ecolabel Diffusion: Italy 1   Number of licenses 1   for product groups 2013:* 2   2   4   8   10   12   12   15   15   20   30   Wood  forniture   soil  condi>oner   Col>va>on  substrate   Laundry  detergent   Shoes   Texile   Hand  dishwashing  detergents   Indoor  plants  and  varnishes   Hard  floor  coverings   All  purpose  cleaners  and  cleaners  for  sanitary  facili>es   Soaps  and  shampoos   Camping   Tissue  Paper   181   Tourist  Accommoda>on   0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   160   180   200   *ISPRA Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 34
  • Analysis Of The EU Ecolabel In The Italian Tourist Sector Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 35
  • Economic role of tourism worldwide Tourism contribution to global GDP* 2012 2023 estimation Growth Direct GDP share 2,9% - 2056,6 billion $ 3,1% - 3249,2 billion $ 4,4% Total GDP share 9,3% - 6630,4 billion $ 10% - 10507,1 Billion $ 4,4% International tourist arrivals by 2030: +3,8%* *World Travel and Tourism Council **United Nations World Tourism Organization Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 36
  • Environmental impact of tourism •  2005 Global share of tourism industry CO2 emission* " 6% - 26400 CO2 Mt Sector Airplane Car Other transport Accommodation Activities Total CO2 (Mt) Share per element (%) 420 32 515 45 40 3 274 21 26,400 100 48 4 •  2035 emissions from the sector will increase by 160%* *UNEP – UNWTO – University of Oxford Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 37
  • Sustainable Tourism "Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities" *UNWTO Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 38
  • Sustainability tools for tourism accommodation •  •  •  •  •  Codes of Conduct Best Environmental Practices Environmental Performance Indicators Environmental Management Systems Eco-labels " Effective and measurable improvement of environmental performaces Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 39
  • European Ecolabel for tourism Large number of voluntary certifications ! confusions and uncertainty on consumers and structures " European Ecolabel " Eliminate confusion with an official Eu tool Spread good environmental practices Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 40
  • Ecolabel in Tourism Accommodation Services •  EC Dec. 187/2003 " Extension to tourism accommodation services •  EC Dec. 338/2005 " Extension to campsites services " •  EC Dec. 578/2009 Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 Meet customers’ demand*: •  51% of tourists opt for environmentally friendly accommodation; •  82% prefer an intact environment. *Studienkreis fur Umwelt und Entwicklung e V. on behalf of Umweltbundesamt, 2005 41
  • The aim of criteria The criteria aim to set limits on the main environmental impacts from the three phases of the life cycle of tourist accommodation service (purchasing, provision of the service and waste). In particular they aim to: 1.  limit energy consumption 2.  limit water consumption 3.  limit waste production 4.  favor the use of renewable resources and of substances which are less hazardous to the environment 5.  promote environmental communication and education. Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 42
  • Criteria categories for tourism To obtain the label the services must meet 29 mandatory criteria and 61 optional criteria " Seven broad criteria: Before service phase Energy -  50 % of the electricity used from renewable energy -  Boiler efficiency > 88% -  Air Conditioning Class A efficiency -  80% Light Bulbs Class A efficiency -  Compliance with national and local buildings codes Water savings -  Reduced water flow from tap and shower -  Waste water must be treated -  Follow local water waste plan Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 43
  • Criteria categories for tourism To obtain the label the services must meet 29 mandatory criteria and 61 optional criteria " Seven broad criteria: Operational phase General Management -  Environmental Policy Statement and Action Plan -  Staff training on environmental measures -  Data collection Waste reduction -  No disposable products -  No single dose packaging -  Waste separation Info to guests -  Active info on Environmental Policy and Action Plan -  Info on environmental good practices in structure Info on EU Ecolabel -  Guest Information on Ecolabel 67 criteria – 20 criteria satisfied Optional Criteria Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 44
  • Ecolabel in tourism accommodation services: Italy Temporally evolution of licenses:* 199   130   137   159   166   181   79   2   12   22   •  Europe: 356 licenses 2% of total •  Italy: 50,8% of total EU licenses 2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   June   2013   *ISPRA Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 45
  • Ecolabel in tourism accommodation services: Italy Territorial distribution 2012* Type of accommodation 2012* 120   100   Center   15%   South  &   Islands   32%   *ISPRA 80   North   53%   60   40   20   0   Type  of  accommoda>on  2012*     Agri-­‐ tourism   B&B   House  for   holidays   Hotel   Residence   Shelter   Hostel   13   10   4   105   7   10   1   Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 46
  • Environmental Performances Benchmark Ecolabel and other structures 1/3 Comparison of Ecolabel structures and other facilities in Trentino-Alto Adige* Electricity consumption Average consumption in Ecolabel structures Ecolabel compared to number of nights Other structures average Percentage variation Water consumption Average consumption in Ecolabel structures Ecolabel compared to number of night Other structures average Percentage variation 116.666,59 KWh/year 158.896 KWh/year -26,58% 3.579.093,18 l/year 4.161.000 l/year -26,58% *ISPRA, Federazione Italiana per l’Uso Razionale dell’Energia Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 47
  • Environmental Performances Benchmark Ecolabel and other structures 2/3 Comparison of Ecolabel structures and other facilities in Italy* Electricity consumption Average consumption in Ecolabel structures Ecolabel compared to number of nights 250.623,31 Kwh/year Average of 4 stars hotel in North Italy 588.235,29 Kwh/year Percentage variation - 57,39% *ISPRA, ENEA Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 48
  • Environmental Performances Benchmark Ecolabel and other structures 3/3 Comparison of Ecolabel structures and other European hotels* Electricity consumption 3 stars 4 stars Average consumption in Ecolabel structures Ecolabel compared to number of nights 61,34 kWh/pern 29,51 kWh/pern Other European structures average (LIFE study) [12] 83,5 kWh/pern 71,84 kWh/pern Percentage variation - 26,54% - 58,92% Water consumption 3 stars 4 stars Average consumption in Ecolabel structures Ecolabel compared to number of nights 280,27 l/pern 233,29 l/pern Other European structures average (LIFE study) 424 l/pern 335 l/pern Percentage variation -33,90% - 30,36% *ISPRA; Haleme H., Eckardt S. Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 49
  • CONTACT INFORMATION Departement of Bisuness Management University Roma Tre michelepreziosi@gmail.com Dott. Michele Preziosi 2013 50