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  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • Nico Carpentier has proposed the AIP (Access-Interaction-Participation) Model. It considers four different levels: the first one (the more simplistic access) considers the access to media technology; the second one (a more advanced example of access) considers the access to the content defined relevant and the access to the content and technology producing organization. The third level is the interaction (user-to-media interaction; user-to-content interaction; user-to-user interaction; and user-to-content or technology-producing organization); the fourth level is, at least, participation as we can see in this slide. London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation
  • London, 4-5 April 2008 FilMobile Crisc-Cmcs : Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation

Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation - FilMobile Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation - FilMobile Presentation Transcript

  • Mobile Audiences between Access and Participation Michele Sorice Emiliana De Blasio London 4-5 April 2008
  • Theoretical Background … and some myths
    • To belong to an audience represents a criterion of cultural reference
      • not the simple action of “watching” television or consuming the products of any other medium
      • analysing the audience means to take in consideration different contexts and multiple activities of cultural consumption
    • What is the audience nowadays?
    • Or better what are the audience s ?
    Audience: what is this? CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • The audience fragmentation but also its reconstitution into shapes that only few years ago were unthinkable obliges us to question the very existence of the audience itself.
    • Is the common-sense understanding of “audience” simply an academic construction? (Staiger 2000) Maybe not but we have not to melt the audience with its representation
      • In Italy, for example, the exploring public of the satellite TV networks (but also of IpTv and some trends on the borders of TV such as YouTube) has constituted the topic of struggle between the “people meter” system defenders and Sky management (supported by many scholars)
    A deep transformation CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Ethnographic Studies of 1980s
      • the home as the most meaningful place in which to study the audience
    • New trends in Audience Research
      • There are other important places where people perform their role as audience members
        • “ Is there only one site for studying the audience ‘close-up’ or is the point, precisely, to study the linkages between many sites in contemporary culture in order to grasp the contemporary audience?” (Couldry 2005).
    What Audience? CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Two definitions…
    • Audience: a composition of determinate number of people listening or watching media events in a precise moment
    • Audience: people experiencing audiencing process that do not take place in a specific moment and a predictable physical space .
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
      • Is in-store radio listening in a shopping mall or a department store different from home or car radio listening?
      • Does ‘real’ consumption of music only happen in listening to concerts?
      • Is there not a public that downloads their favourite songs from the Internet or listens to music on an iPod, often displaying a new type of “conspicuous consumption”?
      • What kind of audience is the one made up of travellers on the tube watching TV programs while they are waiting for trains?
    • De-localized audiences
      • What’s the logic?
        • Access or Involvement or what else?
      • And what about people watching TV using mobile devices?
        • Interaction? Participation?
    … and several questions CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • In the interactivity framework the space of representation is often “doubled” and the interaction process too.
    • Interactivity breaks with the idea of the passive public.
    • But “active audience” doesn’t mean automatically “participatory” audiences
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Access, Interaction, Participation
  • Access 1.0
    • “ The use of the media for public service. It may be defined in term of the opportunities available to the public to choose varied and relevant programs and to have a means of feedback to transmit its reactions and demands to production organizations” (Servaes 1999: 85)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Access 1.1
    • From a community media perspective, it can be defined as “the processes that permit users to provide relatively open and unedited input to the mass media” (Lewis 1993: 12)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Access 2.0
    • Opportunity to have the produced content published/broadcast
    • Skills to receive content and providing feedback (see Carpentier 2007)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Is interaction a “social and participatory” activity?
    • Really the “pull-technologies” cancel the power of the producers and distributors?
    • Control or illusion of control?
      • “ our control may appear absolute, but the domain of that control is externally defined. We are engaged, but exercise no power over the filtering language of interaction embedded in the interface” (Rokeby 1995: 154)
    Interaction: some questions CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Involvement is one of the concepts commonly used in reception studies and in the analysis of the “consumption” process.
    • The concept of involvement emphasizes particularly the relational and affective aspect implied in the reception process.
    • The concept of involvement is connected to the question of balanced power
    • There is no co-decision making in the interaction
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • From involvement to relational community CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Performances in a range of contexts are best made sense of in terms of what Giddens (1993) names the structuration of social practices
    • Contemporary audiences – and particularly mobile audiences – represent a complete example not only of the merger of creativity and reproduction but also of performativity and involvement as social practices.
    • Traditional audiences – based upon a rigid distinction between creativity and social reproduction – are dead.
      • This doesn’t mean that there are no audiences; just they are very different from some years ago.
      • This doesn’t mean that the active audiences are “always” composed by participants people
    From Creativity/Reproduction to Performativity/Involvement CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Interaction or Participation? Thanks to Davide Bennato for suggesting sources and images CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • An example… Source: Forrester Research CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • The most popular social network in Italy (dec 2007 – jan 2008) CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Concept used by Manuel Castells in 2001 to describe the sociality of the web culture
    • Networked individualism is replacing the use of other types of social formations, such as informal formations (Nightingale 2007)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Participation means From NicoCarpentier’s AIP model (2007) CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • What about Mobile Audiences? Interactives? Networked individualists? Social participants people?
  • Theoretical background and methodology The Research
  • Outline (1/3)
    • Avoiding the study of the relation between contents and individuals
    • Providing a detailed investigation of the general landscape of people’s media consumptions from the point of view of involvement and participation/activism
      • Research focused also on phenomena such as the use and conspicuous display of multi-media connection tools (i.e. the process of aesthetization of the iPod, the tactical use of mobile devices)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Outline (2/3)
    • Individuals are always an audience and not only when they agree to become targets of a particular media content
    • There are many differences in consumption styles and, perhaps, in the characteristics of the access and participation (in quality and quantity)
      • For these reasons we have not considered the logic of contacts
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Outline (3/3)
    • The natural “setting” of audiencing processes is fragmented, like consumption styles, and multidimensional, like the consumed contents
    • All the methods based upon “effects theory” approach are inadequate
    • Adoption of a methodological approach based upon the discursive realism perspective
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Three steps
    • 1,630 questionnaires
      • With interviewers
      • Respondents: citizens of metropolitan area of Rome, aged between 15 and 54
        • (15-24 * 25-34 * 35-44 * 45-54)
        • 51% women, 49% men
    • 8 focus groups
      • Two for each cluster
    • Ethnographic field research
      • Participating observation in micro-communities
      • Non participating observation (stations and airports)
      • In-depth interviews
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Findings
  • Some Background’s Structural Data
  • The growth CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Users expenses for mobile videos (world) Source: Juniper Research – Key4Biz CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Mobile TV and Video Revenues Millions of Euros – Source IDATE CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • UGC – Mobile Users 2006 CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice Country 13-17 18-24 All Mobile Subscribers France 58.0% 48.9% 29.6% Germany 44.0% 44.1% 31.0% Italy 69.7% 63.6% 43.6% Spain 63.2% 60.9% 44.6% UK 63.5% 65.9% 41.0% US 36.7% 45.0% 23.3% User-Generated Content and Social Networking Application* Usage: October 2006 Source: M:Metrics. Survey of mobile subscribers.
  • The Research Step 1. The Questionnaires
    • Respondents (1,630) had almost one of the following tools:
      • Mobile Phone or Smartphone
      • iPod
      • Other Mp3 player
      • PSP or similar
      • Laptop
      • Portable DVD player
    Step 1. Questionnaires CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 1. Questionnaires Main findings
    • Increasing in consumption of mobile contents
    • Video contents consumption is “episodic” (also due to expensive costs)
      • Streaming involves mainly news and sport
    • Mobile “audiencing” is still less participatory than many myths indulge to think
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Sample composition Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Video mobile consumption (1/3)
    • Consumption of advanced contents per age clusters
    Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Video mobile consumption (2/3)
    • Users of advanced mobile video contents
    Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Video mobile consumption (3/3)
    • Consumption of advanced contents per gender
    Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • “ Things for men”?
    • Our research seems to show that mobile audiences are more male gendered than the file sharing users in another Italian research of September 2007
    Sources: Crisc-Cmcs & Fondazione Einaudi CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Frequency of use Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Downloading or streaming? Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Downloaded products with smartphone Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Downloaded products in Web 2.0 Downloaded products Films 30% TV serials 7% TV programs 11% Other 7% CDs (whole) 21% Music tracks 91% CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Mobile Content Consumption Source: Crisc-Cmcs CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice   Activities % Watched video (downloaded or streamed) 6.4 Listened to music 14.2 Accessed news/info via browser 7.2 Received/Sent texts (SMS) 93.8 Played downloaded game 8.9 Accessed downloaded application 3.1 Sent/received photos or videos 36.5 Purchased ringtones 4.9 Used email 10.1 Accessed social networking sites 1.9
  • Mobile Content Consumption Mobile Subscriber Monthly Consumption of Content and Applications CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Mobile Content Consumption. A comparison Sources: Crisc-Cmcs / M:Metrics CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice   Activities   Crisc-Cmcs Watched video (downloaded or streamed) 6.4% Listened to music 14.2% Accessed news/info via browser 7.2% Received/Sent texts (SMS) 93.8% Received SMS ads n.r. Played downloaded game 8.9% Accessed downloaded application 3.1% Sent/received photos or videos 36.5% Purchased ringtones 4.9% Used email 10.1% Accessed social networking sites 1.9%
  • Mobile Audiences: A New Market M:Metrics™ Launches MeterDirect™ the First Syndicated Mobile Audience Measurement Service Using Metering Technology Measurement firm finds carrier domains rank highly in UK; Americans prefer Web brands SEATTLE and LONDON—March 26, 2007—M:Metrics, the mobile market authority, today announced the launch of MeterDirect , the first research service to directly and continuously measure consumer mobile media behavior, unlocking mobile as a viable medium for advertisers. For the first time, media companies will be able to understand how, when and how often consumers engage with the mobile medium, including mobile Web audience rankings by site, the demographic composition of mobile Web domains and day of week and time of day behavior that defines mobile Web traffic. The MeterDirect service also collects detailed information about mobile application usage, including messaging, title and channel level music and video consumption. From: M:Metrics – Press Release, March 26, 2007 CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Mobile Social Networking CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
    • Social networking among access, interaction and participation: and the mobile social networking?
    Mobile Social Networking CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice … There are currently nearly 50 million members in “mobile social communities” and is expected to reach 174 million worldwide by 2011… ABI Research
  • Mobile Social Networking
    • Only 2.3% of Italian mobile phones subscribers access to mobile social networks, and our findings confirm the data
    • The trend seems increasing but less fast than optmistic forecasts
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • The Research Step 2. The Focus Groups
  • Step 2. Focus Groups
    • 8 focus groups
      • Explorative Approach
    • 68 people
    • Aged between 15 and 54
    • 36 men
    • 32 women
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 2. Focus Groups Recruiting
    • 4 focus groups
      • Snowball sampling
      • Validation questionnaire
      • Exit questionnaire
    • 4 focus groups
      • Recruiting questionnaire
      • Exit questionnaire
    In this way we have tried to reduce the distortion coming from the recruiting systems CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 2. Focus Groups Aims
    • To investigate the subjects' daily life with the media as people report this in focus groups conversations
    • To avoid causal generalizations about mobile media possession and their use
    • To map the interrelated territories of media consumption and social participation
    • To go beyond the simplistic difference between “active” and “passive” audiences
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 2. Focus Groups Findings
    • Use
      • How and in what way the focus groups participants use mobile media (smartphone, iPod, etc.)
      • What kind of activity they play with them
    • Aesthetization
      • Tactical use of the technological tools
    • Action
      • Strategies and tactics of the people using mobile tools as an identity representation
      • Active consumption and/or interactive involvement
        • ≠ Participation
        • Mobile “audiencing” is still less participatory than many myths indulge to think
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 2. Focus Groups Findings. Five trends CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • http://www.sxc.hu/photo/944842 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/959908 CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • The Research Step 3. Ethnographic Research
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research Observation
    • Participant
      • Researchers in micro-community of youths using iPod, PSP and Smartphone (to listen/view audio-visual contents)
    • Non Participant
      • Ethnographic description of the individuals using iPod, PSP and Smartphone (to listen/view audio-visual contents) in three railways stations, two airports, the Rome’s Tube and three stores with “in-store radio”
    • In-depth interviews
      • Sample of “observed” people accepting to be interviewed
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (1/6)
    • This step is still in progress
    • Anyway some tendencies seem clear
      • The mobile contents consumption is mainly playful
      • The mobile audiences seem to use their tools in an “escapist” way across their daily work’s journeys
      • There are no evidence of a participatory style in media consumption
      • There are some evidences of “alternative” use of mobile tools in particulars “relational communities”
        • i.e.hip-hop participants using professional headphones to hear iPod (even dissimulating the iPod possession: a tactical behaviour?)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (2/6)
    • Film Mobile producers , instead, show a performative useof the tools, evendisplayingidentitarianadoptionoftechnology and languages
    • A self-defining process
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (3/6)
    • To explain this findings we can use Giddens theory about reflexivity
      • “ The reflexivity of social life consists in the fact that social practices are constantly examined and reformed in the light of incoming information about those practices , thus constitutively altering their character” (Giddens 1990: 28)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (4/6)
    • We make sense of social life and our place in it through the stories we tell. Some people use mobile devices to tell stories which constitute their autobiographies.
    • One of the findings of in-depeth interviews is the evidence of the process of negotiation that people activate with cultural resources available
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (5/6)
    • The Mobile Audiences are “mobile” even in their consumption styles
      • Many platforms and technology standards
      • Too much pricing policies by operators
      • Many new consumption styles
      • The Mobile Films seem to have not yet found their positioning
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Step 3. Ethnographic Research First findings (6/6)
    • Mobile Social Networking seems to put itself between social participation and networked individualism
    • The respondents seem to prefer a playful use of the mobile social networks (MySpace prevailing over other experiences)
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Mobile Audiences? Many mobile audience styles… Thanks to Riccardo Esposito for finding images CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • References
    • Carpentier, N. (2007) Participation, Access and Interaction: Changing Perspectives, in Nightingale, Dwyer 2007
    • De Blasio, E., Gili, G., Hibberd, M. Sorice, M. (2007) La ricerca sull’audience. Milano: Hoepli
    • Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. London: Polity Press
    • Moores, S. (2005) Media/Theory. London: Sage
    • Nightingale, V., Dwyer, T., eds., (2007) New Media Worlds. Challenges for Convergence. Oxford: New York
    • Rockeby, D. (1995) Transforming Mirrors: Subjectivity and Control in Interactive Media, in Penny, S. (ed) Critical Issue in Electronic Media. New York: State Universityof New York Press
    • Servaes, J. (1999) Communication for Development: One World, Multiple Cultures. Hampton, New Jersey: Cresskil
    • Silverstone, R. (1999) Domesticating ICT’s, in Dutton, W. (ed) Society on the Line: Information Politics in the Digital Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press
    • Sorice, M. (2007) The Mobile Audiences. Mechelen: Katolische Hogeschule
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • www.mediaresearch.wordpress.com CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice
  • Credits
    • Cmcs 2008
    • This paper presented by
      • Emiliana De Blasio
      • Michele Sorice
    CMCS - E. De Blasio + M. Sorice