Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-...
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques
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A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques

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Harmony is a classic concept that relates to the ideas of beauty, proportion and order. We can also define harmony as the effect of the composition of objects, not randomly, but in a way that properties and intrinsic components of the object in question are solidly respected, according to a varying degree of importance preset that connects with the general scheme of organization of the object itself. Thus, it is understandable to note the intimate relation between form and content, syntax and semantic properties that manifest as real-world sensations linked to the rhythm, the colors, the movement and structural design. This synergy of concepts configures the basis of harmony. In this talk titled "A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques", we will present a brief overview on methods, techniques and applications of color harmonization in images, videos and three-dimensional models, such techniques being extensible to any objects of visual appreciation.

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A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques

  1. 1. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Color Harmonization Survey A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques Michel Alves dos Santos Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - COPPE Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - CEP: 21941-972 Docentes Responsáveis: Prof. Dsc. Ricardo Marroquim & Prof. PhD. Cláudio Esperança {michel.mas, michel.santos.al}@gmail.com September 12, 2013 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  2. 2. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Introduction Yellow- orange Yellow- green Red- orange Red- violet Blue- violet Blue- green Red Green Violet Blue Orange Yellow 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 x y D65 500 490 480 470 460 380 700 620 600 580 560 540 520 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  3. 3. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Introduction Yellow- orange Yellow- green Red- orange Red- violet Blue- violet Blue- green Red Green Violet Blue Orange Yellow 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 x y D65 500 490 480 470 460 380 700 620 600 580 560 540 520 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC In this presentation we will talk about ...
  4. 4. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Introduction Color Harmonization Yellow- orange Yellow- green Red- orange Red- violet Blue- violet Blue- green Red Green Violet Blue Orange Yellow 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 x y D65 500 490 480 470 460 380 700 620 600 580 560 540 520 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC In this presentation we will talk about ...
  5. 5. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Introduction Color Harmonization Yellow- orange Yellow- green Red- orange Red- violet Blue- violet Blue- green Red Green Violet Blue Orange Yellow 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 x y D65 500 490 480 470 460 380 700 620 600 580 560 540 520 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC In this presentation we will talk about ... But first, what is the concept of Harmony? And Color Harmony?
  6. 6. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 What’s Harmony? The Concept of Harmony [Form + Content] :: [Syntax + Semantics] Harmony can be defined as a pleasing arrangement of parts, whether it be music, poetry, color, gastronomy, etc. Appropriate structural relation to sensory perception! Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  7. 7. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 What’s Color Harmony? The Concept of Color Harmony Itten [1960]: ‘Color Harmony means relationships on the hue wheel’ Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  8. 8. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 What´s the Importance of Color Harmony? Importance of Colors and Color Harmony Figure: The Birth of Venus (Sandro Botticelli) and Composition VII (Wassily Kandinsky). Works that enchant with their mastery of combining tones, refined aesthetic and unique harmonic sense. ◮ Highlight information and attract attention; ◮ Increase cognitive ability; ◮ Associate syntax to semantics. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  9. 9. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Color Harmony and Color Harmonization Harmony .VS. Harmonization Harmony =⇒ Property :: Harmonization =⇒ Proccess Harmonic colors are color sets which have special internal relationships that are aesthetically pleasing to the human eye. Color Harmonization is the process to find the best sets of colors which will make the image more comfortable to human visions. Why use Color Harmonization? Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  10. 10. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Color Harmony and Color Harmonization Harmony .VS. Harmonization Harmony =⇒ Property :: Harmonization =⇒ Proccess Harmonic colors are color sets which have special internal relationships that are aesthetically pleasing to the human eye. Color Harmonization is the process to find the best sets of colors which will make the image more comfortable to human visions. Why use Color Harmonization? Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  11. 11. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Why use Color Harmonization? Reasons for Using the Color Harmonization ◮ Because harmonic colors are pleasing to the eye; ◮ And because harmonic sets involve the human observer and provide a sense of order and balance in the visual experience. How can we find the set of colors more harmonious? Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  12. 12. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Why use Color Harmonization? Reasons for Using the Color Harmonization ◮ Because harmonic colors are pleasing to the eye; ◮ And because harmonic sets involve the human observer and provide a sense of order and balance in the visual experience. How can we find the set of colors more harmonious? Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  13. 13. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Harmonic Sets Harmonic Sets and the Colorization Process Obtaining these harmonic sets can be boring due to the tedious work of colorization. At this point it is necessary to use smarter approaches! Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  14. 14. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Harmonic Sets Harmonic Sets and the Colorization Process Obtaining these harmonic sets can be boring due to the tedious work of colorization. At this point it is necessary to use smarter approaches! Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  15. 15. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Harmonic Sets Harmonic Sets and the Colorization Process Obtaining these harmonic sets can be boring due to the tedious work of colorization. Such as the Color Harmonization Techniques! Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  16. 16. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Harmonic Sets Harmonic Sets and the Colorization Process Obtaining these harmonic sets can be boring due to the tedious work of colorization. Such as the Color Harmonization Techniques! Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  17. 17. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Color Harmonization Techniques Papers on Color Harmonization Before talking about the selected works we will perform a short explanation of the first contributions. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  18. 18. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 The First Contributions Background of Color Harmonization ◮ First considerations were made by Pythagoras [≈ 500 BC], Aristotle [≈ 320 BC], Plato [≈ 340 BC]; ◮ System suitable for the mixing of colours: Leon Battista Alberti [≈ 1430], Leonardo da Vinci [≈ 1490]; ◮ Discoveries in the field of the theory of harmonization: Newton, Goethe, Young and Maxwell [≈ 1703 to 1860]; ◮ Introduction of a quantitative representation of harmony: Moon & Spencer [1944], Granville & Jacobson [1944]; ◮ Modern Theory of Colours: Munsell [1969], Ostwald & Birren [1969] and Itten [1960]; ◮ Introducing a new color circle where harmony is emphasized by the hue component: Itten [1960]; ◮ Introduction of 80 harmonic schemes based on studies of Itten: Matsuda [1995]; ◮ Harmonic schemes of Tokumaru [2002] to the present day... Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  19. 19. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: 1 Geometric Formulation of Classical Color Harmony, 1944 2 Color Design Support System Considering Color Harmony, 2002 3 Computational Color Harmony Based on Coloroid System, 2005 4 Color Harmonization, 2006⋆ 5 Color Conceptualization, 2007 6 Color Harmonization for Videos, 2008 7 Color Design for Illustrative Visualization, 2008 8 Harmonic Colormaps for Volume Visualization, 2008 9 An Improved Method for Color Harmonization, 2009 10 Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation, 2009 11 Multi-scale Image Harmonization, 2010 12 Color Harmonization for Augmented Reality, 2010 13 Data-Driven Image Color Theme Enhancement, 2010 14 Optimizing Photo Composition, 2010 15 Cost-effective Feature Enhancement for Volume Datasets, 2010 16 Online Video Stream Abstraction and Stylization, 2011 17 ColourVis: Exploring Colour Usage in Paintings Over Time, 2011 18 Example-Based Image Color and Tone Style Enhancement, 2011 19 Color Compatibility from Large Datasets, 2012 20 Improving Photo Composition Elegantly, 2012 21 Image Composition With Color Harmonization, 2012 22 Affective Image Colorization, 2012 23 Understanding and Improving the Realism of Image Composites, 2012 24 Color Harmonization Enhancement, 2012 25 Saliency-Guided Consistent Color Harmonization, 2013 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC 1944 20132002 2006 20122009 20112005 2007 20102008
  20. 20. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: 1 Geometric Formulation of Classical Color Harmony, 1944 2 Color Design Support System Considering Color Harmony, 2002 3 Computational Color Harmony Based on Coloroid System, 2005 4 Color Harmonization, 2006⋆ 5 Color Conceptualization, 2007 6 Color Harmonization for Videos, 2008 7 Color Design for Illustrative Visualization, 2008 8 Harmonic Colormaps for Volume Visualization, 2008 9 An Improved Method for Color Harmonization, 2009 10 Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation, 2009 11 Multi-scale Image Harmonization, 2010 12 Color Harmonization for Augmented Reality, 2010 13 Data-Driven Image Color Theme Enhancement, 2010 14 Optimizing Photo Composition, 2010 15 Cost-effective Feature Enhancement for Volume Datasets, 2010 16 Online Video Stream Abstraction and Stylization, 2011 17 ColourVis: Exploring Colour Usage in Paintings Over Time, 2011 18 Example-Based Image Color and Tone Style Enhancement, 2011 19 Color Compatibility from Large Datasets, 2012 20 Improving Photo Composition Elegantly, 2012 21 Image Composition With Color Harmonization, 2012 22 Affective Image Colorization, 2012 23 Understanding and Improving the Realism of Image Composites, 2012 24 Color Harmonization Enhancement, 2012 25 Saliency-Guided Consistent Color Harmonization, 2013 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC 1944 20132002 2006 20122009 20112005 2007 20102008 We will do a quick analysis of these works!
  21. 21. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: 1 Geometric Formulation of Classical Color Harmony, 1944 2 Color Design Support System Considering Color Harmony, 2002 3 Computational Color Harmony Based on Coloroid System, 2005 4 Color Harmonization, 2006⋆ 5 Color Conceptualization, 2007 6 Color Harmonization for Videos, 2008 7 Color Design for Illustrative Visualization, 2008 8 Harmonic Colormaps for Volume Visualization, 2008 9 An Improved Method for Color Harmonization, 2009 10 Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation, 2009 11 Multi-scale Image Harmonization, 2010 12 Color Harmonization for Augmented Reality, 2010 13 Data-Driven Image Color Theme Enhancement, 2010 14 Optimizing Photo Composition, 2010 15 Cost-effective Feature Enhancement for Volume Datasets, 2010 16 Online Video Stream Abstraction and Stylization, 2011 17 ColourVis: Exploring Colour Usage in Paintings Over Time, 2011 18 Example-Based Image Color and Tone Style Enhancement, 2011 19 Color Compatibility from Large Datasets, 2012 20 Improving Photo Composition Elegantly, 2012 21 Image Composition With Color Harmonization, 2012 22 Affective Image Colorization, 2012 23 Understanding and Improving the Realism of Image Composites, 2012 24 Color Harmonization Enhancement, 2012 25 Saliency-Guided Consistent Color Harmonization, 2013 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC 1944 20132002 2006 20122009 20112005 2007 20102008 We will do a quick analysis of these works! Considering the main contributions!
  22. 22. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: 1 Geometric Formulation of Classical Color Harmony, 1944 2 Color Design Support System Considering Color Harmony, 2002 3 Computational Color Harmony Based on Coloroid System, 2005 4 Color Harmonization, 2006⋆ 5 Color Conceptualization, 2007 6 Color Harmonization for Videos, 2008 7 Color Design for Illustrative Visualization, 2008 8 Harmonic Colormaps for Volume Visualization, 2008 9 An Improved Method for Color Harmonization, 2009 10 Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation, 2009 11 Multi-scale Image Harmonization, 2010 12 Color Harmonization for Augmented Reality, 2010 13 Data-Driven Image Color Theme Enhancement, 2010 14 Optimizing Photo Composition, 2010 15 Cost-effective Feature Enhancement for Volume Datasets, 2010 16 Online Video Stream Abstraction and Stylization, 2011 17 ColourVis: Exploring Colour Usage in Paintings Over Time, 2011 18 Example-Based Image Color and Tone Style Enhancement, 2011 19 Color Compatibility from Large Datasets, 2012 20 Improving Photo Composition Elegantly, 2012 21 Image Composition With Color Harmonization, 2012 22 Affective Image Colorization, 2012 23 Understanding and Improving the Realism of Image Composites, 2012 24 Color Harmonization Enhancement, 2012 25 Saliency-Guided Consistent Color Harmonization, 2013 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC 1944 20132002 2006 20122009 20112005 2007 20102008 We will do a quick analysis of these works! Considering the main contributions! Go get it!
  23. 23. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #1 :: Moon & Spencer, 1944 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  24. 24. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #1 :: Moon & Spencer, 1944 There is no reason why the balance point should be limited to any particular class of colors. Birren12 mentions applications in which a chro- matic balance point is chosen to obtain a par- ticular psychological effect. The further development of colorharmony re- N' '4 a '-CYLINDEROFCONSTANTCHROMA FIG. 1. The metric colorspace, showing the artesian coordinate system (, 2 , w 3 ) and the cylindrical system (r, 0, z). IGeorge Field, Chromatics (London, 1845). 8 A. H. Munsell, A Color Notation (Munsell Color Com- pany, Baltimore, 1941). DW. v. Bezold, Te Theory of Color (American edition, Boston, 1876). 10E. BrUcke, Die Physiologie der Farben (Leipzig, 1866); Les Couleurs (Paris, 1866). " W. Ostwald, Die Harnionieder Farben (Leipzig, 1922); Farbkunde (Leipzig, 1923); Color Science, translated into English by J. S. Taylor (Vol. 1, London, 1931; Vol. II, London, 1933). 12 F. Birren, Color Dimensions (Crimson Press, Chicago, that one must educate himself to appreciate the more complicated color arrangements. The Ost- wald ideas of harmony can be applied equally well to the Munsell colorsolid,3 though this fact does not seem to be generally realized. Munsell himself gave very little specific information on harmony, though he did mention the balance of colors about a neutral or other point and the orderly arrangement in the color solid. Thus technical developmentsin the production of colorants and progress in color theory have both helped in the advancement of color theory. There has been a real advance in the theory of color harmony, but this advance has been almost entirely qualitative. The Ostwald color solid still rests on a very insecure foundation, and it is only during the past five years that the Munsell sys- tem has been placed on a satisfactory scientific basis2 with the aid of the C.I.E. system. So it is not strange that the vague ideasof the artist have not been translated into more scientific terms. 3. THE METRIC COLORSPACE To make the theory of colorharmony a branch of geometry, one must have first a metric color- space. Such a space was developed for this pur- pose, as noted in a previous paper.' The C.I.E. specification of color gives an affine colorspace, where angles in general do not have any meaning and wheredistances in differentdirections cannot be compared. Such a space cannot be used for the geometrical formulation of color harmony until a metric is introduced. A Euclidean metric was 13 M. E. Bond and Dorothy Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. PARRY MOON AND D. CHOSEN COLOR 12 28I FIG. 2. Regions of similarity and contrast in a plane z = const. (constant Munsell value). worked out in Munsell notation without direct use of the C.I.E. specification. 4. POSTULATES Before attempting any new work in this field, one may ask himself, "What is color harmony?" The assumption, which is nowhere stated but which seems to be taken for granted throughout find ve likes. T provide tions t aesthet called though not con The and su two po Pleas (1) t unambig (2) c represen simple These fundam observe there s Applied means togethe were in 50 Metric Colorspace and Regions of Similarity Roots of Mathematical Foundation of Color Harmony Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  25. 25. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #2 :: Tokumaru et al., 2002 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Abstract - Color design is very important for a product design. In this paper, we propose a system which aims to support such a color design. Proposed system is composed of 5 parts, such as the part which evaluates the harmony of colors, the color combining part, color scheme image judging part, image word output part and lastly image comparison part. First, the system requires the user to input a color and his preferring image of color scheme including his inputting color with image keyword. Next, the system selects colors from the Munsell color database, which are in harmony with the color inputted into the system . Then, the system builds color schemes to combine the color inputted by the user with the colors selected from the database by the system. Finally, images of the color schemes are evaluated and outputted the color combinations whose images accord with the image keyword which the user inputs into the system. Experimental result shows that effective judgments of color harmony and color image are executed and we can get some good color schemes by the system. Color Design Support System Considering Color Harmony Masataka Tokumaru Faculty of Engineering Kansai University toku@ipcku.kansai-u.ac.jp Noriaki Muranaka Faculty of Engineering Kansai University muranaka@ipcku.kansai-u.ac.jp Shigeru Imanishi Faculty of Engineering Kansai University imanishi@k3ki.densi.kansai-u.ac.jp words) by neural networks[2][3]. This method is convenient because the system does not require any rules for the relationship between the input and the output, but it is difficult to correct parts of the system and to introduce technical knowledge into the system because it is difficult to grasp the internal state of the system. On the other hand, many researchers who study color science proposed methods and logics to analyze color schemes and color images. However a lot of them are not a computer system and they require estimation and interpolation by user about the part where investigation isn't accomplished. Then we compose a computer system which automatically designs color scheme whose harmony is well and whose image corresponds with user’s preferring color image[6]~[8]. This paper is comprised of 6 chapters. We show the outline of the system in the next chapter. The system adopts following Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  26. 26. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #2 :: Tokumaru et al., 2002 with fuzzy membership functions. Our system judges a color Fig. 1 Flowchart of the proposed system. Harmonized Color Combinations User wants Fuzzy Rules and Membership Functions Harmonized Color Combinations Color Image Scale select the image of the color combination in the Color Image Scale KeyWord Image Scale Matchingselect the image word of the color combination in the KeyWord Image Scale Image Munsell Color Database evaluate harmony of the color combination Fuzzy Rules and Membership Functions Hue Components Tone Components Color User compare the images Image Word Fig. 2 Transform The Munsell Color Space into The Hue and Tone Distribution. Value Chroma Hue Hue Value Chroma Type i Type V Type L Type I Type T Type Y Type X Type N Definition of Tokumaru Templates Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  27. 27. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #3 :: Neumann et al., 2005 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Computational Color Harmony based on Coloroid System László Neumann† , Antal Nemcsics‡ , and Attila Neumann§ †Grup de Gràfics de Girona, Universitat de Girona, and Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, ICREA, Barcelona, Spain ‡Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary §Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, Austria †lneumann@ima.udg.es, ‡nemcsics.antal@axelero.hu, §aneumann@cg.tuwien.ac.at (a) (b) Figure 1: (a) visualization of the overall appearance of a dichromatic color set with ‘caleidoscope’ option of the Color Plan Designer software and (b) interactive color selection of a dichromatic color set in multi-layer mode, applying rotated regular Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  28. 28. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #3 :: Neumann et al., 2005 Figure 3: A cylindrical projection of the continuous limit- color curve of the Coloroid Definition of Coloroid System Circle of 48 Limit-colors Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  29. 29. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #3 :: Neumann et al., 2005 Figure 14: A dichromatic scene, where colors of diffuse parts build a harmonic set. It was used in a BRDF study Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  30. 30. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #4 :: Cohen-Or et al., 2006 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Color Harmonization Daniel Cohen-Or Olga Sorkine Ran Gal Tommer Leyvand Ying-Qing Xu Tel Aviv University∗ Microsoft Research Asia† original image harmonized image Figure 1: Harmonization in action. Our algorithm changes the colors of the background image to harmonize them with the foreground. Abstract Harmonic colors are sets of colors that are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. In this paper, we present a method that enhances the harmony among the colors of a given photograph or of a general image, while remaining faithful, as much as possible, to the original colors. Given a color image, our method finds the best harmonic scheme for the image colors. It then allows a graceful shifting of hue values so as to fit the harmonic scheme while considering spatial coherence among colors of neighboring colors are sets of colors that hold some special internal relation- ship that provides a pleasant visual perception. Harmony among colors is not determined by specific colors, but rather by their rel- ative position in color space. Generating harmonic colors has been an open problem among artists and scientists [Holtzschue 2002]. Munsell [1969] and Goethe [1971] have defined color harmony as balance, in an effort to transfer the concept of color harmony from a subjective perspective to an objective one. Although currently there is no formulation that defines a harmonic set, there is a con- sensus among artists that defines when a set is harmonic, and there Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  31. 31. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #4 :: Cohen-Or et al., 2006 i type V type L type I type T type Y type X type N type Harmonic Templates on the Hue Wheel The templates may be rotated by an arbitrary angle Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  32. 32. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #4 :: Cohen-Or et al., 2006 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 3: Overview of the color harmonization process. (a) The original image. (b) The hue histogram of the image before and after harmonization. The top histogram refers to the original image, with best-fitting I-type template superimposed. The bottom histogram shows the hues shifted to match the template sectors. (c) The resulting harmonized image. Note that the harmonization tried to preserve the original colors as much as possible. (d) The user manually rotates the template (top), and the hues are shifted accordingly (bottom). (e) The result of the manual choice of template orientation. Figure 4: Manual choice of harmonic schemes. The original image and its hue histogram are displayed in the left column. Harmonic templates with various orientations result in different palettes. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  33. 33. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #4 :: Cohen-Or et al., 2006 1 2 (a) input (b) nearest sector (c) optimized sector (d) hue histogram Figure 5: A naive implementation associates colors with their nearest sector, yielding the artifacts in the middle image (b). Using optimized graph-cut labeling alleviates the problem, producing a more coherent result (c). The hue histogram and the harmonic scheme are shown in (d), to visualize the source of the problem: in the naive implementation, hues which are nearly equally close to both sectors of the template may “choose” their sector arbitrarily, and this causes color discontinuities in the resulting image. Note that when the optimization (c) is applied, two pixels with exactly the same color are not necessarily shifted to the same sectors, since we take into account the spatial relation among pixels. F(X,(m,α)) = ∑ p∈X H(p)−ETm(α)(p) ·S(p), H′ (p) = C(p)+ w 2 (1−Gσ ( H(p)−C(p) )) , Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  34. 34. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #4 :: Cohen-Or et al., 2006 original image harmonization (mirror-L template) harmonization (V template) harmonization (Y template) (a) original (b) harmonization result (X template) (c) harmonization result (mirror-L template) Some Applications of Color Harmonization Technique Useful tool for designing posters, presentations, web sites and other kinds of combined imagery Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  35. 35. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #5 :: Hou & Zhang, 2007 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Color Conceptualization Xiaodi Hou Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University No.800, Dongchuan Road Shanghai, China, 200240 http://bcmi.sjtu.edu.cn/~houxiaodi Liqing Zhang Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University No.800, Dongchuan Road Shanghai, China, 200240 zhang-lq@cs.sjtu.edu.cn ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a method to manipulate colors of an image. Based on a library of natural color images, our system evolves several prototypes of color distribution of the library, which we call “color concepts”. By applying these color concepts on an input image, a user can easily change the mood of image colors in a global manner. Our results of photographs and paintings indicate that this method is capable of high-quality color manipulations. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.4.8 [IMAGE PROCESSING AND COMPUTER VI- SION]: Scene Analysis - Color General Terms Algorithms, Design, Experimentation Keywords Color Concept, Color Transfer, Scene Analysis “Forest” conceptualized image“Autumn” conceptualized image The input images are applied to “spring” and “autumn” concepts respecƟvely. The leŌ part of each image displays the original input, while the right part is the output of color conceptualizaƟon. Figure 1: Examples of color conceptualization. enhancement. By fitting the color histogram of a harmonic scheme, incongruent colors can be replaced by colors that satisfy established harmonic rules. However, color harmo- nization is a full automatic approach. A user cannot use it to edit colors based on his/her subjective ideas. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  36. 36. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #5 :: Hou & Zhang, 2007 “Forest” conceptualized image“Autumn” conceptualized image The input images are applied to “spring” and “autumn” concepts respecƟvely. The leŌ part of each image displays the original input, while the right part is the output of color conceptualizaƟon. Examples of Color Conceptualization Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  37. 37. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #5 :: Hou & Zhang, 2007 Coast Warm Cold (a) input image (b) “Forest” conceptualized image Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  38. 38. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #5 :: Hou & Zhang, 2007 Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  39. 39. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #6 :: Sawant & Mitra, 2008 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Color Harmonization for Videos Nikhil Sawant Niloy J. Mitra Dept. of CSE, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi {nikhilus85,niloym}@gmail.com Abstract Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust the colors of a given image in order to enhance their visual harmony. In this paper, we present a method to automati- cally improve the color harmony of images. Harmonization is performed using a carefully designed optimization in the hue space, while keeping the saturation and intensity com- ponents unchanged. Finally, for videos, we pose the prob- lem as an efficient joint optimization in space and time, thus minimizing flickering or visual artifacts in the harmonized output video. We report the performance of our algorithm on a variety of test images and video sequences. 1. Introduction tury, Newton gave us the first color wheel. Subsequently, Maxwell came up with important contributions in the field of colors [3, 4]. Itten [2] was the first to introduce the color wheel based on hue information. He proposed a scheme of color harmony based on relative positions of colors on a color wheel. He introduced two (complementary colors), three (equilateral triangle), four (square), six (hexagon) color harmony schemes. Tokumaru [5] extended this work for harmony evaluation. He also introduced template-based harmonization schemes. Such templates attempt to quantify our perception and understanding of matching colors, al- lowing us to solve the color harmonization problem, whose goal is to improve the visual appeal of an image, in an opti- mization framework. Our work is inspired by the recent work on image color harmonization by Cohen-Or and colleagues [1]. They used the templates proposed by Tokumaru et al. [5] to harmonize the images along with a graph cut method to ensure contigu- Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  40. 40. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #6 :: Sawant & Mitra, 2008 Figure 1: (Left) Input image. (Right) The color harmonized image is visually more pleasing. The output depends on the type of hue-template [5] used, template X in this case. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  41. 41. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #6 :: Sawant & Mitra, 2008 template i template V template L template I template T template Y template X template N Figure 2: Color harmonization can be seen as fitting or ap- proximating hue information using harmonizing templates, which were originally proposed by Tokumaru et al. [5]. {i, V , L, I, T, Y , X, N} Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  42. 42. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #6 :: Sawant & Mitra, 2008 Figure 6: A video sequence, when color harmonized by simply processing each frame individually, results in flickering. Figure 8: Our joint space-time optimization approach results in a flicker-free color harmonized video. A naive approach on the same sequence results in artifacts as seen in Figure 6. The method used in this work avoids flicker and other artifacts Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  43. 43. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #7 :: Wang et al., 2008 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Color Design for Illustrative Visualization Lujin Wang, Joachim Giesen, Kevin T. McDonnell, Member, IEEE, Peter Zolliker, Member, IEEE, and Klaus Mueller, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract—Professional designers and artists are quite cognizant of the rules that guide the design of effective color palettes, from both aesthetic and attention-guiding points of view. In the field of visualization, however, the use of systematic rules embracing these aspects has received less attention. The situation is further complicated by the fact that visualization often uses semi-transparencies to reveal occluded objects, in which case the resulting color mixing effects add additional constraints to the choice of the color palette. Color design forms a crucial part in visual aesthetics. Thus, the consideration of these issues can be of great value in the emerging field of illustrative visualization. We describe a knowledge-based system that captures established color design rules into a comprehensive interactive framework, aimed to aid users in the selection of colors for scene objects and incorporating individual preferences, importance functions, and overall scene composition. Our framework also offers new knowledge and solutions for the mixing, ordering and choice of colors in the rendering of semi-transparent layers and surfaces. All design rules are evaluated via user studies, for which we extend the method of conjoint analysis to task-based testing scenarios. Our framework’s use of principles rooted in color design with application for the illustration of features in pre-classified data distinguishes it from existing systems which target the exploration of continuous-range density data via perceptual color maps. Index Terms—Color design, volume rendering, transparency, user study evaluation, conjoint analysis, illustrative visualization 1 INTRODUCTION Recent years have seen multifarious efforts to better integrate and exploit properties of human visual perception into visualization de- sign. Illustrative rendering techniques have been developed that ren- der the scene at different levels of abstractions [30] and detail [32] or in different rendering styles [5], with applications ranging from in- formation visualization [20] to full-scale volume rendering. In these approaches, the levels of abstraction are most often controlled by a task- or object-dependent importance parameter [31]. Another per- ception-motivated strategy is to guide viewer attention to salient features [16]. Color can play a major role in these particular efforts. However, there is no illustrative rendering system so far that incor- porates rules from color design directly into the visualization engine. Yet, the working scenario of graphics designers is quite similar to Professional designers and artists are quite cognizant of rules that guide the design of color palettes, not only from an aesthetic point of view but also from an attention-guiding, salient one. Likewise, visu- alization is not only concerned with providing a pleasing image – it also has a mission, that is, to help users gain quick and accurate in- sight into the visualized data [34]. Our framework captures these known color design rules into a knowledge-based system, which then combines them with scene analysis, user preferences, and importance functions to derive appropriate colorizations. These latter considera- tions are typically not embodied in currently existing frameworks. The scope of our system is image-centric as well as volume visu- alization. Both often use semi-transparencies to reveal occluded ob- jects. Here, color mixing effects and the perceived depth-ordering of Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  44. 44. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #7 :: Wang et al., 2008 Fig. 12: Illustrative visualizations of a six-dimensional dataset using illustrative parallel coordinates. (a) Ideal visualization with appropriate weightings and color choices, and the use of the local model in overlapping areas. (b) Improper weightings are employed. The blue cluster no longer seems to be in front. (c) The use of improper weightings and the disabling of the local model results in a confusing visualization. (a) (b) (c) α α in the same compositing order, but with opacities assigned in the Fig. 8. Color mixing in a volume rendered body. (a) Cyan and e two r opacity tes am- es ont color heavily po- ted no false a prevent Fig. 6. Colorizations of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) data. From left to right, classes A, B, or C (the small oblong, elliptical cells) were most important. stem suggests hues cyan e same provides guidelines on of each class is r the former, importance, 0.7 for age size) e area to meter can portant classes portance a higher portance) ations varying Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  45. 45. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #8 :: Wang & Mueller, 2008 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Harmonic Colormaps for Volume Visualization Lujin Wang and Klaus Mueller Center for Visual Computing, Computer Science, Stony Brook University, NY Abstract Color design forms a crucial part in visual aesthetics, and it has been shown that a visually aesthetic visuali- zation will be looked at more carefully. An important role plays here the choice of a colormap that is com- posed of harmonic colors. This paper presents an interface that allows users to choose harmonic colors in volume visualization applications. In addition, it describes mechanisms by which non-harmonic colormaps can be converted to harmonic ones, but keeping lightness constant to preserve the original contrast relation- ships. Finally, we also show how harmonic colors can be used for the highlighting of important volume fea- tures. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CSS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Display Algorithms. 1 Introduction In visualization and volume graphics, image and volume datasets typically come in form of 2D and 3D arrays of scalar densities, which are mostly obtained via simula- accomplishing perceptually uniform color scales (color- maps). The research presented in [9] specifically ad- dressed the lightness component of these colormaps, devising a simple method to specify such colormaps on commodity non-calibrated displays. Other work [5] de- IEEE/ EG Symposium on Volume and Point-Based Graphics (2008) H.-C. Hege, D. Laidlaw, R. Pajarola, O. Staadt (Editors) Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  46. 46. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #8 :: Wang & Mueller, 2008 Figure 2: Color harmonization without lightness-preservation (Buckyball dataset). (a) Original rendering with corresponding hue wheel; (b) Rendering with colormap harmonization using just the hue shifting (hue wheel on the right); (c) Rendering with hue harmonization, but with our lightness-preservation scheme applied after hue shifting (same hue wheel than (b)). (a) (b) (c) scheme to preserve lightness after hue shifting. The hue Then, when the user employs the hue wheel for a harmo- Figure 5: Volume rendered segmented frog dataset. (a) (a) (b) (a) (b) Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  47. 47. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #8 :: Wang & Mueller, 2008 Figure 6: Composition of shockwave and jet dataset rendering.(a) Non-harmonic trans- fer function; (b) Harmonic transfer function (T type); (c) Harmonic transfer function (V type). (a) (b) (c) the back- e mixture. all assume control the e of color ransparent trict our achieving har- variety of the capa- thod for me visuali- we show ered frog -harmonic (see the Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  48. 48. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #8 :: Wang & Mueller, 2008 Figure 6: Features are highlighted one by one: (a) All features are rendered in neutral colors, no feature is highlighted, (b)-(d) The outside feature is highlighted by increasing the vividness of its color gradually, while preserving the lightness, (e) The vividness of the outside feature decreases, (f)-(h) The inside feature is highlighted gradually, (i)-(j) The vividness of the inside feature decreases. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  49. 49. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #9 :: Huo & Tan, 2009 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• An Improved Method for Color Harmonization Xing Huo Hefei university of Technology, Math Department Hefei university of Technology, Computer and Information institute Hefei,China Jieqing Tan Hefei university of Technology, Math Department Hefei university of Technology, Computer and Information institute Hefei,China Abstract—Harmonic colors are color sets which have special internal relationships that are aesthetically pleasing to the human eye. Color harmonization is to find the best sets of colors which will make the image more comfortable to human visions. An improved technique of best scheme searching for automatic color harmonization is proposed in this paper. By considering the predominant color in image and its contribution to the harmonic image, this paper formulates a ratio method to find the best scheme. Moreover this paper suggests some change to the strategy of color shifting, thus makes the algorithm more efficient. In addition, this paper utilizes the conventional technique but produces better results through a set of simple processing. It is shown that the efficiency and accuracy of the new technique is significantly better than the traditional technique. Keywords-color harmonization;hue;graph-cut;color space I. INTRODUCTION Color harmony originated from the theory of white light al.[5] presented a system for designing colors based on several color rules, and applied them to a graphical user inter-face (GUI) building tool, Daniel Cohen[6] proposed a new method which could automatically harmonizes a given color palette through an optimization process, and provides a means to automatically recolor an arbitrary image. Color harmony also gives some nudges in color transfer[7,10,11] . Our method is based on the work of Cohen, it can cope with the image with rich colors ,find the most suitable scheme automatically and keep some regions intact. The method proposed in this paper improved the optimization and recoloring method of Cohen’s work. It takes the predominant hue of the image into account as well as a slight change in the recoloring function which minimizes the time cost. II. HARMONIC SCHEMES The harmonic schemes in this paper are brought forth by Matsuda[4] .There are eight schemes in Figure 1, each scheme Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  50. 50. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #9 :: Huo & Tan, 2009 (a) Original Image (b) Result Image(α = 54) (c) Result Image(α = 60) (d) Hue Histogram of Original Image(α = 54,60) (e) Hue Histogram of Harmonized Image (α =54) (f) Hue Histogram of Harmonized Image (α =60) Figure 2 Result Images and Hue Histograms by Cohen and Improved algorithm Figure 3. Harmonized background image in respect to foreground Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  51. 51. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #9 :: Huo & Tan, 2009 TABLE I. COMPARE COHEN’S ALGORITHM WITH IMPROVED ALGORITHM Cohen’s method Template i V L I T Y X F-template 2224714 1072405 493496 422310 189772 220565 40446 Orientation angle 54 Time cost 33984 ms Improved method Template i V L I T Y X F-template 2514050 1749780 564215 555936 247651 396070 46311 Orientation angle 60 Time cost 79 ms hhh snF •=α work : )))()((1( 2 )()(' pCpHE w pCpH −−+= σ (3) σ )),(,( αmXF ∈ •−= Xp T pSpEpHmXF m )()()()),(,( )(αα Where X is the given image, p stands for any pixel in th 2 2 2 )( σ σ t etE − = σ Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  52. 52. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #10 :: Shapira et al., 2009 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation L. Shapira1, and A. Shamir2 and D. Cohen-Or1 1Tel-Aviv University, Israel 2Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel Abstract Changing the appearance of an image can be a complex and non-intuitive task. Many times the target image colors and look are only known vaguely and many trials are needed to reach the desired results. Moreover, the effect of a specific change on an image is difficult to envision, since one must take into account spatial image considera- tions along with the color constraints. Tools provided today by image processing applications can become highly technical and non-intuitive including various gauges and knobs. In this paper we introduce a method for changing image appearance by navigation, focusing on recoloring im- ages. The user visually navigates a high dimensional space of possible color manipulations of an image. He can either explore in it for inspiration or refine his choices by navigating into sub regions of this space to a specific goal. This navigation is enabled by modeling the chroma channels of an image’s colors using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The Gaussians model both color and spatial image coordinates, and provide a high dimensional parameterization space of a rich variety of color manipulations. The user’s actions are translated into transfor- mations of the parameters of the model, which recolor the image. This approach provides both inspiration and intuitive navigation in the complex space of image color manipulations. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): Computer Graphics [I.3.6]: Interaction Techniques— Image Processing [I.4.3]: Enhancement—Image Processing [I.4.9]: Applications—Image Processing [I.4.10]: Im- age Representation - Multidimensional— Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  53. 53. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #10 :: Shapira et al., 2009 L. Shapira & A. Shamir & D. Cohen-Or / Image Appearance Exploration by Model-Based Navigation Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  54. 54. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #11 :: Sunkavalli et al., 2010 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Multi-scale Image Harmonization Kalyan Sunkavalli∗ Harvard University Micah K. Johnson† MIT Wojciech Matusik‡ Disney Research, Zurich Hanspeter Pfister§ Harvard University (a) Source / Target (b) Seamless Cloning (c) Harmonization (d) Close-ups Figure 1: In traditional image compositing (a) a user applies geometric transformations to a source image (top) and inserts it into a target image (bottom). Tools such as the Photoshop Healing Brush use gradient domain compositing to ensure that the composite is seamless (b) but the inconsistencies between the two images, make the result look unrealistic: the inserted face is much smoother than the rest of the image. Our method “harmonizes” the images before blending them, producing a composite that is seamless and realistic (c). The close-up images (d) compare traditional gradient-domain blending (top) to the harmonized result (bottom). Abstract Traditional image compositing techniques, such as alpha matting and gradient domain compositing, are used to create composites that have plausible boundaries. But when applied to images taken 1 Introduction Combining regions of multiple photographs or videos into a seam- less composite is a fundamental problem in many vision and graph- ics applications, such as image compositing, mosaicing, scene com- Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  55. 55. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #11 :: Gruber et al., 2010 (a) Source / Target (b) Inserting source into target (c) Close-ups (d) Inserting target into source (e) Close-ups Figure 10: In this example, the source ((a) top) is smooth while the target ((a) bottom) is noisy. When inserting the source into the target, harmonization adds noise to produce a realistic composite (b). Conversely, when the target image is inserted into the source, harmonization removes most of the noise to match the images (d). (a) Source / Target (b) Seamless Cloning (c) Harmonization (d) Close-ups Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  56. 56. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #11 :: Gruber et al., 2010 Smooth Histogram Matching Harmonized Pyramid Final Composite Alpha, Seamless BoundariesNoise Pyramid Target Pyramid Source Pyramid Smooth Histogram Matching Noise Image Target Image Source Image Pyramid Compositing Multi-scale Harmonization Noise Matching Figure 2: An overview of the Multi-scale Image Harmonization framework. The input source and target images, and a uniform ran- Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  57. 57. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #12 :: Gruber et al., 2010 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Color Harmonization for Augmented Reality Lukas Gruber1 , Denis Kalkofen2 and Dieter Schmalstieg3 Graz University of Technology ABSTRACT 2 REAL-TIME COLOR SHIFTING In this paper we discuss color harmonization for Augmented Reality. Color harmonization is a technique used to adjust the combination of colors in order to follow aesthetic guidelines. We implemented a system which is able to harmonize the combination of the colors in video based AR systems. The presented approach is able to re-color virtual and real-world items, achieving overall more visually pleasant results. In order to allow preservation of certain colors in an AR composition, we furthermore introduce the concept of constraint color harmonization. To achieve real-time performance, we implemented the color shifting on the GPU using pre-computed look-up tables. We identify and execute the necessary color shifts on a per pixel basis. Our algorithm consists of the following steps: 1. Pre-compute color shift for all templates and orientations and store in a look-up table (off-line) 2. Select harmonization template T and its orientation θ, according to [1] 3. Select split border between template sectors, according to [3] 4. Shift the hue value of every pixel, using a pixel shader 1 INTRODUCTION For each color template T, we compute a single look-up table before the application is started. This color template look-up table (CT-LUT) holds the results of each possible color shift, for each hue value. We set the granularity to 1 degree of arc (0 to 359), resulting in a texture dimension of 360 by 360 texel. Each texel encodes the mapping result for a single hue in a single orientation of the template. The different mapping directions for a single hue have been assigned to different color channels of the texture. At runtime, a template and an orientation and its mapping direction is chosen for an image according to [1]. Finally, a simple texture lookup defines the new color per pixel. In Augmented Reality (AR) oftentimes virtual objects must be generated without any knowledge about the real world environment in which they are going to be deployed. This is particularly relevant for outdoor AR applications (e. g., Layar4 ), where neither the application developer nor the content creator have reasonable control over the real world background, which will be blended with the virtual content. Even if the knowledge about the visual properties of the real world surroundings is available, the dynamics of the real world environment in all but the most constrained laboratory conditions make it at least very difficult to ensure that virtual content will always fit into its real world environment. It is therefore desirable to investigate online composition algorithms that can adjust the virtual and real image components to yield a better visual match. 3 FRAME COHERENT COLOR SHIFTING Frame coherent color harmonization for AR differs strongly from offline frame coherent color shifting as discussed by Sawant et al. [3]. Firstly, in an interactive system it is impossible to process upcoming frames and secondly, AR systems have to Among the known properties of appealing images, the combination of colors is accepted as one of the most influential Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  58. 58. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #12 :: Gruber et al., 2010 Figure 1. Histogram scaling versus template search restriction. (A) Restricting the template search to only constrained elements may heavily change the appearance of the entire visualization. The environment in this example consists of a single constrained object (the red stop sign) which appears in a single color. By restricting the template search to only the hue values of the stop sign, the hue values of the entire environment will shift towards red. (B) By scaling the histogram at hue values of constrained pixels we are able to compute the template and its orientation taking into account the remaining part of the imagery. This technique is able to harmonize the environment using fewer modifications. Notice the slight changes of hue values on the formerly blue arm of the LEGO figure riding the motor-bike. This will lead to an increased cognitive load, making the AR sign (Figure 1A). To achieve real-time performance, this technique implements the color shifting on the GPU using pre-computed look-up tables. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  59. 59. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #13 :: Wang et al., 2010 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Data-Driven Image Color Theme Enhancement Baoyuan Wang ∗∗ Yizhou Yu†∗ Tien-Tsin Wong‡ Chun Chen∗ Ying-Qing Xu§ ∗ Zhejiang University † University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ‡ The Chinese University of Hong Kong § Microsoft Research Asia Figure 1: An example of image color theme enhancement using our method. Left: Original image; middle: recolored result with the “nostalgic” color theme; and right: recolored result with the “lively” color theme. Abstract It is often important for designers and photographers to convey or enhance desired color themes in their work. A color theme is typ- ically defined as a template of colors and an associated verbal de- scription. This paper presents a data-driven method for enhancing a desired color theme in an image. We formulate our goal as a unified optimization that simultaneously considers a desired color theme, texture-color relationships as well as automatic or user-specified Psychological studies confirm the strong associations between col- ors and semantic themes. For instance, “graceful” is often associ- ated with a combination of pinkish and purple colors while “sad” is typically defined using a combination of blue and grey colors. In general, a color theme is a template of colors and an associated verbal description. Given a color theme, our goal is to perform color theme enhancement of an image, which seeks a global trans- formation of the colors in the original image so that it maintains the realism of natural images while the new color composition is Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  60. 60. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #13 :: Wang et al., 2010 (a) input image (b) soft segmentation (h) recolored images(g) color histograms for textures O ptim ization solver TextureClustering Build H istogram s (e) training examples . . . Theme Database (c) color themes from communities Texture Library (d) (f) ... ... Figure 3: The overall pipeline of our framework. Each sub-image in (b) is an influence map of a soft segment. Each soft segment finds the most relevant texture class in (f) and adopt the corresponding color histogram in (g). The histograms in (g) are further converted into continuous probability density distributions using Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM). The user needs to select a desired color theme from (d), then our optimization solver takes the prior knowledge (color probabilities), the desired color theme and the image segments into consideration to generate final recolored images in (h). Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  61. 61. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #13 :: Wang et al., 2010 Figure 6: Left: an input image and a color theme. Middle: image generated by the greedy initial assignment in section 5.1, without further optimization. Right: final image with further optimization. Figure 7: Left: an input image and a target color theme. Middle: result image without E3. Right: result image with E3. Examples of Harmonization Using Color Themes Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  62. 62. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #13 :: Wang et al., 2010 Figure 12: A variety of images and their recolored ones with different color theme enhancements. The first column shows the original images. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  63. 63. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #14 :: Liu et al., 2010 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Optimizing Photo Composition Ligang Liu1† Renjie Chen1 Lior Wolf2 Daniel Cohen-Or2 1Zhejiang University, China 2Tel-Aviv University, Israel (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 RT DA VB SZ 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sum (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Optimizing the aesthetics of the original photograph in (a) by our approach leads to the new image composition shown in (c). (b) shows the cropping result of the approach of [Santella et al. 2006]. The aesthetic scores are shown in (d). Our result in (c) obtains higher aesthetic score than (a). RT(rule of thirds), DA(diagonal), VB(visual balance), and SZ(region size) are components of the objective function. Abstract Aesthetic images evoke an emotional response that transcends mere visual appreciation. In this work we develop a novel computational means for evaluating the composition aesthetics of a given image based on measuring several well-grounded composition guidelines. A compound operator of crop-and-retarget is employed to change the relative position of salient regions in the image and thus to modify the composition aesthetics of the image. We propose an optimization method for automatically producing a maximally-aesthetic version of the input image. We validate the performance of the method and show its effectiveness in a variety of experiments. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  64. 64. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #14 :: Liu et al., 2010 (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 RT DA VB SZ 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sum (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Optimizing the aesthetics of the original photograph in (a) by our approach leads to the new image composition shown in (c). (b) shows the cropping result of the approach of [Santella et al. 2006]. The aesthetic scores are shown in (d). Our result in (c) obtains higher aesthetic score than (a). RT(rule of thirds), DA(diagonal), VB(visual balance), and SZ(region size) are components of the objective function. (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 RT DA VB SZ 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sum (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) RT DA VB SZSum 0 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Figure 7: Results of aesthetic composition. (a) The original images; (b) an arbitrary cropping frame of (a); (c) the aesthetic composition result by our approach; (d) the aesthetic scores of (a),(b),and (c). Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  65. 65. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #15 :: Díaz et al., 2010 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Cost-effective Feature Enhancement for Volume Datasets J. Díaz1 , J. Marco2 and P. Vázquez1 1MOVING Group, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya 2GESSI Group, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Abstract Volume models often show high complexity. Local details and overall shape may sometimes be difficult to perceive. Unsharp masking techniques improve the perception of those small features by increasing the local contrast. In this paper we present a simple and fast method for feature enhancement based on 3D mipmaps. In contrast to other approaches, in addition to increasing luminance on the feature details, we also darken the valleys of the volume thus increasing local contrast and making neighboring details more visible. Our approach is fast and simple, with small memory requirements thanks to the use of 3D mipmaps. We also propose a color selection strategy, based on harmonic colors, that further enhances the salient features without abrupt or uncomfortable color changes. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation–Display Algorithms 1. Introduction Contrast enhancement is a popular 2D image processing tool that improves the image appearance. Concretely, it helps users to understand complex models by emphasizing small features. Several experiments have proven that users pre- • The method is simple and fast, thus maintaining high framerates for complex models. • The memory consumption is limited: Auxiliary data struc- tures consist of a set of 3D mipmaps of the volume dataset, leading to small memory requirements as com- pared with the original model. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  66. 66. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #15 :: Díaz et al., 2010 (a) Ray Casting (b) Protrusion enhancement (c) Sinkage darkening (d) Enhanced view Mipmap 2, γ = 1.0 Mipmap 2, γ = 1.0 Figure 1: Feature enhancement is achieved by combining a luminance increase for the protruding zones (image c) and darken- ing for the sinking regions (image d). The final combination is shown in Figure b. (a) Ray-Casting (b) Unsharped MM8, γ = 0.4 Figure 4: Feature enhancement of a volumetric model. Ray-Casting Feature emphasis with harmonic color Figure 10: Harmonic color-based feature emphasis for the pollen grain model. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  67. 67. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #16 :: Zhang et al., 2011 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Online Video Stream Stylization Figure 1: Stylization example. 1: Original video frame; 2 - 4: Three frames of the stylized video with color scheme replacement. Abstract1 This paper gives an automatic method for online video stream styl-2 ization, producing a temporally coherent output video stream. Our3 system transforms video into an abstract style with large regions of4 constant color and highlighted bold edges. Our system includes two5 novel components. Firstly, to provide coherent and simplified out-6 put, we segment frames, and use optical flow to propagate segmen-7 tation information from frame to frame; an error control strategy8 is used to help ensure that the propagated information is reliable.9 Secondly, to achieve coherent and attractive coloring of the output,10 we use a color scheme replacement algorithm specifically designed11 for an online video stream. We demonstrate real-time performance,12 allowing our approach to be used for live communication, video13 games, and related applications.14 1 Introduction15 Video stream processing has many applications to areas such as live with user-guided colors, and high contrast. In comparison, Win-43 nem¨oller [2006] produces a different artistic style based on simpli-44 fied but smoothly shaded contents. Our cartoon-like style means45 that temporal coherence requirements are particularly strict.46 Current stylization methods fall into three categories, each hav-47 ing limitations. Some methods focus on image processing and do48 not readily generalize to video. Others use simple image filters to49 achieve real-time performance, producing simplified and smoothly50 shaded contents, but the output may lack temporal coherence if in-51 put video streams are of low-quality. Yet others require significant52 user interaction to produce high-quality artistic results, and have a53 high computational cost.54 We present a real-time system for a particular style of video styliza-55 tion while providing good coherence. Our approach benefits from56 two novel aspects:57 • a segmentation strategy which uses optical flow to propagate58 segmentation information from frame to frame, with an error59 control strategy to help ensure that the propagated information Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  68. 68. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #16 :: Zhang et al., 2011 Input Video Edge Detection Optical Flow Computation Coherent Image Segmentation Color Scheme Replacement Output Video Importance Map Boundary Smoothing & Edge Overlaying Figure 2: Pipeline. Frame segmentation uses optical flow and edges as inputs, tuned by an importance map, to produce coherent regions. The color scheme replacement step transforms region colors according to a reference video. Stages of the Method: Harmonization is implemented on the penultimate stage to preserve the coherence between regions Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  69. 69. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #16 :: Zhang et al., 2011 Figure 7: Video stylization results. Columns 1, 3: original video frames; columns 2, 4: corresponding stylization results. Figure 9: Comparison of stylization effects. From left to right: source image, results using Winnem¨oller’s method, results of color quantiza- tion, results using our method. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  70. 70. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #17 :: Haber et al., 2011 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization, and Imaging (2011) D. Cunningham and T. Isenberg (Editors) ColourVis: Exploring Colour Usage in Paintings Over Time Jonathan Haber, Sean Lynch, Sheelagh Carpendale {jmhaber, sglynch, sheelagh} @ucalgary.ca Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Figure 1: ColourVis representation of paintings by Vincent van Gogh. Abstract The colour palette of painters over history has been of interest to many, including: art historians, archeologists, Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  71. 71. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #17 :: Haber et al., 2011 Figure 11: Picasso paintings visualized using ColourVis. Figure 12: Representation of 30 years of paintings from the cubism movement. Figure 13: ColourVis representation of Realism and Surre- alism painting movements. Figure 14: Comparison of the Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn / Vincent van Gogh / Pablo Picasso painting collections. Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  72. 72. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #18 :: Wang et al., 2011 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Example-Based Image Color and Tone Style Enhancement Baoyuan Wang ∗∗ Yizhou Yu†‡ Ying-Qing Xu§ ∗ Zhejiang University † University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ‡ The University of Hong Kong § Microsoft Research Asia (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1: Style enhancement results. (a) Original photo taken by iPhone 3G, (b) enhanced photo that mimics the color and tone style of Canon EOS 5D Mark Π; (c) Original photo, (d) enhanced photo with a style learned from a photographer. Abstract Color and tone adjustments are among the most frequent image en- hancement operations. We define a color and tone style as a set of explicit or implicit rules governing color and tone adjustments. Our goal in this paper is to learn implicit color and tone adjust- ment rules from examples. That is, given a set of examples, each of which is a pair of corresponding images before and after adjust- ments, we would like to discover the underlying mathematical rela- tionships optimally connecting the color and tone of corresponding pixels in all image pairs. We formally define tone and color adjust- ment rules as mappings, and propose to approximate complicated spatially varying nonlinear mappings in a piecewise manner. The reason behind this is that a very complicated mapping can still be ferent photographs. As another example, it is well-known that pho- tographs taken by different digital cameras have varying degrees of tone and color discrepancies. This is because each type of camera has its own built-in radiance and color response curves. We define a tone and color style as a set of explicit or implicit rules or curves governing tonal and color adjustments. Manually adjusting the tone and color of a photograph to achieve a desired style is often tedious and labor-intensive. However, if tone and color styles can be formulated mathematically in a digital form, they can be automatically and easily applied to novel input images to make them look more appealing. Unfortunately, the rules governing a tone and color style are most often not explicitly avail- able. For instance, it is typically very hard for a photographer to mathematically summarize the rules he uses to achieve a certain Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  73. 73. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #18 :: Wang et al., 2011 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1: Style enhancement results. (a) Original photo taken by iPhone 3G, (b) enhanced photo that mimics the color and tone style of Canon EOS 5D Mark Π; (c) Original photo, (d) enhanced photo with a style learned from a photographer. Figure 4: (A) is an original photo taken by iPhone 3G while (D) is the reference photo taken by Canon 5D Mark Π. (B) is the result from an affine color mapping while (C) is the result from a quadratic color mapping. Between (B) and (C), (C) is overall visually closer to (D). The technique has two stages: Training and Style Enhancement Stage Uses a SVM in the first stage for the Color and Gradient Mappings Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC
  74. 74. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Campus Cidade Universitária - Rio de Janeiro - Ilha do Fundão, CEP: 21941-972 - COPPE/PESC/LCG Color Harmonization Survey :: A Gentle Introduction to Color Harmonization Techniques :: Seminários de Computação Gráfica II :: September 12, 2013 Chosen Works :: #18 :: Wang et al., 2011 Image Registration Feature Extraction Image Pairs Hierarchical Feature Sub-space Division Train Gradient Mappings Train Color Mappings Features along edges Hierarchical Feature Sub-space Division Features away from edges Train Binary ClassifierNon-leaf Nodes Leaf Nodes Leaf Nodes ... ...... A Gradient Mapping Tree: Ttree A Color Mapping Tree: Ctree Figure 2: The training stage. Leaf nodes are colored in green while intermediate nodes are colored in yellow. Input Image Gradient Mappings Locate Subspaces In Ttree Soft Segmentation Color Mappings Output Image Color Soft Blending Tone Optimization Locate Subspaces In Ctree Edge Pixels All Pixels Figure 3: Image enhancement pipeline. Two Stages of the Technique: Training and Style Enhancement Michel Alves dos Santos: Laboratório de Computação Gráfica - LCG Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Sistemas e Computação - PESC

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