• Spelling is important so that a reader can process the communication as quickly and easily as possible.• What happens if you don’t spell correctly?• Have a look at the “spell chequer” here on the next slide
• A common argument from students is ”I don’t know what to write – I have no imagination” Look around yourself – what in your immediate field of vision can trigger your imagination? Can you think of related things that have happened recently to yourself or anyone you know of? Is the given topic something that does not interest you in anyway? Why? Make a mindmap with ideas.
Paella Tortilla Flamenco Real Madrid Barça españolaGazpacho Food Football SPAINESPEE Warm climate Siesta Sangría Alcohol
• Linking words are words you use to connect sentences or parts of sentences. By using linking words you express yourself more clearly and the reader finds it easier to understand your ideas. The more formal the text is the more linking words are required.• Here is a list of useful linking words you canuse: Group 2 – Reason/Cause linkers (”because”, ”as”) Group 1 – Result linkers (”so”) Since Therefore As a result of* That is why In view of* For this/that reason Because of* Consequently Due to* hence Owing to* Thanks to** Must be followed by a noun, a pronoun or an ”ing-form” verb.
* These are just a few examples of linking words. Ask your teacher for more!*These linkers should be followed by a comma if they come at the beginning of a statement. Sometimes if they come in the middle of a sentence, we put commas both before and after.
• Tip! Do not confuse: What’s more, moreover and in addition with Besides• What’s more, moreover and in addition add extra information.Example: I reckon this is the car I should buy as it’s cheap enough and not really so old. What’s more, it’s just been re-sprayed.• Besides adds another argument that is shown as being stronger than the other ones mentioned.Example: I reckon this is the car i should buy as it’s not so old, and it’s just been re- sprayed. Besides, it’s the only one I can afford.• Note that besides can also be used as a preposition, in which case it must take an ing- form verb.Example: Besides having the right price, what attracted me to the car was its new re- spray.
Try to learn as many linking words as possible! Use them in writing as well as speaking. This will help you improve your English instantly. The more you force yourself to write academically with advanced language, the more natural it will come to you and in the end you will not even think about it!Have a look at the following two sentences: She felt weak after her illness, but she turned up for the exam and managed to pass. She felt weak after her illness; nevertheless, she turned up for the exam and managed to pass.Which one looks more professional to you?
Write a story about anything. Use one of the phrasesbelow to start off your text. Try to use as many linkingwords as possible. In a normal situation you might notuse as many in one place, but this is for practicing, sothat you get used to using them.•The day I found…•My great grandfather always used to say…•When she opened the refrigerator…•After three years of searching finally…
• RMIT University, http://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/4_WritingSkills/00writingskills.ht m (A great page with lots of tips!)• http://www.dailywritingtips.com/• http://www.meredithsuewillis.com/writingexercises.html