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Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
Muscular System
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Muscular System

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  • 1. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
  • 2. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Anterior Posterior
  • 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Smooth Muscle
    Cardiac Muscle
    Skeletal Muscle
  • 4. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Smooth Muscle
    Found in the digestive, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems
    Controlled by the autonomic nervous system
    Smooth in appearance
    Involuntary controlled
  • 5. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Cardiac Muscle
    • Found in the heart
    • 6. Contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN)
    • 7. Striated in appearance
    • 8. Involuntary controlled
  • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Skeletal Muscle
    • All attached either directly or indirectly to the skeleton
    • 9. Controlled by the somatic nervous system
    • 10. Striated in appearance
    • 11. Voluntary controlled
  • fascia
    surrounds the muscle
    connected to periosteum (bone)
    Epimysium
    the outer layer
    perimysium
    around each bundle offibres
    endomysium
    around each muscle fibre
    muscle fibre
    myofibril
    muscle filament
    SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
  • 12. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
    myosin
    actin
    myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments
    actin is pulled together and sarcomere length is reduced
  • 13. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
    • The nervous system consists of two primary
    divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • 14. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
    The Central Nervous System
    The Brain and Spinal Cord
    The Peripheral
    Nervous System
  • 15. THE REFLEX ARC
    Central Nervous System
    Sensory Receptor
    Sensory Nerve
    Motor Nerve
    Muscle responds to nerve impulses
  • 16. MUSCLE FIBRE RECRUITMENT
    Motor units and muscle fibre recruitment:
    • A motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all
    the fibres it innervates
    • ‘All or none law’
    • 17. The more muscle units that are recruited for a
    task, the greater the force will be developed
  • 18. ROLES OF MUSCLES
    • Agonist- A muscle that carries out a voluntary movement
    • 19. Antagonist- The opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur
    • 20. Synergist- A muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement
    • 21. Fixator- A muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting
  • Muscular Contractions
  • 22. TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
    • Concentric (positive); the muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance
    • 23. Eccentric (negative); the muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance
    • 24. Isometric (static); the muscle contracts to
    overcome a resistance but without any change in length
  • 25. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES
    • Slow-twitch or Type 1
  • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    STRUCTURAL FEATURES
    • Smaller diameter fibre
    • 26. Large myoglobin content
    • 27. Many mitochondria
    • 28. Many capillaries
    • 29. Red in colour
  • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    FUNCTIONAL FEATURES
    Increased oxygen delivery
    Produce less force
    Long-term contractions
    Resistant to fatigue
  • 30. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    ACTIVITIES-
    Maintaining posture
    Endurance-based activities
  • 31. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    • Fast-twitch or Type ll
  • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    STRUCTURAL FEATURES
    • Larger diameter fibre
    • 32. Smaller myoglobin content
    • 33. Fewer mitochondria
    • 34. Fewer capillaries
    • 35. White (pale) in colour
  • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    FUNCTIONAL FEATURES
    • Decreased oxygen delivery
    • 36. Produce more force
    • 37. Short term contractions
    • 38. Less resistant to fatigue
  • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
    ACTIVITIES-
    • Rapid, intense movements
  • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
    Short term response:
    Vasodilation(diversion of blood) to the muscles
  • 39. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
    Long term adaptations to aerobic exercise:
    • Increase in the number and size of mitochondria in the
    muscle fibres
    • Increase in the number of capillaries surrounding these
    fibres
    • Increase in the number of aerobic enzymes, stored
    glycogen and triglycerides (fats)
  • 40. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
    Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
    Long term adaptations to strength training:
    • Decrease nervous inhibition (increased nervous stimulation!)
    • 41. Increase in the diameter of the recruited fibres
    • 42. Increase in work performed under anaerobic conditions or high stress conditions
  • Principles of Training
  • 43. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    OVERLOAD
    • In order to challenge the muscle you need to work outside of your comfort zone. The degree of extra challenge depends upon the aims and fitness level of the individual
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    SPECIFICITY
    • Training that is relevant to the desired outcome
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    REVERSIBILITY
    • You cannot store fitness – if you don’t use it you will lose it!
    • 44. Muscles which are not regularly stimulated will suffer muscle wastage or “atrophy”
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    PROGRESSION
    • As you adapt to a workload and can complete it without feeling challenged, the next step is to increase the workload in order to progress
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    ADAPTATION
    • An anatomical or physiological change that occurs in the body, such as getting stronger, losing fat or increasing muscle size.
    • 45. The body will adapt to any new stresses by protecting and strengthening the area.
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    HYPERTROPHY
    • An increase in cross-sectional diameter of trained muscle fibres
  • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
    ATROPHY
    • An decrease in cross-sectional diameter of muscle fibres due to lack of use

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