NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />
MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />		        Anterior           Posterior<br />
MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br /> Smooth Muscle<br /> Cardiac Muscle<br />Skeletal Muscle<br />
MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Smooth Muscle<br /> Found in the digestive, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems <br /> Cont...
MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Cardiac Muscle<br /><ul><li>Found in the heart
Contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN)
Striated in appearance
Involuntary controlled </li></li></ul><li>MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Skeletal Muscle<br /><ul><li>All attached either directly o...
Controlled by the somatic nervous system
Striated in appearance
Voluntary controlled</li></li></ul><li>fascia<br />surrounds the muscle<br />connected to periosteum (bone)<br />Epimysium...
SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY<br />myosin<br />actin<br />myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments<br />actin is pulle...
NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>The nervous system consists of two primary</li></ul>     divisions, the central nervous s...
NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br />The Central Nervous System<br />The Brain and Spinal Cord<br />The Peripheral<br />Nervous System...
THE REFLEX ARC<br />Central Nervous System<br />Sensory Receptor<br />Sensory Nerve<br />Motor Nerve<br />Muscle responds ...
MUSCLE FIBRE RECRUITMENT<br />Motor units and muscle fibre recruitment:<br /><ul><li>  A motor unit consists of a motor ne...
  The more muscle units that are recruited for a </li></ul> task, the greater the force will be developed<br />
ROLES OF MUSCLES<br /><ul><li>Agonist- A muscle that carries out a voluntary movement
Antagonist- The opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur
Synergist- A muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement
Fixator- A muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting</li></li></ul><li>Muscular Contractions<br />
TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION<br /><ul><li>Concentric (positive); the muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance
 Eccentric (negative); the muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance
Isometric (static); the muscle contracts to</li></ul>	overcome a resistance but without any change  in length <br />
MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES<br /><ul><li> Slow-twitch or Type 1</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><...
 Large myoglobin content
 Many mitochondria
 Many capillaries
Red in colour</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />FUNCTIONAL FEATURES<br /> Increased oxygen delivery<br />  Produce ...
MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />ACTIVITIES-<br /> Maintaining posture <br />Endurance-based activities<br />
MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br /><ul><li>Fast-twitch or Type ll</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><u...
  Smaller myoglobin content
  Fewer mitochondria
  Fewer capillaries
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Muscular System

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Muscular System

  1. 1. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br /> Anterior Posterior<br />
  3. 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br /> Smooth Muscle<br /> Cardiac Muscle<br />Skeletal Muscle<br />
  4. 4. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Smooth Muscle<br /> Found in the digestive, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems <br /> Controlled by the autonomic nervous system<br /> Smooth in appearance<br /> Involuntary controlled<br />
  5. 5. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Cardiac Muscle<br /><ul><li>Found in the heart
  6. 6. Contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN)
  7. 7. Striated in appearance
  8. 8. Involuntary controlled </li></li></ul><li>MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Skeletal Muscle<br /><ul><li>All attached either directly or indirectly to the skeleton
  9. 9. Controlled by the somatic nervous system
  10. 10. Striated in appearance
  11. 11. Voluntary controlled</li></li></ul><li>fascia<br />surrounds the muscle<br />connected to periosteum (bone)<br />Epimysium<br />the outer layer<br />perimysium<br />around each bundle offibres<br />endomysium<br />around each muscle fibre<br />muscle fibre<br />myofibril<br />muscle filament<br />SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY<br />
  12. 12. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY<br />myosin<br />actin<br />myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments<br />actin is pulled together and sarcomere length is reduced<br />
  13. 13. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>The nervous system consists of two primary</li></ul> divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)<br />
  14. 14. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br />The Central Nervous System<br />The Brain and Spinal Cord<br />The Peripheral<br />Nervous System<br />
  15. 15. THE REFLEX ARC<br />Central Nervous System<br />Sensory Receptor<br />Sensory Nerve<br />Motor Nerve<br />Muscle responds to nerve impulses<br />
  16. 16. MUSCLE FIBRE RECRUITMENT<br />Motor units and muscle fibre recruitment:<br /><ul><li> A motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all </li></ul> the fibres it innervates<br /><ul><li> ‘All or none law’
  17. 17. The more muscle units that are recruited for a </li></ul> task, the greater the force will be developed<br />
  18. 18. ROLES OF MUSCLES<br /><ul><li>Agonist- A muscle that carries out a voluntary movement
  19. 19. Antagonist- The opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur
  20. 20. Synergist- A muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement
  21. 21. Fixator- A muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting</li></li></ul><li>Muscular Contractions<br />
  22. 22. TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION<br /><ul><li>Concentric (positive); the muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance
  23. 23. Eccentric (negative); the muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance
  24. 24. Isometric (static); the muscle contracts to</li></ul> overcome a resistance but without any change in length <br />
  25. 25. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES<br /><ul><li> Slow-twitch or Type 1</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li> Smaller diameter fibre
  26. 26. Large myoglobin content
  27. 27. Many mitochondria
  28. 28. Many capillaries
  29. 29. Red in colour</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />FUNCTIONAL FEATURES<br /> Increased oxygen delivery<br /> Produce less force<br /> Long-term contractions<br /> Resistant to fatigue<br />
  30. 30. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />ACTIVITIES-<br /> Maintaining posture <br />Endurance-based activities<br />
  31. 31. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br /><ul><li>Fast-twitch or Type ll</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li>Larger diameter fibre
  32. 32. Smaller myoglobin content
  33. 33. Fewer mitochondria
  34. 34. Fewer capillaries
  35. 35. White (pale) in colour</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />FUNCTIONAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li>Decreased oxygen delivery
  36. 36. Produce more force
  37. 37. Short term contractions
  38. 38. Less resistant to fatigue</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />ACTIVITIES-<br /><ul><li> Rapid, intense movements</li></li></ul><li>NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Short term response:<br />Vasodilation(diversion of blood) to the muscles<br />
  39. 39. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Long term adaptations to aerobic exercise:<br /><ul><li>Increase in the number and size of mitochondria in the </li></ul> muscle fibres<br /><ul><li> Increase in the number of capillaries surrounding these </li></ul> fibres<br /><ul><li> Increase in the number of aerobic enzymes, stored</li></ul> glycogen and triglycerides (fats)<br />
  40. 40. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Long term adaptations to strength training:<br /><ul><li> Decrease nervous inhibition (increased nervous stimulation!)
  41. 41. Increase in the diameter of the recruited fibres
  42. 42. Increase in work performed under anaerobic conditions or high stress conditions</li></li></ul><li>Principles of Training<br />
  43. 43. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />OVERLOAD<br /><ul><li>In order to challenge the muscle you need to work outside of your comfort zone. The degree of extra challenge depends upon the aims and fitness level of the individual</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />SPECIFICITY<br /><ul><li>Training that is relevant to the desired outcome</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />REVERSIBILITY<br /><ul><li>You cannot store fitness – if you don’t use it you will lose it!
  44. 44. Muscles which are not regularly stimulated will suffer muscle wastage or “atrophy” </li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />PROGRESSION<br /><ul><li>As you adapt to a workload and can complete it without feeling challenged, the next step is to increase the workload in order to progress</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />ADAPTATION<br /><ul><li>An anatomical or physiological change that occurs in the body, such as getting stronger, losing fat or increasing muscle size.
  45. 45. The body will adapt to any new stresses by protecting and strengthening the area. </li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />HYPERTROPHY<br /><ul><li> An increase in cross-sectional diameter of trained muscle fibres</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />ATROPHY<br /><ul><li> An decrease in cross-sectional diameter of muscle fibres due to lack of use</li>

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