• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Muscular System
 

Muscular System

on

  • 1,568 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,568
Views on SlideShare
1,562
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://www.fit4training.com 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Muscular System Muscular System Presentation Transcript

    • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
    • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Anterior Posterior
    • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Smooth Muscle
      Cardiac Muscle
      Skeletal Muscle
    • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Smooth Muscle
      Found in the digestive, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems
      Controlled by the autonomic nervous system
      Smooth in appearance
      Involuntary controlled
    • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Cardiac Muscle
      • Found in the heart
      • Contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN)
      • Striated in appearance
      • Involuntary controlled
    • MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Skeletal Muscle
      • All attached either directly or indirectly to the skeleton
      • Controlled by the somatic nervous system
      • Striated in appearance
      • Voluntary controlled
    • fascia
      surrounds the muscle
      connected to periosteum (bone)
      Epimysium
      the outer layer
      perimysium
      around each bundle offibres
      endomysium
      around each muscle fibre
      muscle fibre
      myofibril
      muscle filament
      SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
    • SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
      myosin
      actin
      myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments
      actin is pulled together and sarcomere length is reduced
    • NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
      • The nervous system consists of two primary
      divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM
      The Central Nervous System
      The Brain and Spinal Cord
      The Peripheral
      Nervous System
    • THE REFLEX ARC
      Central Nervous System
      Sensory Receptor
      Sensory Nerve
      Motor Nerve
      Muscle responds to nerve impulses
    • MUSCLE FIBRE RECRUITMENT
      Motor units and muscle fibre recruitment:
      • A motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all
      the fibres it innervates
      • ‘All or none law’
      • The more muscle units that are recruited for a
      task, the greater the force will be developed
    • ROLES OF MUSCLES
      • Agonist- A muscle that carries out a voluntary movement
      • Antagonist- The opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur
      • Synergist- A muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement
      • Fixator- A muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting
    • Muscular Contractions
    • TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
      • Concentric (positive); the muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance
      • Eccentric (negative); the muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance
      • Isometric (static); the muscle contracts to
      overcome a resistance but without any change in length
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES
      • Slow-twitch or Type 1
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      STRUCTURAL FEATURES
      • Smaller diameter fibre
      • Large myoglobin content
      • Many mitochondria
      • Many capillaries
      • Red in colour
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      FUNCTIONAL FEATURES
      Increased oxygen delivery
      Produce less force
      Long-term contractions
      Resistant to fatigue
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      ACTIVITIES-
      Maintaining posture
      Endurance-based activities
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      • Fast-twitch or Type ll
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      STRUCTURAL FEATURES
      • Larger diameter fibre
      • Smaller myoglobin content
      • Fewer mitochondria
      • Fewer capillaries
      • White (pale) in colour
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      FUNCTIONAL FEATURES
      • Decreased oxygen delivery
      • Produce more force
      • Short term contractions
      • Less resistant to fatigue
    • MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
      ACTIVITIES-
      • Rapid, intense movements
    • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
      Short term response:
      Vasodilation(diversion of blood) to the muscles
    • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
      Long term adaptations to aerobic exercise:
      • Increase in the number and size of mitochondria in the
      muscle fibres
      • Increase in the number of capillaries surrounding these
      fibres
      • Increase in the number of aerobic enzymes, stored
      glycogen and triglycerides (fats)
    • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
      Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise
      Long term adaptations to strength training:
      • Decrease nervous inhibition (increased nervous stimulation!)
      • Increase in the diameter of the recruited fibres
      • Increase in work performed under anaerobic conditions or high stress conditions
    • Principles of Training
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      OVERLOAD
      • In order to challenge the muscle you need to work outside of your comfort zone. The degree of extra challenge depends upon the aims and fitness level of the individual
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      SPECIFICITY
      • Training that is relevant to the desired outcome
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      REVERSIBILITY
      • You cannot store fitness – if you don’t use it you will lose it!
      • Muscles which are not regularly stimulated will suffer muscle wastage or “atrophy”
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      PROGRESSION
      • As you adapt to a workload and can complete it without feeling challenged, the next step is to increase the workload in order to progress
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      ADAPTATION
      • An anatomical or physiological change that occurs in the body, such as getting stronger, losing fat or increasing muscle size.
      • The body will adapt to any new stresses by protecting and strengthening the area.
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      HYPERTROPHY
      • An increase in cross-sectional diameter of trained muscle fibres
    • PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
      ATROPHY
      • An decrease in cross-sectional diameter of muscle fibres due to lack of use