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Bridge training programs

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Brief presentation on Bridge Training Program research

Brief presentation on Bridge Training Program research

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  • 1. Bridge Training Programs as a tool to support the labour market integration of immigrants in Ontario Michael Bernhard
  • 2. Questions
    • Into which sociopolitical framework are Bridge Training Programs (BTP) embedded?
    • What are the labour market conditions of immigrants that necessitate the provision of BTP?
    • What is the conceptual framework of BTP and how are they implemented in Ontario?
    • What are the outcomes of BTP and which factors impact the effectiveness?
    • Under which circumstances can this approach be adopted in the German context?
  • 3. Highlights
    • 41,000 immigrants to Ontario have participated in 220 BTP since 2003, average cost $4,300 per participant
    • In 2009, 100,000 immigrants came to Ontario, 55,000 through economic class
    • Brain Waste - systematic underemployment of immigrants
    • Income gap has widened from 17% in 1980 to 40% in 2000
    • Education gap – university degrees 19% (Cdn.) to 44% (Imm.)
    • Focus areas Getting License, Getting Job, Changing System
    • 8 program elements, program-specific implementation
    • Growing body of knowledge on best practices and outcomes
    • Limited duration, geographic and occupational reach
  • 4. Methods
    • Review of literature with emphasis on conference proceedings, case studies and policy papers
    • Review of information provided by MCI
    • Conducted 15 key informant surveys/interviews from Nov 2010 to Jan 2011
  • 5. Terminology & Theory
    • Immigrants
      • as persons with a certain legal status
      • as persons with foreign qualification
      • as persons belonging to a Visible Minority
      • as persons with a “migration background”
    • Integration
      • Goals and indicators
      • Integration, segregation and assimilation
      • labour market integration as socioeconomic independence
    • Bridge Training Programs
    • Regulated and non-regulated professions
  • 6. Social policy framework
    • Immigration policy in Canada
      • Historic developments
      • Extent of immigration to Canada and Ontario
      • Current trends in immigration policy
      • Effectiveness of and further development
    • Multiculturalism
      • The multicultural hypothesis
      • A model of multiculturalism
      • Multiculturalism in Canada
      • Multiculturalism and labour market
  • 7. Labour market situation of immigrants
    • Underemployment of immigrants – “Brain Waste”
      • Extent of underemployment
      • Societal consequences of underemployment
      • Causes of underemployment
      • Methodological challenges in diagnosing the Brain Waste
    • Improving labour market integration – “Brain Gain”
      • On an individual level
      • On a systemic level
  • 8. Results - literature
    • Origin and development
      • 1990s, pilot projects, STIC
      • N. Alboim (2002): Fulfilling the promise
    • Definition and objectives
    • “ any program that helps immigrants fill education gaps or other professional requirements, provides immigrants with cultural and/or workplace orientation, and/or helps immigrants find work that makes use of their skill set and former training” (Duncan et al., 2008, p.5)
    • Program components
    • Implementation
  • 9. Results – literature cont'd
    • Program components (Austin 2007)
      • Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) processes
      • Academic coursework benchmarked to an appropriate standard in the field
      • Distance learning opportunities
      • In-service training
      • Peer-support networks
      • Mentorship
      • Employment linkages
      • Employer engagement
  • 10. Results – literature cont'd
    • Program implementation (Austin 2007)
      • Step 1: Scan the environment;
      • Step 2: Develop the partnerships;
      • Step 3: Identify the need;
      • Step 4: Understand the learners and their unique needs;
      • Step 5: Develop the program;
      • Step 6: Engage the professional community (including employers);
      • Step 7: Identify sources of support, financial and human;
      • Step 8: Evaluate and sustain the program.
  • 11. Results - MCI
    • Goals of MCI
    • Program areas Licence, Job and System change
    • Extent, costs and effectiveness
    • Formal requirements of Bridge Training Programs
  • 12. Results - survey
    • Methods and process
      • Focus on service providers
      • 15 of 49 providers responded
    • Survey data
      • Linking between stakeholders
      • Career path supports
      • Flexibility in delivery
      • Preparedness of participants, screening
      • Labour market barriers
      • Few alternatives
  • 13. Conclusions
    • Implementation and effectiveness
      • Institutional change
      • Links to labour market
      • Credentialling supports
    • Challenges of approach
      • Limited scope (duration, occupation, geography)
      • Broad interpretation of approach
      • Preparedness of participants (language, culture)
    • Further research
      • on conceptual framework and theoretical foundation
      • on implementation and effectiveness
      • on corresponding Bridge Programs in Germany
  • 14. Questions and Discussion [email_address]
  • 15. Literature - shortlist
    • Adamowicz, K. (2004). Developing Integrated Programming for for Immigrant Professionals. Final Report from Phase 1 - Developing a Template for Integrated Bridging Programs for Internationally Educated Professionals . Edmonton: Edmonton Mennonite Centre for Newcomers.
    • Alboim, N. (2009). Adjusting the Balance: Fixing Canada’s Economic ImmigrationvPolicies . Toronto: Maytree Foundation.
    • Alboim, N. & The Maytree Foundation (2002). Fulfilling the Promise: Integrating Immigrant Skills into the Canadian Economy . Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social Policy.
    • Austin, Z. (2007). Bridging to success: A learning Day about Bridging Programs in Regulated Professions. www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/publications/docs/BridgingtoSuccess.pdf (retrieved: 27.02.2011), Ontario Regulators for Access Consortium.
    • Bauböck, R., Heller, A., & Zolberg, A. R. (Hrsg.). (1996). The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration . Aldershot: Avebury
    • Beach, C. M., Green, A. G., & Reitz., J. G. (Hrsg.). (2003). Canadian immigration policy for the 21st century . Kingston: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy, Queen’s University.
    • Bloom, M. R. & Grant, M. (2001). Brain gain: The economic benefits of recognizing learning and learning credentials in Canada . Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada.
    • Boyd, M. & Thomas, D. (2001). Match or Mismatch? The Employment of Immigrant Engineers in Canada’s Labor Force. Population Research and Policy Review , 20 , 107–133.
    • DeVoretz, D. & Pivnenko, S. (2008). The Immigration Triangle: Quebec, Canada,and the Rest of the World. Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 9, No. 4. (1 December 2008), pp. 363-381. , 9 (4), 363–381.
  • 16. Literature - shortlist
    • Duncan, D., Poisson, Y., & Wong, W. (2008). Improving Bridging Programs: Compiling Best Practices from a Survey of Canadian Bridging Programs. http://www.ppforum.ca/sites/default/files/bridging_programs_2.pdf (retrieved:27.02.2011), Ottawa.
    • Frenette, M. & Morissette, R. (2003). Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrant and Canadian born Workers Over the Last Two Decades. Analytical Studies Branch research paper series no. 215. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2003215-eng.pdf (retrieved: 27.02.2011), Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
    • Green, A. & Green, D. (1999). The economic goals of Canada’s immigration policy: Past and present. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques , 25 (4), 425–451.
    • Janzen, R., Newberry, J., & Hogarth, K. (2006). A national review of access to professions and trades (APT) processes for immigrants. http://www.cassaonline.com/capacitycanada/www.capacitycanada.ca/ APT%20Review%20final%20report.pdf (retrieved: 01.02.2011), Kitchener: Centre for Research and Education in Human Services.
    • Kymlicka, W. (2010). Testing the Liberal Multiculturalist Hypothesis: Normative Theories and Social Science Evidence. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique , 43 (2), 257–271.
    • Reitz, J. G. (2007a). Immigrant Employment Success in Canada, Part I: Individual and Contextual Causes. Journal of International Migration and Integration , 8 (1), 11–36.
    • Reitz, J. G. (2007b). Immigrant employment success in Canada, Part II: Understanding the decline. Journal of International Migration and Integration , 8 (1),37–62.
    • Thai, E. & Poisson, Y. (2007). Comparing Approaches to Recognizing the Skills and Credentials of Foreign-Trained Workers. April 18-20, 2007 . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum.