Bridge training programs


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Brief presentation on Bridge Training Program research

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Bridge training programs

  1. 1. Bridge Training Programs as a tool to support the labour market integration of immigrants in Ontario Michael Bernhard
  2. 2. Questions <ul><li>Into which sociopolitical framework are Bridge Training Programs (BTP) embedded? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the labour market conditions of immigrants that necessitate the provision of BTP? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the conceptual framework of BTP and how are they implemented in Ontario? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the outcomes of BTP and which factors impact the effectiveness? </li></ul><ul><li>Under which circumstances can this approach be adopted in the German context? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Highlights <ul><li>41,000 immigrants to Ontario have participated in 220 BTP since 2003, average cost $4,300 per participant </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009, 100,000 immigrants came to Ontario, 55,000 through economic class </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Waste - systematic underemployment of immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Income gap has widened from 17% in 1980 to 40% in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Education gap – university degrees 19% (Cdn.) to 44% (Imm.) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus areas Getting License, Getting Job, Changing System </li></ul><ul><li>8 program elements, program-specific implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Growing body of knowledge on best practices and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited duration, geographic and occupational reach </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methods <ul><li>Review of literature with emphasis on conference proceedings, case studies and policy papers </li></ul><ul><li>Review of information provided by MCI </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted 15 key informant surveys/interviews from Nov 2010 to Jan 2011 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology & Theory <ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as persons with a certain legal status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as persons with foreign qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as persons belonging to a Visible Minority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as persons with a “migration background” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals and indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration, segregation and assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>labour market integration as socioeconomic independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridge Training Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated and non-regulated professions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social policy framework <ul><li>Immigration policy in Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of immigration to Canada and Ontario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current trends in immigration policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of and further development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multicultural hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A model of multiculturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism in Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism and labour market </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Labour market situation of immigrants <ul><li>Underemployment of immigrants – “Brain Waste” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of underemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal consequences of underemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of underemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological challenges in diagnosing the Brain Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving labour market integration – “Brain Gain” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On an individual level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a systemic level </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Results - literature <ul><li>Origin and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s, pilot projects, STIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. Alboim (2002): Fulfilling the promise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definition and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>“ any program that helps immigrants fill education gaps or other professional requirements, provides immigrants with cultural and/or workplace orientation, and/or helps immigrants find work that makes use of their skill set and former training” (Duncan et al., 2008, p.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Program components </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results – literature cont'd <ul><li>Program components (Austin 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic coursework benchmarked to an appropriate standard in the field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-service training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-support networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer engagement </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Results – literature cont'd <ul><li>Program implementation (Austin 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Scan the environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop the partnerships; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Identify the need; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Understand the learners and their unique needs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5: Develop the program; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6: Engage the professional community (including employers); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 7: Identify sources of support, financial and human; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 8: Evaluate and sustain the program. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Results - MCI <ul><li>Goals of MCI </li></ul><ul><li>Program areas Licence, Job and System change </li></ul><ul><li>Extent, costs and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Formal requirements of Bridge Training Programs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results - survey <ul><li>Methods and process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 of 49 providers responded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survey data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking between stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career path supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness of participants, screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour market barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few alternatives </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusions <ul><li>Implementation and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to labour market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credentialling supports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges of approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited scope (duration, occupation, geography) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad interpretation of approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness of participants (language, culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on conceptual framework and theoretical foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on implementation and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on corresponding Bridge Programs in Germany </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Questions and Discussion [email_address]
  15. 15. Literature - shortlist <ul><li>Adamowicz, K. (2004). Developing Integrated Programming for for Immigrant Professionals. Final Report from Phase 1 - Developing a Template for Integrated Bridging Programs for Internationally Educated Professionals . Edmonton: Edmonton Mennonite Centre for Newcomers. </li></ul><ul><li>Alboim, N. (2009). Adjusting the Balance: Fixing Canada’s Economic ImmigrationvPolicies . Toronto: Maytree Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Alboim, N. & The Maytree Foundation (2002). Fulfilling the Promise: Integrating Immigrant Skills into the Canadian Economy . Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social Policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Austin, Z. (2007). Bridging to success: A learning Day about Bridging Programs in Regulated Professions. (retrieved: 27.02.2011), Ontario Regulators for Access Consortium. </li></ul><ul><li>Bauböck, R., Heller, A., & Zolberg, A. R. (Hrsg.). (1996). The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration . Aldershot: Avebury </li></ul><ul><li>Beach, C. M., Green, A. G., & Reitz., J. G. (Hrsg.). (2003). Canadian immigration policy for the 21st century . Kingston: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy, Queen’s University. </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom, M. R. & Grant, M. (2001). Brain gain: The economic benefits of recognizing learning and learning credentials in Canada . Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Boyd, M. & Thomas, D. (2001). Match or Mismatch? The Employment of Immigrant Engineers in Canada’s Labor Force. Population Research and Policy Review , 20 , 107–133. </li></ul><ul><li>DeVoretz, D. & Pivnenko, S. (2008). The Immigration Triangle: Quebec, Canada,and the Rest of the World. Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 9, No. 4. (1 December 2008), pp. 363-381. , 9 (4), 363–381. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Literature - shortlist <ul><li>Duncan, D., Poisson, Y., & Wong, W. (2008). Improving Bridging Programs: Compiling Best Practices from a Survey of Canadian Bridging Programs. (retrieved:27.02.2011), Ottawa. </li></ul><ul><li>Frenette, M. & Morissette, R. (2003). Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrant and Canadian born Workers Over the Last Two Decades. Analytical Studies Branch research paper series no. 215. (retrieved: 27.02.2011), Ottawa: Statistics Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Green, A. & Green, D. (1999). The economic goals of Canada’s immigration policy: Past and present. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques , 25 (4), 425–451. </li></ul><ul><li>Janzen, R., Newberry, J., & Hogarth, K. (2006). A national review of access to professions and trades (APT) processes for immigrants. APT%20Review%20final%20report.pdf (retrieved: 01.02.2011), Kitchener: Centre for Research and Education in Human Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Kymlicka, W. (2010). Testing the Liberal Multiculturalist Hypothesis: Normative Theories and Social Science Evidence. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique , 43 (2), 257–271. </li></ul><ul><li>Reitz, J. G. (2007a). Immigrant Employment Success in Canada, Part I: Individual and Contextual Causes. Journal of International Migration and Integration , 8 (1), 11–36. </li></ul><ul><li>Reitz, J. G. (2007b). Immigrant employment success in Canada, Part II: Understanding the decline. Journal of International Migration and Integration , 8 (1),37–62. </li></ul><ul><li>Thai, E. & Poisson, Y. (2007). Comparing Approaches to Recognizing the Skills and Credentials of Foreign-Trained Workers. April 18-20, 2007 . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum. </li></ul>