I. FOUNDATION OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION A. Fundamental Ideal of Christian Education B. Time-Frame of Christian Education C. The Students of Christian Education D. The Time Before Christ E. The Time of Christ F. The Time After the Ascension of Christ
II. CONTEMPORARY PROTESTANT RELIGIOUS EDUCATION A. The Rise of Religious Education: Liberal Protestantism B. Liberation Approaches C. Feminist Religious Education
Imitation of Christ and assimilation to Christ(Ephesians 4:21-24)- Getting rid of one’s old self- Heart and Mind must be made completely new- Must put on the new self, which is created in God’s likeness and reveals itself in the true life: upright and holy ~Paul the Apostle
Faith development is a lifelong process, thus, religious education should Fowler, Stages of Faith ~James continue throughout life. C. The Students of Christian Education Adults and Children The canonical literature recounts education of adults.This should serve as warning against narrowing theconcept of Christian Education to the education ofchildren.
Influences from the Greeks and Romans1. From the GreeksGreek philosopher Plato(427-346 B.C.) Educational ideal based on a philosophy of life which Christians found to be in consonance with Christian life and discipline Ultimate aim of education: help individuals go beyond opinions and beliefs to arrive at knowledge that is certain and true Method of education: students gather for dialogue and pursuit of intellect – beauty, truth and goodness
Existence of a realm where pure forms of goodness, justice, and love dwell greatest value to human life: ascent of the soul Christian educators adopted Plato’s educational ideals and theory - Augustine conclusion: knowledge of the ultimate, the - idea of the Good - The method of education: begin with self-examination Contributions a. Plato’s Academy b. Plato’s Republic
Greek philosopher Aristotle(384-322 B.C.)Writings were introduced to the west by Arab scholars Scholastic philosophers use many of the ideas from his philosophy to expound the deeper meaning of Christian teachings His metaphysics mapped out a basic approach and language for understanding Christian truths and realities: a. the existence b. the existence and c. the and nature of nature of the sacramental God human soul rites of the Ethical teachings: the value of habits and virtues in moral church education
Greek philosopher Isocrates(436-338 B.C.) Educational ideal: speak well and think right Influential to Christian Influential for stressing humanists grammar, rhetoric, and Erasmus, Martin oratory for reading and Luther, and Ignatius of understanding of biblical Loyola writings and effective teaching of them to others Influential to the (the heart of Christian Christian educators education) Augustine and Jerome
Stoicism PhilosophyStoic educational ideal a. teach people to live according to the laws of nature b. submit to the divinely established order in the universeEducation ⇨ use of logic and reasoning Stoic ethics: emphasized Emphasis on the presence of the divine in humans duty living the rational life in Stoic focus: human will of accord with God nature kinship with the divine and human purification through self-control
2. From the Romans Quintilian (90 A.D.) Education must produce intelligent and ethical Cicero persons and orators active (43 B.C.) in public life; must be ableGoal of education: humanitas to discourse on any subject⇨lifelong striving for erudition and take up leadership and ethical character roles in the state ⇨Both Cicero and Quintilian Only the good person can be a influenced the educational writings good orator of Augustine and Jerome in the early church.
3. From the Jewish HeritageThe greatest impact on Christian life and education came from the Hebrew Writings Education: a socializing and nurturing agency : a challenging and criticizing force Writings Focus The Torah Concerns of the community The Prophets Concerns of the community The Writings (Wisdom Teachings) Moral and ethical growth of the individual
Writings Focus The Torah Concerns of the community The Prophets Concerns of the communityThe Writings (Wisdom Teachings) Moral and ethical growth of the individual The Wisdom teacher is Have a provisional a faithful product of nature: always open to the tradition, not just new experiences and repeating and trusting insights. There will be and parroting old new experiences, new judgments but making insights. new judgment on the basis of new data.
Three Modes of Education 1. 2. Preaching 3. Offering Teaching of of the word of counsel the Torah by of God by by the wise the priests the prophets persons or sages Complete education of the community entails listening to all three groups: Priests Prophets Sages
1. Jesus as the Teacher Jesus is theThe ministry Master and the Jesus instructed the 12 and larger groups, sent out of Jesus’ Teacher: his disciples to teach others, taught individuals,teaching: the according to and taught groups primary his disciples foundation and to those of Christian All that Jesus did was always accompanied with who heard education teaching and explanation him.Master and Teacher ⇨ used 50 Jesus showed (incident with Emmaus disciples): times in John’s gospel he deeply cared for his students; teaching should not be reduced to direct instruction – instruction must relate to life experience and offered in an interesting and challenging form.
2. The Twelve Disciples and Other Learners The gospel tradition makes clear: the disciples, the students of Jesus were themselves to become teachers and healers announcing the reign of God. The ultimate proof of learning is that people will do something. Once the disciples learned that the Lord had broken bread and spoken to them, they felt compelled to carry the message with others Eventually, the twelve disciples became travelling gospel teachers. (ref. Luke 9:1-6)
1. Education in the Apostolic Church Early apostolic church shaped teaching in specific forms: Important dimension of Proclamation Kerygma the growing community Building up the Koinonia community Witnessing to their Marturion faith in Jesus Became Service for and with institutionalized the needy of the Diakonia into a ministry community of the word All four evolved in and from the worship (LITURGIA) of the church
The early church also had its own particular teaching or doctrine (DIDACHE) Teaching and Action: Teaching: very important in the early very much connected church (Acts 4:32-35) (1 Cor. 14:1-4). Paul says, “Set your heart on spiritual gifts, especially the gift of People were drawn into proclaiming God’s message.” the early Christian communities because Christian education took place in the group’s teachings homes, synagogues, and open spaces were confirmed by a way with either informally organized small of life that showed action groups or large audiences. toward the needy
2. The First Century Christianity“ First use of the expression: “Christian Education” was Clement of Rome’s letter to the Corinthians, written about the end of the first century. “Let our children share in the education which is in Christ. Let them learn -the strength of humility before God -the power of pure love before God -how beautiful and great is God’s fear and how the fear of God gives salvation to all who live holily in it with a pure mind.” (Apostolic Fathers, 1952, pp. 47-49) Speaks of the discipline and instruction of Christ providing a protective force for Christians.
The emergence of the CATECHUMENATE 2-3 year RITUAL and A course of instruction which probationary FORM of included the following: Christian a. A time of evangelization period formation to b. A general introduction to initiate the Christian faith Culminated prospective c. A fuller explanation of on Easter day converts to the salvation history from (formal acceptance faith Creation to the Last into community) Judgment “The Education that God gives is the imparting of the truth that will guide us correctly to the contemplation of God and a description of holy deeds that endure forever.” ~Clement of Rome
Contribution of the early church to ChristianEducation Education Education for as a community proclamation building of a message Education in Education service to the Education as a prophetic material and as moral witnessing to spiritual instruction the truth needs of the community
Christians were not just to be absorbed with the salvation of individuals but also were to struggle for a more just world. Religious Educational approach To raise learners’ education as a aligns and couples the consciousness of means to social experiences of social injustices achieve social learners and social and to motivate liberation and analysis of oppressive them to participate help in the structures to liberation in the struggle for struggle for theology and appropriate justice and social social justice. learning strategies transformation
Integration of life and experience into one educational eventand attempt to achieve the integration of theory and practice Specially sensitive to the importance of religious language, especially language about God Recognizes connection to and respects the partnerships of teacher and learning