Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action
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Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action

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iConference 2013 panel discussion on “Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action,” focusing on the Values-In-Design Council‘s work alongside the various NSF-funded projects exploring ...

iConference 2013 panel discussion on “Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action,” focusing on the Values-In-Design Council‘s work alongside the various NSF-funded projects exploring future Internet architectures. I

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Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in Action Presentation Transcript

  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionVALUES INTERVENTIONS:ETHICS SCHOLARSHIP INACTION Values-in-Design Council members: • Michael Zimmer (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) • Katie Shilton (Maryland-College Park) • Finn Brunton (Michigan) • Deirdre Mulligan (California-Berkeley)
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionOverview• This panel describes an ongoing project to put ethics scholarship in action: a values intervention into the design of future Internet architectures.• Panelists from the NSF-funded Future Internet Architecture (FIA) Values-in-Design Council will speak about efforts to introduce social and ethical discussion into technical design practice, and the methods and challenges of such values interventions.
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionAgenda• Michael Zimmer will introduce the Future Internet Architecture projects and the role the Values-In- Design Council has played as analysts and consultants to the FIA projects• Katie Shilton will detail an embedded intervention with one of the five FIA projects: the Named Data Networking project• Finn Brunton will discuss the VID Council’s use of “adversarial scenarios” as a means of intervention with the FIA design teams• Close with discussion of challenges of these values interventions
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionFuture Internet Architecture (FIA)• NSF Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) has formulated the FIA program to stimulate innovative and creative research to explore, design, and evaluate trustworthy future Internet architectures• Engage the research community in collaborative, long-range, transformative thinking to design and experiment with new network architectures and networking concepts that take into consideration the larger social, economic and legal issues that arise from the interplay between the Internet and society.
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionFuture Internet Architecture (FIA) Projects• Named Data Network (NDN) • By naming data instead of their locations, NDN transforms data into a first-class entity. The current Internet secures the data container. NDN secures the contents, a design choice that decouples trust in data from trust in hosts, enabling several radically scalable communication mechanisms such as automatic caching to optimize bandwidth• MobilityFirst • Proposes an architecture centered on mobility as the norm, rather than the exception. Dealing with mobility as a first class entity allows functionalities like context – and location – aware services to fit naturally into the network. The project focuses on the tradeoffs between mobility and scalability and on opportunistic use of network resources to achieve effective communications among mobile endpoints
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionFuture Internet Architecture (FIA) Projects• NEBULA • NEBULA is an architecture in which cloud computing data centers are the primary repositories of data and the primary locus of computation. In this future model, the data centers are connected by a high-speed, extremely reliable and secure backbone network. The project focuses on developing new trustworthy data, control and core networking approaches to support the emerging cloud computing model of always-available network services.
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionFuture Internet Architecture (FIA) Projects• eXpressive Internet Architecture (XIA) • XIA addresses the growing diversity of network use models, the need for trustworthy communication, and the growing set of stakeholders who coordinate their activities to provide Internet services. XIA addresses these needs by exploring the technical challenges in creating a single network that offers inherent support for communication between current communicating principals-- including hosts, content, and services--while accommodating unknown future entities.• ChoiceNet • Architecture aims to give users more choices about which services they use, and thereby make the Internet more flexible and efficient. The project focuses on users being able to make choices about which features and services they want to use, and which entities they want to pay to provide those services (“vote with their wallet”), which will drive innovation among service providers to cater to user needs
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionValues-in-Design Council• The Values-in-Design Council is an NSF-funded multi- disciplinary team of experts in values-in-design who work alongside the four recipients of the FIA grants• Values-In-Design? • Recognizing that architecture and design features may be systematically related to political, social, ethical values, such as security, privacy, freedom, autonomy, etc • Pragmatic intervention that places ethical and political values on the same plane of importance alongside technical and functional specifications and constraints. • Flanagan, M., Howe, D., & Nissenbaum, H. (2008). Values in Design: Theory and Practice. In J. van den Hoven (Ed.), Information Technology and Moral Philosophy (pp. 322–353). Cambridge University Press. • Friedman, B. (2004). Value sensitive design. In Encyclopedia of Human- computer Interaction (pp. 769–774). Berkshire Publishing Group.
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionValues-in-Design Council• Serve as analysts and consultants to the FIA projects, helping to identify junctures in the design process in which values-critical technical decisions arise • locating design parameters and variations that differentially call into play relevant values • developing rich conceptual understandings of relevant values • operationalizing values to enable transition from values conceptions into design features • examining the interplay of values embodied in design with respective values embodied in law and policy
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionValues-in-Design Council: Members• Yochai Benkler, Harvard Law School• Geoffrey Bowker, School of Information Science, University of Pittsburgh• Finn Brunton, School of Information, University of Michigan• Paul Dourish, Department of Information and Computer Science, UC Irvine• Batya Friedman, The Information School, University of Washington• Alexander Galloway, Department of Media, Culture & Communication, NYU• Tarleton Gillespie, Department of Communication, Cornell University• James Grimmelmann, New York Law School• Chris Hoofnagle, Center for Law & Technology, UC Berkeley• Deborah Johnson, Department of Science, Technology & Society, University of Virginia• Deirdre Mulligan, School of Information, UC Berkeley• Helen Nissenbaum (PI), Department of Media, Culture & Communication, NYU• Paul Ohm, University of Colorado Law School, University of Colorado at Boulder• Phoebe Sengers, Department of Information Science and S&TS, Cornell University• Luke Stark (RA), Department of Media, Culture & Communication, NYU• Michael Zimmer, School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionValues-in-Design Council: Activities• Meetings with FIA design teams focusing on privacy & security, economics and industry viability, architecture comparisons, and evaluations & proof of concepts• Meetings were highly technical, but VID Council members welcomed to engage in discussions, pose questions and scenarios, assist in identification and evaluation of emergent ethical and social concerns• New round of funding announced for “next phase” to build prototype systems • “The project team is also encouraged to include experts in social, economic and legal issues such as, but not limited to, experts in values in design”
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionAgenda• Michael Zimmer will introduce the Future Internet Architecture projects and the role the Values-In- Design Council has played as analysts and consultants to the FIA projects• Katie Shilton will detail an embedded intervention with one of the five FIA projects: the Named Data Networking project• Finn Brunton will discuss the VID Council’s use of “adversarial scenarios” as a means of intervention with the FIA design teams• Close with discussion of challenges of these values interventions
  • 2/12/13 iConference 2013: Values Interventions: Ethics Scholarship in ActionChallenges for Values-in-Design• Recognizing and identifying the particular values at play within a given design scenario• Justifying a particular set of values over others• Managing the values assumptions and expectations of the designers themselves• Complexities and uncertainties of operationalizing values within design variables • Manders-Huits, N., & Zimmer, M. (2009). Values & Pragmatic Action: The Challenges of Engagement with Technical Design Communities. International Review of Information Ethics, 10, 37–44.