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TechEd Africa 2011 - OFC307: Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm
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TechEd Africa 2011 - OFC307: Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm


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Many organizations are finding that their SharePoint environments are becoming as or more mission-critical as email or phone currently are. They are subsequently expecting that SharePoint be both …

Many organizations are finding that their SharePoint environments are becoming as or more mission-critical as email or phone currently are. They are subsequently expecting that SharePoint be both highly available and disaster tolerant at all times. Because the Service Application architecture model in SharePoint 2010 is relatively complex, it’s not surprising that there is confusion about how to architect a SharePoint environment to be able to survive hardware, software, and site outages. This session focuses on a deep dive into the specifics of how to architect the web, data, and service application tiers of SharePoint 2010 to be both highly available and disaster tolerant. Topics such as SQL Database mirroring, clustering, Network Load Balancing, Virtualization HA and Service Application failover are discussed. In addition, real world models of various farm failover techniques for environments of all different sizes are presented and compared. • Learn how to build in high availability and disaster tolerance into the web, data, and service application tiers of SharePoint 2010 Architecture. • Examine real world designs for SharePoint 2010 that are built to allow for full functionality in the event of various failure scenarios. • Examine how to take advantage of several ‘out of the box’ technologies with SharePoint, SQL, and Windows to provide for HA, as well as understanding when a third-party option may be required.

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  • Export-SPWeb –Identity http://App01/Sites/ContosoPortal/ -Path \\\\App01\\SharePointBackups\\SharedDocuments.bak -Itemurl “Shared Documents” -ForceImport-SPWeb –Identity http://App01/Sites/ContosoPortal/ -Path \\\\App01\\SharePointBackups\\SharedDocuments.bak -Force -IncludeUserSecurity
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  • Transcript

    • 1. 17-20 OCTOBER 2011
    • 2. Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm
      Michael Noel – Convergent Computing
    • 3. Michael Noel
      Author of SAMS Publishing titles “SharePoint 2010 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2007 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2003 Unleashed”, “Teach Yourself SharePoint 2003 in 10 Minutes,” “Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed,” “Exchange Server 2010 Unleashed”, “ISA Server 2006 Unleashed”, and many other titles .
      Partner at Convergent Computing ( / +1(510)444-5700) – San Francisco Bay Area based Infrastructure/Security specialists for SharePoint, AD, Exchange, Security
    • 4. What we will cover
      SharePoint 2010 Structure
      SharePoint Component Redundancy
      Sample Architecture of Redundant/Highly Available Deployments
      Smallest redundant/highly available farm
      Mid-sized farms
      Large farms
      Virtualization farm architecture
      SQL Mirroring of Content Databases
      Synchronous Mirroring in Single Site Model
      Synchronous Mirroring in Highly Connected DR Site Model
      Asynchronous Mirroring in DR Site Model
      Backup/Restore Tips, including info on DPM 2010 Snapshot-based backup for SharePoint
    • 5. SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy
    • 6. SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy
      Each SharePoint 2010 server type has different redundancy/availability concerns.
      Web Server
      Search Service Application Role
      Other Service Application Roles
      Database Server
    • 7. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyWeb Servers – Network Load Balancing
      Hardware Based Load Balancing (F5, Cisco, Citrix NetScaler – Best performance and scalability
      Software Windows Network Load Balancing fully supported by MS, but requires Layer 2 VLAN (all packets must reach all hosts.) Layer 3 Switches must be configured to allow Layer 2 to the specific VLAN.
      If using Unicast, use two NICs on the server, one for communications between nodes.
      If using Multicast, be sure to configure routers appropriately
      Set Affinity to Single (Sticky Sessions)
      If using VMware, note fix to NLB RARP issue (
    • 8. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyWeb Servers – Network Load Balancing
      Best Practice – Create Multiple Web Apps with Load-balanced VIPs (Sample below)
      Web Role Servers ( – Web Role Server #1 ( – Web Role Server #2
      Clustered VIPs shared between SP1 and SP2 (Create A records in DNS) ( - Cluster ( – SP Central Admin ( – Inbound Email VIP ( – Main SP Web App (can be multiple) ( – Main MySites Web App
    • 9. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyService Application Servers
      Redundancy for Service Applications can be added by simply adding S.A. roles to additional servers
      Redundancy and availability is automatically handled from within SharePoint
      Most Service Applications have an associated database that must also be made redundant / available
      Special considerations for Search
      Important to understand what the Service Application roles are
    • 10. Service Application Matrix
    • 11. Additional Service Applications
      Office Web Apps
      Excel Calculation Services
      Word Viewing Service
      PowerPoint Service
      Project Server 2010
      Third Party (Newsgator, etc.)
    • 12. SharePoint Component RedundancySearch Service Application Role
      Replaces both Index and Query Roles from 2007 into one Role
      Processes query results for Web servers
      Holds the index, either in entirety or a partial copy when using ‘index partitions’
      Runs the query processor, which merges search results from multiple index partitions, performs security trimming, and other search tasks.
      Adding multiple Query servers creates redundancy
      Each Query Server requires a large drive set for the Index partitions. Be sure to set aside enough space! The index size may be from 5% to 30% of the size of the content being indexed. Don’t forget external content sources!
    • 13. SharePoint Component RedundancyQuery Servers: Index Partitions
      Portion of the entire Index
      Can be spread across multiple query servers
      Multiple index partitions = faster search queries
      Query mirrors (second copy of an index partition) can be deployed across query servers for redundancy.
    • 14. SharePoint Component RedundancyCrawl Servers
      Runs the Crawl component, which creates index partitions and propagates them to query servers
      Typically used to house the Search Administration component
      Multiple crawl servers provide High Availability for the crawl architecture
      Crawl database(s) and Property Database(s) utilized for crawl information and history, and properties for crawled data
      Multiple crawlers can be associated with each crawl database
      Can be run on a server with Web role or Query role
    • 15. SharePoint Component RedundancyDatabase Role
      Shared Storage Clustering (MSCS) can be used for local server High Availability
      Mirroring of Content Databases to remote SQL instance is supported (and recommended) More on this…
      SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Standard Edition supports two-node Cluster and synchronous mirroring.
      SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Enterprise Edition supports more than two-nodes, asynchronous mirroring, and Transparent Data Encryption (SQL 2008 only)
      SQL Server 2012 (Denali) has potential…not yet released
    • 16. SharePoint Component RedundancyDatabase Role – Two Instance / Two Node Cluster Model
    • 17. SharePoint Component RedundancyRedundancy/HA of Database Server Instance
      Use SQL Client Aliases for Config DB Server (i.e.
      Use a second SQL Client Alias for Content DBs (i.e.
      Loss of SQL Server can be mitigated by simply pointing the alias to a new SQL instance.
      Be sure to add the Kerberos SPNs to the aliases
    • 18. Sample Highly Available Architecture for SP2010
    • 19. Farm ArchitectureAll-in-One Farm (No Redundancy)
      All SharePoint roles and SQL Server on the same box
      For very small environment without a lot of load
      SQL contention with SharePoint
      Easy to deploy, but highest potential for contention
    • 20. Farm ArchitectureDedicated SQL Database Server (Better Performance / No HA)
      Dedicated SQL Server
      All SharePoint roles on single box
      Disk IO contention lessened by moving SQL off SP Server
      Greater performance can be gained by breaking SharePoint roles onto separate servers
    • 21. Farm ArchitectureSmallest Highly-Available Farm
      2 Web/Query/Crawl Servers
      2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)
      2 Query components for each index partition
      2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each server
      Search Admin Service on one server
    • 22. Farm ArchitectureMedium Sized Farm
      2 Web/Query Servers
      2 Crawl Servers
      2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)
      2 Query components for each index partition
      2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each Crawl server
      Search Admin Service on one Crawl server
    • 23. Farm ArchitectureLarge Farm
      Multiple Dedicated Web Servers
      Multiple Dedicated Query Servers
      Multiple Dedicated Crawl Servers, with multiple Crawl DBs to increase parallelization of the crawl process
      Multiple distributed Index partitions (max of 10 million items per index partition)
      Two query components for each Index partition, spread among servers
    • 24. SQL Database Mirroring for High Availability and Disaster Recovery
    • 25. Clustering is Shared Storage, can’t survive storage failure, makes Mirroring more attractive
      Clustering fails over more quickly
      Mirroring is not supported for all databases, but Clustering is
      Both Clustering and Mirroring can be used at the same time (Instance to Instance)
      SQL Database MirroringClustering vs. Mirroring
    • 26. SQL Database MirroringHistory of Mirroring
      Introduced in SQL 2005 SP1
      Greatly improved in SQL 2008 and now SQL 2008 R2
      Available in Enterprise and Standard (Synchronous only) editions
      Works by keeping a mirror copy of a database or databases on two servers
      Can be used locally, or the mirror can be remote
      Can be set to use a two-phase commit process to ensure integrity of data across both servers
      Can be combined with traditional shared storage clustering to further improve redundancy
      SharePoint 2010 is now Mirroring aware!
    • 27. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #1 – Single Site
      Single Site
      Synchronous Replication
      Uses a SQL Witness Server to Failover Automatically
      Mirror all SharePoint DBs in the Farm
      Use a SQL Alias to switch to Mirror Instance
    • 28. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #2: Cross-Site (Stretch) Farm
      Two Sites
      1-10 ms Latency max
      1Gb Bandwidth minimum
      Farm Servers in each location
      Auto Failover
    • 29. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #3 – Failover Farm in Remote Site
      Two Sites
      Two Farms
      Mirror only Content DBs
      Failover is Manual
      Read-only Mode possible
      Must Re-Attach and Re-Index
    • 30. SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 1 of 2
    • 31. SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 2 of 2
    • 32. SharePoint Data Redundancy
    • 33. SharePoint Data RedundancyWhat are the Critical SharePoint Components to Backup?
      SharePoint Databases
      Config Database (typically excluded)
      Content Database(s)
      Services Databases
      IIS Configuration
      Web.config files in inetpub directory
      Web part assemblies in %systemroot%assembly
      Any custom templates
    • 34. Understanding the SP2010 DatabasesSharePoint 2010 Databases (Part I)
    • 35. Understanding the SP2010 DatabasesSharePoint 2010 Databases (Part II)
    • 36. SharePoint Data RedundancyTools available for Backup and Restore
      Two-stage Recycle Bin
      Site Recycle Bin (added in SharePoint 2010 Service Pack 1)
      SharePoint Central Admin Tool
      IIS Metaverse Backup Script
      SQL 2005/2008 Tools (Maintenance Plan)
      Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 2010
      Third-party (Quest, Metalogix, AvePoint, others)
    • 37. Backup with the SharePoint Central Admin Tool
    • 38. What does the Central Admin Backup Tool do?
      Full fidelity backups of all SharePoint content and indexes
      Backs up all SharePoint databases except Config DB, which is not needed.
      Similar to SQL level backup, except can be more granular at the Web Application level
      SP2010 now has status indicators
      SP2010 now allows for Site Collection Backup from Central Admin
    • 39. Disadvantages of Central Admin Backup Tool
      Not automated
      If XML catalog is damaged, entire backup can be at risk
      No item-level restore capabilities
      Not enterprise level
    • 40. PowerShell Backups
    • 41. PowerShell Backup in SP2010
      PowerShell can be used to automate Backups
      Equivalent to Central Admin or STSADM
      Can pipe out results and backup multiple site collections, etc.
    • 42. PowerShell BackUp & Restore CMDLETS
    • 43. PowerShell - Farm Configuration Backup
      Farm Configuration Only Backup
      backup-spfarm –backupMethodfull –directory servernameBackup -configurationonly
      Complete Farm Backup
      Backup-spfarm –backupmethod full – directory servernameBackup
      Backup-SPFarm specific parameters
    • 44. PowerShell - Configuration DB Backup
      Configuration Database Backup
      Backup-spconfigurationdatabase –directory servernamesp2010backup –databaseserver server –databasenamemss_configdb
      Backup Farm Configuration Information
      Information Rights Management
      Diagnostic logging
      Customizations [solutions deployed]
      Outbound e-mail configuration
      Antivirus settings
    • 45. PowerShell – Site Collection Backup
      Backup Site Collection
      Backup-SPSite –Identity -Path servernamesp2010backupdemosc.bak -Force
      Other Parameters –
      -NoSiteLock – use with caution, possible data corruption
      -UseSQLSnapshot – use content database snapshot when doing a backup
      Can be run multiple times and/or scripted to automate backups
      Extremely useful approach to backing up SPF Site collections and personal sites
    • 46. Granular Backup / Restore
      New in SharePoint 2010 -
      Granular Backup/Restore From Central Administration
      Site Collection Backup
      Export a site or list
      Recover data from an unattached content database
      Granular Backup Job Status indicators
      Granular restore operations only using PowerShell
      Workflows are not included when exporting a site or a list
    • 47. PowerShell – Export Site / List
      Export-SPWeb –Identity -path serverbackupbackup.bak -itemurl “features” –force
      Option to include user security and versions
    • 48. Unattached Content Databases
      New feature of SharePoint 2010
      Granular restores of SharePoint content
      Read-only content databases
      Restored SharePoint content databases
      Content database snapshots
      Restore Site Collections, Sites, Libraries and Lists
    • 49. How to backup the IISv7 Config
      Open a command prompt by using the Run as Administrator option and change directory to %windir%system32inetsrv.
      At the command prompt, type appcmd add backup <backupname>. If you do not include the name of the backup, the system will name it for you by using a date, time format.
    • 50. SQL Maintenance Plan Backups
    • 51. Backing up using SQL Tools
      SQL 2005/2008/2008 R2 Management Studio can be used to backup all Databases
      Same as Central Admin Backup, but only backs up SQL databases, not index
      Can be scheduled as part of a SQL Maintenance Plan
      Can backup as Full, Differential, or Incremental
      Can backup Config DB, but normally not needed (only supported scenario is during a SAN Snapshot)
    • 52. System Center Data Protection Manager 2010
    • 53. Features of DPM for SharePoint
      Item-level recovery of Documents and List Data
      VSS Snapshot Integration, can snapshot SQL Databases every 15 minutes
      Backup to Disk (near-term), Backup to Tape (long-term) – Direct integration
      Not only SharePoint, but File Data, Exchange, SQL, and Bare-metal recovery
    • 54. DPM Backing up a SharePoint Farm
      System State
      Internet InformationServices (IIS)“Front End”
      SharePoint VSS Writer
      “Farm” Config dB
      DPM 2010
      Enterprise Search (index)
      Content Servers (SQL)
    • 55. SharePoint Recovery
      The Entire Farm
      “Farm” Config dB
      Entire Farm
      DPM 2010
      Enterprise Search (index)
      Content Servers (SQL)
    • 56. SharePoint Recovery
      The Entire Farm
      A Content DB
      “Farm” Config dB
      Content DB information
      DPM 2010
      Content DB
      Enterprise Search (index)
      Content Servers (SQL)
    • 57. SharePoint Recovery
      The Entire Farm
      A Content DB
      Site Collection
      A Site
      Site Collection / Site / Individual Document
      “Farm” Config dB
      DPM 2010
      DPM handles restore thru Recovery Farm to production Farm
      Farm then redirects data to appropriate content database and site
      Enterprise Search (index)
      Content Servers (SQL)
    • 58. Third-party Backup Solutions
      Multiple tools available
      Provide for item-level recovery and complex DR scenarios
      Often integrates with the storage platform vendor
    • 59. For More Information
      SharePoint 2010 Unleashed and SharePoint 2007 Unleashed (SAMS Publishing) (
      Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper (
      Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Case Study (
      Microsoft Virtualizing SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper (
      Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Search Architecture Diagrams (
    • 60.
      Submit your session evaluation for a chance to win!
      Sponsored by MVA
    • 61. Creating
      the future
    • 62. Thanks for attending!Questions?
      Michael Noel
      Twitter: @MichaelTNoel