SharePoint High Availability and Disaster Recovery Michael Noel @MichaelTNoel
Michael Noel• Author of SAMS Publishing titles “SharePoint 2007 Unleashed,” the upcoming “SharePoint 2010 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2003 Unleashed”, “Teach Yourself SharePoint 2003 in 10 Minutes,” “Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed,” “Exchange Server 2010 Unleashed”, “ISA Server 2006 Unleashed”, and many other titles .• Partner at Convergent Computing (www.cco.com / +1(510)444-5700) – San Francisco, U.S.A. based Infrastructure/Security specialists for SharePoint, AD, Exchange, Security
What we will cover• SharePoint 2010 Structure• SharePoint Component Redundancy• Sample Architecture of Redundant/Highly Available Deployments – Smallest redundant/highly available farm – Mid-sized farms – Large farms – Virtualization farm architecture• SQL Mirroring of Content Databases – Synchronous Mirroring in Single Site Model – Synchronous Mirroring in Highly Connected DR Site Model – Asynchronous Mirroring in DR Site Model• Backup/Restore Tips, including info on DPM 2010 Snapshot- based backup for SharePoint
SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy• Each SharePoint 2010 server type has different redundancy/availability concerns. – Web Server – Search Service Application Role – Other Service Application Roles – Database Server
SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy Web Servers – Network Load Balancing• Hardware Based Load Balancing (F5, Cisco, Citrix NetScaler – Best performance and scalability• Software Windows Network Load Balancing fully supported by MS, but requires Layer 2 VLAN (all packets must reach all hosts.) Layer 3 Switches must be configured to allow Layer 2 to the specific VLAN.• If using Unicast, use two NICs on the server, one for communications between nodes.• If using Multicast, be sure to configure routers appropriately• Set Affinity to Single (Sticky Sessions)• If using VMware, note fix to NLB RARP issue (http://tinyurl.com/vmwarenlbfix)
SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy Web Servers – Network Load Balancing• Best Practice – Create Multiple Web Apps with Load- balanced VIPs (Sample below) – Web Role Servers • sp1.companyabc.com (10.0.0.101) – Web Role Server #1 • sp2.companyabc.com (10.0.0.102) – Web Role Server #2 – Clustered VIPs shared between SP1 and SP2 (Create A records in DNS) • spnlb.companyabc.com (10.0.0.103) - Cluster • spca.companyabc.com (10.0.0.104) – SP Central Admin • spsmtp.companyabc.com (10.0.0.105) – Inbound Email VIP • home.companyabc.com (10.0.0.106) – Main SP Web App (can be multiple) • mysite.companyabc.com (10.0.0.107) – Main MySites Web App
SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy Service Application Servers• Redundancy for Service Applications can be added by simply adding S.A. roles to additional servers• Redundancy and availability is automatically handled from within SharePoint• Most Service Applications have an associated database that must also be made redundant / available• Special considerations for Search• Important to understand what the Service Application roles are
SharePoin SharePoint SharePoint t ServerService applications Description Foundation Server 2010 2010 2010 Enterprise Standard Lets users view, edit, and interact with Access 2010 databases in aAccess Services X Web browser.Business Data Gives access to line-of-business data systems. X X XConnectivity service Lets users view and interact withExcel 2010 files in a WebExcel Services Application X browser.Managed Metadata Manages taxonomy hierarchies, keywords and social tagging X Xservice infrastructure, and publish content types across site collections.PerformancePoint Service Provides the capabilities of PerformancePoint. XApplication Crawls content, produces index partitions, and serves searchSearch service X X queries. Provides single sign-on authentication to access multipleSecure Store service X X applications or services. Provides temporary storage of user session data for SharePointState service X X Server components.Usage and Health Data Collects farm wide usage and health data, and provides the ability X X XCollection service to view various usage and health reports. Adds support for My Site Web sites, profile pages, social taggingUser Profile service X X and other social computing features. Lets users view and refresh published Visio 2010 diagrams in aVisio Graphics Service X Web browser.Web Analytics service Provides Web service interfaces. X XWord Automation Services Performs automated bulk document conversions. X XMicrosoft SharePoint Provides multi-tenant functionality for service applications. TracksFoundation Subscription subscription IDs and settings for services that are deployed in X X XSettings Service partitioned mode. Deployed through Windows PowerShell only.
Additional Service Applications• Office Web Apps – Excel Calculation Services – Word Viewing Service – PowerPoint Service• Project Server 2010• Third Party (Newsgator, etc.)
SharePoint Component Redundancy Search Service Application Role• Replaces both Index and Query Roles from 2007 into one Role• Processes query results for Web servers• Holds the index, either in entirety or a partial copy when using ‘index partitions’• Runs the query processor, which merges search results from multiple index partitions, performs security trimming, and other search tasks.• Adding multiple Query servers creates redundancy• Each Query Server requires a large drive set for the Index partitions. Be sure to set aside enough space! The index size may be from 5% to 30% of the size of the content being indexed. Don’t forget external content sources!
SharePoint Component Redundancy Query Servers: Index Partitions• Portion of the entire Index• Can be spread across multiple query servers• Multiple index partitions = faster search queries• Query mirrors (second copy of an index partition) can be deployed across query servers for redundancy.
SharePoint Component Redundancy Crawl Servers• Runs the Crawl component, which creates index partitions and propagates them to query servers• Typically used to house the Search Administration component• Multiple crawl servers provide High Availability for the crawl architecture• Crawl database(s) and Property Database(s) utilized for crawl information and history, and properties for crawled data• Multiple crawlers can be associated with each crawl database• Can be run on a server with Web role or Query role
SharePoint Component Redundancy Database Role• Shared Storage Clustering (MSCS) can be used for local server High Availability• Mirroring of Content Databases to remote SQL instance is supported (and recommended) More on this…• SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Standard Edition supports two-node Cluster and synchronous mirroring.• SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Enterprise Edition supports more than two-nodes, asynchronous mirroring, and Transparent Data Encryption (SQL 2008 only)• SQL Server 2012 (Denali) has potential…not yet released
SharePoint Component Redundancy Database Role – Two Instance / Two Node Cluster Model
SharePoint Component Redundancy Redundancy/HA of Database Server Instance• Use SQL Client Aliases for Config DB Server (i.e. spsqlfarm.companyabc.com)• Use a second SQL Client Alias for Content DBs (i.e. spsqlcontent.companyabc.com)• Loss of SQL Server can be mitigated by simply pointing the alias to a new SQL instance.• Be sure to add the Kerberos SPNs to the aliases
SAMPLE HIGHLY AVAILABLEARCHITECTURE FOR SP2010
Farm Architecture All-in-One Farm (No Redundancy)• All SharePoint roles and SQL Server on the same box• For very small environment without a lot of load• SQL contention with SharePoint• Easy to deploy, but highest potential for contention
Farm Architecture Dedicated SQL Database Server (Better Performance / No HA)• Dedicated SQL Server• All SharePoint roles on single box• Disk IO contention lessened by moving SQL off SP Server• Greater performance can be gained by breaking SharePoint roles onto separate servers
Farm Architecture Smallest Highly-Available Farm• 2 Web/Query/Crawl Servers• 2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)• 2 Query components for each index partition• 2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each server• Search Admin Service on one server
Farm Architecture Medium Sized Farm• 2 Web/Query Servers• 2 Crawl Servers• 2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)• 2 Query components for each index partition• 2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each Crawl server• Search Admin Service on one Crawl server
Farm Architecture Large Farm• Multiple Dedicated Web Servers• Multiple Dedicated Query Servers• Multiple Dedicated Crawl Servers, with multiple Crawl DBs to increase parallelization of the crawl process• Multiple distributed Index partitions (max of 10 million items per index partition)• Two query components for each Index partition, spread among servers
SQL DATABASE MIRRORING FOR HIGHAVAILABILITY AND DISASTER RECOVERY
SQL Database Mirroring Clustering vs. Mirroring• Clustering is Shared Storage, can’t survive storage failure, makes Mirroring more attractive• Clustering fails over more quickly• Mirroring is not supported for all databases, but Clustering is• Both Clustering and Mirroring can be used at the same time (Instance to Instance)
SQL Database Mirroring History of Mirroring• Introduced in SQL 2005 SP1• Greatly improved in SQL 2008 and now SQL 2008 R2• Available in Enterprise and Standard (Synchronous only) editions• Works by keeping a mirror copy of a database or databases on two servers• Can be used locally, or the mirror can be remote• Can be set to use a two-phase commit process to ensure integrity of data across both servers• Can be combined with traditional shared storage clustering to further improve redundancy• SharePoint 2010 is now Mirroring aware!
SQL Database Mirroring Database Mirroring Model #1 – Single Site• Single Site• Synchronous Replication• Uses a SQL Witness Server to Failover Automatically• Mirror all SharePoint DBs in the Farm• Use a SQL Alias to switch to Mirror Instance
SQL Database Mirroring Database Mirroring Model #2: Cross-Site (Stretch) Farm• Two Sites• 1-10 ms Latency max• 1Gb Bandwidth minimum• Farm Servers in each location• Auto Failover
SQL Database Mirroring Database Mirroring Model #3 – Failover Farm in Remote Site• Two Sites• Two Farms• Mirror only Content DBs• Failover is Manual• Read-only Mode possible• Must Re- Attach and Re-Index
SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 1 of 2 Synchronous Asynchronous Mirror Mirror Support Support Configuration X Central Administration content X Content Databases X X Usage and Health Data Collection Business Data Connectivity X Application Registry service * (BDC Upgrade) Subscription Settings service * (PowerShell X Enabled) Search – Search Administration X Search - Crawl X Search - Property X
SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 2 of 2 Synchronous Asynchronous Mirror Mirror Support Support User Profile - Profile X User Profile - Synchronization User Profile – Social Tagging Web Analytics - Staging Web Analytics - Reporting X Secure Store X X Stage X Managed Metadata X Word Automation Services X PerformancePoint X
SharePoint Data Redundancy What are the Critical SharePoint Components to Backup?• SharePoint Databases – Config Database (typically excluded) – Content Database(s) – Services Databases• IIS Configuration• Web.config files in inetpub directory• Web part assemblies in %systemroot%assembly• Any custom templates
Understanding the SP2010 Databases SharePoint 2010 Databases (Part I) Config • Stores farm configuration data • Mostly unchanged from 2007 ConfigDB Content • Used to store documents, sites, lists, etc. • Mostly unchanged from 2007, Central Admin also has Content DB Logging • Used by Usage and Health Data Collection Service • Temporarily stores health monitoring and usage data for use in reportsAdministration • Created for the Search Service, 2007 equivalent was SSP DB • One Admin DB created per Search application Property • Also used for Search Service • Stores crawled properties Crawl • Also used for Search Service, 2007 equivalent was Search DB • Drives crawl component, hosts crawled data Staging • Used by Web Analytics Service to analyze traffic • Stores fact data, queued batch data, and asset metadata Reporting • Also used by Web Analytics Service • Stores report data, diagnostics info, etc.
Understanding the SP2010 Databases SharePoint 2010 Databases (Part II) Term Store •Used by Managed Metadata Service •Stores Managed Metadata for use data layer State •Used by the State Service •Stores temporary state info for InfoPath Forms Services Profile •Part of the User Profile Service •Stores user and associated informationSynchronization •Used by User Profile Service •Stores Configuration and Staging Data for Prof Sync Social Tagging •Also used by User Profile Service •Stores social tags and notes from users BCS •Used by Business Connectivity Service to store external objects Store •Used by Secure Store Service to map credentials •Replaces SSO DB in 2007, can be used by ERP/DRM Systems tempDB •Not a SharePoint Database, but included in this list as it is critical to SP •Highly critical for performance! Do not underestimate! (Others) •Other Services Databases
SharePoint Data RedundancyTools available for Backup and Restore• Two-stage Recycle Bin• Site Recycle Bin (added in SharePoint 2010 Service Pack 1)• SharePoint Central Admin Tool• PowerShell• STSADM• IIS Metaverse Backup Script• SQL 2005/2008 Tools (Maintenance Plan)• Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 2010• Third-party (Quest, Metalogix, AvePoint, others)
What does the Central Admin Backup Tool do?• Full fidelity backups of all SharePoint content and indexes• Backs up all SharePoint databases except Config DB, which is not needed.• Similar to SQL level backup, except can be more granular at the Web Application level• SP2010 now has status indicators• SP2010 now allows for Site Collection Backup from Central Admin
Disadvantages of Central Admin Backup Tool• Not automated• If XML catalog is damaged, entire backup can be at risk• No item-level restore capabilities• Not enterprise level
PowerShell Backup in SP2010• PowerShell can be used to automate Backups – Backup-SPConfigurationDatabase – Backup-SPFarm – Backup-SPSite• Equivalent to Central Admin or STSADM• Can pipe out results and backup multiple site collections, etc.
PowerShell BackUp & Restore CMDLETS Cmdlet SharePoint Component Backup-SPFarm Entire Farm Service Applications Web Applications Content Databases Restore-SPFarm Entire Farm Farm Configuration Only Service Applications Web Applcations Content Databases Backup-SPConfigurationDatabase Farm Configuration Only Backup-SPSite / Restore-SPSite Site Collection Export-SPWeb / Import-SPWeb Sites Subsites Libraries Lists
PowerShell - Farm Configuration Backup• Farm Configuration Only Backup – backup-spfarm –backupMethod full –directory servernameBackup -configurationonly• Complete Farm Backup – Backup-spfarm –backupmethod full – directory servernameBackup• Backup-SPFarm specific parameters – -BackupMethod – -BackupThreads
PowerShell - Configuration DB Backup• Configuration Database Backup – Backup-spconfigurationdatabase –directory servernamesp2010backup –databaseserver server – databasename mss_configdb• Backup Farm Configuration Information – Information Rights Management – Workflow – Diagnostic logging – Customizations [solutions deployed] – Outbound e-mail configuration – Antivirus settings
PowerShell – Site Collection Backup• Backup Site Collection – Backup-SPSite –Identity http://justsharepoint.com/Sites/demo -Path servernamesp2010backupdemosc.bak -Force• Other Parameters – – -NoSiteLock – use with caution, possible data corruption – -UseSQLSnapshot – use content database snapshot when doing a backup• Can be run multiple times and/or scripted to automate backups• Extremely useful approach to backing up SPF Site collections and personal sites
Granular Backup / Restore• New in SharePoint 2010 - – Granular Backup/Restore From Central Administration • Site Collection Backup • Export a site or list • Recover data from an unattached content database – Granular Backup Job Status indicators• Granular restore operations only using PowerShell• Workflows are not included when exporting a site or a list
PowerShell – Export Site / List• Export-SPWeb –Identity http://companyabc.com/sites/site1/ -path serverbackupbackup.bak -itemurl “features” –force• Option to include user security and versions
Unattached Content Databases• New feature of SharePoint 2010• Granular restores of SharePoint content• Read-only content databases• Restored SharePoint content databases• Content database snapshots• Restore Site Collections, Sites, Libraries and Lists
How to backup the IISv7 Config• Open a command prompt by using the Run as Administrator option and change directory to %windir%system32inetsrv.• At the command prompt, type appcmd add backup <backupname>. If you do not include the name of the backup, the system will name it for you by using a date, time format.
Backing up using SQL Tools• SQL 2005/2008/2008 R2 Management Studio can be used to backup all Databases• Same as Central Admin Backup, but only backs up SQL databases, not index• Can be scheduled as part of a SQL Maintenance Plan• Can backup as Full, Differential, or Incremental• Can backup Config DB, but normally not needed (only supported scenario is during a SAN Snapshot)
Features of DPM for SharePoint• Item-level recovery of Documents and List Data• VSS Snapshot Integration, can snapshot SQL Databases every 15 minutes• Backup to Disk (near-term), Backup to Tape (long-term) – Direct integration• Not only SharePoint, but File Data, Exchange, SQL, and Bare-metal recovery
DPM Backing up a SharePoint Farm System State InternetInformationServices (IIS)“Front End” “Farm” Config dB SharePoint VSS Writer (SQL) DPM 2010 Files Content Servers (SQL) Enterprise Search (index)
SharePoint Recovery• The Entire Farm “Farm” Config dB Entire Farm (SQL) DPM 2010 Content Servers (SQL) Enterprise Search (index)
SharePoint Recovery• The Entire Farm• A Content DB “Farm” Config dB Content DB information (SQL) DPM 2010 Content Servers (SQL) Enterprise Search (index)
SharePoint Recovery• The Entire Farm• A Content DB• Site Collection• A Site• Document “Farm” Config dB (SQL) DPM 2010 DPM handles restore thru Recovery Farm to production Farm Farm then redirects data to appropriate content database and site Content Servers (SQL) Enterprise Search (index)
Third-party Backup Solutions• Multiple tools available• Provide for item-level recovery and complex DR scenarios• Often integrates with the storage platform vendor
For More Information• SharePoint 2010 Unleashed and SharePoint 2007 Unleashed (SAMS Publishing) (http://www.samspublishing.com)• Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper (http://tinyurl.com/mirrorsp)• Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Case Study (http://tinyurl.com/mirrorspcs)• Microsoft Virtualizing SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper (http://tinyurl.com/virtualsp)• Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Search Architecture Diagrams (http://tinyurl.com/searchsp)
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Michael Noel Twitter: @MichaelTNoel www.cco.comSlides: slideshare.net/michaeltnoel